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Sample records for achieve widespread adoption

  1. Achieving timely adoption.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Moore, Megan; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    While family reunification is the primary permanency objective for children who must be placed temporarily outside of their homes, reunification is not possible for all children. For those children who do not return to their parents and cannot find permanent homes with other family members, adoption is the favored outcome. This review examines the composite measure in the federal Child and Family Services Review that measures agency performance related to the timeliness of adoptions of foster children. It summarizes the multiple factors that research has found to be associated with increased risk for adoption delay and disruption. These include child characteristics, family of origin and adoptive family characteristics, and features of child welfare services and systems. Practices that have been broadly linked to adoption timeliness or address risk factors associated with delays in adoption are described, including social worker activities and agency or system-wide practice.

  2. Essentials for Successful and Widespread LED Lighting Adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Nisa

    2011-03-01

    Solid-state lighting (SSL), with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the light source, is a growing and essential field, particularly in regard to the heightened need for global energy efficiency. In recent years, SSL has experienced remarkable advances in efficiency, light output magnitude and quality. Thus such diverse applications as signage, message centers, displays, and special lighting are now adopting LEDs, taking 2010's market to 9.1 billion - 68% growth from the previous year! While this is promising, future growth in both display and lighting applications will rely upon unveiling deeper understanding and key innovations in LED lighting science and technologies. In this presentation, some LED lighting fundamentals, engineering challenges and novel solutions will be discussed to address reduction in efficiency (a.k.a. droop) at high currents, and to obtain uniform light distribution for overcoming LEDs' directional nature. The droop phenomenon has been a subject of much controversy in the industry and despite several studies and claims, a widely-accepted explanation still lacks because of counter arguments and experiments. Recently several research studies have identified that the droop behavior in nitride-based LEDs beyond certain current density ranges can only be comprehensively explained if the current leaking beyond the LED active region is included. Although such studies have identified a few useful current leakage mechanisms outside the active region, no one has included current leakage, due to non-ideal, 3-D device structures that create undesirable current distribution inside and outside the active region. This talk will address achieving desirable current distributions from optimized 3-D device structures that should reduce current leakage and hence the droop behavior. In addition to novel LED design solutions for droop reduction and uniform light distribution, the talk will address cost and yield concerns as they pertain to core material scarcity

  3. Widespread adoption of Bt cotton and insecticide decrease promotes biocontrol services.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanhui; Wu, Kongming; Jiang, Yuying; Guo, Yuyuan; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-07-19

    Over the past 16 years, vast plantings of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have helped to control several major insect pests and reduce the need for insecticide sprays. Because broad-spectrum insecticides kill arthropod natural enemies that provide biological control of pests, the decrease in use of insecticide sprays associated with Bt crops could enhance biocontrol services. However, this hypothesis has not been tested in terms of long-term landscape-level impacts. On the basis of data from 1990 to 2010 at 36 sites in six provinces of northern China, we show here a marked increase in abundance of three types of generalist arthropod predators (ladybirds, lacewings and spiders) and a decreased abundance of aphid pests associated with widespread adoption of Bt cotton and reduced insecticide sprays in this crop. We also found evidence that the predators might provide additional biocontrol services spilling over from Bt cotton fields onto neighbouring crops (maize, peanut and soybean). Our work extends results from general studies evaluating ecological effects of Bt crops by demonstrating that such crops can promote biocontrol services in agricultural landscapes.

  4. Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

  5. The role of faith in adoption: achieving positive adoption outcomes for African American children.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Kathleen; Copeland, Sam; Cheung, Monit

    2008-01-01

    African American children are overrepresented in foster care by more than twice their proportion in the population (U.S. Government Accountability Office [USGAO], 2007). Building upon research relating faith (religiosity) to positive health and mental health, this study utilized cognitive and religious coping theories to examine the influence of faith on choosing to adopt, achieving positive adoption outcomes, and reducing disproportionality. From Louisiana and Texas, 113 families who adopted 226 children, 48% African American, participated in a survey measuring children's behavior and parent distress (PSI-SF Difficult Child and Parent Distress Subscales) and religiosity (Hoge Intrinsic Religiosity Index). Of the respondents, 93% of the respondents belonged to a religious congregation, 86% attended church weekly. Controlling for child's behavior, religiosity predicted lower stress in adoptive parenting; church attendance was related to improvement in parental health since adopting. Faith was rated most frequently as essential in parents' decisions to adopt. The study concludes that faith may be an asset in increasing adoptions and improving adoption outcomes resulting in increased numbers of African American children adopted.

  6. Technology advances needed for photovoltaics to achieve widespread grid price parity: Widespread grid price parity for photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones-Albertus, Rebecca; Feldman, David; Fu, Ran; Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael

    2016-04-20

    To quantify the potential value of technological advances to the photovoltaics (PV) sector, this paper examines the impact of changes to key PV module and system parameters on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The parameters selected include module manufacturing cost, efficiency, degradation rate, and service lifetime. NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM) is used to calculate the lifecycle cost per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems within the contiguous United States, with a focus on utility scale. Different technological pathways are illustrated that may achieve the Department of Energy's SunShot goal of PV electricity that is at grid price parity with conventional electricity sources. In addition, the impacts on the 2015 baseline LCOE due to changes to each parameter are shown. These results may be used to identify research directions with the greatest potential to impact the cost of PV electricity.

  7. The importance of safety in achieving the widespread use of hydrogen as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.

    1997-09-01

    The advantages of hydrogen fuel have been adequately demonstrated on numerous occasions. However, two major disadvantages have prevented any significant amount of corresponding development. These disadvantages have been in the economics of producing sufficient quantities of hydrogen and in the safety (both real and perceived) of its use. To date work has mostly been properly centered on solving the economic problems. However, a greater effort on the safety of new hydrogen systems now being proposed also deserves consideration. To achieve the greatest safety in the expansion of the use of hydrogen into its wide-spread use as a fuel, attention must be given to four considerations. These are, obtaining knowledge of all the physical principles involved in the new uses, having in place the regulations that allow the safe interfacing of the new systems, designing and constructing the new systems with safety in mind, and the training of the large number of people that will become the handlers of the hydrogen. Existing organizations that produce, transport, or use hydrogen on a large scale have an excellent safety record. This safety record comes as a consequence of dedicated attention to the above-mentioned principles. However, where these principles were not closely followed, accidents have resulted. Some examples can be cited. As the use of hydrogen becomes more widespread, there must be a mechanism for assuring the universal application of these principles. Larger and more numerous fleet operations with hydrogen fuel may be the best way to begin the indoctrination of the general public to the more general use of hydrogen fuel. Demonstrated safe operation with hydrogen is vital to its final acceptance as the fuel of choice.

  8. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Adoption KidsHealth > For Teens > Adoption Print A A A ... of Adoption en español La adopción What Is Adoption? Caz knew she'd been adopted as a ...

  9. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  10. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... biological families) and where they came from. This curiosity often becomes more intense as part of the ... adoptive family or feel close to them. This curiosity, which can feel quite intense, is a normal ...

  11. Potential of anaerobic digestion for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and production of renewable energy from agriculture: barriers and incentives to widespread adoption in Europe.

    PubMed

    Banks, C J; Salter, A M; Chesshire, M

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers the role of anaerobic digestion in promoting good agricultural practice on farms and the contribution this would make to reducing the environmental impacts associated with manure management. There are no regulatory drivers to promote the use of digestion in Europe, and the technology has only been widely adopted where economic drivers and coherent policies have been implemented at a national level. These measures have included direct subsidy on the energy price paid for "green electricity", and exemption of tax when biogas is used as a vehicle fuel. In those countries where financial incentives are not available or where a financial penalty is incurred through the regulatory regime, the uptake of digestion has been poor. Even with subsidies, digestion of animal manures as a single substrate is not common, and countries with successful schemes have achieved this either by permitting the import of wastes onto the farm or offering bonus subsidies for the use of energy crops. Both of these measures improve the energy efficiency of the process by increasing the volumetric methane production, although concerns are expressed that attention could concentrate on energy production at the expense of improving manure management.

  12. Achieving U.S. Health information technology adoption: the need for a third hand.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Blackford

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. health care information technology (HIT) market is broken; broad-scale adoption of HIT is not occurring despite considerable evidence of its impact on the quality of care and patient safety. Although adoption of HIT will not cure all that ails health care, it is an important step toward transformation of the U.S. health care delivery system. In this commentary I describe several critical issues pertaining to the HIT market failure and several ways in which the federal government may act as a deft and gentle "Third Hand" to assist the Invisible Hand of Adam Smith.

  13. America's progress in achieving the legalization of same-gender adoption: analysis of public opinion, 1994 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Montero, Darrel M

    2014-10-01

    The struggle to achieve the legalization of same-gender adoption is ongoing. Notably, not until 2011 was adoption by a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individual legalized in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and adoption by same-gender couples is still illegal in many states. Anti-adoption forces are ever-present: From 2011 to 2013, at least five states passed laws granting faith-based agencies the right to refuse service to same-gender couples or to give preference to heterosexual couples. The aim of this article is, first, to examine the challenges confronting the legalization of same-gender adoption; second, to report the current legal status of same-gender adoption for each state; third, to report on Americans' attitudes toward the legalization of same-gender adoption from 1994 to 2012, drawing from previously published surveys of a cross section of Americans; and, fourth, to explore the implications for social work practice, including social advocacy and social policy implementation.

