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Sample records for achieve universal health

  1. Assessing Latin America's Progress Toward Achieving Universal Health Coverage.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Almeida, Gisele; Buisman, Leander; Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Patrick; Bredenkamp, Caryn; Cercone, James A; Diaz, Yadira; Maceira, Daniel; Molina, Silvia; Paraje, Guillermo; Ruiz, Fernando; Sarti, Flavia; Scott, John; Valdivia, Martin; Werneck, Heitor

    2015-10-01

    Two commonly used metrics for assessing progress toward universal health coverage involve assessing citizens' rights to health care and counting the number of people who are in a financial protection scheme that safeguards them from high health care payments. On these metrics most countries in Latin America have already "reached" universal health coverage. Neither metric indicates, however, whether a country has achieved universal health coverage in the now commonly accepted sense of the term: that everyone--irrespective of their ability to pay--gets the health services they need without suffering undue financial hardship. We operationalized a framework proposed by the World Bank and the World Health Organization to monitor progress under this definition and then constructed an overall index of universal health coverage achievement. We applied the approach using data from 112 household surveys from 1990 to 2013 for all twenty Latin American countries. No country has achieved a perfect universal health coverage score, but some countries (including those with more integrated health systems) fare better than others. All countries except one improved in overall universal health coverage over the time period analyzed. PMID:26438747

  2. Assessing Latin America's Progress Toward Achieving Universal Health Coverage.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Almeida, Gisele; Buisman, Leander; Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Patrick; Bredenkamp, Caryn; Cercone, James A; Diaz, Yadira; Maceira, Daniel; Molina, Silvia; Paraje, Guillermo; Ruiz, Fernando; Sarti, Flavia; Scott, John; Valdivia, Martin; Werneck, Heitor

    2015-10-01

    Two commonly used metrics for assessing progress toward universal health coverage involve assessing citizens' rights to health care and counting the number of people who are in a financial protection scheme that safeguards them from high health care payments. On these metrics most countries in Latin America have already "reached" universal health coverage. Neither metric indicates, however, whether a country has achieved universal health coverage in the now commonly accepted sense of the term: that everyone--irrespective of their ability to pay--gets the health services they need without suffering undue financial hardship. We operationalized a framework proposed by the World Bank and the World Health Organization to monitor progress under this definition and then constructed an overall index of universal health coverage achievement. We applied the approach using data from 112 household surveys from 1990 to 2013 for all twenty Latin American countries. No country has achieved a perfect universal health coverage score, but some countries (including those with more integrated health systems) fare better than others. All countries except one improved in overall universal health coverage over the time period analyzed.

  3. Morocco's policy choices to achieve Universal health coverage

    PubMed Central

    Tinasti, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Morocco's health system remains weak in spite of the improvement of other development indicators in the last ten years. Health remains one of the major challenges to lower the social disparities that are the priority for the authorities. Despite the goodwill of all stakeholders, significant reforms implemented respond only partially to the needs of the population. Morocco established several public insurance schemes, of which one focuses on the poorest, to achieve financial-risk protection for its population. Nevertheless, achieving universal health coverage through one of its dimensions is not sufficient, and all the effort being concentrated in one area has shown the deterioration of equity in access to and quality of health services. Moreover, the insurance schemes did not reach their objectives of protecting a majority of Moroccans from financial hardship. PMID:26405489

  4. Morocco's policy choices to achieve Universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Tinasti, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Morocco's health system remains weak in spite of the improvement of other development indicators in the last ten years. Health remains one of the major challenges to lower the social disparities that are the priority for the authorities. Despite the goodwill of all stakeholders, significant reforms implemented respond only partially to the needs of the population. Morocco established several public insurance schemes, of which one focuses on the poorest, to achieve financial-risk protection for its population. Nevertheless, achieving universal health coverage through one of its dimensions is not sufficient, and all the effort being concentrated in one area has shown the deterioration of equity in access to and quality of health services. Moreover, the insurance schemes did not reach their objectives of protecting a majority of Moroccans from financial hardship. PMID:26405489

  5. Priority-setting for achieving universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Chalkidou, Kalipso; Glassman, Amanda; Marten, Robert; Vega, Jeanette; Teerawattananon, Yot; Tritasavit, Nattha; Gyansa-Lutterodt, Martha; Seiter, Andreas; Kieny, Marie Paule; Hofman, Karen; Culyer, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Governments in low- and middle-income countries are legitimizing the implementation of universal health coverage (UHC), following a United Nation's resolution on UHC in 2012 and its reinforcement in the sustainable development goals set in 2015. UHC will differ in each country depending on country contexts and needs, as well as demand and supply in health care. Therefore, fundamental issues such as objectives, users and cost-effectiveness of UHC have been raised by policy-makers and stakeholders. While priority-setting is done on a daily basis by health authorities - implicitly or explicitly - it has not been made clear how priority-setting for UHC should be conducted. We provide justification for explicit health priority-setting and guidance to countries on how to set priorities for UHC. PMID:27274598

  6. Priority-setting for achieving universal health coverage

    PubMed Central

    Chalkidou, Kalipso; Glassman, Amanda; Marten, Robert; Vega, Jeanette; Tritasavit, Nattha; Gyansa-Lutterodt, Martha; Seiter, Andreas; Kieny, Marie Paule; Hofman, Karen; Culyer, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Governments in low- and middle-income countries are legitimizing the implementation of universal health coverage (UHC), following a United Nation’s resolution on UHC in 2012 and its reinforcement in the sustainable development goals set in 2015. UHC will differ in each country depending on country contexts and needs, as well as demand and supply in health care. Therefore, fundamental issues such as objectives, users and cost–effectiveness of UHC have been raised by policy-makers and stakeholders. While priority-setting is done on a daily basis by health authorities – implicitly or explicitly – it has not been made clear how priority-setting for UHC should be conducted. We provide justification for explicit health priority-setting and guidance to countries on how to set priorities for UHC. PMID:27274598

  7. Priority-setting for achieving universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Chalkidou, Kalipso; Glassman, Amanda; Marten, Robert; Vega, Jeanette; Teerawattananon, Yot; Tritasavit, Nattha; Gyansa-Lutterodt, Martha; Seiter, Andreas; Kieny, Marie Paule; Hofman, Karen; Culyer, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Governments in low- and middle-income countries are legitimizing the implementation of universal health coverage (UHC), following a United Nation's resolution on UHC in 2012 and its reinforcement in the sustainable development goals set in 2015. UHC will differ in each country depending on country contexts and needs, as well as demand and supply in health care. Therefore, fundamental issues such as objectives, users and cost-effectiveness of UHC have been raised by policy-makers and stakeholders. While priority-setting is done on a daily basis by health authorities - implicitly or explicitly - it has not been made clear how priority-setting for UHC should be conducted. We provide justification for explicit health priority-setting and guidance to countries on how to set priorities for UHC.

  8. Health care financing in Nigeria: Implications for achieving universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Uzochukwu, B S C; Ughasoro, M D; Etiaba, E; Okwuosa, C; Envuladu, E; Onwujekwe, O E

    2015-01-01

    The way a country finances its health care system is a critical determinant for reaching universal health coverage (UHC). This is so because it determines whether the health services that are available are affordable to those that need them. In Nigeria, the health sector is financed through different sources and mechanisms. The difference in the proportionate contribution from these stated sources determine the extent to which such health sector will go in achieving successful health care financing system. Unfortunately, in Nigeria, achieving the correct blend of these sources remains a challenge. This review draws on relevant literature to provide an overview and the state of health care financing in Nigeria, including policies in place to enhance healthcare financing. We searched PubMed, Medline, The Cochrane Library, Popline, Science Direct and WHO Library Database with search terms that included, but were not restricted to health care financing Nigeria, public health financing, financing health and financing policies. Further publications were identified from references cited in relevant articles and reports. We reviewed only papers published in English. No date restrictions were placed on searches. It notes that health care in Nigeria is financed through different sources including but not limited to tax revenue, out-of-pocket payments (OOPs), donor funding, and health insurance (social and community). In the face of achieving UHC, achieving successful health care financing system continues to be a challenge in Nigeria and concludes that to achieve universal coverage using health financing as the strategy, there is a dire need to review the system of financing health and ensure that resources are used more efficiently while at the same time removing financial barriers to access by shifting focus from OOPs to other hidden resources. There is also need to give presidential assent to the national health bill and its prompt implementation when signed into law.

  9. Health care financing in Nigeria: Implications for achieving universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Uzochukwu, B S C; Ughasoro, M D; Etiaba, E; Okwuosa, C; Envuladu, E; Onwujekwe, O E

    2015-01-01

    The way a country finances its health care system is a critical determinant for reaching universal health coverage (UHC). This is so because it determines whether the health services that are available are affordable to those that need them. In Nigeria, the health sector is financed through different sources and mechanisms. The difference in the proportionate contribution from these stated sources determine the extent to which such health sector will go in achieving successful health care financing system. Unfortunately, in Nigeria, achieving the correct blend of these sources remains a challenge. This review draws on relevant literature to provide an overview and the state of health care financing in Nigeria, including policies in place to enhance healthcare financing. We searched PubMed, Medline, The Cochrane Library, Popline, Science Direct and WHO Library Database with search terms that included, but were not restricted to health care financing Nigeria, public health financing, financing health and financing policies. Further publications were identified from references cited in relevant articles and reports. We reviewed only papers published in English. No date restrictions were placed on searches. It notes that health care in Nigeria is financed through different sources including but not limited to tax revenue, out-of-pocket payments (OOPs), donor funding, and health insurance (social and community). In the face of achieving UHC, achieving successful health care financing system continues to be a challenge in Nigeria and concludes that to achieve universal coverage using health financing as the strategy, there is a dire need to review the system of financing health and ensure that resources are used more efficiently while at the same time removing financial barriers to access by shifting focus from OOPs to other hidden resources. There is also need to give presidential assent to the national health bill and its prompt implementation when signed into law

  10. Great expectations for the World Health Organization: a Framework Convention on Global Health to achieve universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Ooms, G; Marten, R; Waris, A; Hammonds, R; Mulumba, M; Friedman, E A

    2014-02-01

    Establishing a reform agenda for the World Health Organization (WHO) requires understanding its role within the wider global health system and the purposes of that wider global health system. In this paper, the focus is on one particular purpose: achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The intention is to describe why achieving UHC requires something like a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) that have been proposed elsewhere,(1) why WHO is in a unique position to usher in an FCGH, and what specific reforms would help enable WHO to assume this role.

  11. Achieving Effective Universal Health Coverage And Diagonal Approaches To Care For Chronic Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Bhadelia, Afsan; Atun, Rifat; Frenk, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Health systems in low- and middle-income countries were designed to provide episodic care for acute conditions. However, the burden of disease has shifted to be overwhelmingly dominated by chronic conditions and illnesses that require health systems to function in an integrated manner across a spectrum of disease stages from prevention to palliation. Low- and middle-income countries are also aiming to ensure health care access for all through universal health coverage. This article proposes a framework of effective universal health coverage intended to meet the challenge of chronic illnesses. It outlines strategies to strengthen health systems through a "diagonal approach." We argue that the core challenge to health systems is chronicity of illness that requires ongoing and long-term health care. The example of breast cancer within the broader context of health system reform in Mexico is presented to illustrate effective universal health coverage along the chronic disease continuum and across health systems functions. The article concludes with recommendations to strengthen health systems in order to achieve effective universal health coverage. PMID:26355053

  12. Achieving Effective Universal Health Coverage And Diagonal Approaches To Care For Chronic Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Bhadelia, Afsan; Atun, Rifat; Frenk, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Health systems in low- and middle-income countries were designed to provide episodic care for acute conditions. However, the burden of disease has shifted to be overwhelmingly dominated by chronic conditions and illnesses that require health systems to function in an integrated manner across a spectrum of disease stages from prevention to palliation. Low- and middle-income countries are also aiming to ensure health care access for all through universal health coverage. This article proposes a framework of effective universal health coverage intended to meet the challenge of chronic illnesses. It outlines strategies to strengthen health systems through a "diagonal approach." We argue that the core challenge to health systems is chronicity of illness that requires ongoing and long-term health care. The example of breast cancer within the broader context of health system reform in Mexico is presented to illustrate effective universal health coverage along the chronic disease continuum and across health systems functions. The article concludes with recommendations to strengthen health systems in order to achieve effective universal health coverage.

  13. The quest for universal health coverage: achieving social protection for all in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; García-Junco, David; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Barraza-Lloréns, Mariana; Sandoval, Rosa; Caballero, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Juan, Mercedes; Kershenobich, David; Nigenda, Gustavo; Ruelas, Enrique; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Tapia, Roberto; Soberón, Guillermo; Chertorivski, Salomón; Frenk, Julio

    2012-10-01

    Mexico is reaching universal health coverage in 2012. A national health insurance programme called Seguro Popular, introduced in 2003, is providing access to a package of comprehensive health services with financial protection for more than 50 million Mexicans previously excluded from insurance. Universal coverage in Mexico is synonymous with social protection of health. This report analyses the road to universal coverage along three dimensions of protection: against health risks, for patients through quality assurance of health care, and against the financial consequences of disease and injury. We present a conceptual discussion of the transition from labour-based social security to social protection of health, which implies access to effective health care as a universal right based on citizenship, the ethical basis of the Mexican reform. We discuss the conditions that prompted the reform, as well as its design and inception, and we describe the 9-year, evidence-driven implementation process, including updates and improvements to the original programme. The core of the report concentrates on the effects and impacts of the reform, based on analysis of all published and publically available scientific literature and new data. Evidence indicates that Seguro Popular is improving access to health services and reducing the prevalence of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures, especially for the poor. Recent studies also show improvement in effective coverage. This research then addresses persistent challenges, including the need to translate financial resources into more effective, equitable and responsive health services. A next generation of reforms will be required and these include systemic measures to complete the reorganisation of the health system by functions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the Mexican quest to achieve universal health coverage and its relevance for other low-income and middle-income countries. PMID

  14. The quest for universal health coverage: achieving social protection for all in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; García-Junco, David; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Barraza-Lloréns, Mariana; Sandoval, Rosa; Caballero, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Juan, Mercedes; Kershenobich, David; Nigenda, Gustavo; Ruelas, Enrique; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Tapia, Roberto; Soberón, Guillermo; Chertorivski, Salomón; Frenk, Julio

    2012-10-01

    Mexico is reaching universal health coverage in 2012. A national health insurance programme called Seguro Popular, introduced in 2003, is providing access to a package of comprehensive health services with financial protection for more than 50 million Mexicans previously excluded from insurance. Universal coverage in Mexico is synonymous with social protection of health. This report analyses the road to universal coverage along three dimensions of protection: against health risks, for patients through quality assurance of health care, and against the financial consequences of disease and injury. We present a conceptual discussion of the transition from labour-based social security to social protection of health, which implies access to effective health care as a universal right based on citizenship, the ethical basis of the Mexican reform. We discuss the conditions that prompted the reform, as well as its design and inception, and we describe the 9-year, evidence-driven implementation process, including updates and improvements to the original programme. The core of the report concentrates on the effects and impacts of the reform, based on analysis of all published and publically available scientific literature and new data. Evidence indicates that Seguro Popular is improving access to health services and reducing the prevalence of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures, especially for the poor. Recent studies also show improvement in effective coverage. This research then addresses persistent challenges, including the need to translate financial resources into more effective, equitable and responsive health services. A next generation of reforms will be required and these include systemic measures to complete the reorganisation of the health system by functions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the Mexican quest to achieve universal health coverage and its relevance for other low-income and middle-income countries.

  15. Challenges for regulating the private health services in India for achieving universal health care.

    PubMed

    Baru, Rama V

    2013-01-01

    Commercial interests pose a serious challenge for universalizing health-care. This is because "for-profit" health-care privileges individual responsibility and choice over principles of social solidarity. This fundamentally opposing tendency raises ethical dilemmas for designing a health service that is universal and equitable. It is an inadequate to merely state the need for regulating the private sector, the key questions relate to what must be done and how to do it. This paper identifies the challenges to regulating the private health services in India. It argues that regulation has been fragmented and largely driven by the center. Given the diversity of the private sector and health being a state subject, regulating this sector is fraught with the technical and socio-political factors.

  16. Towards achievement of universal health care in India by 2020: a call to action

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K Srinath; Patel, Vikram; Jha, Prabhat; Paul, Vinod K; Shiva Kumar, A K; Dandona, Lalit

    2016-01-01

    To sustain the positive economic trajectory that India has had during the past decade, and to honour the fundamental right of all citizens to adequate health care, the health of all Indian people has to be given the highest priority in public policy. We propose the creation of the Integrated National Health System in India through provision of universal health insurance, establishment of autonomous organisations to enable accountable and evidence-based good-quality health-care practices and development of appropriately trained human resources, the restructuring of health governance to make it coordinated and decentralised, and legislation of health entitlement for all Indian people. The key characteristics of our proposal are to strengthen the public health system as the primary provider of promotive, preventive, and curative health services in India, to improve quality and reduce the out-of-pocket expenditure on health care through a well regulated integration of the private sector within the national health-care system. Dialogue and consensus building among the stakeholders in the government, civil society, and private sector are the next steps to formalise the actions needed and to monitor their achievement. In our call to action, we propose that India must achieve health care for all by 2020. PMID:21227489

  17. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    Binagwaho and colleagues’ perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries’ health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies. PMID:26673477

  18. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. PMID:21269682

  19. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened.

  20. Achieving universal health coverage in France: policy reforms and the challenge of inequalities.

    PubMed

    Nay, Olivier; Béjean, Sophie; Benamouzig, Daniel; Bergeron, Henri; Castel, Patrick; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-05-28

    Since 1945, the provision of health care in France has been grounded in a social conception promoting universalism and equality. The French health-care system is based on compulsory social insurance funded by social contributions, co-administered by workers' and employers' organisations under State control and driven by highly redistributive financial transfers. This system is described frequently as the French model. In this paper, the first in The Lancet's Series on France, we challenge conventional wisdom about health care in France. First, we focus on policy and institutional transformations that have affected deeply the governance of health care over past decades. We argue that the health system rests on a diversity of institutions, policy mechanisms, and health actors, while its governance has been marked by the reinforcement of national regulation under the aegis of the State. Second, we suggest the redistributive mechanisms of the health insurance system are impeded by social inequalities in health, which remain major hindrances to achieving objectives of justice and solidarity associated with the conception of health care in France. PMID:27145707

  1. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2015-11-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser-provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite

  2. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing

    PubMed Central

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2015-01-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser–provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite

  3. Accelerators/decelerators of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health services: a case study of Iranian health system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, the global community agreed to the goal of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights by 2015. This research explores the accelerators and decelerators of achieving universal access to the sexual and reproductive health targets and accordingly makes some suggestions. Method We have critically reviewed the latest national reports and extracted the background data on each SRH indicator. The key stakeholders, both national and international, were visited and interviewed at two sites. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with religious leaders, policy-makers, senior managers, senior academics, and health care managers. Six focus-group discussions were also held among health care providers. The study was qualitative in nature. Results Obstacles on the road to achieving universal access to SRH can be viewed from two perspectives. One gap exists between current achievements and the targets. The other gap arises due to age, marital status, and residency status. The most recently observed trends in the indicators of the universal access to SRH shows that the achievements in the “unmet need for family planning” have been poor. Unmet need for family planning could directly be translated to unwanted pregnancies and unwanted childbirths; the former calls for sexual education to underserved people, including adolescents; and the latter calls for access to safe abortion. Local religious leaders have not actively attended international goal-setting programs. Therefore, they usually do not presume a positive attitude towards these goals. Such negative attitudes seem to be the most important factors hindering the progress towards universal access to SRH. Lack of international donors to fund for SRH programs is also another barrier. In national levels both state and the society are interactively playing their roles. We have used a

  4. Building blocks for reform: achieving universal coverage with private and public group health insurance.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Cathy; Davis, Karen; Collins, Sara R

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for universal health insurance that builds on the current U.S. mixed private-public system by expanding group coverage through private markets and publicly sponsored insurance. This Building Blocks approach includes a new national insurance "connector" that offers small businesses and individuals a structured choice of a Medicare-like public option and private plans. Other features include an individual mandate, required employer contributions, Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) expansion, and tax credits to assure affordability. The paper estimates coverage and costs, and assesses the approach. Our findings indicate that the framework could reach near-universal coverage with little net increase in national health spending. PMID:18474952

  5. Equity of the premium of the Ghanaian national health insurance scheme and the implications for achieving universal coverage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Ghanaian National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was introduced to provide access to adequate health care regardless of ability to pay. By law the NHIS is mandatory but because the informal sector has to make premium payment before they are enrolled, the authorities are unable to enforce mandatory nature of the scheme. The ultimate goal of the Scheme then is to provide all residents with access to adequate health care at affordable cost. In other words, the Scheme intends to achieve universal coverage. An important factor for the achievement of universal coverage is that revenue collection be equitable. The purpose of this study is to examine the vertical and horizontal equity of the premium collection of the Scheme. The Kakwani index method as well as graphical analysis was used to study the vertical equity. Horizontal inequity was measured through the effect of the premium on redistribution of ability to pay of members. The extent to which the premium could cause catastrophic expenditure was also examined. The results showed that revenue collection was both vertically and horizontally inequitable. The horizontal inequity had a greater effect on redistribution of ability to pay than vertical inequity. The computation of catastrophic expenditure showed that a small minority of the poor were likely to incur catastrophic expenditure from paying the premium a situation that could impede the achievement of universal coverage. The study provides recommendations to improve the inequitable system of premium payment to help achieve universal coverage. PMID:23294982

  6. Managing the public-private mix to achieve universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Hanson, Kara

    2016-08-01

    The private sector has a large and growing role in health systems in low-income and middle-income countries. The goal of universal health coverage provides a renewed focus on taking a system perspective in designing policies to manage the private sector. This perspective requires choosing policies that will contribute to the performance of the system as a whole, rather than of any sector individually. Here we draw and extrapolate main messages from the papers in this Series and additional sources to inform policy and research agendas in the context of global and country level efforts to secure universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries. Recognising that private providers are highly heterogeneous in terms of their size, objectives, and quality, we explore the types of policy that might respond appropriately to the challenges and opportunities created by four stylised private provider types: the low-quality, underqualified sector that serves poor people in many countries; not-for-profit providers that operate on a range of scales; formally registered small-to-medium private practices; and the corporate commercial hospital sector, which is growing rapidly and about which little is known. PMID:27358252

  7. Managing the public-private mix to achieve universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Hanson, Kara

    2016-08-01

    The private sector has a large and growing role in health systems in low-income and middle-income countries. The goal of universal health coverage provides a renewed focus on taking a system perspective in designing policies to manage the private sector. This perspective requires choosing policies that will contribute to the performance of the system as a whole, rather than of any sector individually. Here we draw and extrapolate main messages from the papers in this Series and additional sources to inform policy and research agendas in the context of global and country level efforts to secure universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries. Recognising that private providers are highly heterogeneous in terms of their size, objectives, and quality, we explore the types of policy that might respond appropriately to the challenges and opportunities created by four stylised private provider types: the low-quality, underqualified sector that serves poor people in many countries; not-for-profit providers that operate on a range of scales; formally registered small-to-medium private practices; and the corporate commercial hospital sector, which is growing rapidly and about which little is known.

  8. Achieving Universal Health Coverage by Focusing on Primary Care in Japan: Lessons for Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    When the Japanese government adopted Western medicine in the late nineteenth century, it left intact the infrastructure of primary care by giving licenses to the existing practitioners and by initially setting the hurdle for entry into medical school low. Public financing of hospitals was kept minimal so that almost all of their revenue came from patient charges. When social health insurance (SHI) was introduced in 1927, benefits were focused on primary care services delivered by physicians in clinics, and not on hospital services. This was reflected in the development and subsequent revisions of the fee schedule. The policy decisions which have helped to retain primary care services might provide lessons for achieving universal health coverage in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). PMID:27239877

  9. Achieving Universal Health Coverage by Focusing on Primary Care in Japan: Lessons for Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    When the Japanese government adopted Western medicine in the late nineteenth century, it left intact the infrastructure of primary care by giving licenses to the existing practitioners and by initially setting the hurdle for entry into medical school low. Public financing of hospitals was kept minimal so that almost all of their revenue came from patient charges. When social health insurance (SHI) was introduced in 1927, benefits were focused on primary care services delivered by physicians in clinics, and not on hospital services. This was reflected in the development and subsequent revisions of the fee schedule. The policy decisions which have helped to retain primary care services might provide lessons for achieving universal health coverage in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). PMID:27239877

  10. Achieving universal health coverage through voluntary insurance: what can we learn from the experience of Lao PDR?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Government of Lao Peoples’ Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) has embarked on a path to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) through implementation of four risk-protection schemes. One of these schemes is community-based health insurance (CBHI) – a voluntary scheme that targets roughly half the population. However, after 12 years of implementation, coverage through CBHI remains very low. Increasing coverage of the scheme would require expansion to households in both villages where CBHI is currently operating, and new geographic areas. In this study we explore the prospects of both types of expansion by examining household and district level data. Methods Using a household survey based on a case-comparison design of 3000 households, we examine the determinants of enrolment at the household level in areas where the scheme is currently operating. We model the determinants of enrolment using a probit model and predicted probabilities. Findings from focus group discussions are used to explain the quantitative findings. To examine the prospects for geographic scale-up, we use secondary data to compare characteristics of districts with and without insurance, using a combination of univariate and multivariate analyses. The multivariate analysis is a probit model, which models the factors associated with roll-out of CBHI to the districts. Results The household findings show that enrolment is concentrated among the better off and that adverse selection is present in the scheme. The district level findings show that to date, the scheme has been implemented in the most affluent areas, in closest proximity to the district hospitals, and in areas where quality of care is relatively good. Conclusions The household-level findings indicate that the scheme suffers from poor risk-pooling, which threatens financial sustainability. The district-level findings call into question whether or not the Government of Laos can successfully expand to more remote, less affluent

  11. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience Comment on "Improving the World's Health Through the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Perspectives from Rwanda".

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    Binagwaho and colleagues' perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries' health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies. PMID:26673477

  12. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience Comment on "Improving the World's Health Through the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Perspectives from Rwanda".

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    Binagwaho and colleagues' perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries' health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies.

  13. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  14. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  15. Inequality aversion, health inequalities and health achievement.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-07-01

    This paper addresses two issues. The first is how health inequalities can be measured in such a way as to take into account policymakers' attitudes towards inequality. The Gini coefficient and the related concentration index embody one particular set of value judgements. By generalising these indices, alternative sets of value judgements can be reflected. The other issue addressed is how information on health inequality can be used together with information on the mean of the relevant distribution to obtain an overall measure of health "achievement". PMID:12146594

  16. Health and Nutrition: Preconditions for Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    This paper discusses the importance of maternal and infant health for children's educational achievement. Education, health, and nutrition are so closely related that changes in one causes changes in the others. Improvement of maternal and preschooler health and nutrition is a precondition for improved educational achievement. Although parental…

  17. Student Health and Academic Achievement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 11 Resources Health and Academics Data and Statistics Bullying and Absenteeism: Information for State and Local Education Agencies [PDF - 624 KB] Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ...

  18. Academic Achievement of University Students with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Åke; Taube, Karin; Ahl, Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Broadened recruitment to higher education is on the agenda in many countries, and it is also widely recognized that the number of dyslexic students entering higher education is increasing. In Sweden, as in many other European countries, higher education institutions are required to accommodate students with dyslexia. The present study focuses on the study outcome for 50 students with diagnosed dyslexia, mainly in teacher education and nurses' training, at three universities in Northern Sweden. The students trusted their own ability to find information on the Internet but mistrusted their own abilities in reading course books and articles in English and in taking notes. The mean rate of study was 23.5 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits per semester, which is slightly below the national baseline of 26.7. The results show that more than half of the students are examined at a normal rate of study but that about one fifth have a very low rate of study. Messages Most students with dyslexia can compensate for their reading problems. Taking notes during lessons and reading in foreign language may be especially difficult for students with dyslexia. Diagnoses should distinguish between reading comprehension and word decoding. More than half of the students with dyslexia can achieve at a normal rate of study. One-fifth of the students with dyslexia may need a longer period of study than other students.

  19. Achieving Successful School-University Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Arlene C.; Stirling, Terry; Nauman, April D.; Cook, Dale L.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated essential elements required to establish and maintain successful school-university partnerships as reported by principals, teachers, and university coordinators involved in both voluntary and mandated partnerships. Results identified five factors representing different perspectives on key elements for successful partnerships, with…

  20. Achieving Successful School-University Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Arlene C.; Stirling, Terry; Cook, Dale

    This study investigated participant perceptions of essential elements for establishing and maintaining successful school-university partnerships for school improvement, noting differences in perceptions of participants involved in voluntary partnerships versus those involved in partnerships required by the school district (schools placed on…

  1. [Effective access to health services: operationalizing universal health coverage].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    The right to health and its operational form, as an organized social response to health: the right to health protection, are the mainstay for the global push towards universal health coverage. The path to achieve this goal is particular to each country and relates to the baseline and specific context in relation to what is feasible. In practical terms, universal coverage involves the correlation between demand and supply of services (promotion, prevention, and care), expressed by the ability for each individual to make use of services when these are required. In those terms universal coverage is then effective access. The objective of the paper is to explore the conceptualization of effective access to health services and propose a definition that allows its operationalization thereof. This definition considers key elements of supply and demand of services, including the availability of resources and adequate provision (quality), as well as barriers to use them. PMID:26235780

  2. Assessing Goal Intent and Achievement of University Learning Community Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer-Lachs, Carole F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the goal intent and achievement of university students, during the Fall 2011 semester, at Blue Wave University, a high research activity public institution in the southeast United States. This study merged theories of motivation to measure goal setting and goal attainment to examine if students who chose to…

  3. Academic Achievement of Red Deer College Students at Alberta Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, Charles Thomas

    The purpose of this study was to report on the academic achievement of Red Deer College transfer students at three Alberta Universities for 1968-1971. Transfer students were matched with native students from the universities using session year, year of program, degree sought, age, sex, and first year cumulative grade-point average. These matched…

  4. IRIS, Gender, and Student Achievement at University of Genova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonfa, Antonella; Freddano, Michela

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the gender effects on student achievement at University of Genova and it is a part of the research performed by the University of Genova called "Benchmarks interfaculty students: Development of a gender perspective to find strategies to understand what leads students to success in their studies", financed by the Regional…

  5. Impact of Parent University on Parent Engagement and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Watechia Evelyen

    2013-01-01

    This research project examined the impact of Parent University on parental engagement and the factors that impact a parent's decision to become involved in their child's education. In addition, the aim of the research was to offer recommendations for improvement, so Parent University is able to enhance academic achievement within MNPS. The key…

  6. Ethiopian New Public Universities: Achievements, Challenges and Illustrative Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deuren, Rita; Kahsu, Tsegazeab; Mohammed, Seid; Woldie, Wondimu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze and illustrate achievements and challenges of Ethiopian higher education, both at the system level and at the level of new public universities. Design/methodology/approach: Achievements and challenges at the system level are based on literature review and secondary data. Illustrative case studies are based on…

  7. Building health research systems to achieve better health

    PubMed Central

    Hanney, Stephen R; González Block, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    Health research systems can link knowledge generation with practical concerns to improve health and health equity. Interest in health research, and in how health research systems should best be organised, is moving up the agenda of bodies such as the World Health Organisation. Pioneering health research systems, for example those in Canada and the UK, show that progress is possible. However, radical steps are required to achieve this. Such steps should be based on evidence not anecdotes. Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS) provides a vehicle for the publication of research, and informed opinion, on a range of topics related to the organisation of health research systems and the enormous benefits that can be achieved. Following the Mexico ministerial summit on health research, WHO has been identifying ways in which it could itself improve the use of research evidence. The results from this activity are soon to be published as a series of articles in HARPS. This editorial provides an account of some of these recent key developments in health research systems but places them in the context of a distinguished tradition of debate about the role of science in society. It also identifies some of the main issues on which 'research on health research' has already been conducted and published, in some cases in HARPS. Finding and retaining adequate financial and human resources to conduct health research is a major problem, especially in low and middle income countries where the need is often greatest. Research ethics and agenda-setting that responds to the demands of the public are issues of growing concern. Innovative and collaborative ways are being found to organise the conduct and utilisation of research so as to inform policy, and improve health and health equity. This is crucial, not least to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. But much more progress is needed. The editorial ends by listing a wide range of topics related to the above

  8. Building health research systems to achieve better health.

    PubMed

    Hanney, Stephen R; González Block, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    Health research systems can link knowledge generation with practical concerns to improve health and health equity. Interest in health research, and in how health research systems should best be organised, is moving up the agenda of bodies such as the World Health Organisation. Pioneering health research systems, for example those in Canada and the UK, show that progress is possible. However, radical steps are required to achieve this. Such steps should be based on evidence not anecdotes. Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS) provides a vehicle for the publication of research, and informed opinion, on a range of topics related to the organisation of health research systems and the enormous benefits that can be achieved. Following the Mexico ministerial summit on health research, WHO has been identifying ways in which it could itself improve the use of research evidence. The results from this activity are soon to be published as a series of articles in HARPS. This editorial provides an account of some of these recent key developments in health research systems but places them in the context of a distinguished tradition of debate about the role of science in society. It also identifies some of the main issues on which 'research on health research' has already been conducted and published, in some cases in HARPS. Finding and retaining adequate financial and human resources to conduct health research is a major problem, especially in low and middle income countries where the need is often greatest. Research ethics and agenda-setting that responds to the demands of the public are issues of growing concern. Innovative and collaborative ways are being found to organise the conduct and utilisation of research so as to inform policy, and improve health and health equity. This is crucial, not least to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. But much more progress is needed. The editorial ends by listing a wide range of topics related to the above

  9. Politics and Universal Health Coverage--The Post-2015 Global Health Agenda.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vin; Kerry, Vanessa B; Goosby, Eric; Yates, Robert

    2015-09-24

    What political, social, and economic factors allow a movement toward universal health coverage to take hold in some low- and middle-income countries? Can we use that knowledge to help other such countries achieve health care for all?

  10. [Universalization of health or of social security?].

    PubMed

    Levy-Algazi, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the architecture of Mexico's health system based on the main economic problem, failing to achieve a GDP growth rate to increase real wages and give workers in formal employment coverage social security. This analysis describes the relationship between social security of the population and employment status of it (either formal or informal employment) and the impact that this situation poses to our health system. Also, it ends with a reform proposal that will give all workers the same social rights, ie to grant universal social security. PMID:22116175

  11. Primary health care and public health: foundations of universal health systems.

    PubMed

    White, Franklin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to advocate for more integrated and universally accessible health systems, built on a foundation of primary health care and public health. The perspective outlined identified health systems as the frame of reference, clarified terminology and examined complementary perspectives on health. It explored the prospects for universal and integrated health systems from a global perspective, the role of healthy public policy in achieving population health and the value of the social-ecological model in guiding how best to align the components of an integrated health service. The importance of an ethical private sector in partnership with the public sector is recognized. Most health systems around the world, still heavily focused on illness, are doing relatively little to optimize health and minimize illness burdens, especially for vulnerable groups. This failure to improve the underlying conditions for health is compounded by insufficient allocation of resources to address priority needs with equity (universality, accessibility and affordability). Finally, public health and primary health care are the cornerstones of sustainable health systems, and this should be reflected in the health policies and professional education systems of all nations wishing to achieve a health system that is effective, equitable, efficient and affordable.

  12. The Role of Universities in Achieving Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Social justice is not only a vital ethical principle of the human society but also the all-important value of the entire social system. As a public sphere, the university undertakes the purpose to achieve public interest. It plays a significant role in reflecting, defending, and fostering social justice. Nurturing people with social justice…

  13. Structure and Relationships of University Instructors’ Achievement Goals

    PubMed Central

    Daumiller, Martin; Grassinger, Robert; Dickhäuser, Oliver; Dresel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the achievement goals of university instructors, particularly the structure of such goals, and their relationship to biographic characteristics, other aspects of instructors’ motivation, and teaching quality. Two hundred and fifty-one university instructors (184 without Ph.D., 97 with Ph.D., thereof 51 full professors; 146 males, 92 females) answered a questionnaire measuring achievement goals, self-efficacy, and enthusiasm in altogether 392 courses. Teaching quality was assessed using reports from 9,241 students who were attending these courses. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed mastery, performance approach, performance avoidance, work avoidance, and relational goals as being distinguishable from each other. Distinct relationships were found between different instructors’ achievement goals, and gender, age, and career status as well as self-efficacy and enthusiasm. Hierarchical linear models suggested positive associations of instructors’ mastery goals with teaching quality, while negative associations were indicated for performance avoidance goals and work avoidance goals in relation to teaching quality. Exploratory analyses conducted due to a quite large correlation between performance approach and performance avoidance goals indicated that for university instructors, differentiating performance goals into appearance and normative components might also be adequate. All in all, the study highlights the auspiciousness of the theoretical concept of university instructors’ achievement goals and contributes to making it comprehensively accessible. PMID:27047411

  14. Universal health coverage in Turkey: enhancement of equity.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Aydın, Sabahattin; Chakraborty, Sarbani; Sümer, Safir; Aran, Meltem; Gürol, Ipek; Nazlıoğlu, Serpil; Ozgülcü, Senay; Aydoğan, Ulger; Ayar, Banu; Dilmen, Uğur; Akdağ, Recep

    2013-07-01

    Turkey has successfully introduced health system changes and provided its citizens with the right to health to achieve universal health coverage, which helped to address inequities in financing, health service access, and health outcomes. We trace the trajectory of health system reforms in Turkey, with a particular emphasis on 2003-13, which coincides with the Health Transformation Program (HTP). The HTP rapidly expanded health insurance coverage and access to health-care services for all citizens, especially the poorest population groups, to achieve universal health coverage. We analyse the contextual drivers that shaped the transformations in the health system, explore the design and implementation of the HTP, identify the factors that enabled its success, and investigate its effects. Our findings suggest that the HTP was instrumental in achieving universal health coverage to enhance equity substantially, and led to quantifiable and beneficial effects on all health system goals, with an improved level and distribution of health, greater fairness in financing with better financial protection, and notably increased user satisfaction. After the HTP, five health insurance schemes were consolidated to create a unified General Health Insurance scheme with harmonised and expanded benefits. Insurance coverage for the poorest population groups in Turkey increased from 2·4 million people in 2003, to 10·2 million in 2011. Health service access increased across the country-in particular, access and use of key maternal and child health services improved to help to greatly reduce the maternal mortality ratio, and under-5, infant, and neonatal mortality, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Several factors helped to achieve universal health coverage and improve outcomes. These factors include economic growth, political stability, a comprehensive transformation strategy led by a transformation team, rapid policy translation, flexible implementation with

  15. Achieving population health in accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Karen; Walker, Deborah Klein

    2013-07-01

    Although "population health" is one of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Triple Aim goals, its relationship to accountable care organizations (ACOs) remains ill-defined and lacks clarity as to how the clinical delivery system intersects with the public health system. Although defining population health as "panel" management seems to be the default definition, we called for a broader "community health" definition that could improve relationships between clinical delivery and public health systems and health outcomes for communities. We discussed this broader definition and offered recommendations for linking ACOs with the public health system toward improving health for patients and their communities.

  16. Promoting the Health of Young Adults in Urban Public Universities: A Case Study from City University of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Manzo, Luis; Mongiello, Lorraine; Jones, Hollie; Boeri, Natascia; Lamberson, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Changing demographics of college students and new insights into the developmental trajectory of chronic diseases present universities with opportunities to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. The reciprocal relationships between better health and improved educational achievement also offer university health programs a chance…

  17. [Efforts to achieve and effects of acquiring ISO 15189 in Tokushima University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Shono, Kazuko; Kishi, Misako; Satou, Mituyo; Nagamine, Yasunori; Doi, Tosio

    2009-12-01

    The medical laboratory of Tokushima University Hospital acquired ISO 15189, an international standard for medical laboratories, on July 6th, 2007, resulting in it achieving the 24th place in Japan and 5th place among national university hospitals. The first surveillance was just performed on October 6th, 2008. Tokushima University Hospital, in which our medical laboratory is included as one section, already succeeded in acquiring ISO 9001, PrivacyMark System, and Quality Health Care ver. 5 before accomplishing ISO 15189. To achieve ISO 15189, we prepared documents based on ISO 9001 without any consultation, resulting in a review of the difference between ISO 9001 and ISO 15189 after the preliminary survey. Although achieving ISO 15189 resulted in an improvement in the reliability of laboratory results and accuracy, leading to the development of our technical skills and awareness, and sharing of knowledge, we consider that the considerable investment of time to prepare the requirements remains to be overcome.

  18. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance.

    PubMed

    Okpani, Arnold Ikedichi; Abimbola, Seye

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC). One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme. PMID:26778879

  19. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance.

    PubMed

    Okpani, Arnold Ikedichi; Abimbola, Seye

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC). One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme.

  20. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance

    PubMed Central

    Okpani, Arnold Ikedichi; Abimbola, Seye

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC). One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme. PMID:26778879

  1. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Pocock, Nicola Suyin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Chhorvann, Chhea; Duc, Ha Anh; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lim, Jeremy; Lucero-Prisno, Don Eliseo; Ng, Nawi; Phaholyothin, Natalie; Phonvisay, Alay; Soe, Kyaw Min; Sychareun, Vanphanom

    2014-01-01

    Background The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Design Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and ‘snowball’ further data. Results We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1) financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2) supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3) the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC) goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should be explicitly

  2. Promoting the health of young adults in urban public universities: a case study from City University of New York.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Manzo, Luis; Mongiello, Lorraine; Jones, Hollie; Boeri, Natascia; Lamberson, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Changing demographics of college students and new insights into the developmental trajectory of chronic diseases present universities with opportunities to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. The reciprocal relationships between better health and improved educational achievement also offer university health programs a chance to improve retention and graduation rates, a key objective for higher education. In 2007, City University of New York (CUNY), the nation's largest urban public university, launched Healthy CUNY, an initiative designed to offer life-time protection against chronic diseases and reduce health-related barriers to educational achievement. In its first 5 years, Healthy CUNY has shown that universities can mobilize students, faculty, and other constituencies to modify environments and policies that influence health. New policies on tobacco and campus food, enrollment of needy students in public food and housing assistance programs, and a dialogue on the role of health in academic achievement are first steps towards healthier universities.

  3. Improving University Ranking to Achieve University Competitiveness by Management Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachyar, M.; Dewi, F.