  14. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  15. Antecedents of Approach-Avoidance Achievement Goal Adoption: An Analysis of Two Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Victoria; Spray, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between implicit theories of ability and competence perceptions to changes in approach-avoidance goal adoption in two specific activities in the curriculum. Four hundred and thirty pupils, aged 11-15 years, completed measures of approach-avoidance goals, perceived competence and implicit…

  16. Hype, harmony and human factors: applying user-centered design to achieve sustainable telehealth program adoption and growth.

    PubMed

    Rossos, P G; St-Cyr, O; Purdy, B; Toenjes, C; Masino, C; Chmelnitsky, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of international experience with the use of information and communication technologies in healthcare delivery, widespread telehealth adoption remains limited and progress slow. Escalating health system challenges related to access, cost and quality currently coincide with rapid advancement of affordable and reliable internet based communication technologies creating unprecedented opportunities and incentives for telehealth. In this paper, we will describe how Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and user-centric elements have been incorporated into the establishment of telehealth within a large academic medical center to increase acceptance and sustainability. Through examples and lessons learned we wish to increase awareness of HFE and its importance in the successful implementation, innovation and growth of telehealth programs.

  17. Hosted Services for Advanced V and V Technologies: An Approach to Achieving Adoption without the Woes of Usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Penix, John; Markosian, Lawrence Z.; OMalley, Owen; Brew, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Attempts to achieve widespread use of software verification tools have been notably unsuccessful. Even 'straightforward', classic, and potentially effective verification tools such as lint-like tools face limits on their acceptance. These limits are imposed by the expertise required applying the tools and interpreting the results, the high false positive rate of many verification tools, and the need to integrate the tools into development environments. The barriers are even greater for more complex advanced technologies such as model checking. Web-hosted services for advanced verification technologies may mitigate these problems by centralizing tool expertise. The possible benefits of this approach include eliminating the need for software developer expertise in tool application and results filtering, and improving integration with other development tools.

  18. Seven out of 10 couples treated by IVF achieve parenthood following either treatment, natural conception or adoption.

    PubMed

    Troude, Pénélope; Santin, Gaëlle; Guibert, Juliette; Bouyer, Jean; de La Rochebrochard, Elise

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the achievement of parenthood 8 years after starting IVF, considering multiple pathways to parenthood during and after IVF treatment. Medical data on 6507 couples who began IVF between 2000 and 2002 were obtained from the databases of eight French IVF centres. Information on long-term outcome was available for participants in the 2008-2010 postal survey. Multiple imputation methods were used to account for missing data. Eight years after starting IVF, 71% (95% CI 69 to 74) of treated couples had a child. This included 41% live births after IVF in the IVF centre, 7% live births after another treatment or after IVF in another centre, 12% live births after spontaneous conception and 11% adoptions. This study provides a longitudinal overview of paths to parenthood among couples successfully and unsuccessfully treated by IVF. These results should give hope to infertile couples as seven out of 10 couples finally became parents. However, IVF is not the only path to parenthood, and couples should be informed of the other possible avenues.

  19. Research achievements and adoption of no-till, dryland cropping in the semi-arid US Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Great Plains region of the United States and Canada is an area of widespread dryland crop production, with wheat being the dominant crop. Precipitation in the region ranges from 300 to 500 mm annually, with the majority of precipitatioCPRLn falling during hot summer months. The prevailing croppi...

  20. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of…

  1. The Changing Landscape of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards: An Analysis of Early Adopters of AA-MASs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2009-01-01

    Several states had an assessment that they considered to be an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS) in place, or in development, when the April 2007 federal regulations on modified achievement standards were finalized. This article uses publicly available information collected by the National Center on…

  2. Subsidized Adoption in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula; Katz, Sanford N.

    The Model State Subsidized Adoption Act, developed to supplement existing state statutes, is presented in full, with accompanying Model Regulations. The act is designed to help provide a child in special circumstances with a permanent adoptive home. When efforts to achieve placement without subsidy have failed, the Act would provide that the child…

  3. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  4. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  5. The Market Forces in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the second in a series to use an ethics-based…

  6. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  7. Widespread horizontal transfer of retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Ali Morton; Kortschak, R. Daniel; Gardner, Michael G.; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In higher organisms such as vertebrates, it is generally believed that lateral transfer of genetic information does not readily occur, with the exception of retroviral infection. However, horizontal transfer (HT) of protein coding repetitive elements is the simplest way to explain the patchy distribution of BovB, a long interspersed element (LINE) about 3.2 kb long, that has been found in ruminants, marsupials, squamates, monotremes, and African mammals. BovB sequences are a major component of some of these genomes. Here we show that HT of BovB is significantly more widespread than believed, and we demonstrate the existence of two plausible arthropod vectors, specifically reptile ticks. A phylogenetic tree built from BovB sequences from species in all of these groups does not conform to expected evolutionary relationships of the species, and our analysis indicates that at least nine HT events are required to explain the observed topology. Our results provide compelling evidence for HT of genetic material that has transformed vertebrate genomes. PMID:23277587

  8. Big School, Small School: (Re)Testing Assumptions about High School Size, School Engagement and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Christopher C.; Carolan, Brian V.; Baker-Smith, E. Christine

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In…

  9. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play ... Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen Español Text ...

  10. Widespread dermal ulcerations and bullae.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Jay; Patel, Mahir; Readinger, Allison; Menter, Alan

    2012-04-01

    Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by large, tense bullae resulting in significant morbidity in affected individuals. The diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid may present challenges due to clinical similarities with various other bullous eruptions. Frequently, epidemiological features can provide clues to the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid, with histologic analysis commonly required for definitive diagnosis. This case study illustrates the typical clinical and histologic findings seen in bullous pemphigoid patients and briefly discusses the differential diagnosis. An in-depth understanding of the intricate pathophysiology is essential in order to educate patients. After diagnosis and appropriate workup, an array of treatment approaches, including topical and systemic corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents, and even monoclonal antibodies, may be utilized individually or in combination to achieve an optimal therapeutic response.

  11. Widespread dermal ulcerations and bullae

    PubMed Central

    Wofford, Jay; Patel, Mahir; Readinger, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by large, tense bullae resulting in significant morbidity in affected individuals. The diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid may present challenges due to clinical similarities with various other bullous eruptions. Frequently, epidemiological features can provide clues to the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid, with histologic analysis commonly required for definitive diagnosis. This case study illustrates the typical clinical and histologic findings seen in bullous pemphigoid patients and briefly discusses the differential diagnosis. An in-depth understanding of the intricate pathophysiology is essential in order to educate patients. After diagnosis and appropriate workup, an array of treatment approaches, including topical and systemic corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents, and even monoclonal antibodies, may be utilized individually or in combination to achieve an optimal therapeutic response. PMID:22481847

  12. [Adoption: an alternative to assisted reproductive techniques?].

    PubMed

    Blanchy, S

    2011-09-01

    Information on adoption must be given to couples who seek treatment for medically-assisted procreation. But is adoption a real alternative? What are the chances for a couple who consults to see its desire for adoption be achieved according to its own situation, the characteristics of the child he wants, and the general situation of adoption? Can adoption, just like assisted procreation, often described by the couples as a "obstacle course", go parallel? Or should one try adoption once assisted reproduction failed? Is the couple willing to suffer the social and legal control of adoption after having supported the medical control of the ART? In all cases, the reality is that two out of three couples engaged in assisted reproduction will have a child whereas scarcely more than one candidate to adoption will be offered to adopt a child after three or four-years procedure.

  13. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  14. The State and Pattern of Health Information Technology Adoption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Innovations in information technology (IT) have improved efficiency and quality in many industries. Healthcare has not been one of them. Although...has been called for to speed the adoption process for Health Information Technology (HIT), based on the widespread belief that its adoption, or

  15. Textbook Evaluation and Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Marcy; Stuen, Carol; Carnine, Douglas; Long, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    Encourages educators to carefully examine the textbook adoption process, especially the way in which adoption committees evaluate and select instructional materials. Reviews the available research literature on the textbook adoption process and includes recommendations for improving the process. Discusses guidelines for designing evaluation…

  16. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  17. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... pre-diabetes have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes, and for ...

  18. Deal or no deal: can incentives encourage widespread adoption of intelligent speed adaptation devices?

    PubMed

    Chorlton, Kathryn; Hess, Stephane; Jamson, Samantha; Wardman, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Given the burden of injury, economic, environmental and social consequences associated with speeding, reducing road traffic speed remains a major priority. Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) is a promising but controversial new in-vehicle system that provides drivers with support on the speed-control task. In order to model potential system uptake, this paper explores drivers' preferences for two different types of ISA given a number of alternative fiscal incentives and non-fiscal measures, using a stated preference approach. As would be expected with such a contentious issue, the analysis revealed the presence of significant variations in sensitivities and preferences in the sample. While a non-negligible part of the sample population has such strong opposition to ISA that no reasonable discounts or incentives would lead to them buying or accepting such a system, there is also a large part of the population that, if given the right incentives, would be willing or even keen to equip their vehicle with an ISA device.

  19. Video recording of neonatal resuscitation: A feasibility study to inform widespread adoption

    PubMed Central

    Shivananda, Sandesh; Twiss, Jennifer; el-Gouhary, Enas; el-Helou, Salhab; Williams, Connie; Murthy, Prashanth; Suresh, Gautham

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the feasibility of introducing video recording (VR) of neonatal resuscitation (NR) in a perinatal centre. METHODS This was a prospective cohort quality improvement study on preterm infants and their caregivers. Based on evidence and experience of other centers using VR intervention, a contextually relevant implementation and evaluation strategy was designed in the planning phase. The components of intervention were pre-resuscitation team huddle, VR of NR and video debriefing (VD), all occurring on the same day. Various domains of feasibility and sustainability as well as feasibility criteria were predefined. Data for analysis was collected using quantitative and qualitative methods. RESULTS Seventy-one caregivers participated in VD of 14 NRs facilitated by six trained instructors. Ninety-one percent of caregivers perceived enhanced learning and patient safety and, 48 issues were identified related to policy, caregiver roles, and latent safety threats. Ninety percent of caregivers expressed their willingness to participate in VD activity and supported the idea of integrating it into a resuscitation team routine. Eighty-three percent and 50% of instructors expressed satisfaction with video review software and quality of audio VR. No issues about maintenance of infant or caregivers’ confidentiality and erasure of videos were reported. Criteria for feasibility were met (refusal rate of < 10%, VR performed on > 50% of occasions, and < 20% caregivers’ perceiving a negative impact on team performance). Necessary adaptations to enhance sustainability were identified. CONCLUSION VR of NR as a standard of care quality assurance activity to enhance caregivers’ learning and create opportunities that improve patient safety is feasible. Despite its complexity with inherent challenges in implementation, the intervention was acceptable, implementable, and potentially sustainable with adaptations. PMID:28224098

  20. Cost calculation: a necessary step towards widespread adoption of advanced radiotherapy technology.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Yolande; Borras, Jose Maria; Grau, Cai

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy costs are an often underestimated component of the economic assessment of new radiotherapy treatments and technologies. That the radiotherapy budget only consumes a finite part of the total cancer and healthcare budget does not relieve us from our responsibility to balance the extra costs to the additional benefits of new, more advanced, but typically also more expensive treatments we want to deliver. Yet, in contrast to what is the case for oncology drugs, literature evidence remains limited, as well for economic evaluations comparing new radiotherapy interventions as for cost calculation studies. Even more cumbersome, the available costing studies in the field of radiotherapy fail to accurately capture the real costs of our treatments due to the large variation in cost inputs, in scope of the analysis, in costing methodology. And this is not trivial. Accurate resource cost accounting lays the basis for the further steps in health technology assessment leading to radiotherapy investments and reimbursement, at the local, the national and the worldwide level. In the current paper we review some evidence from the existing costing literature and discuss how such data can be used to support reimbursement setting and investment cases for new radiotherapy equipment and infrastructure.

  1. Window of Opportunity: Mitigating Threats from Disruptive Technologies Before Widespread Adoption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Strategic Inflection Point .................................................................................25 Figure 3. Number of Facebook users from...Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 343 and 363. 78 Ibid., 283. 28 Figure 3. Number of Facebook users from 2004–201379 D. THE CHASM In order for...shows the chasm, as Moore describes it. Figure 4. The Chasm80 79 “ Facebook ,” Wikipedia

  2. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  3. Adoption in rock and white-tailed ptarmigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, M.M.L.; Fedy, B.C.; Wilson, S.; Martin, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Reports of adoption in birds are widespread, but few studies report rates of adoption or possible mechanisms for this phenomenon, particularly in the Order Galliformes. We report incidents of adoption in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. leucura) from two sites in western Canada. Adoption rates for White-tailed Ptarmigan on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the Ruby Ranges, Yukon Territory were 13% (n = 16 broods) and 4% (n = 27), respectively, while rates for Rock Ptarmigan were 14% (n = 29) in the Ruby Ranges. Low brood densities may result in lower rates of adoption for ptarmigan. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

  4. Effects of Local and Widespread Muscle Fatigue on Movement Timing

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.; Gates, Deanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive movements can cause muscle fatigue, leading to motor reorganization, performance deficits, and/or possible injury. The effects of fatigue may depend on the type of fatigue task employed, however. The purpose of this study was to determine how local fatigue of a specific muscle group versus widespread fatigue of various muscle groups affected the control of movement timing. Twenty healthy subjects performed an upper-extremity low-load work task similar to sawing for 5 continuous minutes both before and after completing a protocol that either fatigued all the muscles used in the task (widespread fatigue) or a protocol that selectively fatigued the primary muscles used to execute the pushing stroke of the sawing task (localized fatigue). Subjects were instructed to time their movements with a metronome. Timing error, movement distance, and speed were calculated for each movement. Data were then analyzed using a goal-equivalent manifold (GEM) approach to quantify changes in goal-relevant and non-goal-relevant variability. We applied detrended fluctuation analysis to each time series to quantify changes in fluctuation dynamics that reflected changes in the control strategies used. After localized fatigue, subjects made shorter, slower movements and exerted greater control over non-goal-relevant variability. After widespread fatigue, subjects exerted less control over non-goal-relevant variability and did not change movement patterns. Thus, localized and widespread muscle fatigue affected movement differently. Local fatigue may reduce the available motor solutions and therefore cause greater movement reorganization than widespread muscle fatigue. Subjects altered their control strategies but continued to achieve the timing goal after both fatigue tasks. PMID:25183157

  5. Post adoption depression.

    PubMed

    Fields, Eve S; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Chiara J; Jha, Manish; Payne, Jennifer L

    2010-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the prevalence rate and factors associated with post adoption depression. One hundred and twelve adoptive mothers of infants under 12 months of age were recruited from local and national adoption organizations. A modified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting medical and psychiatric history, perceived stress, and demographics were administered retrospectively. The rates of significant depressive symptoms (defined as EPDS >or=12) were calculated at three time points post adoption, and associations with specific clinical variables (personal or family psychiatric history, stress, and adjustment difficulty) were assessed. Eighty-six mothers were included. Rates of significant depressive symptoms (EPDS >or=12) were found in 27.9% of subjects at 0-4 weeks, 25.6% at 5-12 weeks, and 12.8% at 13-52 weeks post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were not associated with personal or family psychiatric history but were associated with stress (p = 0.0011) and adjustment difficulties (p = 0.042) post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were relatively common in adoptive mothers within the first year after adoption and were associated with environmental stress. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the existence of post adoption depression and the factors associated with it.

  6. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... a malaria-endemic area (See Chapter 3, Malaria ). Tuberculosis All internationally adopted children should be screened for tuberculosis (TB) after arriving in the United States. Internationally ...

  7. Adoption: Misunderstood, Mythologized, Marginalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.

    2003-01-01

    Implications are discussed in response to the Major Contribution in this issue reviewing the history, controversies, and theoretical and research literature related to adoption. Practice recommendations for therapists working with adopted children and their families are clustered around three prominent themes in the reviews by Lee, O'Brien and…

  8. The economics of adoption of children from foster care.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mary Eschelbach; Hansen, Bradley A

    2006-01-01

    Federal initiatives since 1996 have intensified the efforts of states to achieve adoption for children in foster care. For many waiting children, the path to adoption is long. The authors offer an economic analysis of adoption from foster care, with an emphasis on the reasons why achieving the goal of adoption for all waiting children may be so difficult. The authors then estimate the determinants of adoptions from foster care across the states using data for fiscal years 1996 and 1997. Adoption assistance subsidy rates stand out as the most important determinant of adoptions from foster care, followed by use of alternatives (e.g., intercountry adoption). Adoptive matching on the basis of race does not appear to prevent adoptions from foster care in the aggregate, leaving flaws in the matching process, such as a lack of information and difficulty using the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (ICPC), as a primary reason why children wait.

  9. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  10. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  11. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  12. Mobile technology and healthcare: the adoption issues and systemic problems.

    PubMed

    Standing, Susan; Standing, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits that are associated with mobile technology have been recognised as offering great potential in the healthcare sector, its widespread adoption has been lagging. We propose that fundamental systemic issues are likely to be the main barriers to adoption. We explain that the fragmented nature of the conservative healthcare system, the contradictory incentives and improper outcome measures conspire to make the innovative adoption of mobile technology problematic. Researchers can only gain a limited understanding of a technology's potential success by using technology adoption frameworks and need to supplement this with a 'systems' perspective that takes a more strategic view.

  13. Microwave Photonics: current challenges towards widespread application.

    PubMed

    Capmany, José; Li, Guifang; Lim, Christina; Yao, Jianping

    2013-09-23

    Microwave Photonics, a symbiotic field of research that brings together the worlds of optics and radio frequency is currently facing several challenges in its transition from a niche to a truly widespread technology essential to support the ever-increasing values for speed, bandwidth, processing capability and dynamic range that will be required in next generation hybrid access networks. We outline these challenges, which are the subject of the contributions to this focus issue.