    2015-05-01

    One way to increase university competitiveness is through information system management. A literature review was done to find information system factors that affect university performance in Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) University Ranking: Asia evaluation. Information system factors were then eliminated using Delphi method through consensus of 7 experts. Result from Delphi method was used as measured variables in PLS-SEM. Estimation with PLS-SEM method through 72 respondents shows that the latent variable academic reputation and citation per paper have significant correlation to university competitiveness. In University of Indonesia (UI) the priority to increase university competitiveness as follow: (i) network building in international conference, (ii) availability of research data to public, (iii) international conference information, (iv) information on achievements and accreditations of each major, (v) ease of employment for alumni.

  4. Morningness-eveningness preferences and academic achievement of university students.

    PubMed

    Beşoluk, Senol; Onder, Ismail; Deveci, Isa

    2011-03-01

    The present study investigates whether the circadian preferences of students are related to their academic achievements. This study explores whether different class times affect students' achievement and examines the performance of students on final exams administered at 09:30 h for differences according to chronotype. A total of 1471 university students between 18 and 25 yrs of age responded to a morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), and data on their cumulative grade point averages (CGPA) were also collected from their transcripts. Some of the students in the sample attended classes during the first teaching period, which started at 08:00 h and ended at 14:50 h, and the remaining students followed the second schedule, which started at 15:00 h and ended at 21:50 h. MEQ scores were found to differ by sex. MEQ scores partially predicted academic success and that students' academic achievements differed according to the time of the teaching period. Moreover, final exam (administered at 09:30 h) scores differed with respect to their circadian preferences; students with a morning preference achieved higher scores than either those with an evening or intermediate preference. Both teaching and test start times thus impact academic performance.

  5. Achieving Quality Health Services for Adolescents.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This update of the 2008 statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics redirects the discussion of quality health care from the theoretical to the practical within the medical home. This statement reviews the evolution of the medical home concept and challenges the provision of quality adolescent health care within the patient-centered medical home. Areas of attention for quality adolescent health care are reviewed, including developmentally appropriate care, confidentiality, location of adolescent care, providers who offer such care, the role of research in advancing care, and the transition to adult care. PMID:27432849

  6. "Masculinity, Femininity, Achievement Conflicts and Health."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Debra Eaton

    The objective of this study is to measure achievement motivation in terms of psychological masculinity and femininity rather than in terms of biological gender. The terms, psychological masculinity and femininity, refer to sets of characteristics desirable for both sexes. Masculine characteristics include independence, self-confidence,…

  7. Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2009 † Health-Risk Behaviors Percentage of U.S. high school students who engaged in each risk behavior, by type of grades mostly earned A’s B’s C’s D’s/F’s Unintentional Injury and Violence-Related Behaviors Rarely or never wore a seat ...

  8. International Students, University Health Centers, and Memorable Messages about Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmack, Heather J.; Bedi, Shireen; Heiss, Sarah N.

    2016-01-01

    International students entering US universities often experience a variety of important socialization messages. One important message is learning about and using the US health system. International students often first encounter the US health system through their experiences with university health centers. The authors explore the memorable…

  9. Costa Rica: Achievements of a Heterodox Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Buitrón, René; Soors, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Costa Rica is a middle-income country with a strong governmental emphasis on human development. For more than half a century, its health policies have applied the principles of equity and solidarity to strengthen access to care through public services and universal social health insurance. Costa Rica’s population measures of health service coverage, health service use, and health status are excellent, and in the Americas, life expectancy in Costa Rica is second only to that in Canada. Many of these outcomes can be linked to the performance of the public health care system. However, the current emphasis of international aid organizations on privatization of health services threatens the accomplishments and universality of the Costa Rican health care system. PMID:17901439

  10. Universal Health Coverage: A Political Struggle and Governance Challenge.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott L; Méndez, Claudio A

    2015-11-01

    Universal health coverage has become a rallying cry in health policy, but it is often presented as a consensual, technical project. It is not. A review of the broader international literature on the origins of universal coverage shows that it is intrinsically political and cannot be achieved without recognition of its dependence on, and consequences for, both governance and politics. On one hand, a variety of comparative research has shown that health coverage is associated with democratic political accountability. Democratization, and in particular left-wing parties, gives governments particular cause to expand health coverage. On the other hand, governance, the ways states make and implement decisions, shapes any decision to strive for universal health coverage and the shape of its implementation. PMID:26180991

  11. Universal Health Coverage: A Political Struggle and Governance Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Claudio A.

    2015-01-01

    Universal health coverage has become a rallying cry in health policy, but it is often presented as a consensual, technical project. It is not. A review of the broader international literature on the origins of universal coverage shows that it is intrinsically political and cannot be achieved without recognition of its dependence on, and consequences for, both governance and politics. On one hand, a variety of comparative research has shown that health coverage is associated with democratic political accountability. Democratization, and in particular left-wing parties, gives governments particular cause to expand health coverage. On the other hand, governance, the ways states make and implement decisions, shapes any decision to strive for universal health coverage and the shape of its implementation. PMID:26180991

  12. Universal health care: the changing international discourse.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Ramila

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 34 years ago, in 1978 in the face of a looming crisis in the health of the world's populations and rising health inequality, 134 countries came together to sign the historic Alma Ata Declaration where the idea of primary health care as the chosen path to "Health for All" was formulated. However even before the declaration and more so since, countries have diverse interpretations of Universalism, each setting it in the context of its own health care model. These have ranged from the minimalist to the more comprehensive welfare state. Today, as health statistics reveal, the crisis has deepened, not only in the developing world but also in the developed world. It is important to debate the nature of the crisis and understand current policy initiatives and their ideological legitimations. The paper attempts to trace, clarify and account for the shifts in international discourse on universal health care (UHC). It argues that the idea of UHC is still with us, but there have occurred substantial shifts in discourse and meaning, shaped by changing international and national contexts and social forces impinging on health systems. The current concept of universal health coverage has only a notional allusion to universality of Alma Ata and disregards its fundamental principles. It concludes that the shifts are detrimental and its value in promoting health for all is likely to be severely limited.

  13. Universal health care: the changing international discourse.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Ramila

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 34 years ago, in 1978 in the face of a looming crisis in the health of the world's populations and rising health inequality, 134 countries came together to sign the historic Alma Ata Declaration where the idea of primary health care as the chosen path to "Health for All" was formulated. However even before the declaration and more so since, countries have diverse interpretations of Universalism, each setting it in the context of its own health care model. These have ranged from the minimalist to the more comprehensive welfare state. Today, as health statistics reveal, the crisis has deepened, not only in the developing world but also in the developed world. It is important to debate the nature of the crisis and understand current policy initiatives and their ideological legitimations. The paper attempts to trace, clarify and account for the shifts in international discourse on universal health care (UHC). It argues that the idea of UHC is still with us, but there have occurred substantial shifts in discourse and meaning, shaped by changing international and national contexts and social forces impinging on health systems. The current concept of universal health coverage has only a notional allusion to universality of Alma Ata and disregards its fundamental principles. It concludes that the shifts are detrimental and its value in promoting health for all is likely to be severely limited. PMID:24351385

  14. Students' Mental Health: Personal and University Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodarahimi, Siamak; Rasti, Ali; Khajehie, Malihe; Sattar, Rea

    2009-01-01

    The present study was to examine the effects of personal and university bounded factors in students mental health in north of Fars province, Iran. The effects of these factors on university students' psychopathology within a survey design were investigated among 300 participants--94 males and 206 females, who were selected through random sampling…

  15. Adolescent Health Behavior, Contentment in School, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…

  16. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints. PMID:24268002

  17. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints.

  18. University Curriculums and Fellowships in Radiological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villforth, John C.

    This booklet describes the academic programs funded through the Radiological Health Training Grants Program. Graduate Programs for the training of radiological health specialists at 28 universities and undergraduate (two year and four year) radiological technical programs at seven institutions are described. Program descriptions include degree(s)…

  19. The Longitudinal Effects of Achievement Goals and Perceived Control on University Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Newall, Nancy E. G.; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2014-01-01

    In the area of achievement motivation, students' beliefs pertaining to achievement goals and perceived control have separately guided a large amount theoretical and empirical research. However, limited research has considered the simultaneous effects of goals and control on achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine primary and…

  20. Particle creation in the early Universe: Achievements and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.

    2016-04-01

    Results on particle creation from vacuum by the gravitational field of the expanding Friedmann Universe are presented. Finite results for the density of particles and the energy density for created particles are given for different exact solutions for different regimes of the expansion of the Universe. The results are obtained as for conformal as for nonconformal particles. The hypothesis of the origination of visible matter from the decay of created from vacuum superheavy particles identified with the dark matter is discussed.

  1. "More Universal for Some than Others": Canada's Health Care System and the Role of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, B. Allan; Coady, Maureen; Gregoire, Helene; Folinsbee, Sue; Kraglund-Gauthier, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Health and health care in Canada is a story of high ideals, complex policy agreements, moments of raging public controversy, and the creation of a national health system that is the envy of many other nations. Despite its many health care achievements, evidence is mounting that good health is far from being universally accessible to all Canadians.…

  2. Investigating the Achievement Goals of University Students in Terms of Psycho-Social Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayis, Ahmet Rifat; Ceyhan, Aydogan Aykut

    2015-01-01

    It is the aim of this research to investigate the achievement goals of university students. Firstly, university students' adoption levels of achievement goals are described. Next, how their level of academic self-efficacy, irrational beliefs, perfectionism, self-determination, locus of control and gender predict each achievement goal is depicted.…

  3. Nursing workloads in family health: implications for universal access1

    PubMed Central

    de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Machado, Rosani Ramos; Soratto, Jacks; Scherer, Magda dos Anjos; Gonçalves, Ana Sofia Resque; Trindade, Letícia Lima

    2016-01-01

    Objective to identify the workloads of nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy, considering its implications for the effectiveness of universal access. Method qualitative study with nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy of the South, Central West and North regions of Brazil, using methodological triangulation. For the analysis, resources of the Atlas.ti software and Thematic Content Analysis were associated; and the data were interpreted based on the labor process and workloads as theorical approaches. Results the way of working in the Family Health Strategy has predominantly resulted in an increase in the workloads of the nursing professionals, with emphasis on the work overload, excess of demand, problems in the physical infrastructure of the units and failures in the care network, which hinders its effectiveness as a preferred strategy to achieve universal access to health. On the other hand, teamwork, affinity for the work performed, bond with the user, and effectiveness of the assistance contributed to reduce their workloads. Conclusions investments on elements that reduce the nursing workloads, such as changes in working conditions and management, can contribute to the effectiveness of the Family Health Strategy and achieving the goal of universal access to health. PMID:27027679

  4. Predictive Validity of Pre-University Examinations Test Scores for University Science Undergraduates' Academic Achievement in South West, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, L. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of pre-university examinations test scores (university matriculation examination (UME), Post-UME and pre-degree) for undergraduate academic achievement. The study is planned along the lines of correlational and ex-post-facto research design. A sample of four hundred university science based…

  5. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  6. Defining and Achieving Student Success: University Faculty and Student Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Anne M.; Camp, William G.

    The question of how agricultural education students and faculty define and hope to foster student success was studied at a large southeastern land-grant university with a college of agriculture that included 1,497 students and 193 faculty. The study questions were explored in 2 focus groups containing a total of 7 faculty members and 8 focus…

  7. GO RIO: Achieving Universal Access to Mass Transit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ted, Jr.; Castaneda-Calleros, Russell

    2009-01-01

    GO RIO is a universal access, mass-transit program that has been offered to all students who are registered full-time at Rio Hondo College. Through an agreement with five local transit agencies, full-time students can obtain a pass that provides full access seven days a week throughout the entire semester.

  8. Achieving Integrated Performance Management with the Corporate University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to deliver synoptic perspectives on the evolution taking place in corporate university management best practice. Design/methodology/approach: The insights are based on the author's co-creative client experience in the design, management and impact studies of this business and organisation development intervention. The…

  9. Achieving Millennium Development Goal 5, the improvement of maternal health.

    PubMed

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Edwards, Joan E

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5, the improvement of maternal health. Maternal mortality rates (MMR) remain high globally, and in the United States there have been recent increases in MMR. Interventions to improve global maternal health are described. Nurses should be aware of the enduring epidemic of global maternal mortality, advocate for childbearing women, and contribute to implementing effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality. PMID:20673318

  10. The liberty principle and universal health care.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Benjamin

    2008-06-01

    A universal entitlement to health care can be grounded in the liberty principle. A detailed examination of Rawls's discussion of health care in Justice as Fairness shows that Rawls himself recognized that illness is a threat to the basic liberties, yet failed to recognize the implications of this fact for health resource allocation. The problem is that one cannot know how to allocate health care dollars until one knows which basic liberties one seeks to protect, and yet one cannot know which basic liberties to protect until one knows how health care dollars will be allocated. The solution is to design the list of basic liberties and the health care system in tandem so as to fit each other, such that every citizen is guaranteed a set of basic liberties and access to the health services needed to secure them.

  11. Creating the Business Case for Achieving Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations have increasingly acknowledged the presence of health care disparities across race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, but significantly fewer have made health equity for diverse patients a true priority. Lack of financial incentives is a major barrier to achieving health equity. To create a business case for equity, governmental and private payors can: 1) Require health care organizations to report clinical performance data stratified by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. 2) Incentivize preventive care and primary care. Implement more aggressive shared savings plans, update physician relative value unit fee schedules, and encourage partnerships across clinical and non-clinical sectors. 3) Incentivize the reduction of health disparities with equity accountability measures in payment programs. 4) Align equity accountability measures across public and private payors. 5) Assist safety-net organizations. Provide adequate Medicaid reimbursement, risk-adjust clinical performance scores for sociodemographic characteristics of patients, provide support for quality improvement efforts, and calibrate cuts to Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments to the pace of health insurance expansion. 6) Conduct demonstration projects to test payment and delivery system reform interventions to reduce disparities. Commitment to social justice is essential to achieve health equity, but insufficient without a strong business case that makes interventions financially feasible.

  12. Creating the Business Case for Achieving Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations have increasingly acknowledged the presence of health care disparities across race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, but significantly fewer have made health equity for diverse patients a true priority. Lack of financial incentives is a major barrier to achieving health equity. To create a business case for equity, governmental and private payors can: 1) Require health care organizations to report clinical performance data stratified by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. 2) Incentivize preventive care and primary care. Implement more aggressive shared savings plans, update physician relative value unit fee schedules, and encourage partnerships across clinical and non-clinical sectors. 3) Incentivize the reduction of health disparities with equity accountability measures in payment programs. 4) Align equity accountability measures across public and private payors. 5) Assist safety-net organizations. Provide adequate Medicaid reimbursement, risk-adjust clinical performance scores for sociodemographic characteristics of patients, provide support for quality improvement efforts, and calibrate cuts to Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments to the pace of health insurance expansion. 6) Conduct demonstration projects to test payment and delivery system reform interventions to reduce disparities. Commitment to social justice is essential to achieve health equity, but insufficient without a strong business case that makes interventions financially feasible. PMID:26883523

  13. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; van Ruijven, Bas J.; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2013-06-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US200565-86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially.

  14. The Longitudinal Link between Student Health and Math Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for…

  15. The Impossibility of Achieving Consistently Good Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1987-01-01

    People disturb themselves with irrational beliefs, some of which are obvious and blatant while others are subtle and tricky. The latter type make people more disturbed than do the former kind. Even when helped by the most efficient forms of psychotherapy, humans have difficulty achieving and maintaining good mental health. (Author/VM)

  16. Health Behaviour and Academic Achievement in Icelandic School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Allegrante, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in the relationship between health behaviours and academic achievement has recently intensified in the face of an epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and converging school reforms in the United States and other nations with advanced economies. Epidemiologic research has demonstrated that poor diet and lack of adequate physical…

  17. Quality in university physics teaching: is it being achieved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    This was the title of a Physics Discipline Workshop held at the University of Leeds on 10 and 11 September 1998. Organizer Ashley Clarke of the university's Physics and Astronomy Department collected together an interesting variety of speakers polygonically targeting the topic, although as workshops go the audience didn't have to do much work except listen. There were representatives from 27 university physics departments who must have gone away with a lot to think about and possibly some new academic year resolutions to keep. But as a non-university no-longer teacher of (school) physics I was impressed with the general commitment to the idea that if you get the right quality of learning the teaching must be OK. I also learned (but have since forgotten) a lot of new acronyms. The keynote talk was by Gillian Hayes, Associate Director of the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA). She explained the role and implementation of the Subject Reviews that QAA is making for all subjects in all institutions of higher education on a five- to seven-year cycle. Physics Education hopes to publish an article about all this from QAA shortly. In the meantime, suffice it to say that the review looks at six aspects of provision, essentially from the point of view of enhancing students' experiences and learning. No doubt all participants would agree with this (they'd better if they want to score well on the Review) but may have been more worried by the next QAA speaker, Norman Jackson, who drummed in the basic facts of life as HE moves from an elite provision system to a mass provision system. He had an interesting graph showing how in the last ten years or so more students were getting firsts and upper seconds and fewer getting thirds. It seems that all those A-level students getting better grades than they used to are carrying on their good luck to degree level. But they still can't do maths (allegedly) and I doubt whether Jon Ogborn (IoP Advancing Physics Project

  18. Resilience as a universal criterion of health.

    PubMed

    Döring, Thomas F; Vieweger, Anja; Pautasso, Marco; Vaarst, Mette; Finckh, Maria R; Wolfe, Martin S

    2015-02-01

    To promote and maintain health in agricultural and food systems, appropriate criteria are needed for the description and assessment of the health of soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems. Here we identify the concept of resilience as a universally applicable and fundamentally important criterion of health in all relevant areas of agriculture. We discuss definitions of resilience for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems, and explore ways in which resilience can be applied as a criterion of health in different agricultural contexts. We show how and why resilience can be seen as a key criterion of health. Based on this, we discuss how resilience can be used as a link between soil, plant, animal, human and ecosystem health. Finally, we highlight four key areas for future research on resilience in agriculture, namely spatial and temporal scaling of resilience; effects of diversity; the role of networks for resilience; and stakeholder involvement.

  19. Achieving and Maintaining Existing Building Sustainability Certification at Georgetown University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payant, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is the promotion of high performance, healthful, energy-efficient, and environmentally stable buildings. Buildings intended for sustainable certification must meet guidelines developed by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) of the U.S. Green Building Council. The problem is that LEED certification often fails to…

  20. Moving toward universal coverage of health insurance in Vietnam: barriers, facilitating factors, and lessons from Korea.

    PubMed

    Do, Ngan; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance.

  1. Achieving Workplace Health through Application of Wellness Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: 1) Understand and measure JSC workplace health: a) levels, sources, indicators & effects of negative, work-related stress; b) define leading indicators of emerging issues. 2 Provide linkage to outcomes: a) Focus application of wellness strategies & HR tools; b) Increase quality of work life and productivity. 3) Current effort will result in: a) Online assessment tool; b) Assessment of total JSC population (civil service & contractors); c) Application of mitigation tools and strategies. 4) Product of the JSC Employee Wellness Program. 5) Collaboration with Corporate Health Improvement Program/University of Arizona.

  2. The Explanatory and Predictive Relationship Pattern between University Students' Goal Orientation Behaviours and Their Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpur, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the explanatory and predictive relationship pattern between university students' goal orientation behaviours and their academic achievement. The study group consisted of 259 university students. A "2x2 Achievement Goal Orientations Scale" was used to determine the students' goal orientation…

  3. Are Achievement Motivation and Thinking Styles Related? A Visit among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weiqiao; Zhang, Li-Fang

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between thinking styles and achievement motivation among Chinese university students. The Thinking Styles Inventory--Revised (TSI-R; Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2003) and the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS; Gjesme & Nygard, 1970; Ye & Hagtvet, 1988) were administered to 238 Chinese university students…

  4. Achieving universal access and moving towards elimination of new HIV infections in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Vun, Mean Chhi; Fujita, Masami; Rathavy, Tung; Eang, Mao Tang; Sopheap, Seng; Sovannarith, Samreth; Chhorvann, Chhea; Vanthy, Ly; Sopheap, Oum; Welle, Emily; Ferradini, Laurent; Sedtha, Chin; Bunna, Sok; Verbruggen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the mid-1990s, Cambodia faced one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. For its achievement in reversing this trend, and achieving universal access to HIV treatment, the country received a United Nations millennium development goal award in 2010. This article reviews Cambodia’s response to HIV over the past two decades and discusses its current efforts towards elimination of new HIV infections. Methods A literature review of published and unpublished documents, including programme data and presentations, was conducted. Results and discussion Cambodia classifies its response to one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia into three phases. In Phase I (1991–2000), when adult HIV prevalence peaked at 1.7% and incidence exceeded 20,000 cases, a nationwide HIV prevention programme targeted brothel-based sex work. Voluntary confidential counselling and testing and home-based care were introduced, and peer support groups of people living with HIV emerged. Phase II (2001–2011) observed a steady decline in adult prevalence to 0.8% and incidence to 1600 cases by 2011, and was characterized by: expanding antiretroviral treatment (coverage reaching more than 80%) and continuum of care; linking with tuberculosis and maternal and child health services; accelerated prevention among key populations, including entertainment establishment-based sex workers, men having sex with men, transgender persons, and people who inject drugs; engagement of health workers to deliver quality services; and strengthening health service delivery systems. The third phase (2012–2020) aims to attain zero new infections by 2020 through: sharpening responses to key populations at higher risk; maximizing access to community and facility-based testing and retention in prevention and care; and accelerating the transition from vertical approaches to linked/integrated approaches. Conclusions Cambodia has tailored its prevention strategy to its own epidemic, established

  5. The association between academic engagement and achievement in health sciences students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging student engagement, being necessary to know how engaged are students at university and if this factor is involved in student success point and followed. To explore the association between academic engagement and achievement. Methods Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 304 students of Health Sciences. They were asked to fill out an on-line questionnaire. Academic achievements were calculated using three types of measurement. Results Positive correlations were found in all cases. Grade point average was the academic rate most strongly associated with engagement dimensions and this association is different for male and female students. The independent variables could explain between 18.9 and 23.9% of the variance (p < 0.05) in the population of university students being analyzed. Conclusions Engagement has been shown to be one of the many factors, which are positively involved, in the academic achievements of college students. PMID:23446005

  6. Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage: identification of nursing research priorities in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Bassalobre-Garcia, Alessandra; Reveiz, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estabilish a regional list for nursing research priorities in health systems and services in the Region of the Americas based on the concepts of Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage. Method: five-stage consensus process: systematic review of literature; appraisal of resulting questions and topics; ranking of the items by graduate program coordinators; discussion and ranking amongst a forum of researchers and public health leaders; and consultation with the Ministries of Health of the Pan American Health Organization's member states. Results: the resulting list of nursing research priorities consists of 276 study questions/ topics, which are sorted into 14 subcategories distributed into six major categories: 1. Policies and education of nursing human resources; 2. Structure, organization and dynamics of health systems and services; 3. Science, technology, innovation, and information systems in public health; 4. Financing of health systems and services; 5. Health policies, governance, and social control; and 6. Social studies in the health field. Conclusion: the list of nursing research priorities is expected to serve as guidance and support for nursing research on health systems and services across Latin America. Not only researchers, but also Ministries of Health, leaders in public health, and research funding agencies are encouraged to use the results of this list to help inform research-funding decisions. PMID:26487014

  7. Socially oriented achievement goals of Chinese university students in Singapore: structure and relationships with achievement motives, goals and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weining C; Wong, Kaishi

    2008-10-01

    Contemporary literature on culture, self, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) suggests that in collectivistic cultures, individual achievement is interdependent of one's social others. We proposed that this cultural characteristic could be exemplified in the achievement goal orientation and tested the notion with university students in a collectivistic community-Singapore. A socially oriented achievement goal construct was developed by taking into consideration the significant social others in the students' lives. A measuring instrument was established with a sample of Singaporean Chinese university students (N = 196; 144 females and 52 males); its relationships to achievement motives, goals, and consequences were examined. Although the socially oriented achievement goal items were originally constructed from four categories of social others, confirmatory factor analysis suggested a unifactor structure. Results showed that the socially oriented goal was related positively with students' performance goal, mastery goal, and competitive motive; it bore no relationship to mastery motive, work ethic, and interest in learning; and it predicted negatively future engagement. After the effects of mastery and performance goals were controlled for, the socially oriented goal did not predict test anxiety. PMID:22022792

  8. Socially oriented achievement goals of Chinese university students in Singapore: structure and relationships with achievement motives, goals and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weining C; Wong, Kaishi

    2008-10-01

    Contemporary literature on culture, self, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) suggests that in collectivistic cultures, individual achievement is interdependent of one's social others. We proposed that this cultural characteristic could be exemplified in the achievement goal orientation and tested the notion with university students in a collectivistic community-Singapore. A socially oriented achievement goal construct was developed by taking into consideration the significant social others in the students' lives. A measuring instrument was established with a sample of Singaporean Chinese university students (N = 196; 144 females and 52 males); its relationships to achievement motives, goals, and consequences were examined. Although the socially oriented achievement goal items were originally constructed from four categories of social others, confirmatory factor analysis suggested a unifactor structure. Results showed that the socially oriented goal was related positively with students' performance goal, mastery goal, and competitive motive; it bore no relationship to mastery motive, work ethic, and interest in learning; and it predicted negatively future engagement. After the effects of mastery and performance goals were controlled for, the socially oriented goal did not predict test anxiety.

  9. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people.

  10. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people. PMID:24570037

  11. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James; Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-11-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose.

  12. Policy processes underpinning universal health insurance in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Bui T. T.; Frizen, Scott; Thi, Le M.; Duong, Doan T. T.; Duc, Duong M.

    2014-01-01

    Background In almost 30 years since economic reforms or ‘renovation’ (Doimoi) were launched, Vietnam has achieved remarkably good health results, in many cases matching those in much higher income countries. This study explores the contribution made by Universal Health Insurance (UHI) policies, focusing on the past 15 years. We conducted a mixed method study to describe and assess the policy process relating to health insurance, from agenda setting through implementation and evaluation. Design The qualitative research methods implemented in this study were 30 in-depth interviews, 4 focus group discussions, expert consultancy, and 420 secondary data review. The data were analyzed by NVivo 7.0. Results Health insurance in Vietnam was introduced in 1992 and has been elaborated over a 20-year time frame. These processes relate to moving from a contingent to a gradually expanded target population, expanding the scope of the benefit package, and reducing the financial contribution from the insured. The target groups expanded to include 66.8% of the population by 2012. We characterized the policy process relating to UHI as incremental with a learning-by-doing approach, with an emphasis on increasing coverage rather than ensuring a basic service package and financial protection. There was limited involvement of civil society organizations and users in all policy processes. Intertwined political economy factors influenced the policy processes. Conclusions Incremental policy processes, characterized by a learning-by-doing approach, is appropriate for countries attempting to introduce new health institutions, such as health insurance in Vietnam. Vietnam should continue to mobilize resources in sustainable and viable ways to support the target groups. The country should also adopt a multi-pronged approach to achieving universal access to health services, beyond health insurance. PMID:25262793

  13. Investing in health systems for universal health coverage in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study focused on the 47 Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region. The specific objectives were to prepare a synthesis on the situation of health systems¿ components, to analyse the correlation between the interventions related to the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and some health systems¿ components and to provide overview of four major thrusts for progress towards universal health coverage (UHC). Methods The WHO health systems framework and the health-related MDGs were the frame of reference. The data for selected indicators were obtained from the WHO World Health Statistics 2014 and the Global Health Observatory. Results African Region¿s average densities of physicians, nursing and midwifery personnel, dentistry personnel, pharmaceutical personnel, and psychiatrists of 2.6, 12, 0.5, 0.9 and 0.05 per 10 000 population were about five-fold, two-fold, five-fold, five-fold and six-fold lower than global averages. Fifty-six percent of the reporting countries had fewer than 11 health posts per 100 000 population, 88% had fewer than 11 health centres per 100 000 population, 82% had fewer than one district hospital per 100 000 population, 74% had fewer than 0.2 provincial hospitals per 100 000 population, and 79% had fewer than 0.2 tertiary hospitals per 100 000 population. Some 83% of the countries had less than one MRI per one million people and 95% had fewer than one radiotherapy unit per million population. Forty-six percent of the countries had not adopted the recommendation of the International Taskforce on Innovative Financing to spend at least US$ 44 per person per year on health. Some of these gaps in health system components were found to be correlated to coverage gaps in interventions for maternal health (MDG 5), child health (MDG 4) and HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria (MDG 6). Conclusions Substantial gaps exist in health systems and access to MDG-related health interventions. It is imperative that countries

  14. Forging partnerships to solve the global health workforce crisis and achieve the health MDGs.

    PubMed

    Cometto, Giorgio; Sheikh, Mubashar

    2010-01-01

    The health workforce is in many countries the weakest link in the effective and equitable delivery of quality health services, and the largest impediment to the achievement of health Millennium Development Goals. The Kampala Declaration and Agenda for Global Action, championed by the Global Health Workforce Alliance, provide an effective overarching framework for the bold, concerted and sustained action which is required at the international, national and local level.

  15. Access and Achievement of Hispanics and Hispanic Immigrants in the City University of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinbach, D. Timothy; Bailey, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter analyzes whether Hispanics and Hispanic immigrants in the City University of New York system have the same levels of access and achievement as other racial and ethnic populations. (Contains 3 tables.)

  16. Distance Education and Academic Achievement in Business Administration: The Case of the University of Akureyri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvardsson, Ingi Runar; Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kristjan

    2008-01-01

    This paper first presents the development of distance education in Icelandic universities. Its second aim is to present a detailed analysis of the distance education practice at the University of Akureyri (UNAK), Iceland. Finally, the paper aims at analysing academic achievement, as well as attitudes towards courses, among campus and distance…

  17. The Failure of Non-Binding Declarations to Achieve University Sustainability: A Need for Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekessy, S. A.; Samson, K.; Clarkson, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to assess the impact and value of non-binding agreements or declarations in achieving sustainability in universities. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University is presented, analysing the reasons for lack of progress towards sustainability and evaluating best…

  18. The Relationship between University Students' Academic Achievement and Perceived Organizational Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Soner

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to determine the relationship between university students' academic achievement and perceived organizational image. The sample of the study was the senior students at the faculties and vocational schools in Umuttepe Campus at Kocaeli University. Because the development of organizational image is a long process, the…

  19. The Impact of Inattention, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity on Academic Achievement in UK University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Debbie J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students in UK universities are presenting with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the impact of ADHD symptomatology on academic achievement in university students in the UK has not previously been explored. This study investigates the prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms…

  20. Sports Involvement and Academic Achievement: A Study of Malaysian University Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuan, Chun Cheng; Yusof, Aminuddin; Shah, Parilah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Factors that influence the academic achievement of Malaysian university athletes were investigated using 156 field hockey players from several universities. The relationship between team subculture, parental influence, the learning environment, support systems, financial aid, training factors, academic assistance, socialization, and stress level…

  1. Role of Peers in Student Academic Achievement in Exogenously Formed University Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Androushchak, Gregory; Poldin, Oleg; Yudkevich, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the influence of classmates' ability characteristics on student achievement in exogenously formed university student groups. The study uses administrative data on undergraduate students at a large selective university in Russia. The presence of high-ability classmates has a significant positive effect on individual grades in key…

  2. Relationship between Teachers' Effective Communication and Students' Academic Achievement at the Northern Border University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers' effective communication and students' academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire…

  3. Achieving Systemic Change with Universal Design for Learning and Digital Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ender, Karen E.; Kinney, Barbara J.; Penrod, William M.; Bauder, Debra K.; Simmons, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Systemic change may be achieved through a combination of the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles in instructional delivery, the integration of accessible digital materials, and the use of state-of-the-art technology tools. To demonstrate this premise, the Kentucky Department of Education (KDE) partnered with the University of Louisville…

  4. Weight Bias in University Health Professions Students.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Cynthia; Brooks, Jennifer K; McKnight, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes toward people with high body weight have been documented in pre-professional health students, prompting concern that such feelings may manifest as poor patient care in professional practice. This study assessed weight bias in university students in the non-physician health professions. A convenience sample of 206 students completed an online survey composed of a validated 14-item scale (1-5 lowest to highest weight bias) and questions regarding personal experiences of weight bias. Respondents were grouped by discipline within graduate and undergraduate levels. Weight bias was present in a majority of respondents. Overall, the percentage of responses indicative of weight bias was 92.7%. The mean total score was 3.65. ± 0.52, and the rating exceeded 3 for all 14 scale descriptors of high-weight people. In graduate students, discipline had a significant main effect on total score (p=0.01), with lower scores in dietetics (3.17 ± 0.46) vs audiology/sign language/speech language pathology (3.84 ± 0.41) and physician assistant students (3.78 ± 0.51; p<0.05). These findings show that weight bias is prevalent in health professions students at a mountain west university. Well-controlled studies that track students into professional practice would help determine whether bias-reduction interventions in college improve provider behaviors and clinical outcomes. PMID:27585618

  5. Community health workers for universal health-care coverage: from fragmentation to synergy.

    PubMed

    Tulenko, Kate; Møgedal, Sigrun; Afzal, Muhammad Mahmood; Frymus, Diana; Oshin, Adetokunbo; Pate, Muhammad; Quain, Estelle; Pinel, Arletty; Wynd, Shona; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    To achieve universal health coverage, health systems will have to reach into every community, including the poorest and hardest to access. Since Alma-Ata, inconsistent support of community health workers (CHWs) and failure to integrate them into the health system have impeded full realization of their potential contribution in the context of primary health care. Scaling up and maintaining CHW programmes is fraught with a host of challenges: poor planning; multiple competing actors with little coordination; fragmented, disease-specific training; donor-driven management and funding; tenuous linkage with the health system; poor coordination, supervision and support, and under-recognition of CHWs' contribution. The current drive towards universal health coverage (UHC) presents an opportunity to enhance people's access to health services and their trust, demand and use of such services through CHWs. For their potential to be fully realized, however, CHWs will need to be better integrated into national health-care systems in terms of employment, supervision, support and career development. Partners at the global, national and district levels will have to harmonize and synchronize their engagement in CHW support while maintaining enough flexibility for programmes to innovate and respond to local needs. Strong leadership from the public sector will be needed to facilitate alignment with national policy frameworks and country-led coordination and to achieve synergies and accountability, universal coverage and sustainability. In moving towards UHC, much can be gained by investing in building CHWs' skills and supporting them as valued members of the health team. Stand-alone investments in CHWs are no shortcut to progress.

  6. Community health workers for universal health-care coverage: from fragmentation to synergy.

    PubMed

    Tulenko, Kate; Møgedal, Sigrun; Afzal, Muhammad Mahmood; Frymus, Diana; Oshin, Adetokunbo; Pate, Muhammad; Quain, Estelle; Pinel, Arletty; Wynd, Shona; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    To achieve universal health coverage, health systems will have to reach into every community, including the poorest and hardest to access. Since Alma-Ata, inconsistent support of community health workers (CHWs) and failure to integrate them into the health system have impeded full realization of their potential contribution in the context of primary health care. Scaling up and maintaining CHW programmes is fraught with a host of challenges: poor planning; multiple competing actors with little coordination; fragmented, disease-specific training; donor-driven management and funding; tenuous linkage with the health system; poor coordination, supervision and support, and under-recognition of CHWs' contribution. The current drive towards universal health coverage (UHC) presents an opportunity to enhance people's access to health services and their trust, demand and use of such services through CHWs. For their potential to be fully realized, however, CHWs will need to be better integrated into national health-care systems in terms of employment, supervision, support and career development. Partners at the global, national and district levels will have to harmonize and synchronize their engagement in CHW support while maintaining enough flexibility for programmes to innovate and respond to local needs. Strong leadership from the public sector will be needed to facilitate alignment with national policy frameworks and country-led coordination and to achieve synergies and accountability, universal coverage and sustainability. In moving towards UHC, much can be gained by investing in building CHWs' skills and supporting them as valued members of the health team. Stand-alone investments in CHWs are no shortcut to progress. PMID:24347709

  7. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college.

  8. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college. PMID:25691148

  9. Disparities in academic achievement and health: the intersection of child education and health policy.

    PubMed

    Fiscella, Kevin; Kitzman, Harriet

    2009-03-01

    Recent data suggest that that the United States is failing to make significant progress toward the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating health disparities. One missing element from the US strategy for achieving this goal is a focus on gaps in child development and achievement. Academic achievement and education seem to be critical determinants of health across the life span and disparities in one contribute to disparities in the other. Despite these linkages, national policy treats child education and health as separate. Landmark education legislation, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, is due for Congressional reauthorization. It seeks to eliminate gaps in academic child achievement by 2014. It does so by introducing accountability for states, school districts, and schools. In this special article, we review health disparities and contributors to child achievement gaps. We review changes in achievement gaps over time and potential contributors to the limited success of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, including its unfunded mandates and unfounded assumptions. We conclude with key reforms, which include addressing gaps in child school readiness through adequate investment in child health and early education and reductions in child poverty; closing the gap in child achievement by ensuring equity in school accountability standards; and, importantly, ensuring equity in school funding so that resources are allocated on the basis of the needs of the students. This will ensure that schools, particularly those serving large numbers of poor and minority children, have the resources necessary to promote optimal learning. PMID:19255042

  10. The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaino, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

  11. How University Students with Reading Difficulties Are Supported in Achieving Their Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university…

  12. The Achievement Goals Orientation of South African First Year University Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Ramaila, Sam

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the achievement goals orientation of first year physics students at a South African university. The mixed methods design involved a quantitative survey of 291 students using an achievement goals questionnaire and individual interviews of selected participants. Results showed that the students perceived they have a stronger…

  13. From Crisis Management to Academic Achievement: A University Cluster-Mentoring Model for Black Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apprey, Maurice; Preston-Grimes, Patrice; Bassett, Kimberley C.; Lewis, Dion W.; Rideau, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the widening racial achievement gap among U.S. college students (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011), some universities are achieving success in supporting the graduation and postcollege goals of Black undergraduates (Apprey, Bassett, Preston-Grimes, Lewis, & Wood 2014/this issue; Baker, 2006; Hrabowski, 2003; Hrabowski & Maton, 2009).…

  14. Evaluation of Achievement of Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osadebe, P. U.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the objectives of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Delta State. It considered the extent to which each objective was achieved. A research question on the extent to which the UBE objectives were achieved guided the study. Two hypotheses were tested. A sample of 300 students was randomly drawn through the use of…

  15. Correlates of Academic Procrastination and Mathematics Achievement of University Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinsola, Mojeed Kolawole; Tella, Adedeji; Tella, Adeyinka

    2007-01-01

    Procrastination is now a common phenomenon among students, particularly those at the higher level. And this is doing more harm to their academic achievement than good. Therefore, this study examined the correlates between academic procrastination and mathematics achievement among the university mathematics undergraduate students. The study used a…

  16. Tackling health workforce challenges to universal health coverage: setting targets and measuring progress.

    PubMed

    Cometto, Giorgio; Witter, Sophie

    2013-11-01

    Human resources for health (HRH) will have to be strengthened if universal health coverage (UHC) is to be achieved. Existing health workforce benchmarks focus exclusively on the density of physicians, nurses and midwives and were developed with the objective of attaining relatively high coverage of skilled birth attendance and other essential health services of relevance to the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the attainment of UHC will depend not only on the availability of adequate numbers of health workers, but also on the distribution, quality and performance of the available health workforce. In addition, as noncommunicable diseases grow in relative importance, the inputs required from health workers are changing. New, broader health-workforce benchmarks - and a corresponding monitoring framework - therefore need to be developed and included in the agenda for UHC to catalyse attention and investment in this critical area of health systems. The new benchmarks need to reflect the more diverse composition of the health workforce and the participation of community health workers and mid-level health workers, and they must capture the multifaceted nature and complexities of HRH development, including equity in accessibility, sex composition and quality. PMID:24347714

  17. Tackling health workforce challenges to universal health coverage: setting targets and measuring progress.

    PubMed

    Cometto, Giorgio; Witter, Sophie

    2013-11-01

    Human resources for health (HRH) will have to be strengthened if universal health coverage (UHC) is to be achieved. Existing health workforce benchmarks focus exclusively on the density of physicians, nurses and midwives and were developed with the objective of attaining relatively high coverage of skilled birth attendance and other essential health services of relevance to the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the attainment of UHC will depend not only on the availability of adequate numbers of health workers, but also on the distribution, quality and performance of the available health workforce. In addition, as noncommunicable diseases grow in relative importance, the inputs required from health workers are changing. New, broader health-workforce benchmarks - and a corresponding monitoring framework - therefore need to be developed and included in the agenda for UHC to catalyse attention and investment in this critical area of health systems. The new benchmarks need to reflect the more diverse composition of the health workforce and the participation of community health workers and mid-level health workers, and they must capture the multifaceted nature and complexities of HRH development, including equity in accessibility, sex composition and quality.

  18. Working Together: Wellness and Academic Achievement at Tribal Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Bonnie; Magarati, Maya; Parker, Myra; Egashira, Leo; Kipp, Billie Jo

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Indigenous Wellness Research Institute (IWRI) at the University of Washington, Washington State, in collaborating with tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) to examine alcohol, drug, and mental health issues among Native students. The authors provide first steps for the development of culturally…

  19. Health Promotion in University: What Do Students Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Cathy; Somerset, Maggie

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative research was designed to investigate students' health needs and their views on health promotion in a University. A total of 31 students participated in focus group discussions. Inductive analysis revealed two central themes: student health concerns and health promotion in a University setting. The former included issues associated…

  20. Primary Health Care and partnerships: collaboration of a community agency, health department, and university nursing program.

    PubMed

    Leonard, L G

    1998-03-01

    Health care reform proposals emphasize health care that is essential, practical, scientifically sound, coordinated, accessible, appropriately delivered, and affordable. One route to achievement of improved health outcomes within these parameters is the formation of partnerships. Partnerships adopting the philosophy and five principles of Primary Health Care (PHC) focus on health promotion and prevention of illness and disability, maximum community participation, accessibility to health and health services, interdisciplinary and intersectoral collaboration, and use of appropriate technologies such as resources and strategies. A community service agency serving a multicultural population initiated a partnership with a health department and a university undergraduate nursing program. The result was a preschool health fair and there were benefits for each partner-benefits which could not have been realized without the collaboration. The health fair partnership planning, implementation, and evaluation process was guided by a framework shaped by the philosophy and five principles of PHC. The educational process described can be applied to other learning experiences where the goal is to help students understand and apply the concepts of PHC, develop myriad nursing competencies, and form collaborative relationships with the community and health agencies. Community health care dilemmas and nursing education challenges can be successfully addressed when various disciplines and sectors form effective partnerships. PMID:9535233

  1. Achieving Community Borrower Compliance with an Urban University Library's Circulation Policies: One University's Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicewarner, Metta; Simon, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of the use of academic libraries by public borrowers focuses on policies developed at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Highlights include library networks and identity problems; access to materials; fee-based reference services; and requiring patrons to register a credit card to be used for replacement materials and fines. (LRW)

  2. State-level variations in income-related inequality in health and health achievement in the US.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke Tom

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine state-level variations in income-related inequality in health and overall health achievement in the US. Data that were representative of the US and each state in 2001 were extracted from the Current Population Survey 2001. Income-related inequality in health and health achievement were measured by Health Concentration and Health Achievement Indices, respectively. Significant variations were found across states in income-related inequality in health and health achievement. In particular, states in the south and east regions, on average, experienced a higher degree of health inequality and lower health achievement. About 80% of the state-level variation in health achievement could be explained by demographics, economic structure and performance, and state and local government spending and burden. In contrast, medical care resource indicators were not found to contribute to health achievement in states. States with better health achievement were more urbanized, had lower proportions of minority groups, females and the elderly, fewer individuals below the poverty line, larger primary industry, and lower unemployment rates. Also, per capita state and local government spending, particularly the proportion spent on public health, was positively associated with better health achievement. Because of the direct implications of health level and distribution in resource allocation and social norms, states with a lower level of health achievement need to prioritize efforts in increasing and reallocating resources to diminish health inequality and to improve population health.

  3. Breadth of knowledge vs. grades: What best predicts achievement in the first year of health sciences programmes?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meisong; McKimm, Judy; Smith, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify those features within secondary school curricula and assessment, particularly science subjects that best predict academic achievement in the first year of three different three-year undergraduate health professional programmes (nursing, pharmacy, and health sciences) at a large New Zealand university. In particular, this study compared the contribution of breadth of knowledge (number of credits acquired) versus grade level (grade point average) and explored the impact of demographic variables on achievement. The findings indicated that grades are the most important factor predicting student success in the first year of university. Although taking biology and physics at secondary school has some impact on university first year achievement, the effect is relatively minor. PMID:22639706

  4. Breadth of knowledge vs. grades: What best predicts achievement in the first year of health sciences programmes?

    PubMed

    Shulruf, Boaz; Li, Meisong; McKimm, Judy; Smith, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify those features within secondary school curricula and assessment, particularly science subjects that best predict academic achievement in the first year of three different three-year undergraduate health professional programmes (nursing, pharmacy, and health sciences) at a large New Zealand university. In particular, this study compared the contribution of breadth of knowledge (number of credits acquired) versus grade level (grade point average) and explored the impact of demographic variables on achievement. The findings indicated that grades are the most important factor predicting student success in the first year of university. Although taking biology and physics at secondary school has some impact on university first year achievement, the effect is relatively minor.

  5. The World Health Organization European Health in Prisons Project After 10 Years: Persistent Barriers and Achievements

    PubMed Central

    Gatherer, Alex; Moller, Lars; Hayton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The recognition that good prison health is important to general public health has led 28 countries in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to join a WHO network dedicated to improving health within prisons. Within the 10 years since that time, vital actions have been taken and important policy documents have been produced. A key factor in making progress is breaking down the isolation of prison health services and bringing them into closer collaboration with the country’s public health services. However, barriers to progress remain. A continuing challenge is how best to move from policy recommendations to implementation, so that the network’s fundamental aim of noticeable improvements in the health and care of prisoners is further achieved. PMID:16186449

  6. Endorsement of universal health coverage financial principles in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Agier, Isabelle; Ly, Antarou; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Kouanda, Seni; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-02-01

    In West Africa, health system funding rarely involves cross-subsidization among population segments. In some countries, a few community-based or professional health insurance programs are present, but coverage is very low. The financial principles underlying universal health coverage (UHC) sustainability and solidarity are threefold: 1) anticipation of potential health risks; 2) risk sharing and; 3) socio-economic status solidarity. In Burkina Faso, where decision-makers are favorable to national health insurance, we measured endorsement of these principles and discerned which management configurations would achieve the greatest adherence. We used a sequential exploratory design. In a qualitative step (9 interviews, 12 focus groups), we adapted an instrument proposed by Goudge et al. (2012) to the local context and addressed desirability bias. Then, in a quantitative step (1255 respondents from the general population), we measured endorsement. Thematic analysis (qualitative) and logistic regressions (quantitative) were used. High levels of endorsement were found for each principle. Actual practices showed that anticipation and risk sharing were not only intentions. Preferences were given to solidarity between socio-economic status (SES) levels and progressivity. Although respondents seemed to prefer the national level for implementation, their current solidarity practices were mainly focused on close family. Thus, contribution levels should be set so that the entire family benefits from healthcare. Some critical conditions must be met to make UHC financial principles a reality through health insurance in Burkina Faso: trust, fair and mandatory contributions, and education. PMID:26803656

  7. Global health post-2015: the case for universal health equity

    PubMed Central

    D'Ambruoso, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Set in 2000, with a completion date of 2015, the deadline for the Millennium Development Goals is approaching, at which time a new global development infrastructure will become operational. Unsurprisingly, the discussions on goals, topics, priorities and monitoring and evaluation are gaining momentum. But this is a critical juncture. Over a decade of development programming offers a unique opportunity to reflect on its structure, function and purpose in a contemporary global context. This article examines the topic from an analytical health perspective and identifies universal health equity as an operational and analytical priority to encourage attention to the root causes of unnecessary and unfair illness and disease from the perspectives of those for whom the issues have most direct relevance. PMID:23561031

  8. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James; Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-11-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose. PMID:24347710

  9. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose. PMID:24347710

  10. The fundamental law that shapes the United States health care system: is universal health care realistic within the established paradigm?

    PubMed

    Gunnar, William P

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author draws from his own experience as a doctor in describing the issues the uninsured patient population faces. Pointing out that neither the U.S. Constitution nor case law provides a positive right to health care, the author describes the parameters of federal health care funding and ultimately concludes that universal health care cannot be fully achieved in the U.S.

  11. The fundamental law that shapes the United States health care system: is universal health care realistic within the established paradigm?

    PubMed

    Gunnar, William P

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author draws from his own experience as a doctor in describing the issues the uninsured patient population faces. Pointing out that neither the U.S. Constitution nor case law provides a positive right to health care, the author describes the parameters of federal health care funding and ultimately concludes that universal health care cannot be fully achieved in the U.S. PMID:17552136

  12. Universal health coverage in Rwanda: dream or reality

    PubMed Central

    Nyandekwe, Médard; Nzayirambaho, Manassé; Baptiste Kakoma, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has been a global concern for a long time and even more nowadays. While a number of publications are almost unanimous that Rwanda is not far from UHC, very few have focused on its financial sustainability and on its extreme external financial dependency. The objectives of this study are: (i) To assess Rwanda UHC based mainly on Community-Based Health Insurance (CBHI) from 2000 to 2012; (ii) to inform policy makers about observed gaps for a better way forward. Methods A retrospective (2000-2012) SWOT analysis was applied to six metrics as key indicators of UHC achievement related to WHO definition, i.e. (i) health insurance and access to care, (ii) equity, (iii) package of services, (iv) rights-based approach, (v) quality of health care, (vi) financial-risk protection, and (vii) CBHI self-financing capacity (SFC) was added by the authors. Results The first metric with 96,15% of overall health insurance coverage and 1.07 visit per capita per year versus 1 visit recommended by WHO, the second with 24,8% indigent people subsidized versus 24,1% living in extreme poverty, the third, the fourth, and the fifth metrics excellently performing, the sixth with 10.80% versus ≤40% as limit acceptable of catastrophic health spending level and lastly the CBHI SFC i.e. proper cost recovery estimated at 82.55% in 2011/2012, Rwanda UHC achievements are objectively convincing. Conclusion Rwanda UHC is not a dream but a reality if we consider all convincing results issued of the seven metrics. PMID:25170376

  13. Medicalization of global health 4: the universal health coverage campaign and the medicalization of global health

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has emerged as the leading and recommended overarching health goal on the post-2015 development agenda, and is promoted with fervour. UHC has the backing of major medical and health institutions, and is designed to provide patients with universal access to needed health services without financial hardship, but is also projected to have ‘a transformative effect on poverty, hunger, and disease’. Multiple reports and resolutions support UHC and few offer critical analyses; but among these are concerns with imprecise definitions and the ability to implement UHC at the country level. A medicalization lens enriches these early critiques and identifies concerns that the UHC campaign contributes to the medicalization of global health. UHC conflates health with health care, thus assigning undue importance to (biomedical) health services and downgrading the social and structural determinants of health. There is poor evidence that UHC or health care alone improves population health outcomes, and in fact health care may worsen inequities. UHC is reductionistic because it focuses on preventative and curative actions delivered at the individual level, and ignores the social and political determinants of health and right to health that have been supported by decades of international work and commitments. UHC risks commodifying health care, which threatens the underlying principles of UHC of equity in access and of health care as a collective good. PMID:24848662

  14. Achieving a "Grand Convergence" in Global Health by 2035: Rwanda Shows the Way Comment on "Improving the World's Health Through the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Perspectives From Rwanda".

    PubMed

    Yamey, Gavin; Fewer, Sara; Beyeler, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Global Health 2035, the report of The Lancet Commission on Investing in Health, laid out a bold, highly ambitious framework for making rapid progress in improving global public health outcomes. It showed that with the right health investments, the international community could achieve a "grand convergence" in global health-a reduction in avertable infectious, maternal, and child deaths down to universally low levels-within a generation. Rwanda's success in rapidly reducing such deaths over the last 20 years shows that convergence is feasible. Binagwaho and Scott have argued that 5 lessons from this success are the importance of equity, quality health services, evidence-informed policy, intersectoral collaboration, and effective collaboration between countries and multilateral agencies. This article re-examines these lessons through the lens of the Global Health 2035 report to analyze how the experience in Rwanda might be generalized for other countries to making progress towards achieving a grand convergence. PMID:26673345

  15. Refugee Children in South Africa: Access and Challenges to Achieving Universal Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meda, L.; Sookrajh, R.; Maharaj, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper questions whether the second Millennium Development Goal of achieving universal primary education targets by 2015 for all children to complete a full course of primary schooling, can be realised. A key contention of this paper is that this forecast is far-fetched when we take into cognizance refugee children's accessibility to…

  16. Mathematical Beliefs, Self-Regulation, and Achievement by University Students in Remedial Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Jason S.; Thompson, Tony; Iran-Nejad, Asghar

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the relationships among mathematical beliefs, sources of self-regulation, and achievement for university students enrolled in remedial mathematics were studied. Ninety-four students completed 2 surveys to measure mathematical beliefs and active, dynamic, and multiple-source self-regulation. Students who reported a more sophisticated…

  17. Paradigms and poverty in global energy policy: research needs for achieving universal energy access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Bazilian, Morgan; Toman, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This research letter discusses elements of a long-term interdisciplinary research effort needed to help ensure the maximum social, economic, and environmental benefits of achieving secure universal access to modern energy services. Exclusion of these services affects the lives and livelihoods of billions of people. The research community has an important, but not yet well-defined, role to play.

  18. Psychological Type and Undergraduate Student Achievement in Pharmacy Course in Military Medical University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Ru; Shan, Shou-qin; Tian, Jian-quan

    2007-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was given to 264 students in an undergraduate Pharmacy course at a military medical university. Selected MBTI personality types were compared for achievement in the course using a t-test to compare total points earned. High grades were earned by students stronger in the traits of introversion (I) and judgment…

  19. Emotional Intelligence and Gender as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Some University Students in Barbados

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayombo, Grace A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated emotional intelligence (attending to emotion, positive expressivity and negative expressivity) and gender as predictors of academic achievement among 163 undergraduate psychology students in The University of the West Indies (UWI), Cave Hill Campus, Barbados. Results revealed significant positive and negative correlations…

  20. Explaining Mathematics Achievement of Mature Internal and External Students at the University of Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaeley, Gurcham S.

    1993-01-01

    Develops a causal model that explains over 40% of the variance in matriculation mathematics achievement of mature internal and external students at the University of Papua New Guinea. Background variables seem more important in the learning of mathematics compared to mediating variables for external students than for internal students. (MDH)

  1. The Effect of Web-Based Homework on University Students' Physics Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of web-based homework on university students' physics achievement was compared. One of the two identical sections of introductory physics course students received pen-and-paper homework done in groups while the other received web-based online homework performed individually. And then both groups' homework performance and…

  2. The Effects of Using an Interactive Whiteboard on the Academic Achievement of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbas, Oktay; Pektas, Huseyin Mirac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the use of an interactive whiteboard on the academic achievement of university students on the topic of electricity in a science and technology laboratory class. The study was designed as a pretest/posttest control group experimental study. Mean, standard deviation and t- tests were used for…

  3. Confronting the Universal Disbelief that Poor Children Can Achieve at High Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In her first year as superintendent of the Atlanta Public Schools, Beverly Hall encountered what she describes as the nearly universal disbelief that poor children of color can achieve high levels of learning. This chapter recounts how she confronted this and other obstacles and challenges as the new leader of the Atlanta Public Schools. Hall is…

  4. Students' Facebook Usage and Academic Achievement: A Case Study of Private University in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the time spent on Facebook and the purpose for which Facebook was used had any impact on the academic achievement of the students. This exploratory research used a questionnaire to collect data from 251 undergraduate students at a private university in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were analyzed using…

  5. Multiple Intelligences Patterns of Students at King Saud University and Its Relationship with Mathematics' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandeel, Refat A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the multiple intelligences patterns of students at King Saud University and its relationship with academic achievement for the courses of Mathematics. The study sample consisted of 917 students were selected a stratified random manner, the descriptive analysis method and Pearson correlation were used, the…

  6. Achievement Goal Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Gender Invariance in a Sample of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing; Bai, Yu; He, Yini; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Ling, Yu; Smith, Hannah; Huebner, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the gender invariance of the Chinese version of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-C) utilizing a sample of 1,115 Chinese university students. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the AGQ-C across genders. Analyses also revealed that the latent…

  7. The Effect of Secondary School Study Skills Preparation on First-Year University Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Suhre, Cor J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Although many studies have revealed the importance of study skills for students' first-year performance and college retention, the extent of the impact of study skills preparation on students' academic achievement is less clear. This paper explores the impact of pre-university study skills preparation on students' first-year study experiences,…

  8. Student Perceptions and Achievement in a University Blended Learning Strategic Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owston, Ron; York, Dennis; Murtha, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Examined in this study is the relationship between student perceptions in blended learning courses and their in-course achievement. The research was conducted at a large urban university that embarked on a major initiative to scale-up blended learning across its campus. Student perceptions (N = 577) were assessed in four areas deemed important to…

  9. Marked for Success: Secondary School Performance and University Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Keith; Broght, Erik; Sampson, Kaylene

    2011-01-01

    Building on Shulruf, Hattie and Tumen (2008), this work examines the capacity of various National Certificate in Educational Achievement (NCEA)-derived models to predict first-year performance in Biological Sciences at a New Zealand university. We compared three models: (1) the "best-80" indicator as used by several New Zealand…

  10. Degrees of Resilience: Profiling Psychological Resilience and Prospective Academic Achievement in University Inductees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Dominey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    University inductees may be increasingly vulnerable to stressors during transition into higher education (HE), requiring psychological resilience to achieve academic success. This study aimed to profile inductees' resilience and to investigate links to prospective end of year academic outcomes. Scores for resilience were based on a validated…

  11. Perceived Opportunity, Ethnic Identity, and Achievement Motivation among Latinos at a Selective Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Using in-depth interview data, this study explored perceptions of opportunity, ethnic identity beliefs, and motivation orientations among Latino students at a selective university. One profile is characterized by individualistic achievement motivations, feelings of exemption from social barriers, and a sense of alienation from other Latinos.…

  12. Improving Low Achievers' Academic Performance at University by Changing the Social Value of Mastery Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…

  13. The Influence of Pre-University Students' Mathematics Test Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…

  14. Toward Achieving Health Equity: Emerging Evidence and Program Practice.

    PubMed

    Dicent Taillepierre, Julio C; Liburd, Leandris; OʼConnor, Ann; Valentine, Jo; Bouye, Karen; McCree, Donna Hubbard; Chapel, Thomas; Hahn, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Health equity, in the context of public health in the United States, can be characterized as action to ensure all population groups living within a targeted jurisdiction have access to the resources that promote and protect health. There appear to be several elements in program design that enhance health equity. These design elements include consideration of sociodemographic characteristics, understanding the evidence base for reducing health disparities, leveraging multisectoral collaboration, using clustered interventions, engaging communities, and conducting rigorous planning and evaluation. This article describes selected examples of public health programs the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has supported related to these design elements. In addition, it describes an initiative to ensure that CDC extramural grant programs incorporate program strategies to advance health equity, and examples of national reports published by the CDC related to health disparities, health equity, and social determinants of health. PMID:26599028

  15. From universal health insurance to universal healthcare? The shifting health policy landscape in Ireland since the economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara Ann; Normand, Charles; Barry, Sarah; Thomas, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Ireland experienced one of the most severe economic crises of any OECD country. In 2011, a new government came to power amidst unprecedented health budget cuts. Despite a retrenchment in the ability of health resources to meet growing need, the government promised a universal, single-tiered health system, with access based solely on medical need. Key to this was introducing universal free GP care by 2015 and Universal Health Insurance from 2016 onwards. Delays in delivering universal access and a new health minister in 2014 resulted in a shift in language from 'universal health insurance' to 'universal healthcare'. During 2014 and 2015, there was an absence of clarity on what government meant by universal healthcare and divergence in policy measures from their initial intent of universalism. Despite the rhetoric of universal healthcare, years of austerity resulted in poorer access to essential healthcare and little extension of population coverage. The Irish health system is at a critical juncture in 2015, veering between a potential path to universal healthcare and a system, overwhelmed by years of austerity, which maintains the status quo. This papers assesses the gap between policy intent and practice and the difficulties in implementing major health system reform especially while emerging from an economic crisis.

  16. From universal health insurance to universal healthcare? The shifting health policy landscape in Ireland since the economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara Ann; Normand, Charles; Barry, Sarah; Thomas, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Ireland experienced one of the most severe economic crises of any OECD country. In 2011, a new government came to power amidst unprecedented health budget cuts. Despite a retrenchment in the ability of health resources to meet growing need, the government promised a universal, single-tiered health system, with access based solely on medical need. Key to this was introducing universal free GP care by 2015 and Universal Health Insurance from 2016 onwards. Delays in delivering universal access and a new health minister in 2014 resulted in a shift in language from 'universal health insurance' to 'universal healthcare'. During 2014 and 2015, there was an absence of clarity on what government meant by universal healthcare and divergence in policy measures from their initial intent of universalism. Despite the rhetoric of universal healthcare, years of austerity resulted in poorer access to essential healthcare and little extension of population coverage. The Irish health system is at a critical juncture in 2015, veering between a potential path to universal healthcare and a system, overwhelmed by years of austerity, which maintains the status quo. This papers assesses the gap between policy intent and practice and the difficulties in implementing major health system reform especially while emerging from an economic crisis. PMID:26777302

  17. Health in All (Foreign) Policy: challenges in achieving coherence.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is generally perceived as an intersectoral approach to national or sub-national public policy development, such that health outcomes are given full consideration by non-health sectors. Globalization, however, has created numerous 'inherently global health issues' with cross-border causes and consequences, requiring new forms of global governance for health. Although such governance often includes both state and non-state (private, civil society) actors in agenda setting and influence, different actors have differing degrees of power and authority and, ultimately, it is states that ratify intergovernmental covenants or normative declarations that directly or indirectly affect health. This requires public health and health promotion practitioners working within countries to give increased attention to the foreign policies of their national governments. These foreign policies include those governing national security, foreign aid, trade and investment as well as the traditional forms of diplomacy. A new term has been coined to describe how health is coming to be positioned in governments' foreign policies: global health diplomacy. To become adept at this nuanced diplomatic practice requires familiarity with the different policy frames by which health might be inserted into the foreign policy deliberations, and thence intergovernmental/global governance negotiations. This article discusses six such frames (security, trade, development, global public goods, human rights, ethical/moral reasoning) that have been analytically useful in assessing the potential for greater and more health-promoting foreign policy coherence: a 'Health in All (Foreign) Policies' approach. PMID:25217356

  18. Health in All (Foreign) Policy: challenges in achieving coherence.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is generally perceived as an intersectoral approach to national or sub-national public policy development, such that health outcomes are given full consideration by non-health sectors. Globalization, however, has created numerous 'inherently global health issues' with cross-border causes and consequences, requiring new forms of global governance for health. Although such governance often includes both state and non-state (private, civil society) actors in agenda setting and influence, different actors have differing degrees of power and authority and, ultimately, it is states that ratify intergovernmental covenants or normative declarations that directly or indirectly affect health. This requires public health and health promotion practitioners working within countries to give increased attention to the foreign policies of their national governments. These foreign policies include those governing national security, foreign aid, trade and investment as well as the traditional forms of diplomacy. A new term has been coined to describe how health is coming to be positioned in governments' foreign policies: global health diplomacy. To become adept at this nuanced diplomatic practice requires familiarity with the different policy frames by which health might be inserted into the foreign policy deliberations, and thence intergovernmental/global governance negotiations. This article discusses six such frames (security, trade, development, global public goods, human rights, ethical/moral reasoning) that have been analytically useful in assessing the potential for greater and more health-promoting foreign policy coherence: a 'Health in All (Foreign) Policies' approach.

  19. What have health care reforms achieved in Turkey? An appraisal of the "Health Transformation Programme".

    PubMed

    Ökem, Zeynep Güldem; Çakar, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Poor health status indicators, low quality care, inequity in the access to health services and inefficiency due to fragmented health financing and provision have long been problems in Turkey's health system. To address these problems a radical reform process known as the Health Transformation Programme (HTP) was initiated in 2003. The health sector reforms in Turkey are considered to have been among the most successful of middle-income countries undergoing reform. Numerous articles have been published that review these reforms in terms of, variously, financial sustainability, efficiency, equity and quality. Evidence suggests that Turkey has indeed made significant progress, yet these achievements are uneven among its regions, and their long-term financial sustainability is unresolved due to structural problems in employment. As yet, there is no comprehensive evidence-based analysis of how far the stated reform objectives have been achieved. This article reviews the empirical evidence regarding the outcomes of the HTP during 10 years of its implementation. Strengthening the strategic purchasing function of the Social Security Institution (SSI) should be a priority. Overall performance can be improved by linking resource allocation to provider performance. More emphasis on prevention rather than treatment, with an effective referral chain, can also bring better outcomes, greater efficiency gains and contribute to sustainability. PMID:26183890

  20. Accelerating health equity: the key role of universal health coverage in the Sustainable Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Mills, Anne; Palu, Toomas

    2015-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to be committed to by Heads of State at the upcoming 2015 United Nations General Assembly, have set much higher and more ambitious health-related goals and targets than did the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The main challenge among MDG off-track countries is the failure to provide and sustain financial access to quality services by communities, especially the poor. Universal health coverage (UHC), one of the SDG health targets indispensable to achieving an improved level and distribution of health, requires a significant increase in government investment in strengthening primary healthcare - the close-to-client service which can result in equitable access. Given the trend of increased fiscal capacity in most developing countries, aiming at long-term progress toward UHC is feasible, if there is political commitment and if focused, effective policies are in place. Trends in high income countries, including an aging population which increases demand for health workers, continue to trigger international migration of health personnel from low and middle income countries. The inspirational SDGs must be matched with redoubled government efforts to strengthen health delivery systems, produce and retain more and relevant health workers, and progressively realize UHC. PMID:25925656

  1. Accelerating health equity: the key role of universal health coverage in the Sustainable Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Mills, Anne; Palu, Toomas

    2015-04-29

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to be committed to by Heads of State at the upcoming 2015 United Nations General Assembly, have set much higher and more ambitious health-related goals and targets than did the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The main challenge among MDG off-track countries is the failure to provide and sustain financial access to quality services by communities, especially the poor. Universal health coverage (UHC), one of the SDG health targets indispensable to achieving an improved level and distribution of health, requires a significant increase in government investment in strengthening primary healthcare - the close-to-client service which can result in equitable access. Given the trend of increased fiscal capacity in most developing countries, aiming at long-term progress toward UHC is feasible, if there is political commitment and if focused, effective policies are in place. Trends in high income countries, including an aging population which increases demand for health workers, continue to trigger international migration of health personnel from low and middle income countries. The inspirational SDGs must be matched with redoubled government efforts to strengthen health delivery systems, produce and retain more and relevant health workers, and progressively realize UHC.

  2. A snapshot of global health education at North American universities.

    PubMed

    Lencucha, Raphael; Mohindra, Katia

    2014-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in North America. It is widely agreed upon that global health is an important aspect of an education in the health sciences and increasingly in other disciplines such as law, economics and political science. There is currently a paucity of studies examining the content of global health courses at the post-secondary level. The purpose of our research is to identify the content areas being covered in global health curricula in North American universities, as a first step in mapping global health curricula across North America. We collected 67 course syllabi from 31 universities and analyzed the topics covered in the course. This snapshot of global health education will aid students searching for global health content, as well as educators and university administrators who are developing or expanding global health programs in Canada and the United States.

  3. Universal Health Coverage for Schizophrenia: A Global Mental Health Priority.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram

    2016-07-01

    The growing momentum towards a global consensus on universal health coverage, alongside an acknowledgment of the urgency and importance of a comprehensive mental health action plan, offers a unique opportunity for a substantial scale-up of evidence-based interventions and packages of care for a range of mental disorders in all countries. There is a robust evidence base testifying to the effectiveness of drug and psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia and to the feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of the delivery of these interventions through a collaborative care model in low resource settings. While there are a number of barriers to scaling up this evidence, for eg, the finances needed to train and deploy community based workers and the lack of agency for people with schizophrenia, the experiences of some upper middle income countries show that sustained political commitment, allocation of transitional financial resources to develop community services, a commitment to an integrated approach with a strong role for community based institutions and providers, and a progressive realization of coverage are the key ingredients for scale up of services for schizophrenia.

  4. Universal Health Coverage for Schizophrenia: A Global Mental Health Priority

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    The growing momentum towards a global consensus on universal health coverage, alongside an acknowledgment of the urgency and importance of a comprehensive mental health action plan, offers a unique opportunity for a substantial scale-up of evidence-based interventions and packages of care for a range of mental disorders in all countries. There is a robust evidence base testifying to the effectiveness of drug and psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia and to the feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of the delivery of these interventions through a collaborative care model in low resource settings. While there are a number of barriers to scaling up this evidence, for eg, the finances needed to train and deploy community based workers and the lack of agency for people with schizophrenia, the experiences of some upper middle income countries show that sustained political commitment, allocation of transitional financial resources to develop community services, a commitment to an integrated approach with a strong role for community based institutions and providers, and a progressive realization of coverage are the key ingredients for scale up of services for schizophrenia. PMID:26245942

  5. Universal Health Coverage and the Right to Health: From Legal Principle to Post-2015 Indicators.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Devi; McKee, Martin; Ooms, Gorik; Beiersmann, Claudia; Friedman, Eric; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is widely considered one of the key components for the post-2015 health goal. The idea of UHC is rooted in the right to health, set out in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Based on the Covenant and the General Comment of the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which is responsible for interpreting and monitoring the Covenant, we identify 6 key legal principles that should underpin UHC based on the right to health: minimum core obligation, progressive realization, cost-effectiveness, shared responsibility, participatory decision making, and prioritizing vulnerable or marginalized groups. Yet, although these principles are widely accepted, they are criticized for not being specific enough to operationalize as post-2015 indicators for reaching the target of UHC. In this article, we propose measurable and achievable indicators for UHC based on the right to health that can be used to inform the ongoing negotiations on Sustainable Development Goals. However, we identify 3 major challenges that face any exercise in setting indicators post-2015: data availability as an essential criterion, the universality of targets, and the adaptation of global goals to local populations.

  6. Universal Health Coverage and the Right to Health: From Legal Principle to Post-2015 Indicators.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Devi; McKee, Martin; Ooms, Gorik; Beiersmann, Claudia; Friedman, Eric; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is widely considered one of the key components for the post-2015 health goal. The idea of UHC is rooted in the right to health, set out in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Based on the Covenant and the General Comment of the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which is responsible for interpreting and monitoring the Covenant, we identify 6 key legal principles that should underpin UHC based on the right to health: minimum core obligation, progressive realization, cost-effectiveness, shared responsibility, participatory decision making, and prioritizing vulnerable or marginalized groups. Yet, although these principles are widely accepted, they are criticized for not being specific enough to operationalize as post-2015 indicators for reaching the target of UHC. In this article, we propose measurable and achievable indicators for UHC based on the right to health that can be used to inform the ongoing negotiations on Sustainable Development Goals. However, we identify 3 major challenges that face any exercise in setting indicators post-2015: data availability as an essential criterion, the universality of targets, and the adaptation of global goals to local populations. PMID:26077857

  7. Health Attitudes and Suicidal Ideation among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bonar, Erin; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether positive health attitudes are associated with suicidal ideation among university students after accounting for other health risk factors linked to suicidal ideation. Participants: Participants were 690 undergraduates from a large midwestern university during fall semester 2011. Methods:…

  8. The challenge of nurse innovation in the Australian context of universal health care.

    PubMed

    Cashin, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    As nursing pushes further into the realm of primary health care in Australia, an understanding of the challenges to achieving reasonable federal funding of nursing services needs to be understood. This understanding is underpinned by a comprehensive understanding of the concept of universal health care, how the concept relates to the Australian health care context, and the resultant challenges to innovation in health care service delivery in Australia. Universal health care is a global mission and was the most recent theme for the International Council of Nurses Congress in Australia. Universal health care as a concept represents a fundamental shift from the development and funding of discrete interventions or programmes, to that of developing systems of health care. The three critical elements required are a clear definition of what is considered health care and funded for who, how the system is financed, and evaluation. Australia has a system of universal health care and all three elements are addressed. Organised medicine, a key objector to the introduction of the current approach to universal health care in Australia, soon adapted to it, and now fiercely resists change. Medico centricity poses challenges to sustainability as innovation is inhibited. This challenge is illustrated through consideration of the implementation of the financial policy that gave Nurse Practitioners access as providers and prescribers within Medicare funded services.

  9. The challenge of nurse innovation in the Australian context of universal health care.

    PubMed

    Cashin, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    As nursing pushes further into the realm of primary health care in Australia, an understanding of the challenges to achieving reasonable federal funding of nursing services needs to be understood. This understanding is underpinned by a comprehensive understanding of the concept of universal health care, how the concept relates to the Australian health care context, and the resultant challenges to innovation in health care service delivery in Australia. Universal health care is a global mission and was the most recent theme for the International Council of Nurses Congress in Australia. Universal health care as a concept represents a fundamental shift from the development and funding of discrete interventions or programmes, to that of developing systems of health care. The three critical elements required are a clear definition of what is considered health care and funded for who, how the system is financed, and evaluation. Australia has a system of universal health care and all three elements are addressed. Organised medicine, a key objector to the introduction of the current approach to universal health care in Australia, soon adapted to it, and now fiercely resists change. Medico centricity poses challenges to sustainability as innovation is inhibited. This challenge is illustrated through consideration of the implementation of the financial policy that gave Nurse Practitioners access as providers and prescribers within Medicare funded services. PMID:26552203

  10. Universal health coverage in Latin American countries: how to improve solidarity-based schemes.

    PubMed

    Titelman, Daniel; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Acosta, Olga Lucía

    2015-04-01

    In this Health Policy we examine the association between the financing structure of health systems and universal health coverage. Latin American health systems encompass a wide range of financial sources, which translate into different solidarity-based schemes that combine contributory (payroll taxes) and non-contributory (general taxes) sources of financing. To move towards universal health coverage, solidarity-based schemes must heavily rely on countries' capacity to increase public expenditure in health. Improvement of solidarity-based schemes will need the expansion of mandatory universal insurance systems and strengthening of the public sector including increased fiscal expenditure. These actions demand a new model to integrate different sources of health-sector financing, including general tax revenue, social security contributions, and private expenditure. The extent of integration achieved among these sources will be the main determinant of solidarity and universal health coverage. The basic challenges for improvement of universal health coverage are not only to spend more on health, but also to reduce the proportion of out-of-pocket spending, which will need increased fiscal resources. PMID:25458734

  11. Is universal health coverage the practical expression of the right to health care?

    PubMed

    Ooms, Gorik; Latif, Laila A; Waris, Attiya; Brolan, Claire E; Hammonds, Rachel; Friedman, Eric A; Mulumba, Moses; Forman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The present Millennium Development Goals are set to expire in 2015 and their next iteration is now being discussed within the international community. With regards to health, the World Health Organization proposes universal health coverage as a 'single overarching health goal' for the next iteration of the Millennium Development Goals.The present Millennium Development Goals have been criticised for being 'duplicative' or even 'competing alternatives' to international human rights law. The question then arises, if universal health coverage would indeed become the single overarching health goal, replacing the present health-related Millennium Development Goals, would that be more consistent with the right to health? The World Health Organization seems to have anticipated the question, as it labels universal health coverage as "by definition, a practical expression of the concern for health equity and the right to health".Rather than waiting for the negotiations to unfold, we thought it would be useful to verify this contention, using a comparative normative analysis. We found that--to be a practical expression of the right to health--at least one element is missing in present authoritative definitions of universal health coverage: a straightforward confirmation that international assistance is essential, not optional.But universal health coverage is a 'work in progress'. A recent proposal by the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposed universal health coverage with a set of targets, including a target for international assistance, which would turn universal health coverage into a practical expression of the right to health care. PMID:24559232

  12. Achieving the American dream: facilitators and barriers to health and mental health for Latino immigrants.

    PubMed

    Shobe, Marcia A; Coffman, Maren J; Dmochowski, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    Latinos are the largest minority group in the U.S. For Latino immigrants, a shift in migration from larger to smaller cities has recently occurred; the Latino immigrant population in Charlotte, North Carolina, has increased by 634% since 1990. The extent to which immigrants can achieve health and well-being is often related to employment, healthcare access, and social support. This study explored the human, social, and financial capital circumstances of Latino immigrants new to Charlotte and examined the effects of different aspects of capital on health outcomes. Findings indicate that capital is significantly associated with functional status and depression. Implications for social work are discussed. PMID:19199139

  13. PAHO'S Strategy for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage: implications for health services and hospitals in LAC.

    PubMed

    Holder, Reynaldo; Fabrega, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Moving towards Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage (UAH/UHC) is an imperative task on the health agenda for the Americas. The Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recently approved resolution CD53.R14, titled Strategy for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage. From the perspective of the Region of the Americas, UAH/UHC "imply that all people and communities have access, without any kind of discrimination, to comprehensive, appropriate and timely, quality health services determined at the national level according to needs, as well as access to safe, affordable, effective, quality medicines, while ensuring that the use of these services does not expose users to financial hardship, especially groups in conditions of vulnerability". PAHO's strategic approach to UAH/UHC sets out four specific lines of action toward effective universal health systems. The first strategic line proposes: a) implementation of integrated health services delivery networks (IHDSNs) based on primary health care as the key strategy for reorganizing, redefining and improving healthcare services in general and the role of hospitals in particular; and b) increasing the response capacity of the first level of care. An important debate initiated in 2011 among hospital and healthcare managers in the region tried to redefine the role of hospitals in the context of IHSDNs and the emerging UAH/UHC movement. The debates resulted in agreements around three main propositions: 1) IHSDNs cannot be envisioned without hospitals; 2) The status-quo and current hospital organizational culture makes IHSDNs inviable; and 3) Without IHSDNs, hospitals will not be sustainable. This process, that predates the approval of PAHO's UAH/UHC resolution, now becomes more relevant with the recognition that UAH/UHC cannot be attained without a profound change in healthcare service and particularly in hospitals. In this context, a set of challenges both for

  14. Innovation for universal health coverage in Bangladesh: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alayne M; Ahmed, Tanvir; El Arifeen, Shams; Evans, Timothy G; Huda, Tanvir; Reichenbach, Laura

    2013-12-21

    A post-Millennium Development Goals agenda for health in Bangladesh should be defined to encourage a second generation of health-system innovations under the clarion call of universal health coverage. This agenda should draw on the experience of the first generation of innovations that underlie the country's impressive health achievements and creatively address future health challenges. Central to the reform process will be the development of a multipronged strategic approach that: responds to existing demands in a way that assures affordable, equitable, high-quality health care from a pluralistic health system; anticipates health-care needs in a period of rapid health and social transition; and addresses underlying structural issues that otherwise might hamper progress. A pragmatic reform agenda for achieving universal health coverage in Bangladesh should include development of a long-term national human resources policy and action plan, establishment of a national insurance system, building of an interoperable electronic health information system, investment to strengthen the capacity of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and creation of a supraministerial council on health. Greater political, financial, and technical investment to implement this reform agenda offers the prospect of a stronger, more resilient, sustainable, and equitable health system. PMID:24268605

  15. Moving towards universal health coverage: lessons from 11 country studies.

    PubMed

    Reich, Michael R; Harris, Joseph; Ikegami, Naoki; Maeda, Akiko; Cashin, Cheryl; Araujo, Edson C; Takemi, Keizo; Evans, Timothy G

    2016-02-20

    In recent years, many countries have adopted universal health coverage (UHC) as a national aspiration. In response to increasing demand for a systematic assessment of global experiences with UHC, the Government of Japan and the World Bank collaborated on a 2-year multicountry research programme to analyse the processes of moving towards UHC. The programme included 11 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam), representing diverse geographical, economic, and historical contexts. The study identified common challenges and opportunities and useful insights for how to move towards UHC. The study showed that UHC is a complex process, fraught with challenges, many possible pathways, and various pitfalls--but is also feasible and achievable. Movement towards UHC is a long-term policy engagement that needs both technical knowledge and political know-how. Technical solutions need to be accompanied by pragmatic and innovative strategies that address the national political economy context.

  16. Education, leadership and partnerships: nursing potential for Universal Health Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Marchi-Alves, Leila Maria; de Souza-Junior, Valtuir Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to discuss possibilities of nursing contribution for universal health coverage. Method: a qualitative study, performed by means of document analysis of the World Health Organization publications highlighting Nursing and Midwifery within universal health coverage. Results: documents published by nursing and midwifery leaders point to the need for coordinated and integrated actions in education, leadership and partnership development. Final Considerations: this article represents a call for nurses, in order to foster reflection and understanding of the relevance of their work on the consolidation of the principles of universal health coverage. PMID:26959333

  17. Moving toward Universal Coverage of Health Insurance in Vietnam: Barriers, Facilitating Factors, and Lessons from Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance. Graphical Abstract PMID:25045223

  18. Progress towards universal health coverage in BRICS: translating economic growth into better health.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna D; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Araujo, Edson Correia; McIntyre, Diane

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--represent some of the world's fastest growing large economies and nearly 40% of the world's population. Over the last two decades, BRICS have undertaken health-system reforms to make progress towards universal health coverage. This paper discusses three key aspects of these reforms: the role of government in financing health; the underlying motivation behind the reforms; and the value of the lessons learnt for non-BRICS countries. Although national governments have played a prominent role in the reforms, private financing constitutes a major share of health spending in BRICS. There is a reliance on direct expenditures in China and India and a substantial presence of private insurance in Brazil and South Africa. The Brazilian health reforms resulted from a political movement that made health a constitutional right, whereas those in China, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa were an attempt to improve the performance of the public system and reduce inequities in access. The move towards universal health coverage has been slow. In China and India, the reforms have not adequately addressed the issue of out-of-pocket payments. Negotiations between national and subnational entities have often been challenging but Brazil has been able to achieve good coordination between federal and state entities via a constitutional delineation of responsibility. In the Russian Federation, poor coordination has led to the fragmented pooling and inefficient use of resources. In mixed health systems it is essential to harness both public and private sector resources.

  19. Progress towards universal health coverage in BRICS: translating economic growth into better health.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna D; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Araujo, Edson Correia; McIntyre, Diane

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--represent some of the world's fastest growing large economies and nearly 40% of the world's population. Over the last two decades, BRICS have undertaken health-system reforms to make progress towards universal health coverage. This paper discusses three key aspects of these reforms: the role of government in financing health; the underlying motivation behind the reforms; and the value of the lessons learnt for non-BRICS countries. Although national governments have played a prominent role in the reforms, private financing constitutes a major share of health spending in BRICS. There is a reliance on direct expenditures in China and India and a substantial presence of private insurance in Brazil and South Africa. The Brazilian health reforms resulted from a political movement that made health a constitutional right, whereas those in China, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa were an attempt to improve the performance of the public system and reduce inequities in access. The move towards universal health coverage has been slow. In China and India, the reforms have not adequately addressed the issue of out-of-pocket payments. Negotiations between national and subnational entities have often been challenging but Brazil has been able to achieve good coordination between federal and state entities via a constitutional delineation of responsibility. In the Russian Federation, poor coordination has led to the fragmented pooling and inefficient use of resources. In mixed health systems it is essential to harness both public and private sector resources. PMID:24940017

  20. Advantages of Coordinated School Health Portfolios: Documenting and Showcasing Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, Meagan; Lohrmann, David; Barnes, Priscilla; O'Neill, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thirteen school district teams from Michigan and Indiana participated in the Michiana Coordinated School Health Leadership Institute with the intent of Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) implementation. The purpose of this study was to determine if portfolios served as an effective approach for documenting teams'…

  1. Achieving Cultural Competence: The Challenges for Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquis, Raffy R.; Perez, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    The racial and ethnic diversification of the U.S. population presents a clear call for health educators to surmount the barriers they have encountered in reaching U.S. racial and ethnic groups with culturally appropriate health promotion and prevention messages. As the population becomes more culturally and ethnically diverse, the preparation of…

  2. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  3. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention. PMID:27192788

  4. Academic Momentum at University/College: Exploring the Roles of Prior Learning, Life Experience, and Ongoing Performance in Academic Achievement across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Wilson, Rachel; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Ginns, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the context of "academic momentum," a longitudinal study of university students (N = 904) showed high school achievement and ongoing university achievement predicted subsequent achievement through university. However, the impact of high school achievement diminished, while additive effects of ongoing university achievement continued.…

  5. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  6. Patterns of Self-Regulation: Patterns of Self-Regulatory Strategy Use among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruban, Lilia; Reis, Sally M.