  14. The Impact of Adoption on Members of the Triad. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the third in a series to use an ethics-based…

  15. The Role of Race, Culture, and National Origin in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the first in a series to use an ethics-based…

  16. Disparities in Primary Care EHR Adoption Rates

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Dominic; Zhang, Shun; Douglas, Megan; Sow, Charles; Strothers, Harry; Rust, George

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates electronic health record (EHR) adoption by primary care providers in Georgia to assess adoption disparities according to practice size and type, payer mix, and community characteristics. Frequency variances of EHR “Go Live” status were estimated. Odds ratios were calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Large practices and community health centers (CHCs) were more likely to Go Live (>80% EHR adoption) than rural health clinics and other underserved settings (53%). A significantly lower proportion (68.9%) of Medicaid predominant providers had achieved Go Live status and had a 47% higher risk of not achieving Go Live status than private insurance predominant practices. Disparities in EHR adoption rates may exacerbate existing disparities in health outcomes of patients served by these practices. Targeted support such as that provided to CHCs would level the playing field for practices now at a disadvantage. PMID:27587942

  17. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  18. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruella, Marco; Kalos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical success has underscored the potential for immunotherapy based on the adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of engineered T lymphocytes to mediate dramatic, potent, and durable clinical responses. This success has led to the broader evaluation of engineered T-lymphocyte-based adoptive cell therapy to treat a broad range of malignancies. In this review, we summarize concepts, successes, and challenges for the broader development of this promising field, focusing principally on lessons gleaned from immunological principles and clinical thought. We present ACT in the context of integrating T-cell and tumor biology and the broader systemic immune response.

  19. Pain and the brain: chronic widespread pain.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Lesley M

    2009-04-01

    Chronic widespread pain is associated with several medical and psychiatric disorders including, but not limited to, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mood disorders, hepatitis, endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, and rheumatologic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Careful and comprehensive differential diagnosis must be performed to ensure a correct diagnosis before an appropriate treatment can be selected. Fibromyalgia, in particular, is challenging to diagnose and treat because it shares many characteristics with other disorders and is commonly concurrent with major mood disorders. A comprehensive disease management strategy including patient education, pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and aerobic and other forms of exercise can be beneficial for many patients with fibromyalgia.

  20. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Corley, Robin P

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated-sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP's history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP's initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study's multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development.

  1. School Adoption Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Doris

    Zions First National Bank in Utah adopted a local school in Garrison with a student body of 11, and invited them to participate in their Christmas tree program and a field trip to Salt Lake City. The venture proved so popular and rewarding for the children and bank staff that more field trips were funded and later, when the school burned down, the…

  2. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed.

  3. Widespread Antarctic glaciation during the Late Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Andrew; Riley, Teal R.; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Rittner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Marine sedimentary rocks drilled on the southeastern margin of the South Orkney microcontinent in Antarctica (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 113 Site 696) were deposited between ∼36.5 Ma to 33.6 Ma, across the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. The recovered rocks contain abundant grains exhibiting mechanical features diagnostic of iceberg-rafted debris. Sand provenance based on a multi-proxy approach that included petrographic analysis of over 275,000 grains, detrital zircon geochronology and apatite thermochronometry rule out local sources (Antarctic Peninsula or the South Orkney Islands) for the material. Instead the ice-transported grains show a clear provenance from the southern Weddell Sea region, extending from the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains of West Antarctica to the coastal region of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica. This study provides the first evidence for a continuity of widespread glacier calving along the coastline of the southern Weddell Sea embayment at least 2.5 million yrs before the prominent oxygen isotope event at 34-33.5 Ma that is considered to mark the onset of widespread glaciation of the Antarctic continent.

  4. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  5. Assisting adoptive families: children adopted at older ages.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ellen; Krebs, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the adoption experience can help health care providers develop sensitivity to the special tasks of adopted children and their families. Children who are adopted at older ages may face particular challenges. Age at adoptive placement, the burden of loss, pre-adoptive experiences, and the challenge of attachment are all significant issues in older-child adoption. Pediatric nurses demonstrate sensitivity and support to adopted children and their families by using appropriate language about adoption; understanding the significance of missing health information; providing appropriate referrals as needed; and displaying an open, caring attitude.

  6. The Role of Faith in Adoption: Achieving Positive Adoption Outcomes for African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Kathleen; Copeland, Sam; Cheung, Monit

    2008-01-01

    African American children are overrepresented in foster care by more than twice their proportion in the population (U.S. Government Accountability Office [USGAO], 2007). Building upon research relating faith (religiosity) to positive health and mental health, this study utilized cognitive and religious coping theories to examine the influence of…

  7. Guide to CASE Adoption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    from Ovum Ltd. and the Software Technology Support Center at Hill Air Force Base (UT 84056). Overviews of relevant issues, including CASE adoption, can...Integration Battle." Ovum , 1989. Feuche, M. "How to Use CASE Technology." MIS Week, 10, 37 (Sep 1989), 29. Firth, R., Mosley, V., Pethia, R., Roberts, L...Computer Science Berkeey CA 94704 symllable on Internet. anonomcus FTP laGpll ubicatkin sue-isnodeunomc~Icasa-nniduct-11 hax OVUM Ltd 7 Rathbon Street A

  8. Widespread RNA 3'-end oligouridylation in mammals.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun S; Patena, Weronika; Leavitt, Andrew D; McManus, Michael T

    2012-03-01

    Nontemplated 3'-end oligouridylation of RNA occurs in many species, including humans. Unlike the familiar phenomenon of polyadenylation, nontemplated addition of uridines to RNA is poorly characterized in higher eukaryotes. Recent studies have reported nontemplated 3'-end oligouridylation of small RNAs and mRNAs. Oligouridylation is involved in many aspects of microRNA biology from biogenesis to turnover of the mature species, and it may also mark long mRNAs for degradation by promoting decapping of the protective 5'-cap structure. To determine the prevalence of oligouridylation in higher eukaryotes, we used next-generation sequencing technology to deeply examine the population of small RNAs in human cells. Our data revealed widespread nontemplated nucleotide addition to the 3' ends of many classes of RNA, with short stretches of uridine being the most frequently added nucleotide.

  9. Weird Weather: Large Abrupt Widespread Climate Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Alley, Richard B.

    2001-01-24

    Ice-core records and other paleoclimatic indicators show that large (up to 10 degrees C), abrupt (in about 10 years), widespread (hemispheric to global) climate changes have been common for much of the last 100,000 years and beyond, but rare during the most recent few millennia. Changes in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system with a center of activity in the north Atlantic probably have been important, but several hypotheses remain possible including solar influence and a stochastically resonant interaction with changing freshwater fluxes. Our current understanding does not allow us to exclude the possibility that human or natural processes could 'flip the switch' of another abrupt change in the future.

  10. Widespread effects of alcohol on white matter microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Catherine Brawn; Leritz, Elizabeth C.; Salat, David H.; Lindemer, Emily; Maksimovskiy, Arkadiy L.; Shepel, Juli; Williams, Victoria; Venne, Jonathan R.; Milberg, William P.; McGlinchey, Regina E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that chronic misuse of alcohol may preferentially affect the integrity of frontal white matter tracts, which can impact executive functions important to achieve and maintain abstinence. Methods Global and regional white matter (WM) microstructure was assessed using diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) for 31 abstinent alcoholics with an average of 25 years of abuse and approximately 5 years of sobriety and 20 nonalcoholic control participants. Data processing was conducted with FreeSurfer and FSL processing streams. Voxelwise processing of the FA data was carried out using TBSS (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics). Clusters of significance were created to provide a quantitative summary of highly significant regions within the voxel wise analysis. Results Widespread, bilateral reductions in FA were observed in abstinent alcoholics as compared to nonalcoholic control participants in multiple frontal, temporal, parietal, and cerebellar WM tracts. FA in the left inferior frontal gyrus was associated with drinking severity. Conclusions The present study found widespread reductions in WM integrity in a group of abstinent alcoholics compared to nonalcoholic control participants, with most pronounced effects in frontal and superior tracts. Decreased FA throughout the frontostriatal circuits that mediate inhibitory control may result in impulsive behavior and inability to maintain sobriety. PMID:25406797

  11. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas

    PubMed Central

    Galil, B.S.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Minchin, D.; Narščius, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

  12. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  13. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  14. Widespread Surface Weathering on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, Damien; Carter, John; Mangold, Nicolas; Poulet, François; Rossi, Angelo; Allemand, Pascal; Quantin, Cathy; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The recent discovery of widespread hydrous clays on Mars indicates that diverse and widespread aqueous environments existed on Mars, from the surface to kilometric depths [1,2]. The study of the past habitability and past climates of the planet requires assessing the importance of sustained surface water vs. subsurface water in its aqueous history. Using remote sensing data, we propose that surface weathering existed on Mars, suggesting that Mars experienced durable episodes of sustained liquid water on its surface. Weathering profiles are identified as vertical sequences of Al-rich clays and Fe/Mg-rich clays in the top tens of meters of the surface, similar to cases of pedogenesis on Earth (e.g. [3,4]). Such localized clay sequences have been reported by other works in 3 regions of Mars [5-8] and a similar origin was also proposed. Their frequency is however likely underestimated due to limitations of orbital investigations and re-surfacing processes. A large survey of the CRISM dataset leaded to a down-selection of ~100 deposits with clear vertical sequences, widely distributed over the southern highlands and grouped in regional clusters [9]. These putative weathering sequences are found either on inter-crater plateaus, on the floor of craters and large basins, or on crater ejectas. We investigated the thickness of the altered sequences, the age of the altered units and the different geological contexts to further understand the weathering process(es). Using few HiRISE DEMs where possible, and CTX DEMs, we find that the thickness of the exposed Al clays is on average of the order of several meters to few tens of meters. The clay sequences reported here are consistent with terrestrial weathering sequences which form under wet climates over geological timescales (>105-107 years). The combined age assessment of the altered unit and the unaltered capping (where present) provides constraints on the age of the weathering itself. All investigated cases point to an

  15. Widespread Surface Weathering on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Carter, J.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Rossi, A.; Allemand, P.; Quantin, C.; Bibring, J.