    2006-01-01

    The present mixed-methods study attempts to provide insights into the nature, idiosyncrasies, and inter- and intra-individual patterns of academic self-regulatory strategy use among two different populations of university students. Low-achieving (n = 49) and high-achieving students (n = 131) described their self-regulatory strategy use in their…

  7. Integrating Health Information Technology to Achieve Seamless Care Transitions.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Leah; Kirtane, Janhavi; Lynn, Joanne; McKethan, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Improving care transitions, or "handoffs" as patients migrate from one care setting to another, is a priority across stakeholder groups and health-care settings and additionally is included in national health-care goals set forth in the National Quality Strategy. Although many demonstrations of improved care transitions have succeeded, particularly for hospital discharges, ensuring consistent, high-quality, and safe transitions of care remains challenging. This paper highlights the potential for health information technology to become an increasing part of effective transitional care interventions, with the potential to reduce the resource burden currently associated with effective care transitions, the ability to spread improved practices to larger numbers of patients and providers efficiently and at scale, and, as health technology interoperability increases, the potential to facilitate critical information flow and feedback loops to clinicians, patients, and caregivers across disparate information systems and care settings.

  8. Worksite health and wellness programs: Canadian achievements & prospects.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Canada has experienced a substantial reduction in mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a general consensus that more effective and widespread health promotion interventions may lead to further reductions in CVD risk factors and actual disease states. In this paper, we briefly outline the prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD in Canada, describe characteristics of the Canadian labor market and workforce, and depict what is known about health and wellness program delivery systems in Canadian workplaces. Our review indicates that there have been numerous and diverse relevant legislative and policy initiatives to create a context conducive to improve the healthfulness of Canadian workplaces. However, there is still a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of the delivery system and the actual impact of workplace health and wellness programs in reducing CVD risk in Canada. Thus, while a promising model, more research is needed in this area.

  9. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  10. Universal access to health care: a practical perspective.

    PubMed

    Battistella, R M; Kuder, J M

    1993-01-01

    Policy disconnected from economic reality is bad policy. Neither government financed health insurance nor an employer mandated health insurance approach are in the national interest. Higher national priorities compel a reallocation of resources from consumption to investment. This need not, however, cause an abandonment of efforts to deal with the problems of the uninsured and other health reforms. Successful health care reform is achievable provided it is responsive to higher priorities for economic growth. A strong economy and the production of wealth are indispensable to economic justice. Toward this end, a program of universal access is proposed whereby families and individuals are required to pay for their own health insurance up to a fixed percentage of disposable personal income before public payments kick in. Government's chief role is to establish a standard package of cost-effective benefits to be offered by all insurance carriers, the cost of which is approximately 40 percent less than conventional insurance coverage because of the elimination of reimbursement for clinically non-efficacious and cost-ineffective services. Public financing is relegated to a residual role in which subsidies are targeted on the needy. Much of the momentum for cost control is transferred to consumers and private insurers, both of whom acquire a vested interest in obtaining value for money. Uniform rules for underwriting, eligibility, and enrollment practices guard against socially harmful practices such as experience rating and exclusion of preexisting conditions. The household responsibility and equity plan described herein could free up as much as $90 billion or more for public investment in economic growth and national debt reduction while assuring access to health care regardless of ability to pay. Economic revitalization will be assisted by changes in household savings. With health care no longer a free good and government social programs concentrated on the truly needy

  11. Nursing challenges for universal health coverage: a systematic review1

    PubMed Central

    Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Vieira, Margarida Maria da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objectives to identify nursing challenges for universal health coverage, based on the findings of a systematic review focused on the health workforce' understanding of the role of humanization practices in Primary Health Care. Method systematic review and meta-synthesis, from the following information sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Scielo, Web of Science, PsycInfo, SCOPUS, DEDALUS and Proquest, using the keyword Primary Health Care associated, separately, with the following keywords: humanization of assistance, holistic care/health, patient centred care, user embracement, personal autonomy, holism, attitude of health personnel. Results thirty studies between 1999-2011. Primary Health Care work processes are complex and present difficulties for conducting integrative care, especially for nursing, but humanizing practices have showed an important role towards the development of positive work environments, quality of care and people-centered care by promoting access and universal health coverage. Conclusions nursing challenges for universal health coverage are related to education and training, to better working conditions and clear definition of nursing role in primary health care. It is necessary to overcome difficulties such as fragmented concepts of health and care and invest in multidisciplinary teamwork, community empowerment, professional-patient bond, user embracement, soft technologies, to promote quality of life, holistic care and universal health coverage. PMID:27143536

  12. Organizational Health and Student Achievement in Tennessee Middle Level Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Christopher L.; Buehler, Alison E.; Stein, William L.; Dalton, John E.; Robinson, Teresa R.; Anfara, Vincent A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Although the successful middle level school was designed to address both the affective and cognitive development of young adolescents (NMSA 2003), academic achievement is the outcome of paramount importance in the current political context of accountability, high-stakes testing, and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. In their efforts to reform,…

  13. Implications of Student Health Problems on Achievement and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Salle, Tamika P.; Hagermoser Sanetti, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy students are better learners. Establishing positive school climates where students are healthy, engaged, and prepared to learn is a critical component in increasing student engagement and closing the achievement gap. As such, educators need to be aware of the impact of education-related outcomes on student outcomes and schools' ability to…

  14. Factors related to achievement in sophomore organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Harriet Arlene

    The purpose of this study was to identify the significant cognitive and non-cognitive variables that related to achievement in the first semester of organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas. Cognitive variables included second semester general chemistry grade, ACT composite score, ACT English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning subscores, and spatial ability. Non-cognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of the cognitive variables and non-cognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. The samples consisted of volunteers from the Fall 1999 and Fall 2000 sections of Organic Chemistry I at the University of Arkansas. All students in each section were asked to participate. Data for spatial ability and non-cognitive independent variables were collected using the Purdue Visualization of Rotations test and the modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales. Data for other independent variables, including ACT scores and second semester general chemistry grades, were obtained from the Office of Institutional Research. The dependent variable, organic chemistry achievement, was measured by each student's accumulated points in the course and consisted of scores on quizzes and exams in the lecture section only. These totals were obtained from the lecture instructor at the end of each semester. Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to measure the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables. Prior performance in chemistry as measured by second semester general

  15. The Role of Health Education on Breast Cancer Awareness among University of Calabar Female Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asuquo, I. M.; Olajide, T. E.

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to determine the role of health education on breast cancer awareness among University of Calabar female undergraduates. To achieve the purpose of the study, three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Related literature was reviewed, while a survey research design was adopted for the study. Appropriately develop and…

  16. The meanings of universal health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Clark, Mary A

    2015-02-01

    In Latin America, competing definitions of universal health care are found. Variants include traditional universalism, basic universalism, and minimal or residual universalism. These definitions are informed by European traditions, a renewed emphasis on equity among Latin American social policy experts, and World Bank strategy. This essay explores these definitions as well as areas of overlap and points of difference between and among them using examples from several Latin American countries. The most important difference concerns the preventive and curative services not covered by the benefits packages of minimal universal programs, a gap expected to grow increasingly costly for patients.

  17. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  18. Scale-up of HIV treatment through PEPFAR: a historic public health achievement.

    PubMed

    El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Holmes, Charles B; Mugyenyi, Peter; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Ellerbrock, Tedd; Ferris, Robert; Sanne, Ian; Asiimwe, Anita; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Nkambule, Rejoice N; Stabinski, Lara; Affrunti, Megan; Teasdale, Chloe; Zulu, Isaac; Whiteside, Alan

    2012-08-15

    Since its inception in 2003, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has been an important driving force behind the global scale-up of HIV care and treatment services, particularly in expansion of access to antiretroviral therapy. Despite initial concerns about cost and feasibility, PEPFAR overcame challenges by leveraging and coordinating with other funders, by working in partnership with the most affected countries, by supporting local ownership, by using a public health approach, by supporting task-shifting strategies, and by paying attention to health systems strengthening. As of September 2011, PEPFAR directly supported initiation of antiretroviral therapy for 3.9 million people and provided care and support for nearly 13 million people. Benefits in terms of prevention of morbidity and mortality have been reaped by those receiving the services, with evidence of societal benefits beyond the anticipated clinical benefits. However, much remains to be accomplished to achieve universal access, to enhance the quality of programs, to ensure retention of patients in care, and to continue to strengthen health systems. PMID:22797746

  19. Scale-up of HIV treatment through PEPFAR: a historic public health achievement.

    PubMed

    El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Holmes, Charles B; Mugyenyi, Peter; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Ellerbrock, Tedd; Ferris, Robert; Sanne, Ian; Asiimwe, Anita; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Nkambule, Rejoice N; Stabinski, Lara; Affrunti, Megan; Teasdale, Chloe; Zulu, Isaac; Whiteside, Alan

    2012-08-15

    Since its inception in 2003, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has been an important driving force behind the global scale-up of HIV care and treatment services, particularly in expansion of access to antiretroviral therapy. Despite initial concerns about cost and feasibility, PEPFAR overcame challenges by leveraging and coordinating with other funders, by working in partnership with the most affected countries, by supporting local ownership, by using a public health approach, by supporting task-shifting strategies, and by paying attention to health systems strengthening. As of September 2011, PEPFAR directly supported initiation of antiretroviral therapy for 3.9 million people and provided care and support for nearly 13 million people. Benefits in terms of prevention of morbidity and mortality have been reaped by those receiving the services, with evidence of societal benefits beyond the anticipated clinical benefits. However, much remains to be accomplished to achieve universal access, to enhance the quality of programs, to ensure retention of patients in care, and to continue to strengthen health systems.

  20. Health Promotion Project for University Students at a South African University: Results of a Pilot Survey

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, G. Anita; Mandeya, Andrew; Marange, C. Show; Batidzirai, Jesca M.; Tyler, Joanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, chronic diseases place a tremendous burden on health care systems all over the world. The increased prevalence of chronic diseases is mainly influenced by industrialization and decreased levels of physical activity. A cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative pilot survey, using a self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions, was conducted with 73 students to assess the need for and feasibility of a health promotion program for university students at a rural South African university. The results of this survey suggest that there is a need for a health promotion program aimed at young adults who attend university. PMID:25635164

  1. Measuring service quality at a university health clinic.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E A

    1995-01-01

    Describes research undertaken to assess the quality of service provided by a public university health clinic. The SERVQUAL instrument was administered to patients of the University of Houston Health Center in order to evaluate customer perceptions of service quality. The results of this study are currently being incorporated into the clinic's strategic planning process, specifically with respect to future resource allocation towards quality improvement projects. PMID:10142015

  2. Measuring service quality at a university health clinic.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E A

    1995-01-01

    Describes research undertaken to assess the quality of service provided by a public university health clinic. The SERVQUAL instrument was administered to patients of the University of Houston Health Center in order to evaluate customer perceptions of service quality. The results of this study are currently being incorporated into the clinic's strategic planning process, specifically with respect to future resource allocation towards quality improvement projects.

  3. Leadership Succession Management in a University Health Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Anne M.; Henly, Debra; Chaboyer, Wendy; Clapton, Jayne; Lizzio, Alf; Teml, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We report on a succession planning pilot project in an Australian university health faculty. The programme aimed to enhance organisational stability and develop leadership capacity in middle level academics. Six monthly sessions addressed university and general leadership topics, communication, decision-making, working with change, self-management…

  4. International Student Use of University Health and Counselling Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jean; Thomson, Garry; Rosenthal, Doreen

    2008-01-01

    A large sample of international students attending an Australian metropolitan university provided data concerning use of university health and counselling services--their perceived need for help, resultant help-seeking, satisfaction with help given, explanations for not seeking help when in need, and variables that predicted help-seeking. Using as…

  5. Towards universal salt iodisation in India: achievements, challenges and future actions.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Anas, Ansari M; Chakrabarty, Arijit; Sankar, Rajan; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Aguayo, Victor M

    2015-10-01

    India is one of the first countries to introduce salt iodisation, but the national programme has experienced major setbacks. The purpose of this paper is to review the national efforts towards universal salt iodisation (USI) in India and highlight key challenges in programme implementation. A brief historical overview of the salt iodisation programme is provided and the current status of the household usage of iodised salt and population iodine status is described. The present status of the USI programme together with the challenges being faced towards achieving USI are classified in five categories, which represent the five guiding principles crucial to sustained USI programme success: ensuring political commitment, forming partnerships and coalition, ensuring availability of adequately iodised salt, strengthening the monitoring system and maintaining continuous advocacy, education and communication. A future agenda towards the achievement of USI is also proposed.

  6. Universal health care in India: Panacea for whom?

    PubMed

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the current notion of universal health care (UHC) in key legal and policy documents and argues that the recommendations for UHC in these entail further abdication of the State's responsibility in health care with the emphasis shifting from public provisioning of services to merely ensuring universal access to services. Acts of commission (recommendations for public private partnership [PPPs], definition and provision of an essential health package to vulnerable populations to ensure universal access to care) and omission (silence maintained on tertiary care) will eventually strengthen the private and corporate sector at the cost of the public health care services and access to care for the marginalized. Thus, the current UHC strategy uses equity as a tool for promoting the private sector in medical care rather than health for all.

  7. Universal health care in India: Panacea for whom?

    PubMed

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the current notion of universal health care (UHC) in key legal and policy documents and argues that the recommendations for UHC in these entail further abdication of the State's responsibility in health care with the emphasis shifting from public provisioning of services to merely ensuring universal access to services. Acts of commission (recommendations for public private partnership [PPPs], definition and provision of an essential health package to vulnerable populations to ensure universal access to care) and omission (silence maintained on tertiary care) will eventually strengthen the private and corporate sector at the cost of the public health care services and access to care for the marginalized. Thus, the current UHC strategy uses equity as a tool for promoting the private sector in medical care rather than health for all. PMID:24351383

  8. [The health policy of the Paul Verlaine University-Metz].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Students represent a population group that is for the most part in good health. However, students also face specific stresses and constraints that are likely to make it difficult for them to adapt to student life, and these adjustments can lead to unhealthy behaviours. Within Universities, the implementation of a coherent health policy must aim to positively impact on the development of both the professional and daily lives of young adults. The University of Paul Verlaine in Metz (France) has taken this perspective on board, and under the leadership of its social health department, the whole University has adopted a comprehensive policy for student well-being under the five action areas of the Ottawa Charter. This approach to well-being as a public policy strategy, through the Healthy Life policy, is central to all decisions taken at the Metz University and throughout the Regional Centre for Scholars and University Students (CROUS) in Lorraine. A number of facilities dedicated to students' health and well-being have been created in this supporting environment, and the engagement of students in the Healthy Life policy (some students 'relay' the information, others are 'peer educators') show that they are involved in the community life of the University. The introduction of teaching modules by the University's health department has given access to training to increase students' awareness of the concept of a holistic approach to health. Finally students have had improved access to healthcare services thanks to an increase in the number of activities provided by the student health department focusing on common problems experienced by university students.

  9. How changes to Irish healthcare financing are affecting universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Adam D M

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organisation (WHO) published the World Health Report - Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage. The Director-General of the WHO, Dr Margaret Chan, commissioned the report "in response to a need, expressed by rich and poor countries alike, for practical guidance on ways to finance health care". Given the current context of global economic hardship and difficult budgetary decisions, the report offered timely recommendations for achieving universal health coverage (UHC). This article analyses the current methods of healthcare financing in Ireland and their implications for UHC. Three questions are asked of the Irish healthcare system: firstly, how is the health system financed; secondly, how can the health system protect people from the financial consequences of ill-health and paying for health services; and finally, how can the health system encourage the optimum use of available resources? By answering these three questions, this article argues that the Irish healthcare system is not achieving UHC, and that it is unclear whether recent changes to financing are moving Ireland closer or further away from the WHO's ambition for healthcare for all.

  10. The Effect of Interactive e-Book on Students' Achievement at Najran University in Computer in Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebied, Mohammed Mohammed Ahmed; Rahman, Shimaa Ahmed Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to examine the effect of interactive e-books on students' achievement at Najran University in computer in education course. Quasi-experimental study design is used in the study and to collect data the researchers built achievement test to measure the dependent variable represented in the achievement affected by experimental…

  11. The relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Bog Ja; Hong, Myoung-Sun; Lee, Yang Chool

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students. For this study, 228 university students were participated in this experiment (male 91, female 137). We tested health-related physical fitness and mental health with questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and liner regression. In the present results, there was significant difference according to gender in mental health and health-related physical fitness. The correlation between physical fitness and mental health was also observed. PMID:24409433

  12. Professional Equipment for a University Environmental Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglar, Albert F.; Morgan, Monroe T.

    1972-01-01

    A rather thorough description of the professional equipment utilized in the Environmental Health Program at East Tennessee State University. Describes equipment and apparatus employed in the General Environmental, Occupational Health and Safety, and the Air and Water Pollution Control Areas. Table of recommended basic professional equipment…

  13. Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Amal K.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. PMID:20623022

  14. Is universal health coverage the practical expression of the right to health care?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The present Millennium Development Goals are set to expire in 2015 and their next iteration is now being discussed within the international community. With regards to health, the World Health Organization proposes universal health coverage as a ‘single overarching health goal’ for the next iteration of the Millennium Development Goals. The present Millennium Development Goals have been criticised for being ‘duplicative’ or even ‘competing alternatives’ to international human rights law. The question then arises, if universal health coverage would indeed become the single overarching health goal, replacing the present health-related Millennium Development Goals, would that be more consistent with the right to health? The World Health Organization seems to have anticipated the question, as it labels universal health coverage as “by definition, a practical expression of the concern for health equity and the right to health”. Rather than waiting for the negotiations to unfold, we thought it would be useful to verify this contention, using a comparative normative analysis. We found that – to be a practical expression of the right to health – at least one element is missing in present authoritative definitions of universal health coverage: a straightforward confirmation that international assistance is essential, not optional. But universal health coverage is a ‘work in progress’. A recent proposal by the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposed universal health coverage with a set of targets, including a target for international assistance, which would turn universal health coverage into a practical expression of the right to health care. PMID:24559232

  15. Global health in the UK government and university sector.

    PubMed

    Coltart, Cordelia E M; Black, Mary E; Easterbrook, Philippa J

    2011-09-01

    In this article, the authors review recent global health activities in the United Kingdom by key organisations in several defined areas:- UK government (international aid and global health strategy); UK research funding agencies (overseas research units); non-governmental organisations; UK universities and hospitals and academic/clinical international partnerships;professional societies; UK undergraduate and postgraduate training opportunities in global health; and opportunities for international medical graduates.

  16. Human resource issues in university health services.

    PubMed

    Meilman, P W

    2001-07-01

    To provide first-rate services to students, college health services need the best possible staff. Managers and supervisors play a critical role in guiding the work of their employees so as to enhance performance. Reference checks for new employees and regular performance appraisal dialogues for ongoing employees are important tools in this process. The author discusses these issues and suggests formats for reference checks and performance appraisals.

  17. Viewing the Kenyan health system through an equity lens: implications for universal coverage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Equity and universal coverage currently dominate policy debates worldwide. Health financing approaches are central to universal coverage. The way funds are collected, pooled, and used to purchase or provide services should be carefully considered to ensure that population needs are addressed under a universal health system. The aim of this paper is to assess the extent to which the Kenyan health financing system meets the key requirements for universal coverage, including income and risk cross-subsidisation. Recommendations on how to address existing equity challenges and progress towards universal coverage are made. Methods An extensive review of published and gray literature was conducted to identify the sources of health care funds in Kenya. Documents were mainly sourced from the Ministry of Medical Services and the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation. Country level documents were the main sources of data. In cases where data were not available at the country level, they were sought from the World Health Organisation website. Each financing mechanism was analysed in respect to key functions namely, revenue generation, pooling and purchasing. Results The Kenyan health sector relies heavily on out-of-pocket payments. Government funds are mainly allocated through historical incremental approach. The sector is largely underfunded and health care contributions are regressive (i.e. the poor contribute a larger proportion of their income to health care than the rich). Health financing in Kenya is fragmented and there is very limited risk and income cross-subsidisation. The country has made little progress towards achieving international benchmarks including the Abuja target of allocating 15% of government's budget to the health sector. Conclusions The Kenyan health system is highly inequitable and policies aimed at promoting equity and addressing the needs of the poor and vulnerable have not been successful. Some progress has been made towards

  18. Health-system reform and universal health coverage in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Almeida, Gisele; Cotlear, Daniel; Dmytraczenko, T; Frenz, Patricia; Garcia, Patrícia; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M; Muntaner, Carles; de Paula, Juliana Braga; Rígoli, Felix; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Wagstaff, Adam

    2015-03-28

    Starting in the late 1980s, many Latin American countries began social sector reforms to alleviate poverty, reduce socioeconomic inequalities, improve health outcomes, and provide financial risk protection. In particular, starting in the 1990s, reforms aimed at strengthening health systems to reduce inequalities in health access and outcomes focused on expansion of universal health coverage, especially for poor citizens. In Latin America, health-system reforms have produced a distinct approach to universal health coverage, underpinned by the principles of equity, solidarity, and collective action to overcome social inequalities. In most of the countries studied, government financing enabled the introduction of supply-side interventions to expand insurance coverage for uninsured citizens--with defined and enlarged benefits packages--and to scale up delivery of health services. Countries such as Brazil and Cuba introduced tax-financed universal health systems. These changes were combined with demand-side interventions aimed at alleviating poverty (targeting many social determinants of health) and improving access of the most disadvantaged populations. Hence, the distinguishing features of health-system strengthening for universal health coverage and lessons from the Latin American experience are relevant for countries advancing universal health coverage.

  19. Policy actions to achieve integrated community-based mental health services.

    PubMed

    DeSilva, Mary; Samele, Chiara; Saxena, Shekhar; Patel, Vikram; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    Globally, the majority of people with mental health problems do not receive evidence-based interventions that can transform their lives. We describe six mental health policy actions adopted at the World Innovation Summit for Health in 2013. For each policy action, we offer real-world examples of mental health innovations that governments and health care providers can implement to move toward universal health coverage for mental health. The six policy actions are empowering people with mental health problems and their families, building a diverse mental health workforce, developing collaborative and multidisciplinary mental health teams, using technology to increase access to mental health care, identifying and treating mental health problems early, and reducing premature mortality in people with mental health problems. Challenges to implementing these policy actions include the lack of recognition of mental health as a global health priority and the resulting lack of investment in mental health, the difficulties of integrating mental health into primary care health services because of a scarcity of human and financial resources, and the lack of evidence on the effectiveness and costs of taking innovations to a national scale.

  20. Impatience versus achievement strivings in the Type A pattern: Differential effects on students' health and academic achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Pred, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychometric analyses of college students' responses to the Jenkins Activity Survey, a self-report measure of the Type A behavior pattern, revealed the presence of two relatively independent factors. Based on these analyses, two scales, labeled Achievement Strivings (AS) and Impatience and Irritability (II), were developed. In two samples of male and female college students, scores on AS but not on II were found to be significantly correlated with grade point average. Responses to a health survey, on the other hand, indicated that frequency of physical complaints was significantly correlated with II but not with AS. These results suggest that there are two relatively independent factors in the Type A pattern that have differential effects on performance and health. Future research on the personality factors related to coronary heart disease and other disorders might more profitably focus on the syndrome reflected in the II scale than on the Type A pattern.

  1. Translating school health research to policy. School outcomes related to the health environment and changes in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Anastasia M; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Watts, Erin; George, Stephanie; Van Dyke, Hugo; Malloy, Elizabeth; Kalicki, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes an exploration of the relationship between mathematic achievement and the school health environment relative to policy-driven changes in the school setting, specifically with regard to physical education/physical activity. Using school-level data, the authors seek to understand the relationship between mathematics achievement and the school health environment and physical education minutes. This work provides a description of the aspects of the school health environment, an exploration of the interrelationships between school health and student achievement, and an assessment of the effects of the school health policy and practice on student performance and health status. Based on these findings, we identify additional research necessary to describe the relationship between obesity and learning in children.

  2. Second-chance university admission, the theory of planned behaviour and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alas, Yabit; Anshari, Muhammad; Sabtu, Norakmarul Ihsan; Yunus, Norazmah

    2016-06-01

    The theory of planned behaviour attempts to explain factors which influence behaviour. One of these factors is intention. Positive or negative intentions are formed by a person's impression of the way other people would perceive similar behaviour (external forces). The authors of this study used the theory of planned behaviour to examine, compare and interpret the academic performance of students entering a university either via direct intake or via a bridging programme. This study focuses on the UniBridge programme offered by Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), which is an intensive one-semester course that prepares students for undergraduate-level study. While direct-intake applicants pass minimum requirements for entry and are able to enrol directly into an undergraduate programme, applicants who do not meet these minimum requirements can join this bridging programme which is designed to be a "second-chance" entry option. Using a mixed-methods approach, the authors subjected student performance data of both direct-intake and bridge-programme undergraduates to statistical analyses, carried out interviews and then used the theoretical framework of planned behaviour to pinpoint individual attitudes and social pressures which form an intention to prepare for entry examinations. The results were mostly consistent and showed that the two groups were competitive in terms of undergraduate academic achievement, thus proving the second-chance programme to be effective in enabling students with poor A-Level results to experience academic confidence at university level. On the strength of these findings, the authors conclude their paper with recommendations for tertiary institutions to support lifelong learning initiatives through the use of multiple channels of entry.

  3. University-community partnerships for health: a model interdisciplinary service-learning project.

    PubMed

    Rudmann, S V; Ward, K M; Varekojis, S M

    1999-01-01

    This project is an example of a successful service-learning experiment at a major university. The program was successful in providing service-learning experiences for an interdisciplinary group of health-professions students, delivering essential health services to a community at risk, providing health-risk and demographic data, and offering opportunities for scholarly productivity for faculty. This was accomplished with a modest investment of internal start-up funding. Goals of the project were achieved, and the program and course were viewed as successful by students, faculty, and community partners.

  4. Differences between High and Low Academic Achieving University Students in Learning and Study Strategies: A Further Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2009-01-01

    Following up on the general framework of the research study of Yip (2007), this article sets out a similar research question, investigating the differences between high and low academic achieving Hong Kong university students based on their different learning and study strategies. In this study, we recruited 100 university students who pursued…

  5. Physics Learning Achievement Study: Projectile, Using Mathematica Program of Faculty of Science and Technology Phetchabun Rajabhat University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutem, Artit; Kerdmee, Supoj

    2013-01-01

    The propose of this study is to study Physics Learning Achievement, projectile motion, using the Mathematica program of Faculty of Science and Technology Phetchabun Rajabhat University students, comparing with Faculty of Science and Technology Phetchabun Rajabhat University students who study the projectile motion experiment set. The samples are…

  6. Motivation, Instructional Design, Flow, and Academic Achievement at a Korean Online University: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Young Ju; Oh, Eunjung; Kim, Su Mi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the structural relationships among self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, instructional design, flow, and achievement among students at a Korean online university. To address research questions, the researchers administered online surveys to 963 college students at an online university in Korea…

  7. Syrian refugees in Lebanon: the search for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Karl; Fouad, Fouad M; Pherali, Tejendra

    2016-01-01

    The crisis in Syria has forced more than 4 million people to find refuge outside Syria. In Lebanon, in 2015, the refugee population represented 30 % of the total population. International health assistance has been provided to refugee populations in Lebanon. However, the current humanitarian system has also contributed to increase fragmentation of the Lebanese health system. Ensuring universal health coverage to vulnerable Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian refugees will require in Lebanon to redistribute the key functions and responsibilities of the Ministry of Health and its partners to generate more coherence and efficiency. PMID:27252775

  8. Health financing for universal coverage and health system performance: concepts and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Kutzin, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Unless the concept is clearly understood, "universal coverage" (or universal health coverage, UHC) can be used to justify practically any health financing reform or scheme. This paper unpacks the definition of health financing for universal coverage as used in the World Health Organization's World health report 2010 to show how UHC embodies specific health system goals and intermediate objectives and, broadly, how health financing reforms can influence these. All countries seek to improve equity in the use of health services, service quality and financial protection for their populations. Hence, the pursuit of UHC is relevant to every country. Health financing policy is an integral part of efforts to move towards UHC, but for health financing policy to be aligned with the pursuit of UHC, health system reforms need to be aimed explicitly at improving coverage and the intermediate objectives linked to it, namely, efficiency, equity in health resource distribution and transparency and accountability. The unit of analysis for goals and objectives must be the population and health system as a whole. What matters is not how a particular financing scheme affects its individual members, but rather, how it influences progress towards UHC at the population level. Concern only with specific schemes is incompatible with a universal coverage approach and may even undermine UHC, particularly in terms of equity. Conversely, if a scheme is fully oriented towards system-level goals and objectives, it can further progress towards UHC. Policy and policy analysis need to shift from the scheme to the system level.

  9. Office of Interdisciplinary Health Studies Education, East Carolina university.

    PubMed

    Greer, Annette G; Clay, Maria C

    2010-01-01

    The Office of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences Education resides organizationally within East Carolina University (ECU), Division of Health Sciences; ECU established this office in 1999. The mission of the office is fivefold: 1. promote the expansion of interdisciplinary training within and between Health Sciences and other health-related programs on campus; 2. promote innovative research opportunities across disciplines, in particular, projects regarding interdisciplinary health sciences education; 3. serve as a clearinghouse for information relative to existing and planned interdisciplinary activities and projects within the Division; 4. collaborate with units, and communities in establishing community partnerships for interdisciplinary rural health training; and 5. identify core curricular content across health-related disciplines, minimizing curricular redundancy while promoting interdisciplinary collaboration.

  10. Subjective wellbeing and its relationship with academic achievement and multilinguality among Lebanese university students.

    PubMed

    Ayyash-Abdo, Huda; Sánchez-Ruiz, María-José

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated three subjective wellbeing (SWB) components, namely positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and life satisfaction (LS), along with optimism and self-esteem and their association with academic achievement and multilinguality in a sample of 1401 Lebanese university students. As predicted, optimism and self-esteem correlated positively with LS and PA, and negatively with NA. Optimism, self-esteem and each of the SWB components jointly predicted academic achievement (GPA), with PA being an individually significant positive predictor. There were differences in the five key variables across language groups, specifically between Arabic-only speakers and some other groups: Compared Arabic-only speakers, bilingual speakers of Arabic and either English or French scored higher on self-esteem, PA and optimism, and lower on NA, while trilingual speakers of Arabic, English, and French scored higher on self-esteem, PA and LS. Language grouping was a significant predictor of the SWB components, optimism, and self-esteem even when controlling for GPA, socioeconomic status (SES), and religion. Lastly, the relevance of SES and religion for the prediction of SWB is discussed, and implications and future research questions are advanced.

  11. Divergent Streams: Race-Gender Achievement Gaps at Selective Colleges and Universities

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Probasco, LiErin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we extend previous research on racial performance gaps at 28 selective US colleges and universities by examining differences in grade achievement and graduate rates across race-gender categories. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, we show that black males, black females, and Hispanic males attain significantly lower grades than other race-gender groups, and that black males are 35% less likely to graduate on-time than other race-gender groups. Analyses consider an array of personal and institutional indicators of academic performance. Grades and graduation rates are improved by academic preparation (particularly high school GPA), scholarly effort, and, for graduation rates, membership in career-oriented or majority-white campus groups. Grade performance and graduation rates are undermined by a hostile racial climate on campus, family stress, and stereotype threat, all of which disproportionately affect minority students. We conclude with recommendations to college administrators for ways of selecting and supporting minority students to reduce differentials in academic achievement across race-gender groups. PMID:23646062

  12. Towards universal health coverage for reproductive health services in Ethiopia: two policy recommendations.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Taddesse, Mieraf; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Abdullah, Muna; Miljeteig, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health services are crucial for maternal and child health, but universal health coverage is still not within reach in most societies. Ethiopia's goal of universal health coverage promises access to all necessary services for everyone while providing protection against financial risk. When moving towards universal health coverage, health plans and policies require contextualized knowledge about baseline indicators and their distributions. To understand more about the factors that explain coverage, we study the relationship between socioeconomic and geographic factors and the use of reproductive health services in Ethiopia, and further explore inequalities in reproductive health coverage. Based on these findings, we discuss the normative implications of these findings for health policy. Using population-level data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (2011) in a multivariate logistic model, we find that family planning and use of antenatal care are associated with higher wealth, higher education and being employed. Skilled attendance at birth is associated with higher wealth, higher education, and urban location. There is large variation between Addis Ababa (the capital) and other administrative regions. Concentration indices show substantial inequalities in the use of reproductive health services. Decomposition of the concentration indices indicates that difference in wealth is the most important explanatory factor for inequality in reproductive health coverage, but other factors, such as urban setting and previous health care use, are also associated with inequalities. When aiming for universal health coverage, this study shows that different socioeconomic factors as well as health-sector factors should be addressed. Our study re-confirms the importance of a broader approach to reproductive health, and in particular the importance of inequality in wealth and geography. Poor, non-educated, non-employed women in rural areas are

  13. A conservative case for universal access to health care.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Paul; Light, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Universal access to health care has historically faced strident opposition from political conservatives in the United States, although it has long been accepted by most conservatives in the rest of the industrialized world. Now, in a global economy where American business is crippled by the rising cost of market-based health care, the time may be ripe for change. The key to fostering a new mindset among American conservatives is to show why universal access fulfills many of the basic values that all conservatives hold.

  14. Universal health coverage for India by 2022: a utopia or reality?

    PubMed

    Singh, Zile

    2013-04-01

    It is the obligation of the state to provide free and universal access to quality health-care services to its citizens. India continues to be among the countries of the world that have a high burden of diseases. The various health program and policies in the past have not been able to achieve the desired goals and objectives. 65(th) World Health Assembly in Geneva identified universal health coverage (UHC) as the key imperative for all countries to consolidate the public health advances. Accordingly, Planning Commission of India constituted a high level expert group (HLEG) on UHC in October 2010. HLEG submitted its report in Nov 2011 to Planning Commission on UHC for India by 2022. The recommendations for the provision of UHC pertain to the critical areas such as health financing, health infrastructure, health services norms, skilled human resources, access to medicines and vaccines, management and institutional reforms, and community participation. India faces enormous challenges to achieve UHC by 2022 such as high disease prevalence, issues of gender equality, unregulated and fragmented health-care delivery system, non-availability of adequate skilled human resource, vast social determinants of health, inadequate finances, lack of inter-sectoral co-ordination and various political pull and push of different forces, and interests. These challenges can be met by a paradigm shift in health policies and programs in favor of vulnerable population groups, restructuring of public health cadres, reorientation of undergraduate medical education, more emphasis on public health research, and extensive education campaigns. There are still areas of concern in fulfilling the objectives of achieving UHC by 2022 regarding financing model for health-care delivery, entitlement package, cost of health-care interventions and declining state budgets. However, the Government's commitment to provide adequate finances, recent bold social policy initiatives and enactments such as food

  15. Universal health coverage for India by 2022: a utopia or reality?

    PubMed

    Singh, Zile

    2013-04-01

    It is the obligation of the state to provide free and universal access to quality health-care services to its citizens. India continues to be among the countries of the world that have a high burden of diseases. The various health program and policies in the past have not been able to achieve the desired goals and objectives. 65(th) World Health Assembly in Geneva identified universal health coverage (UHC) as the key imperative for all countries to consolidate the public health advances. Accordingly, Planning Commission of India constituted a high level expert group (HLEG) on UHC in October 2010. HLEG submitted its report in Nov 2011 to Planning Commission on UHC for India by 2022. The recommendations for the provision of UHC pertain to the critical areas such as health financing, health infrastructure, health services norms, skilled human resources, access to medicines and vaccines, management and institutional reforms, and community participation. India faces enormous challenges to achieve UHC by 2022 such as high disease prevalence, issues of gender equality, unregulated and fragmented health-care delivery system, non-availability of adequate skilled human resource, vast social determinants of health, inadequate finances, lack of inter-sectoral co-ordination and various political pull and push of different forces, and interests. These challenges can be met by a paradigm shift in health policies and programs in favor of vulnerable population groups, restructuring of public health cadres, reorientation of undergraduate medical education, more emphasis on public health research, and extensive education campaigns. There are still areas of concern in fulfilling the objectives of achieving UHC by 2022 regarding financing model for health-care delivery, entitlement package, cost of health-care interventions and declining state budgets. However, the Government's commitment to provide adequate finances, recent bold social policy initiatives and enactments such as food

  16. Income redistribution is not enough: income inequality, social welfare programs, and achieving equity in health

    PubMed Central

    Starfield, Barbara; Birn, Anne‐Emanuelle

    2007-01-01

    Income inequality is widely assumed to be a major contributor to poorer health at national and subnational levels. According to this assumption, the most appropriate policy strategy to improve equity in health is income redistribution. This paper considers reasons why tackling income inequality alone could be an inadequate approach to reducing differences in health across social classes and other population subgroups, and makes the case that universal social programs are critical to reducing inequities in health. A health system oriented around a strong primary care base is an example of such a strategy. PMID:18000124

  17. Income redistribution is not enough: income inequality, social welfare programs, and achieving equity in health.

    PubMed

    Starfield, Barbara; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2007-12-01

    Income inequality is widely assumed to be a major contributor to poorer health at national and subnational levels. According to this assumption, the most appropriate policy strategy to improve equity in health is income redistribution. This paper considers reasons why tackling income inequality alone could be an inadequate approach to reducing differences in health across social classes and other population subgroups, and makes the case that universal social programs are critical to reducing inequities in health. A health system oriented around a strong primary care base is an example of such a strategy.

  18. Competing health policies: insurance against universal public systems

    PubMed Central

    Laurell, Asa Ebba Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This article analyzes the content and outcome of ongoing health reforms in Latin America: Universal Health Coverage with Health Insurance, and the Universal and Public Health Systems. It aims to compare and contrast the conceptual framework and practice of each and verify their concrete results regarding the guarantee of the right to health and access to required services. It identifies a direct relationship between the development model and the type of reform. The neoclassical-neoliberal model has succeeded in converting health into a field of privatized profits, but has failed to guarantee the right to health and access to services, which has discredited the governments. The reform of the progressive governments has succeeded in expanding access to services and ensuring the right to health, but faces difficulties and tensions related to the permanence of a powerful, private, industrial-insurance medical complex and persistence of the ideologies about medicalized 'good medicine'. Based on these findings, some strategies to strengthen unique and supportive public health systems are proposed. PMID:26959328

  19. (Re)Defining the Narrative: High-Achieving Nontraditional Black Male Undergraduates at a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goings, Ramon B.

    2016-01-01

    Using Harper's anti-deficit achievement framework as a theoretical guide, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the academic and social experiences of four nontraditional, high-achieving, Black male undergraduates attending one historically Black university. Findings show that the participants were intrinsically motivated…

  20. Length of Study-Time Behaviour and Academic Achievement of Social Studies Education Students in the University of Uyo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpong, D. E.; George, I. N.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the length of study time behaviour and academic achievement of Social Studies Education students in the University of Uyo. The purpose was to determine the difference in the academic achievement of the long study time behaviour students and their short study time behaviour counterparts in Social Studies Education. The study…

  1. Smartphone use at a university health science center.

    PubMed

    Bushhousen, Ellie; Norton, Hannah F; Butson, Linda C; Auten, Beth; Jesano, Rae; David, Don; Tennant, Michele R

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the results of a survey of library patrons conducted by librarians and information technology specialists at the Health Science Center Libraries at the University of Florida. The purpose of the survey was to learn if and how library patrons were using smartphones to perform their work-related tasks and how patrons felt the library could support smartphone use at the Health Science Center.

  2. The Politics of Universal Health Coverage in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Framework for Evaluation and Action.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Reich, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Universal health coverage has recently become a top item on the global health agenda pressed by multilateral and donor organizations, as disenchantment grows with vertical, disease-specific health programs. This increasing focus on universal health coverage has brought renewed attention to the role of domestic politics and the interaction between domestic and international relations in the health reform process. This article proposes a theory-based framework for analyzing the politics of health reform for universal health coverage, according to four stages in the policy cycle (agenda setting, design, adoption, and implementation) and four variables that affect reform (interests, institutions, ideas, and ideology). This framework can assist global health policy researchers, multilateral organization officials, and national policy makers in navigating the complex political waters of health reforms aimed at achieving universal health coverage. To derive the framework, we critically review the theoretical and applied literature on health policy reform in developing countries and illustrate the framework with examples of health reforms moving toward universal coverage in low- and middle-income countries. We offer a series of lessons stemming from these experiences to date.

  3. The Politics of Universal Health Coverage in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Framework for Evaluation and Action.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Reich, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Universal health coverage has recently become a top item on the global health agenda pressed by multilateral and donor organizations, as disenchantment grows with vertical, disease-specific health programs. This increasing focus on universal health coverage has brought renewed attention to the role of domestic politics and the interaction between domestic and international relations in the health reform process. This article proposes a theory-based framework for analyzing the politics of health reform for universal health coverage, according to four stages in the policy cycle (agenda setting, design, adoption, and implementation) and four variables that affect reform (interests, institutions, ideas, and ideology). This framework can assist global health policy researchers, multilateral organization officials, and national policy makers in navigating the complex political waters of health reforms aimed at achieving universal health coverage. To derive the framework, we critically review the theoretical and applied literature on health policy reform in developing countries and illustrate the framework with examples of health reforms moving toward universal coverage in low- and middle-income countries. We offer a series of lessons stemming from these experiences to date. PMID:26195606

  4. [What is the real cost of universal health care in Haiti?].

    PubMed

    Alfred, Jean-Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Americas and continues to suffer from glaring inequalities. 75 % of Haitians live on less than $2.50 a day [1]. Half the population has no access to formal health care because of the financial barriers created by the direct payment system at the point of delivery [2]. The earthquake of January 12, 2010 only compounded the problem, destroying 60 % of hospitals in the three affected departments. The Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP) policy is based on the values of equity, solidarity and social justice [3]. Compliance with these commitments requires the introduction of universal health care, which remains a distant prospect. The objective of universal health care will only be achieved when all Haitians have access to a comprehensive range of high-quality health services in a system in which the ability to pay is not a barrier to access. The real cost of the various policy options for introducing free health care is not known. There is an urgent need to focus the attention of the scientific community on this issue in order to provide better guidance to policy-makers. Cost analysis is a key step in the introduction of universal health care, particularly in Haiti, where resources are limited.

  5. Expanding the universe of universal coverage: the population health argument for increasing coverage for immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arijit; Loue, Sana; Galea, Sandro

    2009-12-01

    As the US recession deepens, furthering the debate about healthcare reform is now even more important than ever. Few plans aimed at facilitating universal coverage make any mention of increasing access for uninsured non-citizens living in the US, many of whom are legally restricted from certain types of coverage. We conducted a critical review of the public health literature concerning the health status and access to health services among immigrant populations in the US. Using examples from infectious and chronic disease epidemiology, we argue that access to health services is at the intersection of the health of uninsured immigrants and the general population and that extending access to healthcare to all residents of the US, including undocumented immigrants, is beneficial from a population health perspective. Furthermore, from a health economics perspective, increasing access to care for immigrant populations may actually reduce net costs by increasing primary prevention and reducing the emphasis on emergency care for preventable conditions. It is unlikely that proposals for universal coverage will accomplish their objectives of improving population health and reducing social disparities in health if they do not address the substantial proportion of uninsured non-citizens living in the US.

  6. Relationships among Stress, Coping, and Mental Health in High-Achieving High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…

  7. Linking the Organizational Health of Middle Grades Schools to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roney, Kathleen; Coleman, Howard; Schlichting, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between student reading achievement and the organizational health of five middle grades schools in North Carolina. The theoretical framework was based upon Hoy and Feldman's definition of organizational health, which links healthy school climates to improved learning environments and…

  8. Middle School Climate: An Empirical Assessment of Organizational Health and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Hannum, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Although researchers and reformers consider school climate an important aspect of effective schools, the concept is difficult to measure. This paper uses a health metaphor to conceptualize and measure school climate. It examines relationships between school health and student achievement in a sample of New Jersey middle schools. Organizational…

  9. In place of fear: aligning health care planning with system objectives to achieve financial sustainability.

    PubMed

    Birch, Stephen; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; MacKenzie, Adrian; Cumming, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    The financial sustainability of publicly funded health care systems is a challenge to policymakers in many countries as health care absorbs an ever increasing share of both national wealth and government spending. New technology, aging populations and increasing public expectations of the health care system are often cited as reasons why health care systems need ever increasing funding as well as reasons why universal and comprehensive public systems are unsustainable. However, increases in health care spending are not usually linked to corresponding increases in need for care within populations. Attempts to promote financial sustainability of systems such as limiting the range of services is covered or the groups of population covered may compromise their political sustainability as some groups are left to seek private cover for some or all services. In this paper, an alternative view of financial sustainability is presented which identifies the failure of planning and management of health care to reflect needs for care in populations and to integrate planning and management functions for health care expenditure, health care services and the health care workforce. We present a Health Care Sustainability Framework based on disaggregating the health care expenditure into separate planning components. Unlike other approaches to planning health care expenditure, this framework explicitly incorporates population health needs as a determinant of health care requirements, and provides a diagnostic tool for understanding the sources of expenditure increase.

  10. Should Reproductive Anatomy Be Taught in University Health Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent; Fletcher, J. Sue

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on undergraduate reproductive anatomy education. This pilot study explores knowledge of anatomical reproductive anatomy among university students in a lower division and upper division health course. Using a Qualtrics survey program, a convenience sample of 120 lower division and 157 upper division students for a…

  11. West Virginia University's Health Sciences and Technology Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Ann; Dooley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Health Sciences and Technology Academy, an outreach and engagement program by West Virginia University to encourage higher education faculty members and administrators, public school teachers, and community leaders to assume the responsibility of mentoring high school students. The primary goal is to increase the college…

  12. The Mental Health of University Students in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaskill, Ann

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing concerns globally about the mental health of students. In the UK, the actual incidence of mental disturbance is unknown, although university counselling services report increased referrals. This study assesses the levels of mental illness in undergraduate students to examine whether widening participation in education has…

  13. Poor Child Health, Family Capital and Cumulative Inequality in Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Margot

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of health and social stratification can be enriched by testing tenets of cumulative inequality theory that emphasize how the accumulation of inequality is dependent on the developmental stage being considered; the duration and stability of poor health; and the family resources available to children. I analyze longitudinal data from the British National Child Development Study (N=9,252) to ask: 1) if child health is a source of cumulative inequality in academic achievement; 2) whether this relationship depends on the timing and duration of poor health; and 3) whether trajectories are sensitive to levels of family capital. The results suggest that the relationship between health and academic achievement emerges very early in life and persists, and that whether we observe shrinking or widening inequality as children age depends on when we measure their health, and whether children have access to compensatory resources. PMID:25926564

  14. Charting the Course to Universal Health in the Americas: Cristian Morales PhD, PAHO/WHO Representative in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Reed, Gail

    2016-07-01

    After leaving Chile during the Pinochet era, Dr Morales studied economics, health administration and international health at the University of Montreal. But his baptism in the field came in Haiti, where he was first PAHO advisor to the health ministry, and then for five years was responsible for human resources and health economics in the PAHO offices in the capital of Port-au-Prince. He was at his post during the flooding in Gonaïves, five hurricanes, the 2010 earthquake and the ensuing cholera epidemic-doubtless the most dramatic and complex times for the country's health in recent history. Before becoming the PAHO/WHO Representative in Cuba in 2015, he was Regional Advisor in Financing and Health Economics based in Washington, DC. In that role, he plunged into the often thorny debates about just how far governments of the Americas were willing to go towards achieving universal health-universal coverage plus universal access. The result was a historic resolution passed in late 2014 by PAHO's Directing Council (CD53.R14 Strategy for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage). Dr Morales talks about the process, the outcomes… and the road ahead. PMID:27510930

  15. Charting the Course to Universal Health in the Americas: Cristian Morales PhD, PAHO/WHO Representative in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Reed, Gail

    2016-07-01

    After leaving Chile during the Pinochet era, Dr Morales studied economics, health administration and international health at the University of Montreal. But his baptism in the field came in Haiti, where he was first PAHO advisor to the health ministry, and then for five years was responsible for human resources and health economics in the PAHO offices in the capital of Port-au-Prince. He was at his post during the flooding in Gonaïves, five hurricanes, the 2010 earthquake and the ensuing cholera epidemic-doubtless the most dramatic and complex times for the country's health in recent history. Before becoming the PAHO/WHO Representative in Cuba in 2015, he was Regional Advisor in Financing and Health Economics based in Washington, DC. In that role, he plunged into the often thorny debates about just how far governments of the Americas were willing to go towards achieving universal health-universal coverage plus universal access. The result was a historic resolution passed in late 2014 by PAHO's Directing Council (CD53.R14 Strategy for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage). Dr Morales talks about the process, the outcomes… and the road ahead.

  16. Impact of Health on Education Access and Achievement. Policy Brief Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, P.

    2008-01-01

    Access to education is recognized as a basic human right and yet projections based on current trends show that more than 50 countries will not achieve universal primary education by 2015. This briefing paper looks at the role of malnutrition and diseases in the failure of countries to meet EFA targets. It is based on the CREATE Pathways to Access…

  17. The University of Miami Center for Oceans and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, L. E.; Smith, S. L.; Minnett, P. J.

    2007-05-01

    Two recent major reports on the health of the oceans in the United States have warned that coastal development and population pressures are responsible for the dramatic degradation of U.S. ocean and coastal environments. The significant consequences of this increased population density, particularly in sub/tropical coastal regions, can be seen in recent weather events: Hurricanes Andrew, Ivan, and Katrina in the US Gulf of Mexico states, and the Tsunami in Southeast Asia in December 2004, all causing significant deaths and destruction. Microbial contamination, man-made chemicals, and a variety of harmful algal blooms and their toxins are increasingly affecting the health of coastal human populations via the seafood supply, as well as the commercial and recreational use of coastal marine waters. At the same time, there has been the realization that the oceans are a source of unexplored biological diversity able to provide medicinal, as well as nutritional, benefits. Therefore, the exploration and preservation of the earth's oceans have significant worldwide public health implications for current and future generations. The NSF/NIEHS Center for Oceans and Human Health Center (COHH) at the University of Miami Rosenstiel School and its collaborators builds on several decades of collaborative and interdisciplinary research, education, and training to address the NIEHS-NSF research initiative in Oceans and Human Health. The COHH focuses on issues relevant to the Southeastern US and Caribbean, as well as global Sub/Tropical areas worldwide, to integrate interdisciplinary research between biomedical and oceanographic scientists. The Center includes three Research Projects: (1) research into the application of toxic algal culture, toxin analysis, remote sensing, oceanography, and genomics to subtropical/tropical Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) organism and toxin distribution; (2) exploring the interaction between functional genomics and oceanography of the subtropical

  18. How Leadership Styles in Academia Align to Achieve Success within the Tanzanian Catholic Universities System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vumilia, Philbert L.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private universities in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and elsewhere in Africa have been experiencing all-time high expansion since the late 1990s. This rush to expand both public and private universities has seriously impacted both the physical infrastructure as well as the effective leadership that new universities require. At the same…

  19. University students and mental health. Canada, Britain and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Gold, J H

    1979-01-01

    There are many crucial determinants of the individual outcome and benefit of a university education including the stressful interplay of cultural and socioeconomic factors which are of growing importance in the inflationary 1970's. An epidemiological study of university students from 1969-1972 in Canada, 1973-1974 in Britain, and 1975 in Singapore, attempted to identify stresses leading to mental ill-health in these students. Singapore was chosen as an example of a culture bridging the developed Northern and developing Southern nations of the world. Cultural differences affecting the results of the study are discussed as is the role of social change. PMID:511452

  20. Health financing for universal coverage and health system performance: concepts and implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Unless the concept is clearly understood, “universal coverage” (or universal health coverage, UHC) can be used to justify practically any health financing reform or scheme. This paper unpacks the definition of health financing for universal coverage as used in the World Health Organization’s World health report 2010 to show how UHC embodies specific health system goals and intermediate objectives and, broadly, how health financing reforms can influence these. All countries seek to improve equity in the use of health services, service quality and financial protection for their populations. Hence, the pursuit of UHC is relevant to every country. Health financing policy is an integral part of efforts to move towards UHC, but for health financing policy to be aligned with the pursuit of UHC, health system reforms need to be aimed explicitly at improving coverage and the intermediate objectives linked to it, namely, efficiency, equity in health resource distribution and transparency and accountability. The unit of analysis for goals and objectives must be the population and health system as a whole. What matters is not how a particular financing scheme affects its individual members, but rather, how it influences progress towards UHC at the population level. Concern only with specific schemes is incompatible with a universal coverage approach and may even undermine UHC, particularly in terms of equity. Conversely, if a scheme is fully oriented towards system-level goals and objectives, it can further progress towards UHC. Policy and policy analysis need to shift from the scheme to the system level. PMID:23940408

  1. Advancing Mental Health Research: Washington University's Center for Mental Health Services Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Enola K.; McMillen, Curtis; Haywood, Sally; Dore, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Research centers have become a key component of the research infrastructure in schools of social work, including the George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University. In 1993, that school's Center for Mental Health Services Research (CMHSR) received funding from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) as a Social Work…

  2. Achievement motivation level in students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and its influential factors

    PubMed Central

    KAVOUSIPOUR, SOMAYEH; NOORAFSHAN, ALI; POURAHMAD, SAEEDEH; DEHGHANI-NAZHVANI, ALI

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Many studies have investigated the relationship between motivation and educational outcomes. The present study was conducted to determine whether the students’ motivation in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) decreases during educational years. Methods: 770 students in SUMS were selected by multi-stage stratified random sampling from each field and entrance year. The first questionnaire contained 57 questions on the effect of economic, social, educational, geographical and personality factors on the students’ motivation. The second one was based on 50 incomplete sentences. The validity and reliability of these questionnaires were approved by the experts and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (85% and 90%, respectively). In this cross-sectional study, ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square tests were applied for data analysis at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Six factors with the most effect on academic motivation were "family attitudes", "getting good jobs in future", "respect for themselves", " the ability to learn", "believing their role in victory and defeat" and "the tendency toward optimism about themselves". In addition, comparing professional doctorate and basic sciences’ results revealed no significant relationship between academic motivation and educational years (F=0.819, p=0.397). But comparing field by field showed that Dentistry and Hospital Management and Medical Information (HMMI) had a significant decrease in motivation score by increase in educational years (F=3.991, p=0.015). Conclusion: Achievement motivation level in SUMS students was higher than average and did not decrease during educational years. Also, the results showed that personal, social and educational related factors affected motivation level more than economic and environmental factors. PMID:25587552

  3. Success of the Undergraduate Public Health at Tulane University

    PubMed Central

    White, Luann Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine launched the Bachelors of Science in Public Health (BSPH) in 2005. The BSPH has steadily grown and comprises one-third of the total enrollment in the school. A review of the organizational structure demonstrates that direct responsibility for undergraduate education by a school of public health is advantageous to the success of the program. The competency and skills-based curriculum attracts students. Outcome measures show the enrollment is steadily increasing. The majority of the BSPH graduates continue onto competitive graduate and professional degree programs. Those who seek jobs find employment related to their public health education, but outside of the traditional governmental public health agencies. The combined BSPH/masters of public health (MPH) degree is a pipeline for students to pursue a MPH and increases the likelihood students will pursue careers in public health. The range and depth of study in the bachelors program is continually examined. Topics once within the purview of graduate education are now being incorporated into undergraduate courses. Undergraduate public health is one of a number of factors that is influencing changes in the MPH degree. PMID:25941670

  4. Success of the undergraduate public health at tulane university.

    PubMed

    White, Luann Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine launched the Bachelors of Science in Public Health (BSPH) in 2005. The BSPH has steadily grown and comprises one-third of the total enrollment in the school. A review of the organizational structure demonstrates that direct responsibility for undergraduate education by a school of public health is advantageous to the success of the program. The competency and skills-based curriculum attracts students. Outcome measures show the enrollment is steadily increasing. The majority of the BSPH graduates continue onto competitive graduate and professional degree programs. Those who seek jobs find employment related to their public health education, but outside of the traditional governmental public health agencies. The combined BSPH/masters of public health (MPH) degree is a pipeline for students to pursue a MPH and increases the likelihood students will pursue careers in public health. The range and depth of study in the bachelors program is continually examined. Topics once within the purview of graduate education are now being incorporated into undergraduate courses. Undergraduate public health is one of a number of factors that is influencing changes in the MPH degree. PMID:25941670

  5. Achievements and future path of Tehran municipality in urban health domain: An Iranian experience

    PubMed Central

    Damari, Behzad; Riazi-Isfahani, Sahand

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to national laws and world experiences; provision, maintenance, and improving citizens’ health are considered to be the essential functions of municipalities as a "social institute". In order to equitably promote health conditions at urban level, particularly in marginal areas, since 2004 targeted efforts have been implemented in the municipality of Tehran metropolis. This study was intended to identify and analyze these targeted measures and tries to analyze health interventions in a conceptual framework and propose a future path. Methods: This is a qualitative study with content analysis approach. Reviewing documents and structured interviews with national health policy making and planning experts and executive managers of 22-region municipalities of Tehran metropolis were used to collect data. The data were analyzed on the basis of conceptual framework prepared for urban health in 4 domains including municipal interventions, goal achievements, drivers and obstacles of success, and the way forward. Results: From the viewpoint of interviewees, these new health actions of Tehran municipality are more based on public participation and the municipality was able to prioritize health issue in the programs and policies of Tehran city council. Tehran municipality has accomplished three types of interventions to improve health, which in orders of magnitude are: facilitative, promotional, and mandatory interventions. Development and institutionalization of public participation is the greatest achievement in health-oriented actions; and expansion of environmental and physical health-oriented facilities and promoting a healthy lifestyle are next in ranks. Conclusion: Since management alterations seriously challenges institutionalization of actions and innovations especially in the developing countries, it is suggested that mayors of metropolitan cities like Tehran document and review municipal health measures as soon as possible and while eliminating

  6. Bonhoeffer and universal health care as a human right.

    PubMed

    Clarke Chapman, G

    2013-12-01

    Bonhoeffer gave a theocentric basis for human rights, as God is the ground of ethics. In our earthly world, the "ultimate" must be prepared by what is "penultimate." That includes humanity's natural life and bodily wholeness, leading to human duties crafted by human reason. Nowadays, biblical texts should not be used as partisan weapons attacking government provision of health care, since all Scripture (even the Law) is seen as a Christ-centered focus on human redemption. Thus, Bonhoeffer implies a right to universal health care, but leaves entirely open which practical structures may best provide it.

  7. Communication and Cancer: The Role of Health Communication Specialists in Achieving National Health Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Rebecca J.

    Proceeding from the implicit message promoted by the National Cancer Institute to the communication profession--expertise in health communication is central to the effort to alleviate the costs of the national burden placed on the economy because of cancer--this paper proposes the development of health communication as a career. Specifically, the…

  8. Future of Japan's system of good health at low cost with equity: beyond universal coverage.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kenji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Ikegami, Naoki; Nishi, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Miyata, Hiroaki; Takemi, Keizo; Reich, Michael R

    2011-10-01

    Japan's premier health accomplishment in the past 50 years has been the achievement of good population health at low cost and increased equity between different population groups. The development of Japan's policies for universal coverage are similar to the policy debates that many countries are having in their own contexts. The financial sustainability of Japan's universal coverage is under threat from demographic, economic, and political factors. Furthermore, a series of crises-both natural and nuclear-after the magnitude 9·0 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, has shaken up the entire Japanese social system that was developed and built after World War 2, and shown existing structural problems in the Japanese health system. Here, we propose four major reforms to assure the sustainability and equity of Japan's health accomplishments in the past 50 years-implement a human-security value-based reform; redefine the role of the central and local governments; improve the quality of health care; and commit to global health. Now is the time for rebirth of Japan and its health system.

  9. Will universal access to antiretroviral therapy ever be possible? The health care worker challenge.

    PubMed

    Maddison, André R; Schlech, Walter F

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations millennium development goal of providing universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for patients living with HIV/AIDS by 2010 is unachievable. Currently, four million people are receiving ART, of an estimated 13.7 million who need it. A major challenge to achieving this goal is the shortage of health care workers in low-income and low-resource areas of the world. Sub-Saharan African countries have 68% of the world's burden of illness from AIDS, yet have only 3% of health care workers worldwide. The shortage of health care providers is primarily caused by a national and international 'brain drain,' poor distribution of health care workers within countries, and health care worker burnout.Even though the millennium development goal to provide universal access to ART will not be met by 2010, it is imperative to continue to build on the momentum created by these humanitarian goals. The present literature review was written with the purpose of attracting research and policy attention toward evidence from small-scale projects in sub-Saharan Africa, which have been successful at increasing access to ART. Specifically, a primary-care model of ART delivery, which focuses on decentralization of services, task shifting and community involvement will be discussed. To improve the health care worker shortage in sub-Saharan Africa, the conventional model of health care delivery must be replaced with an innovative model that utilizes doctors, nurses and community members more effectively.

  10. Health-related internet habits and health anxiety in university students.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karmpaul; Brown, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Health-related Internet use has grown rapidly, yet little research has considered how health anxious individuals use the Internet for this purpose. Our aim was to examine the relationships between health anxiety and the extent of, reasons for, and consequences of health-related Internet usage in university students (n = 255). Responses on a purpose-made Internet use questionnaire were correlated with health anxiety scores; multiple regression analyses controlling for depression and anxiety were also conducted. Health anxiety positively correlated with (all ps < .01): frequency of health-related searching (r(s) = .163), proportion of health-related information sought (r(s) = .200), time spent online for health purposes (r(s) = .166), and number of searches for both illness (r(s) = .453) and wellness (r(s) = .208) information. Health anxiety further positively correlated with advantages perceived in health-related Internet use (r(s) = .183), heightened tension (r(s) = .364) and relief (r(s) = .174) post-search, and perceived doctor disadvantages (r(s) = .306), yet a greater likelihood to visit a doctor post-search (r(s) = .217). Health anxiety also correlated with six measures of possible addiction to using the Internet for health purposes (r(s) range = .171 to .366, all ps < .01). Some (including several potentially dysfunctional) aspects of health-related Internet use correlate with health anxiety. Research evaluating the possible role of Internet use in the development and maintenance of health anxiety is warranted. PMID:24467278

  11. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies.

  12. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  13. Women's health: an achievable goal for public health nursing in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Vertejee, Samina Subzali; Karamali, Noureen Nasruddin

    2013-12-01

    Monsoons of 2010; left devastated effects in Pakistan; it wiped away thousands of houses and damaged health infrastructure. The national and international communities rescued Internally Displaced People (IDP). Alongside the other health professionals' Public health nurses (PHN) were instrumental in assisting IDPs. This is a case study of a 30-year-old postnatal woman; who sustained an injury on her right breast and developed an abscess in IDP camp. The client was assisted by the team of public health nurses by timely referral to undergo incision and drainage for appropriate management. Moreover, post procedure follow-up assisted the woman in wound management and neonate care, especially the breast feeding. The family was also involved in client's care to ensure their empowerment in managing the case. Thus, the efforts of PHN and their health assessment saved the life of one family by saving the life of a woman in that IDP camp. PMID:24397102

  14. Advances in neurosurgery: The Fujita Health University experience

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    In a world with rapidly changing technologies in the field of neurosurgery, Japan leads the world in many subspecialities like vascular neurosurgery. Apart from this, neuro-oncology and spinal surgeries are also among the premium quality operations performed in the region. I would like to share my experience of spending 3 months at the Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan, and the rich expertise and technologies encountered during the period, which made me understand Neurosurgery in a better way. PMID:22059102

  15. Career Maturity and the Achievement of Community College Students and Disadvantaged University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Charles C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship of career maturity and academic achievement in 182 community college students and 126 disadvantaged college freshmen. The modest relationship found suggests that counselors can increase retention by helping students achieve career maturity. (JAC)

  16. Developing and testing the health literacy universal precautions toolkit

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Broucksou, Kimberly A.; Hawk, Victoria; Brach, Cindy; Hink, Ashley; Rudd, Rima; Callahan, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    The health literacy demands of the healthcare system often exceed the health literacy skills of Americans. This article reviews the development of the Health Literacy Universal Precautions (HLUP) Toolkit, commissioned by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and designed to help primary care practices structure the delivery of care as if every patient may have limited health literacy. The development of the toolkit spanned 2 years and consisted of 3 major tasks: (1) developing individual tools (modules explaining how to use or implement a strategy to minimize the effects of low health literacy), using existing health literacy resources when possible, (2) testing individual tools in clinical practice and assembling them into a prototype toolkit, and (3) testing the prototype toolkit in clinical practice. Testing revealed that practices will use tools that are concise and actionable and are not perceived as being resource intensive. Conducting practice self-assessments and generating enthusiasm among staff were key elements for successful implementation. Implementing practice changes required more time than anticipated and some knowledge of quality improvement techniques. In sum, the HLUP Toolkit holds promise as a means of improving primary care for people with limited health literacy, but further testing is needed. PMID:21402204

  17. Nottingham Trent University and Makerere University School of Public Health partnership: experiences of co-learning and supporting the healthcare system in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, David; Gibson, Linda; Mukama, Trasias; Khalil, Yesmean; Ssempebwa, John C

    2016-01-01

    Partnerships between developed and developing country institutions are increasingly becoming important in addressing contemporary global health challenges faced by health systems. Inter-university health collaboration such as the Nottingham Trent University (UK) and Makerere University School of Public Health (Uganda) partnership provide opportunities for working together in training, research and service delivery while strengthening health systems. This paper shares the experiences, achievements and opportunities of this partnership in co-learning and supporting the health system in Uganda. This includes a project being implemented to strengthen the training, supervision and motivation of community health workers in rural Uganda. Training and research are a key focus of the partnership and have involved both staff and students of both institutions including guest lectures, seminars and conference presentations. The partnership's collaboration with stakeholders such as the Ministry of Health (Uganda) and local health authorities has ensured participation necessary in supporting implementation of sustainable interventions. The partnership uses several channels such as email, telephone, Skype, Dropbox and WhatsApp which have been useful in maintaining constant and effective communication. The challenges faced by the partnership include lack of funding to support student mobility, and varying academic schedules of the two institutions. The experiences and prospects of this growing partnership can inform other collaborations in similar settings. PMID:27036632

  18. Nottingham Trent University and Makerere University School of Public Health partnership: experiences of co-learning and supporting the healthcare system in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, David; Gibson, Linda; Mukama, Trasias; Khalil, Yesmean; Ssempebwa, John C

    2016-03-28

    Partnerships between developed and developing country institutions are increasingly becoming important in addressing contemporary global health challenges faced by health systems. Inter-university health collaboration such as the Nottingham Trent University (UK) and Makerere University School of Public Health (Uganda) partnership provide opportunities for working together in training, research and service delivery while strengthening health systems. This paper shares the experiences, achievements and opportunities of this partnership in co-learning and supporting the health system in Uganda. This includes a project being implemented to strengthen the training, supervision and motivation of community health workers in rural Uganda. Training and research are a key focus of the partnership and have involved both staff and students of both institutions including guest lectures, seminars and conference presentations. The partnership's collaboration with stakeholders such as the Ministry of Health (Uganda) and local health authorities has ensured participation necessary in supporting implementation of sustainable interventions. The partnership uses several channels such as email, telephone, Skype, Dropbox and WhatsApp which have been useful in maintaining constant and effective communication. The challenges faced by the partnership include lack of funding to support student mobility, and varying academic schedules of the two institutions. The experiences and prospects of this growing partnership can inform other collaborations in similar settings.

  19. Integrating social determinants of health in the universal health coverage monitoring framework.

    PubMed

    Vega, Jeanette; Frenz, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Underpinning the global commitment to universal health coverage (UHC) is the fundamental role of health for well-being and sustainable development. UHC is proposed as an umbrella health goal in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda because it implies universal and equitable effective delivery of comprehensive health services by a strong health system, aligned with multiple sectors around the shared goal of better health. In this paper, we argue that social determinants of health (SDH) are central to both the equitable pursuit of healthy lives and the provision of health services for all and, therefore, should be expressly incorporated into the framework for monitoring UHC. This can be done by: (a) disaggregating UHC indicators by different measures of socioeconomic position to reflect the social gradient and the complexity of social stratification; and (b) connecting health indicators, both outcomes and coverage, with SDH and policies within and outside of the health sector. Not locating UHC in the context of action on SDH increases the risk of going down a narrow route that limits the right to health to coverage of services and financial protection.

  20. Staying Power: The Effect of Pathway into University on Student Achievement and Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesters, Jenny; Watson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of the higher education sector in Australia opened up new pathways into university increasing the diversity of the student population. For non-traditional students, those who did not successfully complete secondary school, barriers to gaining entry into university have been dismantled, however, previous research suggests that…

  1. Achieving Quality Assurance and Moving to a World Class University in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2013-01-01

    Globalization in the 21st century has brought innumerable challenges and opportunities to universities and countries. Universities are primarily concerned with how to ensure the quality of their education and how to boost their local and global competitiveness. The pressure from both international competition and public accountability on…

  2. Fair Access, Achievement and Geography: Explaining the Association between Social Class and Students' Choice of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Davies, Peter; Slack, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study is concerned with what determines prospective university students' first choice between universities of different status. The results suggest that examination performance, going to an independent school and fear of debt independently affect students' decisions. Social factors and students' perceived level of information on…

  3. Training Needs for Faculty Members: Towards Achieving Quality of University Education in the Light of Technological Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abouelenein, Yousri Attia Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify training needs of university faculty members, in order to achieve the desired quality in the light of technological innovations. A list of training needs of faculty members was developed in terms of technological innovations in general, developing skills of faculty members in the use of technological…

  4. The Relationship between Self Concept and Response towards Student's Academic Achievement among Students Leaders in University Putra Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Jamaludin; Ghazali, Mazila; Hassan, Aminuddin

    2011-01-01

    This is a quantitative research using correlational method. The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between self concept and ability to handle stress on academic achievement of student leaders in University Putra Malaysia. The sample size consists of 106 respondents who are the Student Supreme Council and Student Representative…

  5. Access and Achievement of Hispanics and Hispanic Immigrants in the Colleges of the City University of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinbach, D. Timothy; Bailey, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The City University of New York (CUNY) has played a central role in educating minority and immigrant New Yorkers, and Hispanics comprise the largest minority and immigrant populations in the City. To examine the extent to which CUNY provides Hispanic native-born and immigrant students with access and the opportunity for achievement, a study was…

  6. An Evaluative Study of the Academic Achievement of Homeschooled Students versus Traditionally Schooled Students Attending a Catholic University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This research study was designed to provide a formal evaluation of the academic achievement of homeschooled students compared to traditionally schooled students attending a Catholic university located in South Florida. In addition, this study offers empirical data for all those interested in the academic success of homeschooled students in higher…

  7. Bhutanese Stakeholders' Perceptions about Multi-Grade Teaching as a Strategy for Achieving Quality Universal Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucita, Pawan; Kivunja, Charles; Maxwell, T. W.; Kuyini, Bawa

    2013-01-01

    This study employed document analysis and qualitative interviews to explore the perceptions of different Bhutanese stakeholders about multi-grade teaching, which the Bhutanese Government identified as a strategy for achieving quality Universal Primary Education. The data from Ministry officials, teachers and student teachers were analyzed using…

  8. Access and Achievement of Hispanics and Hispanic Immigrants in the Colleges of the City University of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinbach, D. Timothy; Bailey, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The City University of New York (CUNY) has played a central role in educating minority and immigrant New Yorkers, and Hispanics comprise the largest minority and immigrant populations in the City. To examine the extent to which CUNY provides Hispanic native- born and immigrant students with access and the opportunity for achievement, a study was…

  9. Improving Science, Technology and Mathematics Students' Achievement: Imperatives for Teacher Preparation in the Caribbean Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunkola, Babalola J.

    2012-01-01

    The concerns of this article are the unacceptable status of Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) Education in the Caribbean and how to improve the students' achievement in the subjects involved through the instrumentality of better preparation of teachers by the Colleges and University faculties training teachers in the region. The index for…

  10. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  11. Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days): The Complex Journey of a School and University Partnership's Process to Increase Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia S.; Dockery, Kim; Jamieson, Spencer; Ross, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a focused remediation and enrichment effort among school and university faculty to affect the mathematics achievement of a group of third-grade students in a Title I elementary school. A total of 87 students participated in the Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days) Project. During the Code RED Project, student assessment…

  12. The Impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on Migrant Student Achievement in the California State University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Adrian Dee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the 7-year longitudinal study was to examine the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP), a student services intervention, to determine its impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University (CSU) system. Participants included 336 migrant students who were enrolled as first-time, full-time freshmen in fall…

  13. The Impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on Migrant Student Academic Achievement in the California State University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Adrian D.

    2012-01-01

    The 7-year longitudinal study examined the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP) impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University system. Participants included migrant students, Latinos, and general student populations from 2002-2009. The analysis of variance and chi-square test of independence were used to explore…

  14. Applying the CHAID Algorithm to Analyze How Achievement Is Influenced by University Students' Demographics, Study Habits, and Technology Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Bahar; Kiliç, Eylem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze three separate constructs (demographics, study habits, and technology familiarity) that can be used to identify university students' characteristics and the relationship between each of these constructs with student achievement. A survey method was used for the current study, and the participants included…

  15. Patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in Ethiopia: implications for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Elias; Dominis, Sarah; Palen, John G H; Wong, Wendy; Bekele, Abebe; Kebede, Amha; Johns, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have largely ignored the patient perspective, focusing on health outcomes and acceptability to health care providers and regulatory bodies, despite studies worldwide that have shown the significance of patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in hospitals and health centres in four regions of Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study used data collected from a time-motion study of patient services paired with 665 patient exit interviews in a stratified random sample of antiretroviral therapy clinics in 21 hospitals and 40 health centres in 2012. Data were analyzed using f-tests across provider types, and multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. Most (528 of 665) patients were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the services received, but patients who received services from nurses and health officers were significantly more likely to report satisfaction than those who received services from doctors [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, P < 0.01]. Investments in the health facility were associated with higher satisfaction (OR 1.07, P < 0.01), while costs to patients of over 120 birr were associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.14, P < 0.05). This study showed high levels of patient satisfaction with task shifting in Ethiopia. The evidence generated by this study complements previous biomedical and health care provider/regulatory acceptability studies to support the inclusion of task shifting as a mechanism for scaling-up health services to achieve universal health coverage, particularly for underserved areas facing severe health worker

  16. Patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in Ethiopia: implications for universal health coverage

    PubMed Central

    Asfaw, Elias; Palen, John G H; Wong, Wendy; Bekele, Abebe; Kebede, Amha; Johns, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have largely ignored the patient perspective, focusing on health outcomes and acceptability to health care providers and regulatory bodies, despite studies worldwide that have shown the significance of patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in hospitals and health centres in four regions of Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study used data collected from a time–motion study of patient services paired with 665 patient exit interviews in a stratified random sample of antiretroviral therapy clinics in 21 hospitals and 40 health centres in 2012. Data were analyzed using f-tests across provider types, and multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. Most (528 of 665) patients were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the services received, but patients who received services from nurses and health officers were significantly more likely to report satisfaction than those who received services from doctors [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, P < 0.01]. Investments in the health facility were associated with higher satisfaction (OR 1.07, P < 0.01), while costs to patients of over 120 birr were associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.14, P < 0.05). This study showed high levels of patient satisfaction with task shifting in Ethiopia. The evidence generated by this study complements previous biomedical and health care provider/regulatory acceptability studies to support the inclusion of task shifting as a mechanism for scaling-up health services to achieve universal health coverage, particularly for underserved areas facing severe health

  17. Patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in Ethiopia: implications for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Elias; Dominis, Sarah; Palen, John G H; Wong, Wendy; Bekele, Abebe; Kebede, Amha; Johns, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have largely ignored the patient perspective, focusing on health outcomes and acceptability to health care providers and regulatory bodies, despite studies worldwide that have shown the significance of patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in hospitals and health centres in four regions of Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study used data collected from a time-motion study of patient services paired with 665 patient exit interviews in a stratified random sample of antiretroviral therapy clinics in 21 hospitals and 40 health centres in 2012. Data were analyzed using f-tests across provider types, and multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. Most (528 of 665) patients were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the services received, but patients who received services from nurses and health officers were significantly more likely to report satisfaction than those who received services from doctors [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, P < 0.01]. Investments in the health facility were associated with higher satisfaction (OR 1.07, P < 0.01), while costs to patients of over 120 birr were associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.14, P < 0.05). This study showed high levels of patient satisfaction with task shifting in Ethiopia. The evidence generated by this study complements previous biomedical and health care provider/regulatory acceptability studies to support the inclusion of task shifting as a mechanism for scaling-up health services to achieve universal health coverage, particularly for underserved areas facing severe health worker

  18. Performance of universal health insurance: lessons from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sangho; Shin, Jaeun

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the maturity of the South Korean healthcare system in comparison with those of the 30 countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and to provide a foundation to evaluate the performance of the South Korean healthcare system. Using OECD Health Data 2005, we evaluated the performance of the healthcare system of the 30 industrialized countries. The evaluation focused on three dimensions that have remained central to healthcare debates internationally for years: access, cost and outcomes. Although South Korea has successfully implemented its universal health insurance scheme in a very short period of time and possesses highly advanced medical technologies, we found that South Koreans incurred more out-of-pocket expenditures on healthcare. Health outcomes were of relatively low quality compared with those of other OECD countries, but compared relatively well with the four countries (Greece, New Zealand, Portugal and Spain) with similar per capita gross domestic product (GDP).

  19. State humanitarian verticalism versus universal health coverage: a century of French international health assistance revisited.

    PubMed

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Wilson, Andrew; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-28

    The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer. From decolonisation to the end of the Cold War (1960-99), French assistance to newly independent states was affected by sans frontièrisme, Health for All, and the AIDS pandemic. Since 2000, France has had an active role in development of global health initiatives and favoured multilateral action for health assistance. Today, with adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the challenges of non-communicable diseases, economic inequality, and climate change, French international health assistance needs new direction. In the context of current debate over global health as a universal goal, understanding and acknowledging France's history could help strengthen advocacy in favour of universal health coverage and contribute to advancing global equity through income redistribution, from healthy populations to people who are sick and from wealthy individuals to those who are poor.

  20. State humanitarian verticalism versus universal health coverage: a century of French international health assistance revisited.

    PubMed

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Wilson, Andrew; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-28

    The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer. From decolonisation to the end of the Cold War (1960-99), French assistance to newly independent states was affected by sans frontièrisme, Health for All, and the AIDS pandemic. Since 2000, France has had an active role in development of global health initiatives and favoured multilateral action for health assistance. Today, with adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the challenges of non-communicable diseases, economic inequality, and climate change, French international health assistance needs new direction. In the context of current debate over global health as a universal goal, understanding and acknowledging France's history could help strengthen advocacy in favour of universal health coverage and contribute to advancing global equity through income redistribution, from healthy populations to people who are sick and from wealthy individuals to those who are poor. PMID:27145710

  1. The democratization of health in Mexico: financial innovations for universal coverage

    PubMed Central

    Frenk, Julio; Knaul, Felicia Marie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In 2003, the Mexican Congress approved a reform establishing the Sistema de Protección Social en Salud [System of Social Protection in Health], whereby public funding for health is being increased by one percent of the 2003 gross domestic product over seven years to guarantee universal health insurance. Poor families that had been excluded from traditional social security can now enrol in a new public insurance scheme known as Seguro Popular [People’s Insurance], which assures legislated access to a comprehensive set of health-care entitlements. This paper describes the financial innovations behind the expansion of health-care coverage in Mexico to everyone and their effects. Evidence shows improvements in mobilization of additional public resources; availability of health infrastructure and drugs; service utilization; effective coverage; and financial protection. Future challenges are discussed, among them the need for additional public funding to extend access to costly interventions for non-communicable diseases not yet covered by the new insurance scheme, and to improve the technical quality of care and the responsiveness of the health system. Eventually, the progress achieved so far will have to be reflected in health outcomes, which will continue to be evaluated so that Mexico can meet the ultimate criterion of reform success: better health through equity, quality and fair financing. PMID:19649369

  2. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Laaser, Ulrich; Theisling, Mareike; Tapia, Leticia; Borisch, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework. PMID:25249060

  3. Working together to achieve the best outcomes for equine health and welfare.

    PubMed

    2016-03-19

    Gill Harris reports from this year's National Equine Forum where a key theme was the importance of collaboration and effective communication in achieving the best outcomes for the health and welfare of the horse and the future of equestrianism in the UK. PMID:26993448

  4. School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

  5. What Is Most Important: Social Factors, Health Selection, and Adolescent Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Leslie L.; Hiebert, Brett; Manivong, Phongsack; Edgerton, Jason; Walld, Randy; MacWilliam, Leonard; de Rocquigny, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relative importance of social factors and health measures in predicting educational achievement in early and late adolescence using population-based administrative data. The sample was made up of 41,943 children born in Manitoba, Canada between 1982 and 1989 and remaining in the province until age 18. Multilevel modeling…

  6. Formative Assessment and Academic Achievement in Pre-Graduate Students of Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrillo-de-la-Pena, Maria T.; Bailles, Eva; Caseras, Xavier; Martinez, Alvar; Ortet, Generos; Perez, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Although educational experts recommend the use of formative assessment, there is a dearth of empirical studies on its impact on academic achievement. In this research the authors analyse to what extent participation and performance in formative assessment are associated with positive academic outcomes of pre-graduate students of health sciences. A…

  7. The Relation among School District Health, Total Quality Principles for School Organization and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jon; Pritchard, Ruie; Gunderson, Betsey

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the congruence among W. E. Deming's 14 points for Total Quality Management (TQM), the organizational health of school districts, and student achievement. Based on Kanter's (1983) concept of a Culture of Pride with a Climate of Success, healthy districts were defined as having an organizational culture…

  8. Universal health insurance in India: ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality.

    PubMed

    Prinja, Shankar; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-07-01

    Indian health system is characterized by a vast public health infrastructure which lies underutilized, and a largely unregulated private market which caters to greater need for curative treatment. High out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures poses barrier to access for healthcare. Among those who get hospitalized, nearly 25% are pushed below poverty line by catastrophic impact of OOP healthcare expenditure. Moreover, healthcare costs are spiraling due to epidemiologic, demographic, and social transition. Hence, the need for risk pooling is imperative. The present article applies economic theories to various possibilities for providing risk pooling mechanism with the objective of ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality care. Asymmetry of information leads to failure of actuarially administered private health insurance (PHI). Large proportion of informal sector labor in India's workforce prevents major upscaling of social health insurance (SHI). Community health insurance schemes are difficult to replicate on a large scale. We strongly recommend institutionalization of tax-funded Universal Health Insurance Scheme (UHIS), with complementary role of PHI. The contextual factors for development of UHIS are favorable. SHI schemes should be merged with UHIS. Benefit package of this scheme should include preventive and in-patient curative care to begin with, and gradually include out-patient care. State-specific priorities should be incorporated in benefit package. Application of such an insurance system besides being essential to the goals of an effective health system provides opportunity to regulate private market, negotiate costs, and plan health services efficiently. Purchaser-provider split provides an opportunity to strengthen public sector by allowing providers to compete. PMID:23112438

  9. Universal Health Insurance in India: Ensuring Equity, Efficiency, and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Indian health system is characterized by a vast public health infrastructure which lies underutilized, and a largely unregulated private market which caters to greater need for curative treatment. High out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures poses barrier to access for healthcare. Among those who get hospitalized, nearly 25% are pushed below poverty line by catastrophic impact of OOP healthcare expenditure. Moreover, healthcare costs are spiraling due to epidemiologic, demographic, and social transition. Hence, the need for risk pooling is imperative. The present article applies economic theories to various possibilities for providing risk pooling mechanism with the objective of ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality care. Asymmetry of information leads to failure of actuarially administered private health insurance (PHI). Large proportion of informal sector labor in India's workforce prevents major upscaling of social health insurance (SHI). Community health insurance schemes are difficult to replicate on a large scale. We strongly recommend institutionalization of tax-funded Universal Health Insurance Scheme (UHIS), with complementary role of PHI. The contextual factors for development of UHIS are favorable. SHI schemes should be merged with UHIS. Benefit package of this scheme should include preventive and in-patient curative care to begin with, and gradually include out-patient care. State-specific priorities should be incorporated in benefit package. Application of such an insurance system besides being essential to the goals of an effective health system provides opportunity to regulate private market, negotiate costs, and plan health services efficiently. Purchaser-provider split provides an opportunity to strengthen public sector by allowing providers to compete. PMID:23112438

  10. Monitoring Intervention Coverage in the Context of Universal Health Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Ties; AbouZahr, Carla; Evans, David; Evans, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups—promotion/prevention, and treatment/care—as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the production of

  11. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Ties; AbouZahr, Carla; Evans, David; Evans, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the production of

  12. Quantitative Guidance for Stove Usage and Performance to Achieve Health and Environmental Targets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ranyee A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Displacing the use of polluting and inefficient cookstoves in developing countries is necessary to achieve the potential health and environmental benefits sought through clean cooking solutions. Yet little quantitative context has been provided on how much displacement of traditional technologies is needed to achieve targets for household air pollutant concentrations or fuel savings. Objectives This paper provides instructive guidance on the usage of cooking technologies required to achieve health and environmental improvements. Methods We evaluated different scenarios of displacement of traditional stoves with use of higher performing technologies. The air quality and fuel consumption impacts were estimated for these scenarios using a single-zone box model of indoor air quality and ratios of thermal efficiency. Results Stove performance and usage should be considered together, as lower performing stoves can result in similar or greater benefits than a higher performing stove if the lower performing stove has considerably higher displacement of the baseline stove. Based on the indoor air quality model, there are multiple performance–usage scenarios for achieving modest indoor air quality improvements. To meet World Health Organization guidance levels, however, three-stone fire and basic charcoal stove usage must be nearly eliminated to achieve the particulate matter target (< 1–3 hr/week), and substantially limited to meet the carbon monoxide guideline (< 7–9 hr/week). Conclusions Moderate health gains may be achieved with various performance–usage scenarios. The greatest benefits are estimated to be achieved by near-complete displacement of traditional stoves with clean technologies, emphasizing the need to shift in the long term to near exclusive use of clean fuels and stoves. The performance–usage scenarios are also provided as a tool to guide technology selection and prioritize behavior change opportunities to maximize impact. Citation

  13. A public health achievement under adversity: the eradication of poliomyelitis from Peru, 1991.

    PubMed

    Sobti, Deepak; Cueto, Marcos; He, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    The fight to achieve global eradication of poliomyelitis continues. Although native transmission of poliovirus was halted in the Western Hemisphere by the early 1990s, and only a few cases have been imported in the past few years, much of Latin America's story remains to be told. Peru conducted a successful flexible, or flattened, vertical campaign in 1991. The initial disease-oriented programs began to collaborate with community-oriented primary health care systems, thus strengthening public-private partnerships and enabling the common goal of poliomyelitis eradication to prevail despite rampant terrorism, economic instability, and political turmoil. Committed leaders in Peru's Ministry of Health, the Pan American Health Organization, and Rotary International, as well as dedicated health workers who acted with missionary zeal, facilitated acquisition of adequate technologies, coordinated work at the local level, and increased community engagement, despite sometimes being unable to institutionalize public health improvements.