    2013-12-01

    The recent discovery of widespread hydrous clays on Mars indicates that diverse and widespread aqueous environments existed on Mars, from the surface to kilometric depths [1,2]. The study of the past habitability of the planet requires assessing the importance of sustained surface water vs. subsurface water in its aqueous history. Using remote sensing data, we propose that surface weathering existed on Mars, suggesting that Mars experienced durable episodes of sustained liquid water on its surface. Weathering profiles are identified as vertical sequences of Al-rich clays and Fe/Mg-rich clays in the top tens of meters of the surface, similar to cases of pedogenesis on Earth (e.g. [3,4]). Such localized clay sequences have been reported by other works in 3 regions of Mars [5-8] and a similar origin was also proposed. Their frequency is however likely underestimated due to limitations of orbital investigations and re-surfacing processes. A large survey of the CRISM dataset leaded to a down-selection of 104 deposits with clear vertical sequences, widely distributed over the southern highlands and grouped in regional clusters [9]. These putative weathering sequences are found either on inter-crater plateaus, on the floor of craters and large basins, or on crater ejectas. We investigated the thickness of the altered sequences, the age of the altered units and the different geological contexts to further understand the weathering process(es). Using few HiRISE DEMs where possible, and CTX DEMs, we find that the thickness of the exposed Al clays is on average of the order of several meters to few tens of meters. The clay sequences reported here are consistent with terrestrial weathering sequences which form under wet climates over geological timescales (> 105-107 years). The combined age assessment of the altered unit and the unaltered capping (where present) provides constraints on the age of the weathering itself. All investigated cases point to an active weathering

  16. After adoption: dissolution or permanence?

    PubMed

    Festinger, Trudy

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented on the whereabouts of 516 adopted children, based on a random sample of children adopted from placement in New York City in 1996. Data from interviews with adoptive parents were augmented by information from adoption subsidy records and state child tracking files, as well as interviews with caregivers of children whose adoptive parents were deceased. There were few dissolutions, but postadoption service needs were many.

  17. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, David I.; Liu, Kyle T.; Reid, Bryan J.; Hawkins, Emily; Sevier, Andrew; Pyle, Michelle; Robinson, Jacob W.; Ouellette, Pierre H. R.; Ballantyne, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans), fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays), the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM), intestine of lobster (138 μM) gills of the surf clam (100 μM)) had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics. PMID:26600157

  18. Cryoprotective dehydration is widespread in Arctic springtails.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Holmstrup, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Cryoprotective dehydration (CPD) is a cold tolerance strategy employed by small invertebrates that readily lose water by evaporation when subjected to sub-zero temperatures in the presence of ice. Until now, relatively few species have been investigated using methods by which CPD can be shown. In the present study we investigated the cold tolerance strategy of seven soil arthropod species from the high Arctic Spitzbergen, and compared water content and water loss, body fluid melting points (MP) and survival under cold and desiccating conditions. We tested the hypothesis that CPD is a commonly occurring cold hardiness strategy among soil arthropods. We found that four springtail species (Hypogastrura viatica, Folsomia quadrioculata, Oligaphorura groenlandica and Megaphorura arctica; Collembola) went through severe dehydration and MP equilibration with ambient temperature, and thus overwinter by employing CPD, whereas a beetle (Atheta graminicola) and one of the springtails (Isotoma anglicana) were typical freeze avoiding species over-wintering by supercooling. Desiccation tolerance of the red velvet mite (Neomolgus littoralis) was also investigated; very low water loss rates of this species indicated that it does not survive winter by use of CPD. All in all, the results of the present study confirm the hypothesis that CPD is an effective over-wintering strategy which is widespread within soil arthropods.

  19. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  20. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  1. Open adoption: adoptive parents' reactions two decades later.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began in 1988. Every seven years these parents who adopted infants in open adoptions have participated in tape-recorded interviews to explore their evolving reactions to their open adoption experiences. This article reports the results of in-depth interviews with these parents now that their children have reached young adulthood. This longitudinal research illuminates how open adoptions change over the course of childhood and adolescence, parents' feelings about open adoption, challenges that emerge in their relationships with their children's birth families, how those challenges are managed and viewed, and parents' advice for others living with open adoption and for clinical social work practice and policy. Findings reveal that regardless of the type of openness, these adoptive parents generally feel positive about knowing the birth parents and having contact with them, are comfortable with open adoption, and see it serving the child's best interests.

  2. The Adoption of Grid Computing Technology by Organizations: A Quantitative Study Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udoh, Emmanuel E.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in grid technology have enabled some organizations to harness enormous computational power on demand. However, the prediction of widespread adoption of the grid technology has not materialized despite the obvious grid advantages. This situation has encouraged intense efforts to close the research gap in the grid adoption process. In this…

  3. Subsidized Adoption across the Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Malcolm; Triseliotis, John

    1991-01-01

    Notes differences between American and British contexts and formulations of adoption payments. Highlights key findings from a research project that evaluated the impact of adoption allowances in Scotland. Gives particular attention to children's views about being adopted with financial help. (GH)

  4. Adoption: medical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, C K

    1978-06-01

    The problem of abandoned children is of great magnitude in India. Placement of these children in a family environment is essential for their physical, mental, and emotional development. Adoption must be approached from the child welfare perspective. The pediatrician can play an important role in the adoption process. The pediatrician should perform a thorough medical examination of infants to be adopted, both to ensure the child's welfare and to give adoptive parents an assessment of the child's health. Information should be collected on the medical history of the child's biologic parents to aid in the evaluation process. Adoptive parents should also undergo medical and pyschological examinations. Pediatricians can additionally work with social welfare departments in establishing criteria for matching children with adoptive parents. Adoptions in India are currently governed by provisions or the 1956 Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act. Since this legislation excludes groups such as Muslims, Christians, and Parsis from its purview, there has been a demand for national legislation providing a uniform adoption law for all the communities in India. The Union Government introduced such a comprehensive bill in 1972, the Adoption of Children Bill; however, no action was ever taken. It is urged that this legislation be reactivated, and that the restriction on the removal of children for adoption outside India be lifted.

  5. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  6. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  7. 77 FR 55105 - Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 121 and 129 RIN 2120-AI05 Aging Airplane Program: Widespread... entitled ``Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage'' (77 FR 30877), which corrected a final...

  8. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-05-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety.

  9. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety. PMID:26018957

  10. The Temporal Context of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    This paper analyzes the amount of time required by farmers in four villages on the western edge of the central plain of Thailand to adopt four agricultural innovations--fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide. The general objective is to help researchers interested in the relationship of the adoption of new ideas to economic development…

  11. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  12. Parents’ Feelings Towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent–child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child of the couple, and tested whether the links between parent feelings and child maladjustment included effects of passive gene–environment correlation. Parents reported more negativity and less positivity as well as higher levels of externalizing behaviour for the adopted child compared to the non-adopted child, although effect sizes were small and no longer statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Fathers and mothers did not differ significantly in their reports of positive and negative feelings towards their children or in regard to child externalizing and internalizing behaviours. The correlations between parental negativity and positivity and child externalizing and internalizing were similar for fathers and mothers, and for adopted and non-adopted children. The findings suggest similar parent–child relationship processes for fathers and mothers, and that genetic transmission of behaviour from parent to child does not account for the association between parental warmth and hostility and child-adjustment problems. PMID:21088705

  13. The Value of Successful MBSE Adoption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Edith

    2016-01-01

    The value of successful adoption of Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) practices is hard to quantify. Most engineers and project managers look at the success in terms of cost. But there are other ways to quantify the value of MBSE and the steps necessary to achieve adoption. The Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been doing Model-Based Engineering (design, structural, etc.) for years, but the system engineering side has not. Since 2010, GRC has been moving from documents centric to MBSE/SysML. Project adoption of MBSE has been slow, but is steadily increasing in both MBSE usage and complexity of generated products. Sharing of knowledge of lessons learned in the implementation of MBSE/SysML is key for others who want to be successful. Along with GRC's implementation, NASA is working hard to increase the successful implementation of MBSE across all the other centers by developing guidelines, templates and libraries for projects to utilize. This presentation will provide insight into recent GRC and NASA adoption efforts, lessons learned and best practices.

  14. Widespread Low-Latitude Diurnal CO2 Frost on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueux, S.; Kleinböhl, A.; Hayne, P. O.; Heavens, N. G.; Kass, D. M.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Shirley, J. H.

    2016-09-01

    We map and characterize MCS nighttime surface temperature observations consistent with the occurrence of CO2 frost on Mars. Low-latitude nighttime CO2 frost is widespread, with potential implications for the physical nature of the surface layer.