  14. Toward a fourth generation of disparities research to achieve health equity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stephen B; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Garza, Mary A

    2011-01-01

    Achieving health equity, driven by the elimination of health disparities, is a goal of Healthy People 2020. In recent decades, the improvement in health status has been remarkable for the U.S. population as a whole. However, racial and ethnic minority populations continue to lag behind whites with a quality of life diminished by illness from preventable chronic diseases and a life span cut short by premature death. We examine a conceptual framework of three generations of health disparities research to understand (a) data trends, (b) factors driving disparities, and (c) solutions for closing the gap. We propose a new, fourth generation of research grounded in public health critical race praxis, utilizing comprehensive interventions to address race, racism, and structural inequalities and advancing evaluation methods to foster our ability to eliminate disparities. This new generation demands that we address the researcher's own biases as part of the research process.

  15. Meanings in policy: a textual analysis of Canada's "Achieving Health For All" document.

    PubMed

    Iannantuono, A; Eyles, J

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a textual analysis of a key Canadian health policy document--Achieving Health for All (AHFA). It begins by establishing the importance of policy language and an interpretive approach to reveal dominant meanings and assumptions. This approach points out the significance of language and its contexts (text and intertext) and of developing a formal analytic strategy, based on semiotics. The paper concludes with a detailed, illustrated analysis of AHFA, suggesting that the document's discourse, through appealing to all, with emphases on the nation, community and all Canadians, establishes a frame of individual responsibility and rights, health promotion and broad health determinants--a frame that resonates with the cost-constrained nature of health care delivery-as found in provincial reform documents in the 1980s and 1990s.

  16. Curricular transformation of health professions education in Tanzania: the process at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Ngassapa, Olipa D; Kaaya, Ephata E; Fyfe, Molly V; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Kakoko, Deodatus C; Kayombo, Edmund J; Kisenge, Rodrick R; Loeser, Helen; Mwakigonja, Amos R; Outwater, Anne H; Martin-Holland, Judy; Mwambete, Kennedy D; Kida, Irene; Macfarlane, Sarah B

    2012-01-01

    Tanzania requires more health professionals equipped to tackle its serious health challenges. When it became an independent university in 2007, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) decided to transform its educational offerings to ensure its students practice competently and contribute to improving population health. In 2008, in collaboration with the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), all MUHAS's schools (dentistry, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and public health and social sciences) and institutes (traditional medicine and allied health sciences) began a university-wide process to revise curricula. Adopting university-wide committee structures, procedures, and a common schedule, MUHAS faculty set out to: (i) identify specific competencies for students to achieve by graduation (in eight domains, six that are inter-professional, hence consistent across schools); (ii) engage stakeholders to understand adequacies and inadequacies of current curricula; and (iii) restructure and revise curricula introducing competencies. The Tanzania Commission for Universities accredited the curricula in September 2011, and faculty started implementation with first-year students in October 2011. We learned that curricular revision of this magnitude requires: a compelling directive for change, designated leadership, resource mobilization inclusion of all stakeholders, clear guiding principles, an iterative plan linking flexible timetables to phases for curriculum development, engagement in skills training for the cultivation of future leaders, and extensive communication.

  17. Strategic Planning as a Tool for Achieving Alignment in Academic Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Higginbotham, Eve J.; Church, Kathryn C.

    2012-01-01

    After the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in March 2010, there is an urgent need for medical schools, teaching hospitals, and practice plans to work together seamlessly across a common mission. Although there is agreement that there should be greater coordination of initiatives and resources, there is little guidance in the literature to address the method to achieve the necessary transformation. Traditional approaches to strategic planning often engage a few leaders and produce a set of immeasurable initiatives. A nontraditional approach, consisting of a Whole-Scale (Dannemiller Tyson Associates, Ann Arbor, MI) engagement, appreciative inquiry, and a balanced scorecard can, more rapidly transform an academic health center. Using this nontraditional approach to strategic planning, increased organizational awareness was achieved in a single academic health center. Strategic planning can be an effective tool to achieve alignment, enhance accountability, and a first step in meeting the demands of the new landscape of healthcare. PMID:23303997

  18. Strategic planning as a tool for achieving alignment in academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Eve J; Church, Kathryn C

    2012-01-01

    After the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in March 2010, there is an urgent need for medical schools, teaching hospitals, and practice plans to work together seamlessly across a common mission. Although there is agreement that there should be greater coordination of initiatives and resources, there is little guidance in the literature to address the method to achieve the necessary transformation. Traditional approaches to strategic planning often engage a few leaders and produce a set of immeasurable initiatives. A nontraditional approach, consisting of a Whole-Scale (Dannemiller Tyson Associates, Ann Arbor, MI) engagement, appreciative inquiry, and a balanced scorecard can, more rapidly transform an academic health center. Using this nontraditional approach to strategic planning, increased organizational awareness was achieved in a single academic health center. Strategic planning can be an effective tool to achieve alignment, enhance accountability, and a first step in meeting the demands of the new landscape of healthcare.

  19. Strategic planning as a tool for achieving alignment in academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Eve J; Church, Kathryn C

    2012-01-01

    After the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in March 2010, there is an urgent need for medical schools, teaching hospitals, and practice plans to work together seamlessly across a common mission. Although there is agreement that there should be greater coordination of initiatives and resources, there is little guidance in the literature to address the method to achieve the necessary transformation. Traditional approaches to strategic planning often engage a few leaders and produce a set of immeasurable initiatives. A nontraditional approach, consisting of a Whole-Scale (Dannemiller Tyson Associates, Ann Arbor, MI) engagement, appreciative inquiry, and a balanced scorecard can, more rapidly transform an academic health center. Using this nontraditional approach to strategic planning, increased organizational awareness was achieved in a single academic health center. Strategic planning can be an effective tool to achieve alignment, enhance accountability, and a first step in meeting the demands of the new landscape of healthcare. PMID:23303997

  20. Can a man-made universe be achieved by quantum tunneling without an initial singularity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guth, Alan H.; Haller, K. (Editor); Caldi, D. B. (Editor); Islam, M. M. (Editor); Mallett, R. L. (Editor); Mannheim, P. D. (Editor); Swanson, M. S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Essentially all modern particle theories suggest the possible existence of a false vacuum state; a metastable state with an energy density that cannot be lowered except by means of a very slow phase transition. Inflationary cosmology makes use of such a state to drive the expansion of the big bang, allowing the entire observed universe to evolve from a very small initial mass. A sphere of false vacuum in the present universe, if larger than a certain critical mass, could inflate to form a new universe which would rapidly detach from its parent. A false vacuum bubble of this size, however, cannot be produced classically unless an initial singularity is present from the outset. The possibility is explored that a bubble of subcritical size, which classically would evolve to a maximum size and collapse, might instead tunnel through a barrier to produce a new universe. The tunneling rate using semiclassical quantum gravity is estimated, and some interesting ambiguities in the formulas are discovered.

  1. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. PMID:23317639

  2. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors.

  3. Moving towards universal health coverage: health insurance reforms in nine developing countries in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed

    Lagomarsino, Gina; Garabrant, Alice; Adyas, Atikah; Muga, Richard; Otoo, Nathaniel

    2012-09-01

    We analyse nine low-income and lower-middle-income countries in Africa and Asia that have implemented national health insurance reforms designed to move towards universal health coverage. Using the functions-of-health-systems framework, we describe these countries' approaches to raising prepaid revenues, pooling risk, and purchasing services. Then, using the coverage-box framework, we assess their progress across three dimensions of coverage: who, what services, and what proportion of health costs are covered. We identify some patterns in the structure of these countries' reforms, such as use of tax revenues to subsidise target populations, steps towards broader risk pools, and emphasis on purchasing services through demand-side financing mechanisms. However, none of the reforms purely conform to common health-system archetypes, nor are they identical to each other. We report some trends in these countries' progress towards universal coverage, such as increasing enrolment in government health insurance, a movement towards expanded benefits packages, and decreasing out-of-pocket spending accompanied by increasing government share of spending on health. Common, comparable indicators of progress towards universal coverage are needed to enable countries undergoing reforms to assess outcomes and make midcourse corrections in policy and implementation. PMID:22959390

  4. Analysis of Universal Health Coverage and Equity on Health Care in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okech, Timothy Chrispinus; Lelegwe, Steve Ltumbesi

    2016-01-01

    Kenya has made progress towards universal health coverage as evidenced in the various policy initiatives and reforms that have been implemented in the country since independence. The purpose of this analysis was to critically review the various initiatives that the government of Kenya has over the years initiated towards the realization of Universal Health Care (UHC) and how this has impacted on health equity. The paper relied heavly on secondary sources of information although primary data data was collected. Whereas secondary data was largely collected through critical review of policy documents and commissioned studies by the Ministry of Health and development partners, primary data was collected through interviews with various stakeholders involved in UHC including policy makers, implementers, researchers and health service providers. Key findings include commitment towards UHC; minimal solidarity in health care financing; cases of dysfunctionalilty of health care system; minimal opportunities for continuous medical training; quality concerns in terms of stock-outs of drugs and other medical supplies, dilapidated health infrastructure and inadequqte number of health workers. Other findings include governance concerns at NHIF coupled with, high operational costs, low capitation, fraud at facility levels, low pay out ratio, accreditation of facilities, and narrowness of the benefit package, among others. In lieu of these, various recommendations have been suggested. Among these include promotion of solidarty in health care financing that are reliable and economical in collecting; political will to enhance commitment towards devolution of health care, engagement of various stakeholders at both county and national government in fast tracking the enactment of Health Act; investment in health infrastructure and training of human resources; revamping NHIF into a full-fledged social health insurance scheme, and enhancing capacity of NHIF human resources, enhanced

  5. Analysis of Universal Health Coverage and Equity on Health Care in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okech, Timothy Chrispinus; Lelegwe, Steve Ltumbesi

    2016-01-01

    Kenya has made progress towards universal health coverage as evidenced in the various policy initiatives and reforms that have been implemented in the country since independence. The purpose of this analysis was to critically review the various initiatives that the government of Kenya has over the years initiated towards the realization of Universal Health Care (UHC) and how this has impacted on health equity. The paper relied heavly on secondary sources of information although primary data data was collected. Whereas secondary data was largely collected through critical review of policy documents and commissioned studies by the Ministry of Health and development partners, primary data was collected through interviews with various stakeholders involved in UHC including policy makers, implementers, researchers and health service providers. Key findings include commitment towards UHC; minimal solidarity in health care financing; cases of dysfunctionalilty of health care system; minimal opportunities for continuous medical training; quality concerns in terms of stock-outs of drugs and other medical supplies, dilapidated health infrastructure and inadequqte number of health workers. Other findings include governance concerns at NHIF coupled with, high operational costs, low capitation, fraud at facility levels, low pay out ratio, accreditation of facilities, and narrowness of the benefit package, among others. In lieu of these, various recommendations have been suggested. Among these include promotion of solidarty in health care financing that are reliable and economical in collecting; political will to enhance commitment towards devolution of health care, engagement of various stakeholders at both county and national government in fast tracking the enactment of Health Act; investment in health infrastructure and training of human resources; revamping NHIF into a full-fledged social health insurance scheme, and enhancing capacity of NHIF human resources, enhanced

  6. Analysis of Universal Health Coverage and Equity on Health Care in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Okech, Timothy Chrispinus; Lelegwe, Steve Ltumbesi

    2016-01-01

    Kenya has made progress towards universal health coverage as evidenced in the various policy initiatives and reforms that have been implemented in the country since independence. The purpose of this analysis was to critically review the various initiatives that the government of Kenya has over the years initiated towards the realization of Universal Health Care (UHC) and how this has impacted on health equity. The paper relied heavly on secondary sources of information although primary data data was collected. Whereas secondary data was largely collected through critical review of policy documents and commissioned studies by the Ministry of Health and development partners, primary data was collected through interviews with various stakeholders involved in UHC including policy makers, implementers, researchers and health service providers. Key findings include commitment towards UHC; minimal solidarity in health care financing; cases of dysfunctionalilty of health care system; minimal opportunities for continuous medical training; quality concerns in terms of stock-outs of drugs and other medical supplies, dilapidated health infrastructure and inadequqte number of health workers. Other findings include governance concerns at NHIF coupled with, high operational costs, low capitation, fraud at facility levels, low pay out ratio, accreditation of facilities, and narrowness of the benefit package, among others. In lieu of these, various recommendations have been suggested. Among these include promotion of solidarty in health care financing that are reliable and economical in collecting; political will to enhance commitment towards devolution of health care, engagement of various stakeholders at both county and national government in fast tracking the enactment of Health Act; investment in health infrastructure and training of human resources; revamping NHIF into a full-fledged social health insurance scheme, and enhancing capacity of NHIF human resources, enhanced

  7. Reliability and Validity of the "Achievement Emotions Questionnaire": A Study of Argentinean University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paoloni, Paola Verónica; Vaja, Arabela Beatriz; Muñoz, Verónica Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims at describing the psychometric features of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ), focusing specifically on the section that measures class emotions. From a theoretical perspective, this instrument was designed based on the control-value theory of achievement emotions. Therefore, a description of the…

  8. EFL Teachers' Perception of University Students' Motivation and ESP Learning Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dja'far, Veri Hardinansyah; Cahyono, Bambang Yudi; Bashtomi, Yazid

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed at examining Indonesian EFL Teachers' perception of students' motivation and English for Specific Purposes (ESP) learning achievement. It also explored the strategies applied by teachers based on their perception of students' motivation and ESP learning achievement. This research involved 204 students who took English for…

  9. Speech Communication Anxiety: An Impediment to Academic Achievement in the University Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boohar, Richard K.; Seiler, William J.

    1982-01-01

    The achievement levels of college students taking a bioethics course who demonstrated high and low degrees of speech anxiety were studied. Students with high speech anxiety interacted less with instructors and did not achieve as well as other students. Strategies instructors can use to help students are suggested. (Authors/PP)

  10. The Academic Achievement of Elite Athletes at an Australian University: Debunking the Dumb Jock Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Wilson, Rachel; Ferguson, Jamaya

    2014-01-01

    Elite athletes and their academic achievement in higher education have long been subject to considerable debate within North American scholarship. This interest proliferated especially after the release of the Knight Report (2001), which, amongst other findings, revealed a clear negative link between elite athletes and their academic achievement.…

  11. 76 FR 59388 - Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... biomedical sciences and public health. The University President will also present a report. These actions are... of the Secretary Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences AGENCY: Department of Defense, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU). ACTION: Quarterly...

  12. Achieving Millennium Development Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health. PMID:17399849

  13. University of Minnesota Duluth, gasifier health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, H.R.; O'Donnell, F.R.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Etnier, E.L.

    1984-09-01

    This document describes an investigation of potential public and occupational health impacts associated with operation of the small, low Btu gasifier at the University of Minnesota, Duluth (UMD). The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify, within the uncertainty limits imposed by the available data, major contributors to such impacts. Consequently, we have estimated potential occupational health impacts and the gasifier's potential for producing certain health endpoints in the general public. Endpoints are specifically noncancer acute and chronic effects (threshold effects), and cancer and SO/sub x/-related mortalities (linear, nonthreshold effects) associated with atmospheric releases (no direct releases to aquatic systems occur at the facility) and subsequent inhalation exposure to representatives of three classes of released materials - metals, organics, and criteria pollutants. Other potential pathways to public exposure (atmospherically-contaminated drinking water, ingestion of locally produced foods, etc.) should not be responsible for a significant fraction of estimated risk, given the high dilution potential of the city's drinking water source (Lake Superior), and the fact that a relatively small quantity of food is grown locally. The report is organized to provide the reader with: (1) discussion and estimation, as feasible, of gasifier worker health risks, (2) source term (release rate) data, environmental transport and population exposure information, and (3) an assessment of the general population health risk based on these exposure estimates. 82 references, 1 figure, 9 tables.

  14. The role of insurance in the achievement of universal coverage within a developing country context: South Africa as a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Achieving universal coverage as an objective needs to confront the reality of multiple mechanisms, with healthcare financing and provision occurring in both public and private settings. South Africa has both large and mature public and private health systems offering useful insights into how they can be effectively harmonized to optimise coverage. Private healthcare in South Africa has also gone through many phases and regulatory regimes which, through careful review, can help identify potential policy frameworks that can optimise their ability to deepen coverage in a manner that complements the basic coverage of public arrangements. Research question Using South Africa as a case study, this review examines whether private health systems are susceptible to regulation and therefore able to support an extension and deepening of coverage when complementing a pre-existing publicly funded and delivered health system? Methods The approach involves a review of different stages in the development of the South African private health system and its response to policy changes. The focus is on the time-bound characteristics of the health system and associated policy responses and opportunities. A distinction is consequently made between the early, largely unregulated, phases of development and more mature phases with alternative regulatory regimes. Results The private health system in South Africa has played an important supplementary role in achieving universal coverage throughout its history, but more especially in the post-Apartheid period. However, the quality of this role has been erratic, influenced predominantly by policy vacillation. The private system expanded rapidly during the 1980s mainly due to the pre-existence of a mature health insurance system and a weakening public hospital system which could accommodate and facilitate an increased demand for private hospital services. This growth served to expand commercial interest in health insurance, in the

  15. The path towards universal health coverage in the Arab uprising countries Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; Natafgi, Nabil M; Mataria, Awad; Sabri, Belgacem; Nasher, Jamal; Zeiton, Moez; Ahmad, Shaimaa; Siddiqi, Sameen

    2014-01-25

    The constitutions of many countries in the Arab world clearly highlight the role of governments in guaranteeing provision of health care as a right for all citizens. However, citizens still have inequitable health-care systems. One component of such inequity relates to restricted financial access to health-care services. The recent uprisings in the Arab world, commonly referred to as the Arab spring, created a sociopolitical momentum that should be used to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). At present, many countries of the Arab spring are considering health coverage as a priority in dialogues for new constitutions and national policy agendas. UHC is also the focus of advocacy campaigns of a number of non-governmental organisations and media outlets. As part of the health in the Arab world Series in The Lancet, this report has three overarching objectives. First, we present selected experiences of other countries that had similar social and political changes, and how these events affected their path towards UHC. Second, we present a brief overview of the development of health-care systems in the Arab world with regard to health-care coverage and financing, with a focus on Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Yemen. Third, we aim to integrate historical lessons with present contexts in a roadmap for action that addresses the challenges and opportunities for progression towards UHC.

  16. Reuniting public health and medicine: the University of New Mexico School of Medicine Public Health Certificate.

    PubMed

    Geppert, Cynthia M A; Arndell, Cynthia L; Clithero, Amy; Dow-Velarde, Lily A; Eldredge, Jonathan D; Eldredge, Jonathan P; Kalishman, Summers; Kaufman, Arthur; McGrew, Martha C; Snyder, Tiffany M; Solan, Brian G; Timm, Craig T; Tollestrup, Kristine; Wagner, Lana K; Wiese, William H; Wiggins, Charles L; Cosgrove, Ellen M

    2011-10-01

    The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) sought to train medical students in public health concepts, knowledge, and skills as a means of improving the health of communities statewide. Faculty members from every UNMSOM department collaborated to create and integrate a public health focus into all years of the medical school curriculum. They identified key competencies and developed new courses that would synchronize students' learning public health subjects with the mainstream medical school content. New courses include: Health Equity: Principles of Public Health; Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Evidence-Based Practice; Community-Based Service Learning; and Ethics in Public Health. Students experiencing the new courses, first in pilot and then final forms, gave high quantitative ratings to all courses. Some students' qualitative comments suggest that the Public Health Certificate has had a profound transformative effect. Instituting the integrated Public Health Certificate at UNMSOM places it among the first medical schools to require all its medical students to complete medical school with public health training. The new UNMSOM Public Health Certificate courses reunite medicine and public health in a unified curriculum.

  17. BRICS countries and the global movement for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Finch, Aureliano; Procacci, Christina; Marten, Robert; Missoni, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    This article explores BRICS' engagement in the global movement for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the implications for global health governance. It is based on primary data collected from 43 key informant interviews, complemented by a review of BRICS' global commitments supporting UHC. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire that included both closed- and open-ended questions. Question development was informed by insights from the literature on UHC, Cox's framework for action, and Kingdon's multiple-stream theory of policy formation. The closed questions were analysed with simple descriptive statistics and the open-ended questions using grounded theory approach. The analysis demonstrates that most BRICS countries implicitly supported the global movement for UHC, and that they share an active engagement in promoting UHC. However, only Brazil, China and to some extent South Africa, were recognized as proactively pushing UHC in the global agenda. In addition, despite some concerted actions, BRICS countries seem to act more as individual countries rather that as an allied group. These findings suggest that BRICS are unlikely to be a unified political block that will transform global health governance. Yet the documented involvement of BRICS in the global movement supporting UHC, and their focus on domestic challenges, shows that BRICS individually are increasingly influential players in global health. So if BRICS countries should probably not be portrayed as the centre of future political community that will transform global health governance, their individual involvement in global health, and their documented concerted actions, may give greater voice to low- and middle-income countries supporting the emergence of multiple centres of powers in global health.

  18. BRICS countries and the global movement for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Finch, Aureliano; Procacci, Christina; Marten, Robert; Missoni, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    This article explores BRICS' engagement in the global movement for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the implications for global health governance. It is based on primary data collected from 43 key informant interviews, complemented by a review of BRICS' global commitments supporting UHC. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire that included both closed- and open-ended questions. Question development was informed by insights from the literature on UHC, Cox's framework for action, and Kingdon's multiple-stream theory of policy formation. The closed questions were analysed with simple descriptive statistics and the open-ended questions using grounded theory approach. The analysis demonstrates that most BRICS countries implicitly supported the global movement for UHC, and that they share an active engagement in promoting UHC. However, only Brazil, China and to some extent South Africa, were recognized as proactively pushing UHC in the global agenda. In addition, despite some concerted actions, BRICS countries seem to act more as individual countries rather that as an allied group. These findings suggest that BRICS are unlikely to be a unified political block that will transform global health governance. Yet the documented involvement of BRICS in the global movement supporting UHC, and their focus on domestic challenges, shows that BRICS individually are increasingly influential players in global health. So if BRICS countries should probably not be portrayed as the centre of future political community that will transform global health governance, their individual involvement in global health, and their documented concerted actions, may give greater voice to low- and middle-income countries supporting the emergence of multiple centres of powers in global health. PMID:26704179

  19. The Briscoe Library, University of Texas Health Science Center.

    PubMed

    Bowden, V M

    1994-09-01

    The Briscoe Library at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio opened in 1983, to replace and expand space for the growing campus. Work on the design phase began in 1979, once the legislature allocated $9.5 million for the new building. Of the 23 design objectives specified in the building program, flexibility to accommodate changing services and technology was given first priority. Details cover layout and technology, as well as changes to the environment and the building since it opened.

  20. Demonstration of the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Mabachi, Natabhona M.; Cifuentes, Maribel; Barnard, Juliana; Brega, Angela G.; Albright, Karen; Weiss, Barry D.; Brach, Cindy; West, David

    2016-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit was developed to help primary care practices assess and make changes to improve communication with and support for patients. Twelve diverse primary care practices implemented assigned tools over a 6-month period. Qualitative results revealed challenges practices experienced during implementation, including competing demands, bureaucratic hurdles, technological challenges, limited quality improvement experience, and limited leadership support. Practices used the Toolkit flexibly and recognized the efficiencies of implementing tools in tandem and in coordination with other quality improvement initiatives. Practices recommended reducing Toolkit density and making specific refinements. PMID:27232681

  1. [The assessment of health behaviours among Warsaw Medical University students].

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Alicja; Szewczyńiski, Jerzy A

    2002-01-01

    Some health behaviours among 228 students of Warsaw Medical University (130 women and 98 men) using anonymous questionnaire were examined. Percentage of smokers among female and male students was similar (13.1% and 14.3% respectively). Among respondents the greatest frequency of drinking alcohol was from a few times weekly to a few times monthly. Male students drunk alcohol more often than female ones. Beer was prefered by men, wine and beer--by women. Only male students (10.2%) used drugs (amphetamine, marihuana). About 1/3 of respondents did not do any sports. Female students had better knowledge about objective factors of their health status (blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol level) compared to males ones. PMID:17474607

  2. Can a public health care system achieve equity? The Norwegian experience.

    PubMed

    Grytten, J; Rongen, G; Sørensen, R

    1995-09-01

    Equity in health care provision is an important policy goal in Norway. This article addresses equality in the services provided by primary care physicians. These services are the responsibility of local government financed mainly through public funding. Patient fees are low. The local government system results in geographical variation in the number of physicians relative to local health demands. The authors present the hypothesis that this generates inequalities in health care utilization. The system of government finance is based on the assumption that utilization of health services is independent of patient income. Therefore, variation in income is expected to have only a small impact on utilization. The authors estimate a demand model by combining extensive micro data with aggregate data on municipal supply. There is very little relationship between indicators of access and health care utilization. The estimated income elasticities approximate zero, supporting the argument that equality in utilization has been achieved. However, the authors results also raise the question of whether equality has been achieved at the cost of limiting supply of services for people who could afford to consume more, or to pay for services of higher quality. PMID:7666707

  3. Can a public health care system achieve equity? The Norwegian experience.

    PubMed

    Grytten, J; Rongen, G; Sørensen, R

    1995-09-01

    Equity in health care provision is an important policy goal in Norway. This article addresses equality in the services provided by primary care physicians. These services are the responsibility of local government financed mainly through public funding. Patient fees are low. The local government system results in geographical variation in the number of physicians relative to local health demands. The authors present the hypothesis that this generates inequalities in health care utilization. The system of government finance is based on the assumption that utilization of health services is independent of patient income. Therefore, variation in income is expected to have only a small impact on utilization. The authors estimate a demand model by combining extensive micro data with aggregate data on municipal supply. There is very little relationship between indicators of access and health care utilization. The estimated income elasticities approximate zero, supporting the argument that equality in utilization has been achieved. However, the authors results also raise the question of whether equality has been achieved at the cost of limiting supply of services for people who could afford to consume more, or to pay for services of higher quality.

  4. Emerging challenges in implementing universal health coverage in Asia.

    PubMed

    Bredenkamp, Caryn; Evans, Timothy; Lagrada, Leizel; Langenbrunner, John; Nachuk, Stefan; Palu, Toomas

    2015-11-01

    As countries in Asia converge on the goal of universal health coverage (UHC), some common challenges are emerging. One is how to ensure coverage of the informal sector so as to make UHC truly universal; a second is how to design a benefit package that is responsive and appropriate to current health challenges, yet fiscally sustainable; and a third is how to ensure "supply-side readiness", i.e. the availability and quality of services, which is a necessary condition for translating coverage into improvements in health outcomes. Using examples from the Asia region, this paper discusses these three challenges and how they are being addressed. On the first challenge, two promising approaches emerge: using general revenues to fully cover the informal sector, or employing a combination of tax subsidies, non-financial incentives and contributory requirements. The former can produce fast results, but places pressure on government budgets and may induce informality, while the latter will require a strong administrative mandate and systems to track the ability-to-pay. With respect to benefit packages, we find considerable variation in the nature and rigor of processes underlying the selection and updating of the services included. Also, in general, packages do not yet focus sufficiently on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and related preventive outpatient care. Finally, there are large variations and inequities in the supply-side readiness, in terms of availability of infrastructure, equipment, essential drugs and staffing, to deliver on the promises of UHC. Health worker competencies are also a constraint. While the UHC challenges are common, experience in overcoming these challenges is varied and many of the successes appear to be highly context-specific. This implies that researchers and policymakers need to rigorously, and regularly, assess different approaches, and share these findings across countries in Asia - and across the world.

  5. Development and Confirmatory Factory Analysis of the Achievement Task Value Scale for University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Yu-Chiung; Lin, Hsiao-Fang; Lin, Chin-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to develop a scale to measure university students' task value and (b) to use confirmatory factor analytic techniques to investigate the construct validity of the scale. The questionnaire items were developed based on theoretical considerations and the final version contained 38 items divided into 4 subscales.…

  6. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large University - Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-29

    Texas A&M University is operating a high-efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) system at its district energy campus in College Station, Texas. Texas A&M received $10 million in U.S. Department of Energy funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for this project. Private-sector cost share totaled $40 million.

  7. Black Male College Achievers and Resistant Responses to Racist Stereotypes at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Shaun R. Harper investigates how Black undergraduate men respond to and resist the internalization of racist stereotypes at predominantly White colleges and universities. Prior studies consistently show that racial stereotypes are commonplace on many campuses, that their effects are usually psychologically and academically…

  8. Living-Learning Communities and Ethnicity: A Study on Closing the Achievement Gap at Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bewley, Jason Loyd

    2010-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the impact of living-learning communities on GPA and fall-to-fall retention rates for college freshmen at Regional University (RU). The specific focus of this study was the effect of these communities on students of different ethnic groups and on the potential of these communities to reduce the academic…

  9. Effects of Computer Simulations Programs on University Students' Achievements in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayrak, Celal

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated whether computer assisted instruction was more effective than face-to-face instruction in increasing student success in physics. The study was conducted in the spring semester of 2006 at the Department of Science and Mathematics for Secondary Education at Hacettepe University. Seventy-eight freshman students from…

  10. Marketing the Library in an On-Line University to Help Achieve Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    An entrepreneurial librarian takes the embedded librarian concept one step further at a completely on-line university and markets the virtual library to students, faculty and administration rather than wait for customers to come to the library. York and Vance (2009) make the observation that "one obstacle to marketing an embedded librarian…

  11. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit: Lessons from the University of Hawaii at Manoa

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  12. Achieving Excellence: The University of Wisconsin System Accountability Report, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison.

    This report presents information about the condition of the University of Wisconsin system (UW) and its progress toward educational excellence. The first section, "Context and Capacity," describes the environment and resources available to the UW system to fulfill its mission as a context for understanding progress on the six goals presented in…

  13. A Disciplinary Discourse Perspective on University Science Learning: Achieving Fluency in a Critical Constellation of Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airey, John; Linder, Cedric

    2009-01-01

    In this theoretical article we use an interpretative study with physics undergraduates to exemplify a proposed characterization of student learning in university science in terms of fluency in disciplinary discourse. Drawing on ideas from a number of different sources in the literature, we characterize what we call disciplinary discourse as the…

  14. Using Integrated Enterprise Systems to Achieve Strategic Goals: A Case Study of a Dual Mode University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Since 1999, the University of Southern Queensland has embarked on a range of initiatives designed to improve the infrastructure and systems used to support its widely ranging activities in teaching and learning and research and its expansion into new international markets. This has involved the careful selection and implementation of various…

  15. Achieving Performance Excellence in University Administration. A Team Approach to Organizational Change and Employee Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Manuel

    This book uses the experiences of a large state research university over the past 5 years to illustrate principles to improve administrative efficiency and manage change. In 12 chapters the book examines, provides lists, and gives examples of plans and strategies for dealing with matters such as: (1) change strategies; (2) leadership roles,…

  16. Effectiveness of a Universal, Interdependent Group Contingency Program on Children's Academic Achievement: A Countywide Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Osborne, Karen J.; Dean, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal prevention program designed to increase academic engagement and to decrease disruptive behavior in elementary school-age children. Teachers and other school personnel use interdependent group contingencies to improve students' behavior in the classroom. Previous research indicates the GBG is efficacious…

  17. The Implementation of Mental Health Clinical Triage Systems in University Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockland-Miller, Harry S.; Eells, Gregory T.

    2006-01-01

    The increase in the level of severity of student psychological difficulties and the growing need for psychological services in higher education settings has placed considerable pressure on college and university mental health services to respond effectively to this demand. One way several of these services have responded has been to implement…

  18. Implications of dual practice for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Russo, Giuliano; Hipgrave, David; Hort, Krishna; Campbell, James

    2016-02-01

    Making progress towards universal health coverage (UHC) requires that health workers are adequate in numbers, prepared for their jobs and motivated to perform. In establishing the best ways to develop the health workforce, relatively little attention has been paid to the trends and implications of dual practice - concurrent employment in public and private sectors. We review recent research on dual practice for its potential to guide staffing policies in relation to UHC. Many studies describe the characteristics and correlates of dual practice and speculate about impacts, but there is very little evidence that is directly relevant to policy-makers. No studies have evaluated the impact of policies on the characteristics of dual practice or implications for UHC. We address this lack and call for case studies of policy interventions on dual practice in different contexts. Such research requires investment in better data collection and greater determination on the part of researchers, research funding bodies and national research councils to overcome the difficulties of researching sensitive topics of health systems functions.

  19. Implications of dual practice for universal health coverage

    PubMed Central

    McPake, Barbara; Hipgrave, David; Hort, Krishna; Campbell, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Making progress towards universal health coverage (UHC) requires that health workers are adequate in numbers, prepared for their jobs and motivated to perform. In establishing the best ways to develop the health workforce, relatively little attention has been paid to the trends and implications of dual practice – concurrent employment in public and private sectors. We review recent research on dual practice for its potential to guide staffing policies in relation to UHC. Many studies describe the characteristics and correlates of dual practice and speculate about impacts, but there is very little evidence that is directly relevant to policy-makers. No studies have evaluated the impact of policies on the characteristics of dual practice or implications for UHC. We address this lack and call for case studies of policy interventions on dual practice in different contexts. Such research requires investment in better data collection and greater determination on the part of researchers, research funding bodies and national research councils to overcome the difficulties of researching sensitive topics of health systems functions. PMID:26908963

  20. A multiprofessional perspective on the principal barriers to universal health coverage and universal access to health in extremely poor territories: the contributions of nursing1

    PubMed Central

    de França, Viviane Helena; Modena, Celina Maria; Confalonieri, Ulisses Eugenio Cavalcanti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the knowledge of managers and health professionals, social workers and education professionals regarding the principal barriers to universal health coverage and universal access to health on the part of the extremely poor population; and to point to the contributions made by nursing for the promotion of this right. Method: a qualitative study whose reference was, for ensuring the right to health, the reorientation of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) towards universal coverage and access in these territories. Interviews were held with 27 members of the multi-professional team of a municipality with high social vulnerability. The data were worked on using thematic content analysis. Results: the following were ascertained as the principal barriers to universal health coverage and access to health: failures in the expansion and strengthening of the services; absence of diagnosis of the priority demands; shortage of technology, equipment, and material and human resources; poor local infrastructure; and actions with low resolutive power and absence of interdepartmental policies. Within the multi-professional team, nursing acts in the SUS in unique health actions and social practices in these territories, presenting an in-depth perspective on this harsh reality, being able to contribute with indispensable support for confronting these disparities in universal health coverage and universal access to health. Conclusion: nursing's in-depth understanding regarding these barriers is essential for encouraging the processes reorienting the SUS, geared towards equality in the right to health. PMID:27143541

  1. A Review of Realizing the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) Goals by 2030: Part 2- What is the Role of eHealth and Technology?

    PubMed

    Hussein, Rada

    2015-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a review of how to realize the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) goals by 2030. The objective of this review is to investigate the role of eHealth and technology in achieving UHC, focusing on four aspects: 1) identifying the importance of UHC and highlighting how UHC is influenced by health systems and eHealth, 2) investigating the current status of UHC worldwide and indicating the current challenges facing the realization of UHC, 3) reviewing the current research activities in the UHC domain and emphasizing the role of eHealth and technology in achieving UHC, and 4) discussing the results of the review to identify the current gaps in UHC implantation and the corresponding research lines for future investigation. This part covers the last two aspects through providing a comprehensive understanding of the role of eHealth in the current research activities in the UHC domain. Specifically, eHealth can be extensively deployed in connecting the healthcare information systems, strengthening the health systems, building the health workforce capacity, in addition to forming frameworks of integrated mHealth strategies for achieving UHC. PMID:26044851

  2. A Review of Realizing the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) Goals by 2030: Part 2- What is the Role of eHealth and Technology?

    PubMed

    Hussein, Rada

    2015-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a review of how to realize the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) goals by 2030. The objective of this review is to investigate the role of eHealth and technology in achieving UHC, focusing on four aspects: 1) identifying the importance of UHC and highlighting how UHC is influenced by health systems and eHealth, 2) investigating the current status of UHC worldwide and indicating the current challenges facing the realization of UHC, 3) reviewing the current research activities in the UHC domain and emphasizing the role of eHealth and technology in achieving UHC, and 4) discussing the results of the review to identify the current gaps in UHC implantation and the corresponding research lines for future investigation. This part covers the last two aspects through providing a comprehensive understanding of the role of eHealth in the current research activities in the UHC domain. Specifically, eHealth can be extensively deployed in connecting the healthcare information systems, strengthening the health systems, building the health workforce capacity, in addition to forming frameworks of integrated mHealth strategies for achieving UHC.

  3. Promoting universal financial protection: a policy analysis of universal health coverage in Costa Rica (1940–2000)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper explores the implementation and sustenance of universal health coverage (UHC) in Costa Rica, discussing the development of a social security scheme that covered 5% of the population in 1940, to one that finances and provides comprehensive healthcare to the whole population today. The scheme is financed by mandatory, tri-partite social insurance contributions complemented by tax funding to cover the poor. Methods The analysis takes a historical perspective and explores the policy process including the key actors and their relative influence in decision-making. Data were collected using qualitative research instruments, including a review of literature, institutional and other documents, and in-depth interviews with key informants. Results Key lessons to be learned are: i) population health was high on the political agenda in Costa Rica, in particular before the 1980s when UHC was enacted and the transfer of hospitals to the social security institution took place. Opposition to UHC could therefore be contained through negotiation and implemented incrementally despite the absence of real consensus among the policy elite; ii) since the 1960s, the social security institution has been responsible for UHC in Costa Rica. This institution enjoys financial and managerial autonomy relative to the general government, which has also facilitated the UHC policy implementation process; iii) UHC was simultaneously constructed on three pillars that reciprocally strengthened each other: increasing population coverage, increasing availability of financial resources based on solidarity financing mechanisms, and increasing service coverage, ultimately offering comprehensive health services and the same benefits to every resident in the country; iv) particularly before the 1980s, the fruits of economic growth were structurally invested in health and other universal social policies, in particular education and sanitation. The social security institution became a

  4. Universal Factors of Student Achievement in High-Performing Eastern and Western Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether a common set of student attitudes and behavioral tendencies can account for academic achievement across different, especially high-performing, countries via analysis of the PISA 2009 international data set. The 13 countries examined are 5 of the top-performing Eastern countries/systems, namely Shanghai China, South…

  5. Personal Learning Environments (PLE) in the Academic Achievement of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallego, Maria Jesus; Gamiz, Vanesa Maria

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to analyze the elements that compose the PLE of pre-service teachers and to determine whether the composition of these environments is related to academic achievement in a course on Information and Communication Technologies in Education. The hypothesis is that a PLE with more components is related to a higher…

  6. Blended Learning Approach Using Moodle and Student's Achievement at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to identify factors behind the usage of a blended learning approach that could have an effect on students' achievement, motivation, collaboration and communication as perceived by students. It also aims to analyze obstacles faced by students in using Moodle in blended learning. A sample of 283-students from all colleges at…

  7. Effect of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety on Turkish University Students' Academic Achievement in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncer, Murat; Dogan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to identify to what extent the Turkish students' English classroom anxiety affects their academic achievement in English language. In this quantitative descriptive study, a correlational survey model was employed, and the convenience sampling was done. In order to collect data, the Foreign Language Classroom…

  8. Testing Multiple Goals Theory in an Asian Context: Filipino University Students' Motivation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dela Rosa, Elmer D.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals research has focused on the importance of mastery relative to performance goals, but the multiple goals perspective asserts that performance goals also lead to positive outcomes and that learners adopt multiple goals in adaptive ways. However, this multiple-goals perspective has not been extensively studied in Asian students. The…

  9. Latina/o Achievement at Predominantly White Universities: The Importance of Culture and Ethnic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo, Alison; Chang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory study, the authors examined the influence of cultural fit on the achievement of Latina/o college students by testing whether cultural integration factors (i.e., cultural congruity, ethnic identity, connection with ethnic minority peers) predict college GPA (grade point average). Participants were 113 Latina/o students enrolled…

  10. Brain Structure and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in University Professors with High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weiwei; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Li, Yadan; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Huimin; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Creative persons play an important role in technical innovation and social progress. There is little research on the neural correlates with researchers with high academic achievement. We used a combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity analysis, rsFC) approach to examine the…

  11. India's "tryst" with universal health coverage: reflections on ethnography in Indian health policymaking.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Devaki

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, India stood at the crossroads of potentially major health reform. A High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on universal health coverage (UHC), convened by the Indian Planning Commission, proposed major changes in the structure and functioning of the country's health system. This paper presents reflections on the role of ethnography in policy-based social change for health in India, drawing from year-long participation in the aforementioned policy development process. It theorizes that international discourses have been (re)appropriated in the Indian case by recourse to both experience and evidence, resulting in a plurality of concepts that could be prioritized for Indian health reform. This articulation involved HLEG members exerting para-ethnographic labour and paying close attention to context, suggesting that ethnographic sensibilities can reside within the interactive and knowledge production practices among experts oriented toward policy change.

  12. From Headline to Hard Grind: The Importance of Understanding Public Administration in Achieving Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    O’Flynn, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Many public policy programs fail to translate ambitious headlines to on-the-ground action. The reasons for this are many and varied, but for public administration and management scholars a large part of the gap between ambition and achievement is the challenge associated with the operation of the machinery of government itself, and how it relates to the other parties that it relies on to fulfill these outcomes. In their article, Carey and Friel set out key reasons why public health scholars should seek to better understand important ideas in public administration. In commenting on their contribution, I draw out two critical questions that are raised by this discussion: (i) what are boundaries and what forms do they take? and (ii) why work across boundaries? Expanding on these key questions extends the points made by Carey and Friel on the importance of understanding public administration and will better place public health scholars and practitioners to realise health outcomes. PMID:27694672

  13. Achieving the health Millennium Development Goals for South Africa: challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Mickey; Lawn, Joy E; Sanders, David; Barron, Peter; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Flisher, Alan J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tollman, Stephen M; Churchyard, Gavin J; Coovadia, Hoosen

    2009-09-19

    15 years after liberation from apartheid, South Africans are facing new challenges for which the highest calibre of leadership, vision, and commitment is needed. The effect of the unprecedented HIV/AIDS epidemic has been immense. Substantial increases in mortality and morbidity are threatening to overwhelm the health system and undermine the potential of South Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However The Lancet's Series on South Africa has identified several examples of leadership and innovation that point towards a different future scenario. We discuss the type of vision, leadership, and priority actions needed to achieve such a change. We still have time to change the health trajectory of the country, and even meet the MDGs. The South African Government, installed in April, 2009, has the mandate and potential to address the public health emergencies facing the country--will they do so or will another opportunity and many more lives be lost?

  14. Development of a Health Screening Package Under the Universal Health Coverage: The Role of Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Kingkaew, Pritaporn; Koopitakkajorn, Tanunya; Youngkong, Sitaporn; Tritasavit, Nattha; Srisuwan, Patsri; Tantivess, Sripen

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the systematic development of a population-based health screening package for all Thai people under the universal health coverage (UHC). To determine major disease areas and health problems for which health screening could mitigate health burden, a consultation process was conducted in a systematic, participatory, and evidence-based manner that involved 41 stakeholders in a half-day workshop. Twelve diseases/health problems were identified during the discussion. Subsequently, health technology assessments, including systematic review and meta-analysis of health benefits as well as economic evaluations and budget impact analyses of corresponding population-based screening interventions, were completed. The results led to advice against elements of current clinical practice, such as annual chest X-rays and particular blood tests (e.g. kidney function test), and indicated that the introduction of certain new population-based health screening programs, such as for chronic hepatitis B, would provide substantial health and economic benefits to the Thais. The final results were presented to a wide group of stakeholders, including decision-makers at the Ministry of Public Health and the public health insurance schemes, to verify and validate the findings and policy recommendations. The package has been endorsed by the Thai UHC Benefit Package Committee for implementation in fiscal year 2016. PMID:26774008

  15. Development of a Health Screening Package Under the Universal Health Coverage: The Role of Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Kingkaew, Pritaporn; Koopitakkajorn, Tanunya; Youngkong, Sitaporn; Tritasavit, Nattha; Srisuwan, Patsri; Tantivess, Sripen

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the systematic development of a population-based health screening package for all Thai people under the universal health coverage (UHC). To determine major disease areas and health problems for which health screening could mitigate health burden, a consultation process was conducted in a systematic, participatory, and evidence-based manner that involved 41 stakeholders in a half-day workshop. Twelve diseases/health problems were identified during the discussion. Subsequently, health technology assessments, including systematic review and meta-analysis of health benefits as well as economic evaluations and budget impact analyses of corresponding population-based screening interventions, were completed. The results led to advice against elements of current clinical practice, such as annual chest X-rays and particular blood tests (e.g. kidney function test), and indicated that the introduction of certain new population-based health screening programs, such as for chronic hepatitis B, would provide substantial health and economic benefits to the Thais. The final results were presented to a wide group of stakeholders, including decision-makers at the Ministry of Public Health and the public health insurance schemes, to verify and validate the findings and policy recommendations. The package has been endorsed by the Thai UHC Benefit Package Committee for implementation in fiscal year 2016.

  16. View changes and educational demands on sexual/reproductive health of students at Shanghai Jiaotong University

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxiang; Chen, Bin; Xu, Yong; Miao, Qing; Wu, Zhenming; Ju, Qiang; Huang, Yiran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the attitudes to sexual and reproductive health of a cohort of university students had changed from 2005 to 2013. Methods: Questionnaires (1,000) on sexual and reproductive health attitudes were randomly distributed to students at Shanghai Jiaotong University in May 2013. All participants volunteered for the study and their answers were anonymous. The questionnaire contents included personal information and 72 MCQs, which covered four categories: knowledge about sexual/reproductive health and STDs; attitude to sexual behavior; attitudes to pornographic books/movies; desire of the participants for education on sexual/reproductive health. The participants had not received sexual/reproductive health education since their admission to the university. Their study majors were broadly similar to those participants in the April 2005 survey. The high sensitivity of the content of the questionnaire made it imperative to maintain anonymity and high security of the collected data. Results: The return rate of questionnaires were 98% (request age from 19~21 years). Personal hygiene was much greater in females than in males. The proportion of females and males who held a positive attitude to premarital sexual behavior was significantly increased (P < 0.0001). 80% of the participants understood the need to use condoms with strangers; however, still high proportion of participants lacked of this knowledge (P = 0.142). About one third of the participants still did not believe that unmarried pregnancy was acceptable (no significant change from 2005 to 2013). There was significantly improved knowledge about the way in which AIDS spreads. Conclusions: College students are more open today compared to the 2003 survey. A higher level of sexual knowledge has been achieved but there scope for further improvement. Sex education should be based on the actual needs of young people, teaching reforms, and special attention paid to practical teaching. PMID

  17. Historically Black College and University Graduates' Admission to and Graduation from Health Profession Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen (Anita F.) Associates.

    Admission to and graduation from health profession schools by graduates of historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) were studied, with a focus on the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) and Howard University's Medical (HUMS) and Dental Schools (HUDS). Site visits and interviews were also conducted with the pre-health program…

  18. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    PubMed

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18-23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p < 0.05). The descriptive analysis revealed that female students walked more steps (51.18%) and spent more time in moderate (125.70%) and vigorous (124.16%) activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p < 0.05). Women students did not achieve the recommended 10,000 steps/day on average during weekdays and weekend days. Only male students achieved this recommendation during weekdays. In summary, this study showed a high incidence of sedentary time in university students, mainly on weekend days. New strategies must be adopted to promote physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour.

  19. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18–23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p < 0.05). The descriptive analysis revealed that female students walked more steps (51.18%) and spent more time in moderate (125.70%) and vigorous (124.16%) activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p < 0.05). Women students did not achieve the recommended 10,000 steps/day on average during weekdays and weekend days. Only male students achieved this recommendation during weekdays. In summary, this study showed a high incidence of sedentary time in university students, mainly on weekend days. New strategies must be adopted to promote physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour. PMID:27022993

  20. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    PubMed

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18-23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p < 0.05). The descriptive analysis revealed that female students walked more steps (51.18%) and spent more time in moderate (125.70%) and vigorous (124.16%) activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p < 0.05). Women students did not achieve the recommended 10,000 steps/day on average during weekdays and weekend days. Only male students achieved this recommendation during weekdays. In summary, this study showed a high incidence of sedentary time in university students, mainly on weekend days. New strategies must be adopted to promote physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour. PMID:27022993

  1. Gatekeeper Training and Access to Mental Health Care at Universities and Colleges

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Speer, Nicole; Brunwasser, Steven; Hahn, Elisabeth; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gatekeeper-training programs (GKTs) are an increasingly popular approach to addressing access to mental health care in adolescent and young adult populations. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a widely used GKT program, Mental Health First Aid (MHFA), in college student populations. Methods A randomized control trial was conducted on 32 colleges and universities between 2009 and 2011. Campus residence halls were assigned to the intervention (MHFA plus preexisting trainings) or control condition (pre-existing trainings only) using matched pair randomization. The trainings were delivered to resident advisors (RAs). Outcome measures include service utilization, knowledge and attitudes about services, self-efficacy, intervention behaviors, and mental health symptoms. Data come from two sources: (1) surveys completed by the students (RAs and residents) (N=2,543), 2-3 months pre- and post-intervention; and (2) utilization records from campus mental health centers, aggregated by residence. Results The training increases trainees’ self-perceived knowledge (regression-adjusted effect size (ES)=0.38, p<0.001), self-perceived ability to identify students in distress (ES=0.19, p=0.01), and confidence to help (ES=0.17, p=0.04). There are no apparent effects, however, on utilization of mental health care in the student communities in which the trainees live. Conclusions Although GKTs are widely used to increase access to mental health care, these programs may require modifications in order to achieve their objectives. PMID:25043834

  2. Business planning for university health science programs: a case study.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michael; Milos, Nadine; Raborn, G Wayne

    2002-02-01

    Many publicly funded education programs and organizations have developed business plans to enhance accountability. In the case of the Department of Dentistry at the University of Alberta, the main impetus for business planning was a persistent deficit in the annual operating fund since a merger of a stand-alone dental faculty with the Faculty of Medicine. The main challenges were to balance revenues with expenditures, to reduce expenditures without compromising quality of teaching, service delivery and research, to maintain adequate funding to ensure future competitiveness, and to repay the accumulated debt owed to the university. The business plan comprises key strategies in the areas of education, clinical practice and service, and research. One of the strategies for education was to start a BSc program in dental hygiene, which was accomplished in September 2000. In clinical practice, a key strategy was implementation of a clinic operations fee, which also occurred in September 2000. This student fee helps to offset the cost of clinical practice. In research, a key strategy has been to strengthen our emphasis on prevention technologies. In completing the business plan, we learned the importance of identifying clear goals and ensuring that the goals are reasonable and achievable; gaining access to high-quality data to support planning; and nurturing existing positive relationships with external stakeholders such as the provincial government and professional associations. PMID:11869503

  3. The Predictability of Enrolment and First-Year University Results from Secondary School Performance: The New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive correlations between results from the New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA), a standards-based qualification, and university grade point averages achieved by first-year students in one large New Zealand University (and, for comparison purposes, also presents correlations from the…

  4. The University Environment: A Comprehensive Assessment of Health-Related Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymona, Katie; Quick, Virginia; Olfert, Melissa; Shelnutt, Karla; Kattlemann, Kendra K.; Brown-Esters, Onikia; Colby, Sarah E.; Beaudoin, Christina; Lubniewski, Jocelyn; Maia, Angelina Moore; Horacek, Tanya; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about health-related advertising on university environments. Given the power of advertising and its potential effect on health behaviors, the purpose of this paper is to assess the health-related advertisement environment and policies on university campuses. Design/methodology/approach: In total, ten geographically and…

  5. 78 FR 42053 - Board of Regents, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Quarterly Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... doctoral degrees in the biomedical sciences and public health; approval of awards and honors; a review of... of the Secretary Board of Regents, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Quarterly Meeting Notice AGENCY: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU), DoD. ACTION:...

  6. 75 FR 38493 - Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... degrees in the biomedical sciences and public health. The Acting President, USU will also present a report... of the Secretary Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences AGENCY: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU), DoD. ACTION: Quarterly meeting notice....

  7. Importance and Effectiveness of Student Health Services at a South Texas University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaig, Marilyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the health needs of students at a south Texas university and documented the utility of the student health center. The descriptive study employed a mixed methods explanatory sequential design (ESD). The non-probability sample consisted of 140 students who utilized the university's health center during the period of March…

  8. Students Seeking Help for Mental Health Problems: Do Australian University Websites Provide Clear Pathways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Thomas A.; Fiedler, Brenton A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems in young Australians continue to be a major public health issue. Studying at university can generate social pressures particularly for youth, which have been associated with the onset of a mental illness or a worsening of an existing condition. Many universities provide health services to support students with health…

  9. [Designing and Operating a Comprehensive Mental Health Management System to Support Faculty at a University That Contains a Medical School and University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Chiaki

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, healthcare professionals and healthcare workers typically practice a culture of self-assessment when it comes to managing their own health. Even where this background leads to instances of mental health disorders or other serious problems within a given organization, such cases are customarily addressed by the psychiatrists or psychiatric departments of the facilities affected. Organized occupational mental health initiatives for professionals and workers within the healthcare system are extremely rare across Japan, and there is little recognition of the need for such initiatives even among those most directly affected. The author has some experience designing and operating a comprehensive health management system to support students and faculty at a university in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area that contains a medical school and university hospital. At this university, various mental health-related problems were routinely being allowed to develop into serious cases, while the fundamental reforms required by the health management center and the mental health management scheme organized through the center had come to represent a challenge for the entire university. From this initial situation, we undertook several successive initiatives, including raising the number of staff in the health management center and its affiliated organizations, revising and drafting new health management rules and regulations, launching an employment support and management system, implementing screenings to identify people with mental ill-health, revamping and expanding a counselling response system, instituting regular collaboration meetings with academic affairs staff, and launching educational and awareness-raising activities. This resulted in the possibility of intervention in all cases of mental health crisis, such as suicidal ideation. We counted more than 2,400 consultations (cumulative total number; more than half of consultations was from the medical school, postgraduate

  10. Schistosomiasis elimination strategies and potential role of a vaccine in achieving global health goals.

    PubMed

    Mo, Annie X; Agosti, Jan M; Walson, Judd L; Hall, B Fenton; Gordon, Lance

    2014-01-01

    In March 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation co-sponsored a meeting entitled "Schistosomiasis Elimination Strategy and Potential Role of a Vaccine in Achieving Global Health Goals" to discuss the potential role of schistosomiasis vaccines and other tools in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination strategies. It was concluded that although schistosomiasis elimination in some focal areas may be achievable through current mass drug administration programs, global control and elimination will face several significant scientific and operational challenges, and will require an integrated approach with other, additional interventions. These challenges include vector (snail) control; environmental modification; water, sanitation, and hygiene; and other future innovative tools such as vaccines. Defining a clear product development plan that reflects a vaccine strategy as complementary to the existing control programs to combat different forms of schistosomiasis will be important to develop a vaccine effectively.

  11. Occupational health needs of universities: a review with an emphasis on the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Venables, K M; Allender, S

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the needs of universities in relation to planning the provision of occupational health services, by detailing their occupational hazards and risks and other relevant factors. The paper presents the results of (1) an enquiry into publicly available data relevant to occupational health in the university sector in the United Kingdom, (2) a literature review on occupational health provision in universities, and (3) selected results from a survey of university occupational health services in the UK. Although the enquiry and survey, but not the literature review, were restricted to the UK, the authors consider that the results are relevant to other countries because of the broad similarities of the university sector between countries. These three approaches showed that the university sector is large, with a notably wide range of occupational hazards, and other significant factors which must be considered in planning occupational health provision for individual universities or for the sector as a whole. PMID:16497856

  12. The Virtual Health University: An eLearning Model within the Cuban Health System.

    PubMed

    Jardines, José B

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes Cuba's experience with the Virtual Health University (VHU) as a strategic project of INFOMED, promoting creation of an open teaching-learning environment for health sciences education, through intensive and creative use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and a network approach to learning. An analysis of the VHU's main antecedents in its different stages of development provides insight into the strategic reasons that led to the establishment of a virtual university in the national health system during Cuba's so-called Special Period of economic crisis. Using the general objectives of creating, sharing, and collaborating which define the VHU's conceptual-operative framework, the three essential components (subsystems) are described: pedagogical, technological, and managerial, as well as the operative stages of educational design, technological implementation, and teaching-administrative management system. Each component of the model is analyzed in the context of global, modern university trends, towards integration of the face-to-face and distance education approaches and the creation of virtual institutions that assume the technological and pedagogical changes demanded by eLearning. PMID:21483353

  13. The Virtual Health University: An eLearning Model within the Cuban Health System.

    PubMed

    Jardines, José B

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes Cuba's experience with the Virtual Health University (VHU) as a strategic project of INFOMED, promoting creation of an open teaching-learning environment for health sciences education, through intensive and creative use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and a network approach to learning. An analysis of the VHU's main antecedents in its different stages of development provides insight into the strategic reasons that led to the establishment of a virtual university in the national health system during Cuba's so-called Special Period of economic crisis. Using the general objectives of creating, sharing, and collaborating which define the VHU's conceptual-operative framework, the three essential components (subsystems) are described: pedagogical, technological, and managerial, as well as the operative stages of educational design, technological implementation, and teaching-administrative management system. Each component of the model is analyzed in the context of global, modern university trends, towards integration of the face-to-face and distance education approaches and the creation of virtual institutions that assume the technological and pedagogical changes demanded by eLearning.

  14. The impact of Universal Health Coverage on health care consumption and risky behaviours: evidence from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ghislandi, Simone; Manachotphong, Wanwiphang; Perego, Viviana M E

    2015-07-01

    Thailand is among the first non-OECD countries to have introduced a form of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). This policy represents a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of public health insurance on health behaviours. In this paper, we examine the impact of Thailand's UHC programme on preventive activities, unhealthy or risky behaviours and health care consumption using data from the Thai Health and Welfare Survey. We use doubly robust estimators that combine propensity scores and linear regressions to estimate differences-in-differences (DD) and differences-in-DD models. Our results offer important insights. First, UHC increases individuals' likelihood of having an annual check-up, especially among women. Regarding health care consumption, we observe that UHC increases hospital admissions by over 2% and increases outpatient visits by 13%. However, there is no evidence that UHC leads to an increase in unhealthy behaviours or a reduction of preventive efforts. In other words, we find no evidence of ex ante moral hazard. Overall, these findings suggest positive health impacts among the Thai population covered by UHC. PMID:25116081

  15. Ethical priority setting for universal health coverage: challenges in deciding upon fair distribution of health services.

    PubMed

    Norheim, Ole F

    2016-05-11

    Priority setting is inevitable on the path towards universal health coverage. All countries experience a gap between their population's health needs and what is economically feasible for governments to provide. Can priority setting ever be fair and ethically acceptable? Fairness requires that unmet health needs be addressed, but in a fair order. Three criteria for priority setting are widely accepted among ethicists: cost-effectiveness, priority to the worse-off, and financial risk protection. Thus, a fair health system will expand coverage for cost-effective services and give extra priority to those benefiting the worse-off, whilst at the same time providing high financial risk protection. It is considered unacceptable to treat people differently according to their gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, social status, or place of residence. Inequalities in health outcomes associated with such personal characteristics are therefore unfair and should be minimized. This commentary also discusses a third group of contested criteria, including rare diseases, small health benefits, age, and personal responsibility for health, subsequently rejecting them. In conclusion, countries need to agree on criteria and establish transparent and fair priority setting processes.

  16. Ethical priority setting for universal health coverage: challenges in deciding upon fair distribution of health services.

    PubMed

    Norheim, Ole F

    2016-01-01

    Priority setting is inevitable on the path towards universal health coverage. All countries experience a gap between their population's health needs and what is economically feasible for governments to provide. Can priority setting ever be fair and ethically acceptable? Fairness requires that unmet health needs be addressed, but in a fair order. Three criteria for priority setting are widely accepted among ethicists: cost-effectiveness, priority to the worse-off, and financial risk protection. Thus, a fair health system will expand coverage for cost-effective services and give extra priority to those benefiting the worse-off, whilst at the same time providing high financial risk protection. It is considered unacceptable to treat people differently according to their gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, social status, or place of residence. Inequalities in health outcomes associated with such personal characteristics are therefore unfair and should be minimized. This commentary also discusses a third group of contested criteria, including rare diseases, small health benefits, age, and personal responsibility for health, subsequently rejecting them. In conclusion, countries need to agree on criteria and establish transparent and fair priority setting processes. PMID:27170046

  17. The role of insurance in the achievement of universal coverage within a developing country context: South Africa as a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Achieving universal coverage as an objective needs to confront the reality of multiple mechanisms, with healthcare financing and provision occurring in both public and private settings. South Africa has both large and mature public and private health systems offering useful insights into how they can be effectively harmonized to optimise coverage. Private healthcare in South Africa has also gone through many phases and regulatory regimes which, through careful review, can help identify potential policy frameworks that can optimise their ability to deepen coverage in a manner that complements the basic coverage of public arrangements. Research question Using South Africa as a case study, this review examines whether private health systems are susceptible to regulation and therefore able to support an extension and deepening of coverage when complementing a pre-existing publicly funded and delivered health system? Methods The approach involves a review of different stages in the development of the South African private health system and its response to policy changes. The focus is on the time-bound characteristics of the health system and associated policy responses and opportunities. A distinction is consequently made between the early, largely unregulated, phases of development and more mature phases with alternative regulatory regimes. Results The private health system in South Africa has played an important supplementary role in achieving universal coverage throughout its history, but more especially in the post-Apartheid period. However, the quality of this role has been erratic, influenced predominantly by policy vacillation. The private system expanded rapidly during the 1980s mainly due to the pre-existence of a mature health insurance system and a weakening public hospital system which could accommodate and facilitate an increased demand for private hospital services. This growth served to expand commercial interest in health insurance, in the

  18. Universal health insurance coverage for 1.3 billion people: What accounts for China's success?

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    China successfully achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011, representing the largest expansion of insurance coverage in human history. While the achievement is widely recognized, it is still largely unexplored why China was able to attain it within a short period. This study aims to fill the gap. Through a systematic political and socio-economic analysis, it identifies seven major drivers for China's success, including (1) the SARS outbreak as a wake-up call, (2) strong public support for government intervention in health care, (3) renewed political commitment from top leaders, (4) heavy government subsidies, (5) fiscal capacity backed by China's economic power, (6) financial and political responsibilities delegated to local governments and (7) programmatic implementation strategy. Three of the factors seem to be unique to China (i.e., the SARS outbreak, the delegation, and the programmatic strategy.) while the other factors are commonly found in other countries' insurance expansion experiences. This study also discusses challenges and recommendations for China's health financing, such as reducing financial risk as an immediate task, equalizing benefit across insurance programs as a long-term goal, improving quality by tying provider payment to performance, and controlling costs through coordinated reform initiatives. Finally, it draws lessons for other developing countries. PMID:26251322

  19. Strengthening the health workforce and rolling out universal health coverage: the need for policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Koon, Adam D; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2013-07-24

    This article opens a debate about how to think about moving forward with the emerging twin movements of human resources for health (HRH) and universal health coverage (UHC). There is sufficient evidence to warrant these movements, but actors and the policy process significantly affect which policies are adopted and how they are implemented. How exactly this occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is not very well understood. Furthermore, it is not clear whether actors will mobilize for or against the emergent HRH and UHC agendas. Policy analysis should help illuminate potential strategies to account for multiple interests and divergent values in volatile stakeholder environments. We argue that not only should the movement for UHC be paired with current efforts to address the human resources crisis, but also, for both to succeed, we need to know more about how health policy works in LMICs.

  20. Strengthening the health workforce and rolling out universal health coverage: the need for policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koon, Adam D.; Mayhew, Susannah H.

    2013-01-01

    This article opens a debate about how to think about moving forward with the emerging twin movements of human resources for health (HRH) and universal health coverage (UHC). There is sufficient evidence to warrant these movements, but actors and the policy process significantly affect which policies are adopted and how they are implemented. How exactly this occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is not very well understood. Furthermore, it is not clear whether actors will mobilize for or against the emergent HRH and UHC agendas. Policy analysis should help illuminate potential strategies to account for multiple interests and divergent values in volatile stakeholder environments. We argue that not only should the movement for UHC be paired with current efforts to address the human resources crisis, but also, for both to succeed, we need to know more about how health policy works in LMICs. PMID:23886375

  1. Health financing lessons from Thailand for South Africa on the path towards universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Mark; Pillay, Anban; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Teerawattananon, Yot; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Davén, Jonatan

    2016-06-01

    Five years after the release of its Green Paper on National Health Insurance (NHI),years after the institution of NHI pilot sites and following the recent release of the White Pa 4 per on NHI, South Africa (SA) needs to move beyond the phase 1 plans of policy making and healthening activities to phase 2 - putting into place the legal and institutional frameth system strengworks and systems for implementation of its universal health coverage (UHC) system. In doing so, SA can draw on considerable practical lessons from other countries' reforms in managing UHC with favourable equity outcomes over the past decade. We outline some potentially significant lessons from the Thai health financing system for SA. PMID:27245713

  2. Leadership and culture of data governance for the achievement of higher education goals (Case study: Indonesia University of Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putro, Budi Laksono; Surendro, Kridanto; Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Data is a vital asset in a business enterprise in achieving organizational goals. Data and information affect the decision-making process on the various activities of an organization. Data problems include validity, quality, duplication, control over data, and the difficulty of data availability. Data Governance is the way the company / institution manages its data assets. Data Governance covers the rules, policies, procedures, roles and responsibilities, and performance indicators that direct the overall management of data assets. Studies on governance data or information aplenty recommend the importance of cultural factors in the governance of research data. Among the organization's leadership culture has a very close relationship, and there are two concepts turn, namely: Culture created by leaders, leaders created by culture. Based on the above, this study exposure to the theme "Leadership and Culture Of Data Governance For The Achievement Of Higher Education Goals (Case Study: Indonesia University Of Education)". Culture and Leadership Model Development of on Higher Education in Indonesia would be made by comparing several models of data governance, organizational culture, and organizational leadership on previous studies based on the advantages and disadvantages of each model to the existing organizational business. Results of data governance model development is shown in the organizational culture FPMIPA Indonesia University Of Education today is the cultural market and desired culture is a culture of clan. Organizational leadership today is Individualism Index (IDV) (83.72%), and situational leadership on selling position.

  3. Study of Global Health Strategy Based on International Trends: -Promoting Universal Health Coverage Globally and Ensuring the Sustainability of Japan's Universal Coverage of Health Insurance System: Problems and Proposals.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Takashi; Eguchi, Narumi; Deguchi, Mayumi; Yazawa, Manami; Ishii, Masami

    2015-09-01

    The Japanese government at present is implementing international health and medical growth strategies mainly from the viewpoint of business. However, the United Nations is set to resolve the Post-2015 Development Agenda in the fall of 2015; the agenda will likely include the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) as a specific development goal. Japan's healthcare system, the foundation of which is its public, nationwide universal health insurance program, has been evaluated highly by the Lancet. The World Bank also praised it as a global model. This paper presents suggestions and problems for Japan regarding global health strategies, including in regard to several prerequisite domestic preparations that must be made. They are summarized as follows. (1) The UHC development should be promoted in coordination with the United Nations, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank. (2) The universal health insurance system of Japan can be a global model for UHC and ensuring its sustainability should be considered a national policy. (3) Trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) should not disrupt or interfere with UHC, the form of which is unique to each nation, including Japan. (4) Japan should disseminate information overseas, including to national governments, people, and physicians, regarding the course of events that led to the establishment of the Japan's universal health insurance system and should make efforts to develop international human resources to participate in UHC policymaking. (5) The development of separate healthcare programs and UHC preparation should be promoted by streamlining and centralizing maternity care, school health, infectious disease management such as for tuberculosis, and emergency medicine such as for traffic accidents. (6) Japan should disseminate information overseas about its primary care physicians (kakaritsuke physicians) and develop international human resources. (7) Global health should be developed in

  4. Study of Global Health Strategy Based on International Trends: -Promoting Universal Health Coverage Globally and Ensuring the Sustainability of Japan's Universal Coverage of Health Insurance System: Problems and Proposals.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Takashi; Eguchi, Narumi; Deguchi, Mayumi; Yazawa, Manami; Ishii, Masami

    2015-09-01

    The Japanese government at present is implementing international health and medical growth strategies mainly from the viewpoint of business. However, the United Nations is set to resolve the Post-2015 Development Agenda in the fall of 2015; the agenda will likely include the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) as a specific development goal. Japan's healthcare system, the foundation of which is its public, nationwide universal health insurance program, has been evaluated highly by the Lancet. The World Bank also praised it as a global model. This paper presents suggestions and problems for Japan regarding global health strategies, including in regard to several prerequisite domestic preparations that must be made. They are summarized as follows. (1) The UHC development should be promoted in coordination with the United Nations, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank. (2) The universal health insurance system of Japan can be a global model for UHC and ensuring its sustainability should be considered a national policy. (3) Trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) should not disrupt or interfere with UHC, the form of which is unique to each nation, including Japan. (4) Japan should disseminate information overseas, including to national governments, people, and physicians, regarding the course of events that led to the establishment of the Japan's universal health insurance system and should make efforts to develop international human resources to participate in UHC policymaking. (5) The development of separate healthcare programs and UHC preparation should be promoted by streamlining and centralizing maternity care, school health, infectious disease management such as for tuberculosis, and emergency medicine such as for traffic accidents. (6) Japan should disseminate information overseas about its primary care physicians (kakaritsuke physicians) and develop international human resources. (7) Global health should be developed in

  5. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50 ) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r2 = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50 , age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students. PMID:23638357

  6. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    PubMed

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r (2) = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50, age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students.

  7. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    PubMed

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r (2) = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50, age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students. PMID:23638357

  8. Development of a University-Based Corporate Health-Enhancement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badenhop, D. T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This article shares the strategies, design, and organization associated with the development of a university-based corporate health-enhancement program known as the Physical Evaluation And Conditioning for Health (PEACH) Program. (MT)

  9. Identification and Analysis of Labor Productivity Components Based on ACHIEVE Model (Case Study: Staff of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences)

    PubMed Central

    Ziapour, Arash; Khatony, Alireza; Kianipour, Neda; Jafary, Faranak

    2015-01-01

    Identification and analysis of the components of labor productivity based on ACHIEVE model was performed among employees in different parts of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. This was a descriptive correlational study in which the population consisted of 270 working personnel in different administrative groups (contractual, fixed- term and regular) at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (872 people) that were selected among 872 people through stratified random sampling method based on Krejcie and Morgan sampling table. The survey tool included labor productivity questionnaire of ACHIEVE. Questionnaires were confirmed in terms of content and face validity, and their reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean scores for labor productivity dimensions of the employees, including environment (environmental fit), evaluation (training and performance feedback), validity (valid and legal exercise of personnel), incentive (motivation or desire), help (organizational support), clarity (role perception or understanding), ability (knowledge and skills) variables and total labor productivity were 4.10±0.630, 3.99±0.568, 3.97±0.607, 3.76±0.701, 3.63±0.746, 3.59±0.777, 3.49±0.882 and 26.54±4.347, respectively. Also, the results indicated that the seven factors of environment, performance assessment, validity, motivation, organizational support, clarity, and ability were effective in increasing labor productivity. The analysis of the current status of university staff in the employees’ viewpoint suggested that the two factors of environment and evaluation, which had the greatest impact on labor productivity in the viewpoint of the staff, were in a favorable condition and needed to be further taken into consideration by authorities. PMID:25560364

  10. [Social participation in the achievement of health policies to women in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the evolution of the participatory process in women's movements, especially those related to feminism, in the elaboration of health care policies to women in Brazil, from the 1970s until the present time. For this purpose, it is based on bibliography and on documentary analysis. The article determines the collaboration character that predominated in the beginning of the feminist movements relations with State institutions, and their recent actions regarding institutionalized instances of social participation and control. It further underlines some changes in the political activism of these movements, formerly advocating comprehensive health care to women and approaching the complexity of the broad demands and needs, and subsequently shifting to the defense of a focused acting, essentially when it comes to reproductive rights matters. Parallel to the acknowledgement of several achievements, the author emphasizes the necessity of disseminating the debate over women's health care in every space available for dialogue between the Government and the civil society in order to re-politicize this debate and to strengthen women's demands.

  11. [Social participation in the achievement of health policies to women in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the evolution of the participatory process in women's movements, especially those related to feminism, in the elaboration of health care policies to women in Brazil, from the 1970s until the present time. For this purpose, it is based on bibliography and on documentary analysis. The article determines the collaboration character that predominated in the beginning of the feminist movements relations with State institutions, and their recent actions regarding institutionalized instances of social participation and control. It further underlines some changes in the political activism of these movements, formerly advocating comprehensive health care to women and approaching the complexity of the broad demands and needs, and subsequently shifting to the defense of a focused acting, essentially when it comes to reproductive rights matters. Parallel to the acknowledgement of several achievements, the author emphasizes the necessity of disseminating the debate over women's health care in every space available for dialogue between the Government and the civil society in order to re-politicize this debate and to strengthen women's demands. PMID:19721948

  12. [The strategic purchasing of health services: a big opportunity for the National Universal Health System].

    PubMed

    González-Block, Miguel Ángel; Alarcón Irigoyen, José; Figueroa Lara, Alejandro; Ibarra Espinosa, Ignacio; Cortés Llamas, Noemí

    2015-01-01

    proposed to establish a service packages, whether through a single obligatory list or through the definition of a flexible, high priority set to be offered to specific populations according to their economic possibilities. For the strategic purchasing of services, two alternatives are proposed: to assign the fund either to a single national manager or to each of the existing public provider institutions, with the expectation that they would contract across each other and with private providers to fulfill their complementary needs.The proposal does not consider the risks and alternatives to a single tax contribution fund, which could have been suggested given that it is not an essential part of a National Universal Health System. However, it is necessary to discuss in more detail the roles and strategies for a national single-payer, especially for the strategic purchasing of high-cost and specialized interventions in the context of public and private providers. The alternative of allocating funds directly to providers would undermine the incentives for competition and collaboration and the capacity to steer providers towards the provision of high quality health services.It is proposed to focus the discussion of the reform of the national health system around strategic purchasing and the functions and structure of a single-payer as well as of agencies to articulate integrated health service networks as tools to promote quality and efficiency of the National Universal Health System. The inclusion of economic incentives to providers will be vital for competition, but also for the cooperation of providers within integrated, multi-institutional health service networks.Health professionals and sector policy specialists coordinated by the Centro de Estudios Espinosa Yglesi as in Mexico propose a policy to anchor the health system in primary care centered on the individual. The vision includes effective stewardship,solid financing, and the provision of services by a

  13. [The strategic purchasing of health services: a big opportunity for the National Universal Health System].

    PubMed

    González-Block, Miguel Ángel; Alarcón Irigoyen, José; Figueroa Lara, Alejandro; Ibarra Espinosa, Ignacio; Cortés Llamas, Noemí

    2015-01-01

    proposed to establish a service packages, whether through a single obligatory list or through the definition of a flexible, high priority set to be offered to specific populations according to their economic possibilities. For the strategic purchasing of services, two alternatives are proposed: to assign the fund either to a single national manager or to each of the existing public provider institutions, with the expectation that they would contract across each other and with private providers to fulfill their complementary needs.The proposal does not consider the risks and alternatives to a single tax contribution fund, which could have been suggested given that it is not an essential part of a National Universal Health System. However, it is necessary to discuss in more detail the roles and strategies for a national single-payer, especially for the strategic purchasing of high-cost and specialized interventions in the context of public and private providers. The alternative of allocating funds directly to providers would undermine the incentives for competition and collaboration and the capacity to steer providers towards the provision of high quality health services.It is proposed to focus the discussion of the reform of the national health system around strategic purchasing and the functions and structure of a single-payer as well as of agencies to articulate integrated health service networks as tools to promote quality and efficiency of the National Universal Health System. The inclusion of economic incentives to providers will be vital for competition, but also for the cooperation of providers within integrated, multi-institutional health service networks.Health professionals and sector policy specialists coordinated by the Centro de Estudios Espinosa Yglesi as in Mexico propose a policy to anchor the health system in primary care centered on the individual. The vision includes effective stewardship,solid financing, and the provision of services by a

  14. A Proposed Framework for Understanding the Forces behind Legislation of Universal Health Insurance—Lessons from Ten Countries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C Jason; Ellender, Stacey M; Textor, Theodora; Bauchner, Joshua H; Wu, Jen-You; Bauchner, Howard; Huang, Andrew T

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the forces propelling countries to legislate universal health insurance. Data Source/Study Design Descriptive review and exploratory synthesis of historic data on economic, geographic, socio-demographic, and political factors. Data Extraction Methods We searched under “insurance, health” on MEDLINE and Google Scholar, and we reviewed relevant books and articles via a snowball approach. Principal Findings Ten countries with universal health insurance were studied. For the five countries that passed final universal insurance laws prior to 1958, we found that two forces of “historical context” (i.e., social solidarity and historic patterns), one “ongoing dynamic force” (political pressures), and “one uniqueness of the moment” force (legislative permissiveness) played a major role. For the five countries that passed final legislation between 1967 and 2010, the predominant factors were two “ongoing dynamic forces” (economic pressures and political pressures) and one “uniqueness of the moment” force (leadership). In general, countries in the former group made steady progress, whereas those in the latter group progressed in abrupt leaps. Conclusions The lessons of more recent successes—almost all of which were achieved via abrupt leaps—strongly indicate the importance of leadership in taking advantage of generalized economic and political pressures to achieve universal health insurance. PMID:22092227

  15. Revalidation: a university health board's learning from pilot partner engagement.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Lyn Carolyn; Ryley, Nicola; Llewellyn, Denise

    2015-09-01

    This article aims to share organisational experiences and learning from the largest Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) revalidation pilot partner. The purpose of revalidation is to improve public and patient protection through career-long professional updating. Pilot participation enabled Aneurin Bevan University Health Board (ABUHB) to contribute significantly to system and process testing, underpinning revalidation across a range of nursing and midwifery settings. An action plan was developed providing a structured approach to the revalidation pilot, detailed actions were identified and progress against actions mapped and reported. While revalidation is the individual registrant's responsibility, there is an organisational obligation to create a supportive enabling environment. A strategic plan incorporating revalidation into organisational objectives and structured leadership roles assisted registrants to successfully meet the NMC's requirements. With 813 registrants completing the pilot process, ABUHB has an enhanced understanding of the revalidation process and an appreciation of its impact on associated professional issues. This level of learning has increased readiness for revalidation commencement for all UK nurses and midwives. PMID:26309012

  16. Revalidation: a university health board's learning from pilot partner engagement.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Lyn Carolyn; Ryley, Nicola; Llewellyn, Denise

    2015-09-01

    This article aims to share organisational experiences and learning from the largest Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) revalidation pilot partner. The purpose of revalidation is to improve public and patient protection through career-long professional updating. Pilot participation enabled Aneurin Bevan University Health Board (ABUHB) to contribute significantly to system and process testing, underpinning revalidation across a range of nursing and midwifery settings. An action plan was developed providing a structured approach to the revalidation pilot, detailed actions were identified and progress against actions mapped and reported. While revalidation is the individual registrant's responsibility, there is an organisational obligation to create a supportive enabling environment. A strategic plan incorporating revalidation into organisational objectives and structured leadership roles assisted registrants to successfully meet the NMC's requirements. With 813 registrants completing the pilot process, ABUHB has an enhanced understanding of the revalidation process and an appreciation of its impact on associated professional issues. This level of learning has increased readiness for revalidation commencement for all UK nurses and midwives.

  17. Performance of private sector health care: implications for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rosemary; Ensor, Tim; Waters, Hugh

    2016-08-01

    Although the private sector is an important health-care provider in many low-income and middle-income countries, its role in progress towards universal health coverage varies. Studies of the performance of the private sector have focused on three main dimensions: quality, equity of access, and efficiency. The characteristics of patients, the structures of both the public and private sectors, and the regulation of the sector influence the types of health services delivered, and outcomes. Combined with characteristics of private providers-including their size, objectives, and technical competence-the interaction of these factors affects how the sector performs in different contexts. Changing the performance of the private sector will require interventions that target the sector as a whole, rather than individual providers alone. In particular, the performance of the private sector seems to be intrinsically linked to the structure and performance of the public sector, which suggests that deriving population benefit from the private health-care sector requires a regulatory response focused on the health-care sector as a whole. PMID:27358251

  18. Human resources for health development: toward realizing Universal Health Coverage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Hidechika; Osanai, Yasuyo; Akashi, Rumiko

    2015-10-01

    Human resources are an important factor in establishing universal health coverage (UHC). We examined Japan's health policies related to development of human resources for health (HRH) toward establishing UHC, and tried to formulate a model for other countries wanting to introduce UHC through reviewing existing data and documents related to Japan's history in developing HRH. In the results, there were four phases of HRH development in Japan: Phase 1 involved a shortage of HRH; Phase 2 was characterized by rapid production of less-educated HRH; Phase 3 involved introduction of quality improvement procedures such as upgrade education for nursing staff or licensing examination for physicians; Phase 4 was characterized by a predominance of formal health professionals. To encourage transition between these phrases, Japan utilized several procedures, including: (i) offering shorter professional education, (ii) fewer admission requirements for professional education, (iii) widespread location of schools, and (iv) the aforementioned quality improvement procedures. Japan was able to introduce UHC during Phase 3, and Japanese health indicators have improved gradually through these phases. Consequently, the government of Japan focused on increasing the quantity of HRH through relaxed admission requirements, shorter education periods, and increasing the numbers of educational facilities, before introducing UHC. Subsequently, the government began focusing on improving quality through procedures such as upgrade education or licensing examination programs to enable less-educated HRH to become fully educated professionals. For governments wanting to introduce UHC, the Japanese model can be a suitable option for HRH development, particularly in resource-poor countries.