  15. Adopting a Districtwide Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Washington school district's eight-step process leading to the adoption of a districtwide reading program. Includes data collection, research analysis, skill tracing, and field-testing. (PKP)

  16. What Specific Preschool Math Skills Predict Later Math Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The widespread concern about mathematics achievement has drawn extensive research attention to what skills predict later academic achievement. There is clear and consistent evidence that math achievement at school entry is the strongest predictor of later school success and educational attainment. Early childhood math achievement can thus have…

  17. Open adoption and adoptive mothers: attitudes toward birthmothers, adopted children, and parenting.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Twaite, J A

    1997-10-01

    The nature and extent of contact between 238 adoptive mothers and their child's biological mother was assessed for the period prior to the birth of the child and during the first two years of the child's life. Adoptive mothers who reported such contact prior to the child's birth had significantly more favorable attitudes toward both the biological mother and the adopted child. Those with contact either before or after the birth also demonstrated significantly more favorable parenting attitudes. Policy implications and the need for further research are noted.

  18. An Empirical Study of Factors Affecting Mobile Wireless Technology Adoption for Promoting Interactive Lectures in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Chin Lay; Balakrishnan, Vimala

    2016-01-01

    Use of mobile technology is widespread, particularly among the younger generation. There is a huge potential for utilizing such technology in lecture classes with large numbers of students, serving as an interaction tool between the students and lecturers. The challenge is to identify significant adoption factors to ensure effective adoption of…

  19. Phylogeography of a widespread North American migratory songbird (Setophaga ruticilla).

    PubMed

    Colbeck, Gabriel J; Gibbs, H Lisle; Marra, Peter P; Hobson, Keith; Webster, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Genetic analyses for many widespread North American species have revealed significant east-west differentiation, indicating that many survived through the Pleistocene in 2 glacial refugia-1 in the eastern and 1 in the western part of the continent. It remains unclear, however, whether other areas may have served as important glacial refugia. Moreover, many such species exhibit widespread genetic similarity within eastern and western regions because of recent expansion from small refugial populations, making it difficult to evaluate current-day levels of gene flow. In this study, we used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequence and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers to survey genetic variation in a widespread migratory bird, the American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). mtDNA analyses revealed a pattern that contrasts with that found for most other widespread species studied to date: most redstart populations across North America appear to have spread out from a single glacial refugium, possibly located in the southeastern United States, whereas populations in far-eastern Canada may have survived in a second glacial refugium located on the now-submerged Atlantic coastal shelf off the coast of Newfoundland. A pattern of isolation by distance in mtDNA suggested some constraints on current-day gene flow among extant redstart populations. This study thus reveals a recent evolutionary history for this species that differs from that of most other widespread North American passerines and provides evidence for limited gene flow in a species with potentially large dispersal distances.

  20. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees.

  1. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    PubMed

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality.

  2. Amphibious Combat Vehicle Acquisition: Marine Corps Adopts an Incremental Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    to determine how fully this approach will adopt a best practices knowledge-based framework . GAO’s prior work on best practices has found that...are in control. The knowledge-based acquisition framework involves achieving the right knowledge at the right time, enabling leadership to make...the acquisition process, limiting our ability to determine how fully the ACV acquisition will adopt a best practices knowledge-based framework

  3. Inspecting for widespread fatigue damage: Is partial debonding the key?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, John

    1994-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results indicate that cracks can initiate, grow, and coalesce more rapidly in fuselage lap joints that have experienced partial or complete debonding. Computational analysis in this paper shows that stress concentrations and stress intensity factors at the rivet holes are far less severe when the bond is intact. Debonding hastens the initiation of widespread fatigue cracks and significantly increases crack growth rate. Thus, debonded regions serve as "breeding grounds" for widespread fatigue damage. Therefore, the effectiveness of lap joint inspection programs may be enhanced if detailed inspections are focused on areas in which debonding has been detected.

  4. Inspecting for widespread fatigue damage: Is partial debonding the key?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, John

    1994-09-01

    Experimental and analytical results indicate that cracks can initiate, grow, and coalesce more rapidly in fuselage lap joints that have experienced partial or complete debonding. Computational analysis in this paper shows that stress concentrations and stress intensity factors at the rivet holes are far less severe when the bond is intact. Debonding hastens the initiation of widespread fatigue cracks and significantly increases crack growth rate. Thus, debonded regions serve as "breeding grounds" for widespread fatigue damage. Therefore, the effectiveness of lap joint inspection programs may be enhanced if detailed inspections are focused on areas in which debonding has been detected.

  5. Adopt-A-School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    The Los Angeles Unified School District's Adopt-A-School Program is described as a program where a business or an industry sponsors a school. Some of the ways business and industry can help students are to provide role models, tutor students, give mini-course lectures, share hobbies, offer counseling, give club sponsorship, provide summer…

  6. Adoption Issues, Trends and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, William L.

    Teenage women with unplanned pregnancies constitute one of America's greatest challenges in terms of providing good services and sound counseling on options. Only about 7% of teenagers having babies make alternate childrearing plans either through formal adoption or informally with members of their families. The emphasis on making teenagers good…

  7. International Adoptions: The Quiet Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Richard H.

    1984-01-01

    Examines patterns in the international migration of children for adoption since World War II, with emphasis on those going to Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Relates findings to political and cultural factors. Observes that Latin America became a major source area for the United States in the 1970s, but that Asia remained…

  8. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  9. Internet Adoption: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Junzhao

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has brought significant changes to the retail industry because it revolutionizes how information is transmitted and accessed. The main objective of this research is to enhance our understanding of people's adoption of the Internet and its implications for retail competition. This dissertation consists of two essays. The first essay…

  10. Adoption: A Lifelong Journey for Children & Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn, C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Several issues surrounding adoption are addressed in this journal. "Openness in Adoption," by Ruth G. McRoy and others, explores the movement away from confidentiality in adoption. "Mid-Life Reflections on Adoption" by Carol Yttri and "An Adoption Journey" by Shannon Latimer detail the experiences of adults who were…

  11. Water and soil conservation for food security in Niger and its constraints for adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildemeersch, Jasmien; Timmerman, Emma; Garba, Maman; Mazijn, Bernard; Sabiou, Mahamane; Ibro, Germaine; Cornelis, Wim

    2013-04-01

    Nigerien subsistence farmers increasingly rely on marginal degraded lands for food production as a result of ongoing soil degradation, limited fertile land availability and growing population pressure. These degraded lands, however, generally provide poor yields which are largely assigned to an increased vulnerability to drought as a major part of the rainfall is lost through inefficient rain water partitioning. More efficient use of rainwater can be achieved with the aid of water and soil conservation (WSC) techniques such as zaï (Z) and demi-lunes (DL) which positively alter the soil water-balance in favour of productive water and deliver a wide range of ecosystem services. The results of our in situ root-zone water balance experiment at Sadoré-village (2011-2012) confirm improved agronomical, hydrological and soil quality parameters under the Z and DL treatments. The highest grain yield is produced by the zaï, which is 3 times better than the grain yield of the demi-lunes. Zaï moreover reduce cumulative actual evaporation and both Z and DL increase soil water content in the catchment as measured by a neutron probe and biological soil quality indicated by an extended nematode population of free living species. The techniques therefore show promising potential to rehabilitate and to increase the agronomic efficiency of marginal land in Niger, but the adoption of the techniques has not been widespread and the dissemination generally encounters difficulties. To identify and quantify the importance and presence of several adoption obstacles in the Tillabéri region, we conducted 100 households surveys exploring farmers' erosion perception, WSC technique knowledge and resource availability. Although the important adoption triggers such as food insecurity and limited fertile land availability are present, the regions' adoption rate is low due to a general lack of manure availability and a profound knowledge of erosion and the techniques themselves, which indicates

  12. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  13. 75 FR 69745 - Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...This final rule amends FAA regulations pertaining to certification and operation of transport category airplanes to prevent widespread fatigue damage in those airplanes. For certain existing airplanes, the rule requires design approval holders to evaluate their airplanes to establish a limit of validity of the engineering data that supports the structural maintenance program (LOV). For future......

  14. Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Tagoe, Clement E

    2014-07-01

    Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain syndromes are among the commonest diseases seen in rheumatology practice. Despite advances in the management of these conditions, they remain significant causes of morbidity and disability. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder, affecting about 10 % of the population, and is a recognized cause of fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain. Recent reports are shedding light on the mechanisms of pain generation in autoimmune thyroid disease-associated pain syndromes including the role of inflammatory mediators, small-fiber polyneuropathy, and central sensitization. The gradual elucidation of these pain pathways is allowing the rational use of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease. This review looks at the current understanding of the prevalence of pain syndromes in autoimmune thyroid disease, their likely causes, present appreciation of the pathogenesis of chronic widespread pain, and how our knowledge can be used to find lasting and effective treatments for the pain syndromes associated with autoimmune thyroid disease.