  19. Human resources for health development: toward realizing Universal Health Coverage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Hidechika; Osanai, Yasuyo; Akashi, Rumiko

    2015-10-01

    Human resources are an important factor in establishing universal health coverage (UHC). We examined Japan's health policies related to development of human resources for health (HRH) toward establishing UHC, and tried to formulate a model for other countries wanting to introduce UHC through reviewing existing data and documents related to Japan's history in developing HRH. In the results, there were four phases of HRH development in Japan: Phase 1 involved a shortage of HRH; Phase 2 was characterized by rapid production of less-educated HRH; Phase 3 involved introduction of quality improvement procedures such as upgrade education for nursing staff or licensing examination for physicians; Phase 4 was characterized by a predominance of formal health professionals. To encourage transition between these phrases, Japan utilized several procedures, including: (i) offering shorter professional education, (ii) fewer admission requirements for professional education, (iii) widespread location of schools, and (iv) the aforementioned quality improvement procedures. Japan was able to introduce UHC during Phase 3, and Japanese health indicators have improved gradually through these phases. Consequently, the government of Japan focused on increasing the quantity of HRH through relaxed admission requirements, shorter education periods, and increasing the numbers of educational facilities, before introducing UHC. Subsequently, the government began focusing on improving quality through procedures such as upgrade education or licensing examination programs to enable less-educated HRH to become fully educated professionals. For governments wanting to introduce UHC, the Japanese model can be a suitable option for HRH development, particularly in resource-poor countries. PMID:26559018

  20. Role of Research Universities in Health and Medicine. Go8 Backgrounder 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Universities have much to contribute to the improvement of health delivery, research, and teaching/learning. In progressing health reform, the Government should be mindful of the need to: (1) strengthen high quality medical research; (2) promote translation of research to teaching, population health and health services; and (3) address Health…

  1. University Health Center Providers' Beliefs about Discussing and Recommending Sexual Health Prevention to Women College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual health concerns such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy remain substantial health problems faced by young adults, especially college women. University healthcare providers may be instrumental in increasing female patients' involvement in preventative sexual health behaviors, however little research has examined…

  2. Response to health inequity: the role of social protection in reducing poverty and achieving equity.

    PubMed

    Scheil-Adlung, Xenia

    2014-06-01

    Health inequities are determined by multiple factors within the health sector and beyond. While gaps in social health protection coverage and effective access to health care are among the most prominent causes of health inequities, social and economic inequalities existing beyond the health sector contribute greatly to barriers to access affordable and acceptable health care. PMID:25217357

  3. A Meta-analysis of universal mental health prevention programs for higher education students.

    PubMed

    Conley, Colleen S; Durlak, Joseph A; Kirsch, Alexandra C

    2015-05-01

    This meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of universal mental health prevention programs for higher education students on a range of adjustment outcomes. A systematic literature search identified 103 controlled published and unpublished interventions involving college, graduate, or professional students. As hypothesized, skill-training programs that included a supervised practice component were significantly more effective overall (mean effect size = 0.45, confidence interval (CI) = 0.39 to 0.52) compared to skill-training programs without supervised practice (0.11, CI = -0.01 to 0.22) and psychoeducational (information-only) programs (0.13, CI = 0.06 to 0.21). When comparisons on specific outcomes were possible, skill-training programs including supervised practice were significantly more effective than the other two groups of programs in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and general psychological distress, and in improving social-emotional skills, self-perceptions, and academic behaviors and performance. The magnitude of effects achieved in several outcome areas is comparable to or higher than that reported in other reviews of universal programs, suggesting that skill-training programs for higher education students that incorporate supervised practice now join the ranks of other effective preventive mental health interventions. This review offers several recommendations to improve the experimental rigor of future research.

  4. Charting the course for home health care quality: action steps for achieving sustainable improvement: conference proceedings.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Penny Hollander; Peterson, Laura E; Reische, Laurie; Bruno, Lori; Clark, Amy

    2004-12-01

    On June 30 and July 1, 2003, the first national meeting Charting the Course for Home Health Care Quality: Action Steps for Achieving Sustainable Improvement convened in New York City. The Center for Home Care Policy & Research of the Visiting Nurse Service of New York (VNSNY) hosted the meeting with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Fifty-seven attendees from throughout the United States participated. The participants included senior leaders and managers and nurses working directly in home care today. The meeting's objectives were to: 1. foster dialogue among key constituents influencing patient safety and home care, 2. promote information-sharing across sectors and identify areas where more information is needed, and, 3. develop an agenda and strategy for moving forward. This article reports the meeting's proceedings.

  5. Examining Client Motivation and Counseling Outcome in a University Mental Health Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilagan, Guy E.

    2009-01-01

    University mental health clinics have experienced a marked increase in demand for services without an increase in resources to meet the rising demand. Consequently, university mental health centers need strategies to determine the best allocation of their limited resources. Transtheoretical Model, based on client motivation, may offer valuable…

  6. 78 FR 62602 - Board of Regents, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Notice of Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... of the Secretary Board of Regents, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting; Correction AGENCY: Uniformed Services University of the Health... (78 FR 61344), the Department of Defense published in the Federal Register, a notice to announce...

  7. The importance of Leadership towards universal health coverage in Low Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Gonani, A; Muula, A S

    2015-03-01

    Universal health coverage--defined as access to the full range of the most appropriate health care and technology for all people at the lowest possible price or with social health protection--was the goal of the 1978 Alma-Ata Conference on Primary Health Care in Kazakhstan. Many low-income (developing) countries are currently unable to reach this goal despite having articulated the same in their health-related documents. In this paper we argue that, over 30 years on, inadequate political and technical leadership has prevented the realization of universal health coverage in low-income countries. PMID:26137197

  8. The importance of Leadership towards universal health coverage in Low Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Gonani, A; Muula, A S

    2015-03-01

    Universal health coverage--defined as access to the full range of the most appropriate health care and technology for all people at the lowest possible price or with social health protection--was the goal of the 1978 Alma-Ata Conference on Primary Health Care in Kazakhstan. Many low-income (developing) countries are currently unable to reach this goal despite having articulated the same in their health-related documents. In this paper we argue that, over 30 years on, inadequate political and technical leadership has prevented the realization of universal health coverage in low-income countries.

  9. Universal patterns or the tale of two systems? Mathematics achievement and educational expectations in post-socialist Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bodovski, Katerina; Kotok, Stephen; Henck, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    Although communist ideology claimed to destroy former class stratification based on labor market capitalist relationships, de facto during socialism one social class hierarchy was substituted for another that was equally unequal. The economic transition during the 1990s increased stratification by wealth, which affected educational inequality. This study examines the relationships among parental education, gender, educational expectations, and mathematics achievement of youths in five post-socialist Eastern European countries, comparing them with three Western countries. We employed the 8th-grade data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1995 and 2007. The findings point to the universal associations between parental education and student outcomes, whereas gender comparisons present interesting East-West differences. The theoretical and policy implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25346564

  10. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly.

  11. An assessment of progress towards universal health coverage in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS).

    PubMed

    Marten, Robert; McIntyre, Diane; Travassos, Claudia; Shishkin, Sergey; Longde, Wang; Reddy, Srinath; Vega, Jeanette

    2014-12-13

    Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) represent almost half the world's population, and all five national governments recently committed to work nationally, regionally, and globally to ensure that universal health coverage (UHC) is achieved. This analysis reviews national efforts to achieve UHC. With a broad range of health indicators, life expectancy (ranging from 53 years to 73 years), and mortality rate in children younger than 5 years (ranging from 10·3 to 44·6 deaths per 1000 livebirths), a review of progress in each of the BRICS countries shows that each has some way to go before achieving UHC. The BRICS countries show substantial, and often similar, challenges in moving towards UHC. On the basis of a review of each country, the most pressing problems are: raising insufficient public spending; stewarding mixed private and public health systems; ensuring equity; meeting the demands for more human resources; managing changing demographics and disease burdens; and addressing the social determinants of health. Increases in public funding can be used to show how BRICS health ministries could accelerate progress to achieve UHC. Although all the BRICS countries have devoted increased resources to health, the biggest increase has been in China, which was probably facilitated by China's rapid economic growth. However, the BRICS country with the second highest economic growth, India, has had the least improvement in public funding for health. Future research to understand such different levels of prioritisation of the health sector in these countries could be useful. Similarly, the role of strategic purchasing in working with powerful private sectors, the effect of federal structures, and the implications of investment in primary health care as a foundation for UHC could be explored. These issues could serve as the basis on which BRICS countries focus their efforts to share ideas and strategies. PMID:24793339

  12. An assessment of progress towards universal health coverage in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS).

    PubMed

    Marten, Robert; McIntyre, Diane; Travassos, Claudia; Shishkin, Sergey; Longde, Wang; Reddy, Srinath; Vega, Jeanette

    2014-12-13

    Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) represent almost half the world's population, and all five national governments recently committed to work nationally, regionally, and globally to ensure that universal health coverage (UHC) is achieved. This analysis reviews national efforts to achieve UHC. With a broad range of health indicators, life expectancy (ranging from 53 years to 73 years), and mortality rate in children younger than 5 years (ranging from 10·3 to 44·6 deaths per 1000 livebirths), a review of progress in each of the BRICS countries shows that each has some way to go before achieving UHC. The BRICS countries show substantial, and often similar, challenges in moving towards UHC. On the basis of a review of each country, the most pressing problems are: raising insufficient public spending; stewarding mixed private and public health systems; ensuring equity; meeting the demands for more human resources; managing changing demographics and disease burdens; and addressing the social determinants of health. Increases in public funding can be used to show how BRICS health ministries could accelerate progress to achieve UHC. Although all the BRICS countries have devoted increased resources to health, the biggest increase has been in China, which was probably facilitated by China's rapid economic growth. However, the BRICS country with the second highest economic growth, India, has had the least improvement in public funding for health. Future research to understand such different levels of prioritisation of the health sector in these countries could be useful. Similarly, the role of strategic purchasing in working with powerful private sectors, the effect of federal structures, and the implications of investment in primary health care as a foundation for UHC could be explored. These issues could serve as the basis on which BRICS countries focus their efforts to share ideas and strategies.

  13. Environmental health sciences education--a tool for achieving environmental equity and protecting children.

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, L; Torres, T; Sanjurjo, E; Sherman, L R; Landrigan, P J

    1998-01-01

    Children are highly susceptible to deleterious effects of environmental toxins. Those who live in underserved communities may be particularly at risk because environmental pollution has been found to be disproportionately distributed among communities. Mounting evidence suggests that asthma rates are rising and that this disease can be caused or aggravated by air pollution. Although ambient air quality has generally improved, these improvements have not reached minority communities in equal proportions. This and other data has fueled the concept of environmental justice or environmental equity, which has led to community activism and government actions. One possible example of environmental inequity and its consequences is the Hunt's Point community, in the South Bronx, New York. This community experiences a high pollution burden with the siting of facilities that emit hazardous wastes into the air. Our approach to this problem has been the formation of mechanisms for bidirectional communication between community residents, government entities, and academic institutions such as Mount Sinai Medical Center. As a result of this experience, we believe that the key to achieving environmental health, especially in communities of color where many children are at risk, is to empower residents to take charge of their environment by providing relevant educational opportunities. Strategies for environmental health education include multitiered training approaches that include community residents, parent education, direct children education, and community education through professional counselors and train-the-trainer approaches. We propose that academic researchers must use community residents not just as subjects of our studies, but to increase our mutual understanding of environmental health, resulting in active participation of community members in research design, data collection, analysis, and dissemination of results in order to make intervention strategies more

  14. Relationships between self-rated oral health, subjective symptoms, oral health behavior and clinical conditions in Japanese university students: a cross-sectional survey at Okayama University

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-rated oral health is a valid and useful summary indicator of overall oral health status and quality of life. However, few studies on perception of oral health have been conducted among Japanese young adults. This study investigated whether oral health behavior, subjective oral symptoms, or clinical oral status were associated with self-rated oral health in Japanese young adults. Methods This cross-sectional survey included 2,087 students (1,183 males, 904 females), aged 18 and 19 years, at Okayama University, Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed and an oral examination was performed. Results In a structural equation modeling analysis, the score of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) significantly affected self-rated oral health (p <0.05) and the effect size was highest. Malocclusion, subjective symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and stomatitis, and poor oral health behavior significantly induced self-rated poor oral health with small effect sizes (p <0.05). Clinical periodontal conditions and Oral Hygiene Index-simplified were not related to self-rated oral health. Conclusion Self-rated oral health was influenced by subjective symptoms of TMD and stomatitis, oral health behavior, the score of DMFT, and malocclusion. The evaluation of these parameters may be a useful approach in routine dental examination to improve self-rated oral health in university students. PMID:24195632

  15. Feelings and Performance in the First Year at University: Learning-Related Emotions as Predictors of Achievement Outcomes in Mathematics and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niculescu, Alexandra C.; Templelaar, Dirk; Leppink, Jimmie; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the predictive value of four learning-related emotions--Enjoyment, Anxiety, Boredom and Hopelessness for achievement outcomes in the first year of study at university. Method: We used a large sample (N = 2337) of first year university students enrolled over three consecutive academic years in a mathematics and…

  16. Women in Leadership: Factors That Affect the Achievement of Women in Higher Education Administration at Four-Year Public and Private Universities in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Dawn Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the factors that affect women administrators in higher education at four-year public and private universities in Texas. By comparing private and public universities, the research provided an assessment of similarities and differences of the factors impacting achievement of women in higher…

  17. Public health education at the University of Florida: synergism and educational innovation.

    PubMed

    Perri, Michael G; Peoples-Sheps, Mary; Blue, Amy; Lednicky, John A; Prins, Cindy

    2015-03-01

    The College of Public Health and Health Professions at the University of Florida is composed of five public health departments and four clinical health professions departments, and the college is one of six that make up the university's Health Science Center. These organizational resources, along with the university's explicit emphasis on collaboration across professions, colleges, institutes, and centers and the strong leadership and full support of deans and other academic leaders, provide a strong foundation for educational innovations. Three key areas in which the college has built upon these opportunities are interprofessional education, development of One Health instructional programs, and application of cutting-edge technology to students' educational experiences. These innovations represent the types of creative approaches to preparing the 21st-century workforce that can be developed through collaboration among multiple disciplines in a major university. PMID:25706027

  18. Public health education at the University of Florida: synergism and educational innovation.

    PubMed

    Perri, Michael G; Peoples-Sheps, Mary; Blue, Amy; Lednicky, John A; Prins, Cindy

    2015-03-01

    The College of Public Health and Health Professions at the University of Florida is composed of five public health departments and four clinical health professions departments, and the college is one of six that make up the university's Health Science Center. These organizational resources, along with the university's explicit emphasis on collaboration across professions, colleges, institutes, and centers and the strong leadership and full support of deans and other academic leaders, provide a strong foundation for educational innovations. Three key areas in which the college has built upon these opportunities are interprofessional education, development of One Health instructional programs, and application of cutting-edge technology to students' educational experiences. These innovations represent the types of creative approaches to preparing the 21st-century workforce that can be developed through collaboration among multiple disciplines in a major university.

  19. [The introduction of the achievements of medical science in public health practice with using modern information technologies].

    PubMed

    Horban', A Ie

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes some factors that complicate the availability of scholarly communication professionals of health of Ukraine to introduce the achievements of medical science into practice. Improved access will help the implementation created by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine United e-data-processing system.

  20. Can service integration work for universal health coverage? Evidence from around the globe.

    PubMed

    Lê, Gillian; Morgan, Rosemary; Bestall, Janine; Featherstone, Imogen; Veale, Thomas; Ensor, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) is at the heart of the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Health service integration is seen by World Health Organization as an essential requirement to achieve UHC. However, to date the debate on service integration has focused on perceived benefits rather than empirical impact. We conducted a global review in a systematic manner searching for empirical outcomes of service integration experiments in UHC countries and those on the path to UHC. Sixty-seven articles and reports were found. We grouped results into a unique integration typology with six categories - medical staff from different disciplines; patients and medical staff; care package for one medical condition; care package for two or more medical conditions; specialist stand-alone services with GP services; community locations. We showed that it is possible to integrate services in different human development contexts delivering positive outcomes for patients and clinicians without incurring additional costs. However, the improved outcomes shown were incremental rather than radical and suggest that integration is likely to enhance already well established systems rather than fundamentally changing the outcomes of care. PMID:27108079

  1. Second Conference of the African Health Economics and Policy Association: towards universal healthcare coverage in Africa.

    PubMed

    Atim, Chris

    2011-06-01

    This report discusses the key messages coming out of the papers presented at the second African Health Economics and Policy Association conference, with a particular focus on innovative and recent research results of interest to a wider audience. It also covers the scientific structure and organization of the conference, including the various sessions and key note speeches. The 3-day conference discussed the definition and scope as well as the key issues concerned, the challenges involved, and the role of leadership and country ownership in achieving universal health coverage in low-income countries. A special effort was also made to link the research outputs of the conference to policy-making in the region, through the participation of high-level decision-makers from countries as well as the production of policy briefs targeting policy-makers and based on the conference outputs and relevant research. Sub-themes of the conference included user fee removal and exemptions, covering those outside the formal sector, improved domestic funding of healthcare, purchasing of services and policy processes. The conference was attended by approximately 230 participants drawn from over 30 African countries as well as abroad, mostly from academia, research institutions, Ministries of Health and other relevant Government agencies, as well as donor and technical partners.

  2. Will Universal Health Coverage (UHC) lead to the freedom to lead flourishing and healthy lives?

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Don

    2015-01-01

    The focus on public policy and health equity is discussed in reference to the current global health policy discussion on Universal Health Coverage (UHC). This initiative has strong commitment from the leadership of the international organizations involved, but a lack of policy clarity outside of the health financing component may limit the initiative’s impact on health inequity. In order to address health inequities there needs to be greater focus on the most vulnerable communities, subnational health systems, and attention paid to how communities, civil society and the private sector engage and participate in health systems. PMID:25584354

  3. Perspectives on Federal Funding for State Health Care-Associated Infection Programs: Achievements, Barriers, and Implications for Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Katherine; McCormick, Kelly; Woodard, Tiffanee; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Mendel, Peter; Kahn, Katherine; McDonald, Clifford; Jernigan, John; Sinkowitz-Cochran, Ronda

    2014-08-01

    In September 2009, federal funding for health care-associated infection (HAI) program development was dispersed through a cooperative agreement to 51 state and territorial health departments. From July to September 2011, 69 stakeholders from six states-including state health department employees, representatives from partner organizations, and health care facility employees-were interviewed to assess state HAI program achievements, implementation barriers, and strategies for sustainability. Respondents most frequently cited enhanced HAI surveillance as a program achievement and resource constraints as an implementation barrier. To sustain programs, respondents recommended ongoing support for HAI prevention activities, improved surveillance processes, and maintenance of partnerships. Findings suggest that state-level HAI program growth was achieved during the cooperative agreement but that maintenance of programs faces challenges.

  4. Achieving and Sustaining Automated Health Data Linkages for Learning Systems: Barriers and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Van Eaton, Erik G.; Devlin, Allison B.; Devine, Emily Beth; Flum, David R.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Delivering more appropriate, safer, and highly effective health care is the goal of a learning health care system. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) funded enhanced registry projects: (1) to create and analyze valid data for comparative effectiveness research (CER); and (2) to enhance the ability to monitor and advance clinical quality improvement (QI). This case report describes barriers and solutions from one state-wide enhanced registry project. Methods: The Comparative Effectiveness Research and Translation Network (CERTAIN) deployed the commercially available Amalga Unified Intelligence System™ (Amalga) as a central data repository to enhance an existing QI registry (the Automation Project). An eight-step implementation process included hospital recruitment, technical electronic health record (EHR) review, hospital-specific interface planning, data ingestion, and validation. Data ownership and security protocols were established, along with formal methods to separate data management for QI purposes and research purposes. Sustainability would come from lowered chart review costs and the hospital’s desire to invest in the infrastructure after trying it. Findings: CERTAIN approached 19 hospitals in Washington State operating within 12 unaffiliated health care systems for the Automation Project. Five of the 19 completed all implementation steps. Four hospitals did not participate due to lack of perceived institutional value. Ten hospitals did not participate because their information technology (IT) departments were oversubscribed (e.g., too busy with Meaningful Use upgrades). One organization representing 22 additional hospitals expressed interest, but was unable to overcome data governance barriers in time. Questions about data use for QI versus research were resolved in a widely adopted project framework. Hospitals restricted data delivery to a subset of patients, introducing substantial technical challenges. Overcoming

  5. Sustaining universal health coverage: the interaction of social, political, and economic sustainability.

    PubMed

    Borgonovi, Elio; Compagni, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    The sustainability of health care systems, particularly those supporting universal health care, is a matter of current discussion among policymakers and scholars. In this article, we summarize the controversies around the economic sustainability of health care. We attempt to extend the debate by including a more comprehensive conceptualization of sustainability in relation to health care systems and by examining the dimensions of social and political sustainability. In conclusion, we argue that policymakers when taking decisions around universal health care should carefully consider issues of social, political, and economic sustainability, their interaction, and often their inherent trade-offs.

  6. A Review of Realizing the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) Goals by 2030: Part 1- Status quo, Requirements, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Rada

    2015-07-01

    This paper is the first part of a review of how to realize the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) goals by 2030. The objective of this review is to investigate the role of eHealth and technology in achieving UHC, focusing on four aspects: 1) identifying the importance of UHC and highlighting how UHC is influenced by health systems and eHealth, 2) investigating the current status of UHC worldwide and indicating the current challenges facing the realization of UHC, 3) reviewing the current research activities in the UHC domain and emphasizing the role of eHealth and technology in achieving UHC, and 4) discussing the results of the review to identify the current gaps in UHC implantation and the corresponding research lines for future investigation.This part covers the first two aspects through: providing the required background on UHC, highlighting the potential benefits of eHealth utilization in UHC, addressing the current status quo of UHC implementation worldwide, and finally concluding the lessons learned in terms of the UHC challenges and requirements.This part also described the used search methodology and selection criteria to synthesize this review. It also indicates the limitations of conducting a systematic review in this early stage of deploying UHC-oriented eHealth solutions.

  7. Program in Health and Medical Sciences, University of California, Berkeley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovnanek, Agnes

    In 1972, the development of a health sciences education program, oriented to health rather than medicine alone, was initiated at UCB. Summarized in this report are the major activities of the first three years in the areas of: an M.S. degree in health and medical sciences; a "medical option" program designed to prepare students for advanced…

  8. Considerations for Integration of Counseling and Health Services on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2010

    2010-01-01

    While the majority of college and university campuses have discrete mental health and medical services, the integration of the two areas has been subject of increased discussion among student health and counseling professionals. The push to integrate counseling and health services is motivated by a variety of reasons: a philosophical desire to…

  9. Prevalence of Health Behaviors among a University Staff: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad; Thiagarajah, Krisha; Jeng, Ifeng

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of health behaviors among non-academic staff at a Midwestern U.S. university. A sample of 627 women and 237 men completed a web survey for the study. Most of the health behaviors showed no sex difference. Health behaviors of drinking, smoking, and irregular breakfast eating were significantly associated with…

  10. A National Assessment of Colleges and University School Health Education Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Christine M.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Across the United States, school health education programs provide a wide variety of knowledge and skills to their students. There are currently no guidelines for school health methods courses. Methods: Using a 2-wave mailing followed by a third wave e-mail reminder, a final population of 226 university school health methods…

  11. Students Left behind: The Limitations of University-Based Health Insurance for Students with Mental Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Belinda J.; Compton, Michael T.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2012-01-01

    A growing trend in college and university health care is the requirement that students demonstrate proof of health insurance prior to enrollment. An increasing number of schools are contracting with insurance companies to provide students with school-based options for health insurance. Although this is advantageous to students in some ways, tying…

  12. The Health and Wellbeing of International Students at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Doreen Anne; Russell, Jean; Thomson, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A representative sample of undergraduate and postgraduate international students at a large Australian university (n=979, 64% females) completed a mail-back survey of their health and wellbeing. Most students evaluated their current and previous physical and mental health positively. Health-related risk practices such as unprotected sexual…

  13. Investing in Nurses is a Prerequisite for Ensuring Universal Health Coverage.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Ann E; Jacob, Sheena; Squires, Allison P; Sliney, Anne; Davis, Sheila; Stalls, Suzanne; Portillo, Carmen J

    2016-01-01

    Nurses and midwives constitute the majority of the global health workforce and the largest health care expenditure. Efficient production, successful deployment, and ongoing retention based on carefully constructed policies regarding the career opportunities of nurses, midwives, and other providers in health care systems are key to ensuring universal health coverage. Yet nurses are constrained by practice regulations, workplaces, and career ladder barriers from contributing to primary health care delivery. Evidence shows that quality HIV care, comparable to that of physicians, is provided by trained nurses and associate clinicians, but many African countries' health systems remain dependent on limited numbers of physicians and fail to meet the demand for treatment. The World Health Organization endorses task sharing to ensure universal health coverage in HIV and maternal health, which requires an investment in nursing education, retention, and professional growth opportunities. Exemplars from Haiti, Rwanda, Republic of Georgia, and multi-country efforts are described. PMID:27086193

  14. Doing without: serving allied health programs at universities without medical schools.

    PubMed

    Devin, Robin B

    2009-01-01

    This article compares libraries in the United States that serve allied health programs at universities without medical schools. Although these university libraries all serve a similar array of health sciences programs, the organization of their library services differ dramatically. There is also little similarity in their collections, particularly in their choice of indexing and abstracting databases. Yet librarians serving as liaisons to allied health programs at universities without medical schools face comparable challenges in meeting the needs of their users. All reported concerns about gaps in their collections and felt hard pressed to provide optimal library service.

  15. College Health Surveillance Network: Epidemiology and Health Care Utilization of College Students at US 4-Year Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.; Keller, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This description of the College Health Surveillance Network (CHSN) includes methodology, demography, epidemiology, and health care utilization. Participants: Twenty-three universities representing approximately 730,000 enrolled students contributed data from January 1, 2011, through May 31, 2014. Methods: Participating schools uploaded…

  16. The achievements of "Chemistry in the Community" students compared to traditional chemistry students in an introductory university chemistry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, Bill M.

    found between the two groups of students using ANCOVAs with alpha = 0.05. To determine any difference in the attitude of the students toward STS issues, the Science, Technology, and Society Attitude Scale (1996 Iowa Assessment Handbook) was administered to the students. No significant difference was found between the two groups using a t test with alpha = 0.05. The ChemCom and non-ChemCom students with similar high school backgrounds were comparable in achievement in a university chemistry course and in attitude toward technological and societal issues.

  17. The University of Washington's Community-Oriented Public Health Practice program and Public Health-Seattle & King County partnership.

    PubMed

    House, Peter J; Hartfield, Karen; Nicola, Bud; Bogan, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The Community-Oriented Public Health Practice (COPHP) program, a 2-year in-residence MPH degree program in the University of Washington School of Public Health, has partnered with Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) since 2002 to create a mutually beneficial set of programs to improve teaching and address community-based public health problems in a practice setting. The COPHP program uses a problem-based learning approach that puts students in small groups to work on public health problems. Both University of Washington-based and PHSKC-based faculty facilitate the classroom work. In the first year for students, COPHP, in concert with PHSKC, places students in practicum assignments at PHSKC; in the second year, students undertake a master's project (capstone) in a community or public health agency. The capstone project entails taking on a problem in a community-based agency to improve either the health of a population or the capacity of the agency to improve population health. Both the practicum and the capstone projects emphasize applying classroom learning in actual public health practice work for community-based organizations. This partnership brings PHSKC and COPHP together in every aspect of teaching. In essence, PHSKC acts as the "academic health department" for COPHP. There are detailed agreements and contracts that guide all aspects of the partnership. Both the practicum and capstone projects require written contracts. The arrangements for getting non-University of Washington faculty paid for teaching and advising also include formal contracts.

  18. [Healthy university: a health promotion strategy and health for all policies for the creation of a healthy workplace].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Balaguer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe a model of healthy university and the experience of the International University of Catalonia in creating a healthy workplace. The model focuses on interventions and programs for changing the population distribution of the main risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The three pillars of the model are: a) interventions and programs, b) surveillance and evaluation, and c) education and research in health for all policies. The university as a place of work and knowledge-linked entity is an ideal institution for health promotion. The proposed model may be useful for incorporating the concept of health promotion into the university culture, and in its institutional policies and study plans. PMID:27378503

  19. [Healthy university: a health promotion strategy and health for all policies for the creation of a healthy workplace].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Balaguer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe a model of healthy university and the experience of the International University of Catalonia in creating a healthy workplace. The model focuses on interventions and programs for changing the population distribution of the main risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The three pillars of the model are: a) interventions and programs, b) surveillance and evaluation, and c) education and research in health for all policies. The university as a place of work and knowledge-linked entity is an ideal institution for health promotion. The proposed model may be useful for incorporating the concept of health promotion into the university culture, and in its institutional policies and study plans.

  20. An Integrated Approach to Universal Prevention: Independent and Combined Effects of PBIS and SEL on Youths’ Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Clayton R.; Frye, Megan; Slemrod, Tal; Lyon, Aaron R.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Zhang, Yanchen

    2015-01-01

    Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to achieve prevention-oriented goals. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) are two of the most widely-adopted, evidence-based approaches that have been advocated to address student mental health. These universal prevention approaches, however, stem from different theoretical camps and are often advocated and implemented apart from one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on student mental health outcomes. A quasi-randomized control design at the classroom-level was used to make comparisons across four conditions: business-as-usual (BAU), PBIS alone, SEL alone, and COMBO condition with regard to their acceptability to teachers, integrity of program delivery, and student outcomes. As predicted, the COMBO condition produced significantly greater improvements in overall mental health and reductions in externalizing behaviors when compared to all other conditions. The results also indicated that the PBIS and SEL only conditions were both able to produce significant improvements in overall mental health functioning as compared to the BAU control. The implications of an integrated approach for school-based universal prevention and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25602629

  1. An integrated approach to universal prevention: Independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on youths' mental health.

    PubMed

    Cook, Clayton R; Frye, Megan; Slemrod, Tal; Lyon, Aaron R; Renshaw, Tyler L; Zhang, Yanchen

    2015-06-01

    Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to achieve prevention-oriented goals. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) are 2 of the most widely adopted, evidence-based approaches that have been advocated to address student mental health. These universal prevention approaches, however, stem from different theoretical camps and are often advocated and implemented apart from one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on student mental health outcomes. A quasi-randomized control design at the classroom level was used to make comparisons across 4 conditions: business-as-usual (BAU), PBIS alone, SEL alone, and COMBO condition with regard to their acceptability to teachers, integrity of program delivery, and student outcomes. As predicted, the COMBO condition produced significantly greater improvements in overall mental health and reductions in externalizing behaviors when compared to all other conditions. The results also indicated that the PBIS- and SEL-only conditions were both able to produce significant improvements in overall mental health functioning as compared with the BAU control. The implications of an integrated approach for school-based universal prevention and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Utilizing a Positive Behavior Support Approach to Achieve Integrated Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andy; Young, Scott; Gold, Allene; Trevor, Earl

    2008-01-01

    Although experts in early childhood mental health services make clear the need to infuse mental health services into all program components, many have suggested that the mental health services in the majority of Head Start programs are narrowly focused and that mental health consultants are often used in limited ways (see D. J. Cohen, Solnit, &…

  3. Achieving recognition that mental health is part of the mission of CDC.

    PubMed

    Safran, Marc A

    2009-11-01

    For much of its history the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considered mental health to be outside of its mission. That assumption persisted even after CDC became a leading public health agency and began to face important mental health issues. This narrative describes how the organizational paradigm indicating that mental health was not mission related was challenged and superseded by a new paradigm recognizing mental health as part of CDC's public health mission. Even after the CDC Mental Health Work Group's establishment in 2000, CDC took eight more years to overcome powerful remnants of the old paradigm that had for so long excluded, minimized, or discouraged attention to mental health. The CDC Mental Health Work Group led the agency's mental health efforts without funding or dedicated staffing but with more than 100 CDC professionals from multiple disciplines and centers serving as voluntary members, in addition to their other CDC responsibilities.

  4. Male Saudi Arabian freshman science majors at Jazan University: Their perceptions of parental educational practices on their science achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of education and participant's choice of science major were used to identify groups for the purpose of data analysis. Data were gathered using five independent variables concerning parental educational practices (attitude, involvement, autonomy support, structure and control) and the dependent variable of science scores in high school. The sample consisted of 338 participants and was arbitrarily drawn from the science-based colleges (medical, engineering, and natural science) at Jazan University in Saudi Arabia. The data were tested using Pearson's analysis, backward multiple regression, one way ANOVA and independent t-test. The findings of the study reveal significant correlations for all five of the variables. Multiple regressions revealed that all five of the parents' educational practices indicators combined together could explain 19% of the variance in science scores and parental attitude toward science and educational involvement combined accounted for more than 18% of the variance. Analysis indicates that no significant difference is attributable to parental involvement and educational level. This finding is important because it indicates that, in Saudi Arabia, results are not consistent with research in Western or other Asian contexts.

  5. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California.

    PubMed

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in nonrandomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English-language learners, were conducted for each outcome including proportion of students participating in three College Board exams, graduation rates, and meeting university graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts.

  6. Assessing the Impact of School Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    PubMed Central

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between School-Based Health Center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in non-randomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English Language Learners, was conducted for each outcome including: proportion of students participating in three College Board Exams, graduation rates, and meeting University graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes, but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts. PMID:27009589

  7. Financing universal health coverage—effects of alternative tax structures on public health systems: cross-national modelling in 89 low-income and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Gourtsoyannis, Yannis; Basu, Sanjay; McCoy, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background How to finance progress towards universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries is a subject of intense debate. We investigated how alternative tax systems affect the breadth, depth, and height of health system coverage. Methods We used cross-national longitudinal fixed effects models to assess the relationships between total and different types of tax revenue, health system coverage, and associated child and maternal health outcomes in 89 low-income and middle-income countries from 1995–2011. Findings Tax revenue was a major statistical determinant of progress towards universal health coverage. Each US$100 per capita per year of additional tax revenues corresponded to a yearly increase in government health spending of $9·86 (95% CI 3·92–15·8), adjusted for GDP per capita. This association was strong for taxes on capital gains, profits, and income ($16·7, 9·16 to 24·3), but not for consumption taxes on goods and services (−$4·37, −12·9 to 4·11). In countries with low tax revenues (<$1000 per capita per year), an additional $100 tax revenue per year substantially increased the proportion of births with a skilled attendant present by 6·74 percentage points (95% CI 0·87–12·6) and the extent of financial coverage by 11·4 percentage points (5·51–17·2). Consumption taxes, a more regressive form of taxation that might reduce the ability of the poor to afford essential goods, were associated with increased rates of post-neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and under-5 mortality rates. We did not detect these adverse associations with taxes on capital gains, profits, and income, which tend to be more progressive. Interpretation Increasing domestic tax revenues is integral to achieving universal health coverage, particularly in countries with low tax bases. Pro-poor taxes on profits and capital gains seem to support expanding health coverage without the adverse associations with health outcomes observed for

  8. 75 FR 81998 - Meeting of the Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... biomedical sciences and public health. The University President will also present a report. These actions are... Sciences AGENCY: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU), DoD. ACTION: Notice of... the Health Sciences. Name of Committee: Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of...

  9. New library buildings: the Health Sciences Library, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's.

    PubMed Central

    Fredericksen, R B

    1979-01-01

    The new Health Sciences Library of Memorial University of Newfoundland is described and illustrated. A library facility that forms part of a larger health sciences center, this is a medium-sized academic health sciences library built on a single level. Along with a physical description of the library and its features, the concepts of single-level libraries, phased occupancy, and the project management approach to building a large health center library are discussed in detail. Images PMID:476319

  10. The Impact of Human Rights on Universalizing Health Care in Vermont, USA.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Haigh, Fiona; McGill, Mariah; Koutsioumpas, Konstantinos; Sprague, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, Vermont adopted a new law embracing human rights principles as guidelines for health care reform, and in 2011, Vermont was the first state in the US to enact framework legislation to establish a universal health care system for all its residents. This article reports on the Vermont Workers' Center's human rights-based approach to universal health care and the extent to which this approach influenced decision makers. We found the following: (1) by learning about the human right to health care and sharing experiences, Vermonters were motivated to demand universal health care; (2) mobilizing Vermonters around a unified message on the right to health care made universal health care politically important; (3) using the human rights framework to assess new proposals enabled the Vermont Workers' Center to respond quickly to new policy proposals; (4) framing health care as a human right provided an alternative to the dominant economics-based discourse; and (5) while economics continues to dominate discussions among Vermont leaders, both legislative committees on health care use the human rights principles as guiding norms for health care reform. Importantly, the principles have empowered Vermonters by giving them more voice in policymaking and have been internalized by legislators as democratic principles of governance. PMID:26766864

  11. The Impact of Human Rights on Universalizing Health Care in Vermont, USA.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Haigh, Fiona; McGill, Mariah; Koutsioumpas, Konstantinos; Sprague, Courtney

    2015-12-10

    In 2010, Vermont adopted a new law embracing human rights principles as guidelines for health care reform, and in 2011, Vermont was the first state in the US to enact framework legislation to establish a universal health care system for all its residents. This article reports on the Vermont Workers' Center's human rights-based approach to universal health care and the extent to which this approach influenced decision makers. We found the following: (1) by learning about the human right to health care and sharing experiences, Vermonters were motivated to demand universal health care; (2) mobilizing Vermonters around a unified message on the right to health care made universal health care politically important; (3) using the human rights framework to assess new proposals enabled the Vermont Workers' Center to respond quickly to new policy proposals; (4) framing health care as a human right provided an alternative to the dominant economics-based discourse; and (5) while economics continues to dominate discussions among Vermont leaders, both legislative committees on health care use the human rights principles as guiding norms for health care reform. Importantly, the principles have empowered Vermonters by giving them more voice in policymaking and have been internalized by legislators as democratic principles of governance.

  12. The University Life Cafe: Promoting Students' Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hai-Jew, Shalin

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education have a vested interest in the health of their student populations, even without the traditional strictures of "in loco parentis". Student health issues involve stress management, healthy diet and exercise, the building of healthy social lives, effective relationship management, and the development of life skills…

  13. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  14. California Colleges and Universities Collaborate to Support Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbridge, Michelle W.; Goldweber, Asha; Yu, Jennifer; Golan, Shari; Stein, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    One key objective of California's Prevention and Early Intervention (PEI) Student Mental Health (SMH) initiative funded under Proposition 63 is to establish a formal process for ongoing collaboration between higher education systems and county mental health, as well as to increase collaboration among higher education campuses to improve student…

  15. The silence of mental health issues within university environments: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; McAllister, Margaret; Tohotoa, Jenny; Al Omari, Omar; Heslop, Karen; Duggan, Ravani; Murray, Sean; Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise

    2014-10-01

    A descriptive study was used to examine the attitudes and experiences of staff and students towards mental health problems. Staff completed the "Attitude towards mental illness survey", and students who self-identified having a mental health problem completed the "Stigma scale". Using an online collection process, data from 270 staff and 201 students showed that the "silence" surrounding mental health problems permeates the university environment and impacts on help seeking behaviors, the provision of support and on the recovery and wellbeing of affected individuals. Universities must decrease stigma and foster social inclusion to build self-esteem in people who have mental health problems.

  16. Patient Education in University Health Services: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Planning and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, Loren B., Jr.; Moffitt, Patrick B.

    1978-01-01

    This article looks at the patient education program and explains the role of the patient education intern at Central Michigan University. Included are helpful recommendations for persons interested in developing similar health education programs. (YG)

  17. Implementing blended learning into the academic programs of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Munir, Ahmed R; Prem, Kumar D

    2014-06-01

    Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India, is established by an Act of Karnataka State Legislature in the year 1996. Its mandate is to provide training and development in health sciences sector. This University has done pioneering work in the field of curriculum designing for all the health sciences courses offered by the affiliated institutions. In this regard, it has taken lead among all the health sciences universities in India. With student strength of more than one lakh, it has now become a necessity to explore all the possible technological options, so as to provide a comprehensive education to the students. In this context, a proposal has been submitted to the executive head of the University to implement the Blended Learning Program.

  18. Master's Level Graduate Training in Medical Physics at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hendee, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the master's degree program in medical physics developed at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. Required courses for the program, and requirements for admission are included in the appendices. (HM)

  19. A developing country's university oriented toward strengthening health systems: challenges and results.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, J H; Marsh, D R; Khan, K S; D'Souza, R; Husein, K; Aslam, A; Qureshi, A F; deWit, V; Harnar, R M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The Aga Khan University in Karachi has a mission to educate leaders and to contribute to the development of health systems for Pakistan amid challenges of scarcity and complexity. METHODS. Its key activities are (1) to design and test urban and rural health system prototypes, (2) to develop faculty in medical and nursing postgraduate community health sciences programs, and (3) to design and implement community-based undergraduate medical and nursing curricula. RESULTS. The university has developed equity-based, cost-effective primary health care prototypes in Karachi slums. With government counterparts it has tested village-, facility-, and district-level interventions in a poor rural district. Federal policymakers have taken models from each for widespread replication. The university is training 49 medical and 19 nursing faculty for postgraduate programs in community health sciences. Most faculty retain institutional leadership positions, including teaching community-based, problem-solving, community health sciences as 20% of the medical and nursing undergraduate curriculum. CONCLUSIONS. The mission and experience of the Aga Khan University in population-based health systems design and health sciences education can guide universities in both developing and developed countries. PMID:8238674

  20. Creation of a retrospective searchable neuropathologic database from print archives at Toronto's University Health Network.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Sepehr; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Bernstein, Andrea; Gentili, Fred; Asa, Sylvia L; Croul, Sidney E

    2008-01-01

    University Health Network (UHN) Pathology, in its capacity of providing neuro-oncologic care, now utilizes a laboratory information system (LIS), which was instituted in September 2001. For the 75 years preceding the LIS, more than 50 000 pathology reports exist in paper format. High-throughput automated scanning of the paper archives was employed to add the most recent 30 years of paper records (30 000 neuropathology specimens) to the LIS. The searchable portable document format (PDF) files generated from the scans were filtered through a multi-tiered process driven by Java computer programs that selected relevant patient and diagnostic information. A second series of programs queried the neuropathologist-assigned diagnoses and successfully converted these to the standardized World Health Organization (WHO) format. This was achieved with a master list of key site and diagnostic terms, and prioritization rules that were determined on a trial and error basis. Categorization, verification, and consolidation were completed within 3 months and on a C$10 000 budget.