  15. Are neonicotinoid insecticides driving declines of widespread butterflies?

    PubMed Central

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Wilson, John McVean; Botham, Marc S.; Brereton, Tom M.; Fox, Richard; Goulson, Dave

    2015-01-01

    There has been widespread concern that neonicotinoid pesticides may be adversely impacting wild and managed bees for some years, but recently attention has shifted to examining broader effects they may be having on biodiversity. For example in the Netherlands, declines in insectivorous birds are positively associated with levels of neonicotinoid pollution in surface water. In England, the total abundance of widespread butterfly species declined by 58% on farmed land between 2000 and 2009 despite both a doubling in conservation spending in the UK, and predictions that climate change should benefit most species. Here we build models of the UK population indices from 1985 to 2012 for 17 widespread butterfly species that commonly occur at farmland sites. Of the factors we tested, three correlated significantly with butterfly populations. Summer temperature and the index for a species the previous year are both positively associated with butterfly indices. By contrast, the number of hectares of farmland where neonicotinoid pesticides are used is negatively associated with butterfly indices. Indices for 15 of the 17 species show negative associations with neonicotinoid usage. The declines in butterflies have largely occurred in England, where neonicotinoid usage is at its highest. In Scotland, where neonicotinoid usage is comparatively low, butterfly numbers are stable. Further research is needed urgently to show whether there is a causal link between neonicotinoid usage and the decline of widespread butterflies or whether it simply represents a proxy for other environmental factors associated with intensive agriculture. PMID:26623186

  16. Are neonicotinoid insecticides driving declines of widespread butterflies?

    PubMed

    Gilburn, Andre S; Bunnefeld, Nils; Wilson, John McVean; Botham, Marc S; Brereton, Tom M; Fox, Richard; Goulson, Dave

    2015-01-01

    There has been widespread concern that neonicotinoid pesticides may be adversely impacting wild and managed bees for some years, but recently attention has shifted to examining broader effects they may be having on biodiversity. For example in the Netherlands, declines in insectivorous birds are positively associated with levels of neonicotinoid pollution in surface water. In England, the total abundance of widespread butterfly species declined by 58% on farmed land between 2000 and 2009 despite both a doubling in conservation spending in the UK, and predictions that climate change should benefit most species. Here we build models of the UK population indices from 1985 to 2012 for 17 widespread butterfly species that commonly occur at farmland sites. Of the factors we tested, three correlated significantly with butterfly populations. Summer temperature and the index for a species the previous year are both positively associated with butterfly indices. By contrast, the number of hectares of farmland where neonicotinoid pesticides are used is negatively associated with butterfly indices. Indices for 15 of the 17 species show negative associations with neonicotinoid usage. The declines in butterflies have largely occurred in England, where neonicotinoid usage is at its highest. In Scotland, where neonicotinoid usage is comparatively low, butterfly numbers are stable. Further research is needed urgently to show whether there is a causal link between neonicotinoid usage and the decline of widespread butterflies or whether it simply represents a proxy for other environmental factors associated with intensive agriculture.

  17. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    MedlinePlus

    ... in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs. This person should be contacted by adoption ... in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs in each State or territory. State Postadoption ...

  18. Human adoption in evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Silk, J B

    1990-03-01

    Exploitation is a fundamental element of the parental strategies of many species of birds. Cuckoos, for example, lay their eggs in the nest of other birds, who often unwittingly rear the alien nestlings as their own. Nest parasitism is an efficient reproductive strategy for cuckoos, who do not have to worry about building a nest, incubating their eggs, or feeding their nestlings. But not all hosts respond passively to such intrusions. In response to parasitic cowbirds, for example, robins have evolved the ability to detect and selectively eject alien young from their nests. Human parenting strategies differ sharply from the strategies of cuckoos and robins. Unlike cuckoos, we are reluctant to allow our children to be raised by others. Unlike robins, we knowingly rear strange young. What makes human behavior toward children so different from that of cuckoos and robins? Humans seem to share a number of predispositions that facilitate successful adoptive relationships, and the desire to raise children seems to be pervasive among modern humans. Despite these commonalities, patterns of adoption transactions vary greatly among contemporary human societies. This paper considers the origins and causes of cross-cultural variation in human adoptive behavior from an evolutionary perspective.

  19. Soil-type influences human selenium status and underlies widespread selenium deficiency risks in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Rachel; Siyame, Edwin W P; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Joy, Edward J M; Black, Colin R; Ander, E Louise; Watts, Michael J; Chilima, Benson; Gondwe, Jellita; Kang'ombe, Dalitso; Stein, Alexander J; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Gibson, Rosalind S; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Broadley, Martin R

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential human micronutrient with critical roles in immune functioning and antioxidant defence. Estimates of dietary Se intakes and status are scarce for Africa although crop surveys indicate deficiency is probably widespread in Malawi. Here we show that Se deficiency is likely endemic in Malawi based on the Se status of adults consuming food from contrasting soil types. These data are consistent with food balance sheets and composition tables revealing that >80% of the Malawi population is at risk of dietary Se inadequacy. Risk of dietary Se inadequacy is >60% in seven other countries in Southern Africa, and 22% across Africa as a whole. Given that most Malawi soils cannot supply sufficient Se to crops for adequate human nutrition, the cost and benefits of interventions to alleviate Se deficiency should be determined; for example, Se-enriched nitrogen fertilisers could be adopted as in Finland.

  20. Soil-type influences human selenium status and underlies widespread selenium deficiency risks in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Rachel; Siyame, Edwin W. P.; Young, Scott D.; Chilimba, Allan D. C.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Black, Colin R.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Chilima, Benson; Gondwe, Jellita; Kang'ombe, Dalitso; Stein, Alexander J.; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.; Gibson, Rosalind S.; Kalimbira, Alexander A.; Broadley, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential human micronutrient with critical roles in immune functioning and antioxidant defence. Estimates of dietary Se intakes and status are scarce for Africa although crop surveys indicate deficiency is probably widespread in Malawi. Here we show that Se deficiency is likely endemic in Malawi based on the Se status of adults consuming food from contrasting soil types. These data are consistent with food balance sheets and composition tables revealing that >80% of the Malawi population is at risk of dietary Se inadequacy. Risk of dietary Se inadequacy is >60% in seven other countries in Southern Africa, and 22% across Africa as a whole. Given that most Malawi soils cannot supply sufficient Se to crops for adequate human nutrition, the cost and benefits of interventions to alleviate Se deficiency should be determined; for example, Se-enriched nitrogen fertilisers could be adopted as in Finland. PMID:23478344

  1. Pre-placement risk and longitudinal cognitive development for children adopted from foster care.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Jill M; Nadeem, Erum; Paczkowski, Emilie; Foster, Jared Cory; Lavner, Justin A; Belin, Thomas; Miranda, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the trajectory of cognitive development over the first five years of adoptive placement among children adopted from foster care and how pre-adoption risk factors relate to this development. Overall, children's cognitive scores increased significantly, with the most rapid improvement occurring in the first year post-placement. By five years post-placement, children's mean cognitive and achievement scores were in the average range. Adoption is a positive intervention for children's cognitive development.

  2. School Achievement Strongly Predicts Midlife IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, Ruth; Arndt, Stephan; Caspers, Kristin; Yucuis, Rebecca; McKirgan, L. William; Pfalzgraf, Christopher; Waterman, Elijah

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between measures of IQ and standardized school achievement tests is well established at around r~0.5 when the two are measured in close proximity. The current paper examined the stability of this correlation when comparing elementary school achievement (grades 3-8) and midlife IQ. Iowa Adoption Study participants who had…

  3. Evidence of widespread axonal pathology in Wolfram syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shannon, P; Becker, L; Deck, J

    1999-09-01

    Wolfram syndrome, characterised by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy sensorineural deafness and acquired urinary tract abnormalities, is an hereditary neurodegenerative syndrome, the pathogenesis of which is unknown. We report the post-mortem findings on a patient with well-documented Wolfram syndrome. The brain showed severe degeneration of the optic nerves, chiasm and tracts as well as severe loss of neurons from the lateral geniculate nuclei, basis pontis, and the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. In addition, there was a widespread axonal dystrophy with axonal swellings in the pontocerebellar tracts, the optic radiations, the hippocampal fornices and the deep cerebral white matter. This widespread axonal pathology parallels the pattern of neurodegeneration and in many areas is more striking than neuronal loss.

  4. Organohalogens in nature: More widespread than previously assumed

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, G.; Grimvall, A. )

    1991-08-01

    Although the natural production of organohalogens has been observed in several studies, it is generally assumed to be much smaller than the industrial production of these compounds. Nevertheless, two important natural sources have been known since the 1970s: red algae in marine ecosystems produce large amounts of brominated compounds, and methyl halides of natural origin are present in the atmosphere. During the past few years it has been shown that organohalogens are so widespread in groundwater, surface water, and soil that all samples in the studies referred to contain measurable amounts of absorbable organohalogens (AOX). The authors document the widespread occurrence of organohalogens in unpolluted soil and water and discuss possible sources of these compounds. It has been suggested that these organohalogens originate from long-range atmospheric transport of industrially produced compounds. The authors review existing evidence of enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter in soil and show that, most probably, natural halogenation in the terrestrial environment is the largest source.

  5. Non-pharmacological treatment of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Afton L; Williams, David A

    2011-04-01

    Individuals with chronic widespread pain, including those with fibromyalgia, pose a particular challenge to treatment, given the modest effectiveness of pharmacological agents for this condition. The growing consensus indicates that the best approach to treatment involves the combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Several non-pharmacological interventions, particularly exercise and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), have garnered good evidence of effectiveness as stand-alone, adjunctive treatments for patients with chronic pain. In this article, evidenced-based, non-pharmacological management techniques for chronic widespread pain are described by using two broad categories, exercise and CBT. The evidence for decreasing pain, improving functioning and changing secondary symptoms is highlighted. Lastly, the methods by which exercise and CBT can be combined for a multi-component approach, which is consistent with the current evidence-based guidelines of several American and European medical societies, are addressed.

  6. Thermal Non-equilibrium Consistent with Widespread Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Mok, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Time correlation analysis has been used to show widespread cooling in the solar corona; this cooling has been interpreted as a result of impulsive (nanoflare) heating. In this work, we investigate wide-spread cooling using a 3D model for a solar active region which has been heated with highly stratified heating. This type of heating drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions, meaning that though the heating is effectively steady, the density and temperature in the solution are not. We simulate the expected observations in narrowband EUV images and apply the time correlation analysis. We find that the results of this analysis are qualitatively similar to the observed data. We discuss additional diagnostics that may be applied to differentiate between these two heating scenarios.

  7. Information architecture: Profile of adopted standards

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), like other Federal agencies, is under increasing pressure to use information technology to improve efficiency in mission accomplishment as well as delivery of services to the public. Because users and systems have become interdependent, DOE has enterprise wide needs for common application architectures, communication networks, databases, security, and management capabilities. Users need open systems that provide interoperability of products and portability of people, data, and applications that are distributed throughout heterogeneous computing environments. The level of interoperability necessary requires the adoption of DOE wide standards, protocols, and best practices. The Department has developed an information architecture and a related standards adoption and retirement process to assist users in developing strategies and plans for acquiring information technology products and services based upon open systems standards that support application software interoperability, portability, and scalability. This set of Departmental Information Architecture standards represents guidance for achieving higher degrees of interoperability within the greater DOE community, business partners, and stakeholders. While these standards are not mandatory, particular and due consideration of their applications in contractual matters and use in technology implementations Department wide are goals of the Chief Information Officer.

  8. Home Energy Displays. Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, Janelle; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. The team hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, Fraunhofer conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. In light of these challenges, the team is pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  9. Geochemical evidence for widespread euxinia in the later Cambrian ocean.

    PubMed

    Gill, Benjamin C; Lyons, Timothy W; Young, Seth A; Kump, Lee R; Knoll, Andrew H; Saltzman, Matthew R

    2011-01-06

    Widespread anoxia in the ocean is frequently invoked as a primary driver of mass extinction as well as a long-term inhibitor of evolutionary radiation on early Earth. In recent biogeochemical studies it has been hypothesized that oxygen deficiency was widespread in subsurface water masses of later Cambrian oceans, possibly influencing evolutionary events during this time. Physical evidence of widespread anoxia in Cambrian oceans has remained elusive and thus its potential relationship to the palaeontological record remains largely unexplored. Here we present sulphur isotope records from six globally distributed stratigraphic sections of later Cambrian marine rocks (about 499 million years old). We find a positive sulphur isotope excursion in phase with the Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE), a large and rapid excursion in the marine carbon isotope record, which is thought to be indicative of a global carbon cycle perturbation. Numerical box modelling of the paired carbon sulphur isotope data indicates that these isotope shifts reflect transient increases in the burial of organic carbon and pyrite sulphur in sediments deposited under large-scale anoxic and sulphidic (euxinic) conditions. Independently, molybdenum abundances in a coeval black shale point convincingly to the transient spread of anoxia. These results identify the SPICE interval as the best characterized ocean anoxic event in the pre-Mesozoic ocean and an extreme example of oxygen deficiency in the later Cambrian ocean. Thus, a redox structure similar to those in Proterozoic oceans may have persisted or returned in the oceans of the early Phanerozoic eon. Indeed, the environmental challenges presented by widespread anoxia may have been a prevalent if not dominant influence on animal evolution in Cambrian oceans.

  10. Widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands, 2016.

    PubMed

    Rijks, J M; Kik, M L; Slaterus, R; Foppen, Rpb; Stroo, A; IJzer, J; Stahl, J; Gröne, A; Koopmans, Mgp; van der Jeugd, H P; Reusken, Cbem

    2016-11-10

    We report a widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands. Viral presence had been detected through targeted surveillance as early as April 2016 and increased mortality in common blackbirds and captive great grey owls was noticed from August 2016 onwards. Usutu virus infection was confirmed by post-mortem examination and RT-PCR. Extensive Usutu virus activity in the Netherlands in 2016 underlines the need to monitor mosquito activity and mosquito-borne infections in 2017 and beyond.

  11. Identifying patients with chronic widespread pain in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Kathryn E.; Sim, Julius; Croft, Peter; Jordan, Kelvin P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is common in the general population. It is unclear how people reporting this problem present in primary care; they may regularly consult for regional pains without being recognized as having a generalized condition. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of people consulting in primary care for musculoskeletal conditions in different body regions on different occasions (recurrent regional pain consultation), the proportion with diagnosed generalized pain and survey-reported widespread pain, and if they have features characteristic of CWP. Phase 1 used electronic records from 12 general practices in North Staffordshire (Consultations in Primary Care Archive) from 2005 to 2009. Phase 2 used linked self-reported health and primary health care data from 8286 people aged >50 years in 8 general practices (North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project) between 2002 and 2005. In Phase 1, 11% of registered patients fulfilled criteria for recurrent regional pain consultation. Three-quarters had no recorded CWP-related generalized pain condition (eg, fibromyalgia). In Phase 2, 53% of recurrent regional pain consulters had survey-reported widespread pain and 88% had consulted for somatic symptoms. Self-reported general health was worse in recurrent regional pain consulters than in single-region consulters and poorest in those who also reported persistent widespread pain. Recurrent regional pain consulters are a heterogeneous group of frequent consulters sharing features with CWP (eg, somatic symptoms) but including those less severely affected. They lie on the spectrum of polysymptomatic distress characteristic of CWP and represent a group whose needs may be better met by earlier diagnosis of multisite pain. PMID:27749607

  12. Widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Rijks, JM; Kik, ML; Slaterus, R; Foppen, RPB; Stroo, A; IJzer, J; Stahl, J; Gröne, A; Koopmans, MGP; van der Jeugd, HP; Reusken, CBEM

    2016-01-01

    We report a widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands. Viral presence had been detected through targeted surveillance as early as April 2016 and increased mortality in common blackbirds and captive great grey owls was noticed from August 2016 onwards. Usutu virus infection was confirmed by post-mortem examination and RT-PCR. Extensive Usutu virus activity in the Netherlands in 2016 underlines the need to monitor mosquito activity and mosquito-borne infections in 2017 and beyond. PMID:27918257

  13. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  14. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. UN adopts Law of Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

  16. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  17. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  18. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  19. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  20. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…

  1. Adoption and Single Parents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groze, Vic

    1991-01-01

    Examines the literature about people who choose to become single adoptive parents. Reviews the demographic and personal characteristics of single parents who adopt, and summarizes the experiences of single parents with the children they adopt. Calls for further research on single parents who adopt special needs children. (GH)

  2. Online System Adoption and K-12 Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the relationship between K-12 online system adoption (e.g., Blackboard, Edmodo, WordPress) and school-level academic achievement ratings. Utilizing a novel approach to data collection via website data extraction and indexing of all school websites in a target state in the United States (n?=?732) and merging these…

  3. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to “adopt” surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  4. Bridging the gap between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources: Predicting intentions to adopt energy management technologies in California

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Bingye; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-10-24

    To achieve energy savings, emerging energy management technologies and programs require customer adoption. Although a variety of models can be used to explain the adoption of energy management technologies and programs, they overlook the seemingly unconventional element of level of affiliation with nature. In fact, connectedness to nature has been identified as an important driver of many pro-environmental behaviors, but its role in pro-environmental technology adoption is also not well understood. Can affiliation with nature help to bridge the apparent gap—and complex chain of events—between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources? Based on survey data from 856 southern Californiamore » residents, this study investigated the influence of connectedness to nature and other factors on intentions to adopt five energy management technologies and programs: using three platforms to monitor home energy use (website, mobile phone application, in-home display); signing up for a time-of-use pricing plan; and participating in demand response events. Regression results showed that nature connectedness was the strongest predictor of all outcomes such that higher nature connectedness predicted greater likelihood of technology and program adoption. In conclusion, these findings suggest that connectedness to nature may facilitate “bridging the logic gap” between sustainable innovation adoption and environmental protection.« less

  5. Bridging the gap between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources: Predicting intentions to adopt energy management technologies in California

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bingye; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-10-24

    To achieve energy savings, emerging energy management technologies and programs require customer adoption. Although a variety of models can be used to explain the adoption of energy management technologies and programs, they overlook the seemingly unconventional element of level of affiliation with nature. In fact, connectedness to nature has been identified as an important driver of many pro-environmental behaviors, but its role in pro-environmental technology adoption is also not well understood. Can affiliation with nature help to bridge the apparent gap—and complex chain of events—between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources? Based on survey data from 856 southern California residents, this study investigated the influence of connectedness to nature and other factors on intentions to adopt five energy management technologies and programs: using three platforms to monitor home energy use (website, mobile phone application, in-home display); signing up for a time-of-use pricing plan; and participating in demand response events. Regression results showed that nature connectedness was the strongest predictor of all outcomes such that higher nature connectedness predicted greater likelihood of technology and program adoption. In conclusion, these findings suggest that connectedness to nature may facilitate “bridging the logic gap” between sustainable innovation adoption and environmental protection.

  6. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption.

  7. Progress in electronic medical record adoption in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Feng; Gupta, Nishi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the rate of adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) by physicians across Canada, provincial incentives, and perceived benefits of and barriers to EMR adoption. Data sources Data on EMR adoption in Canada were collected from CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Health Council of Canada, Canada Health Infoway, government websites, regional EMR associations, and health professional association websites. Study selection After removal of duplicate articles, 236 documents were found matching the original search. After using the filter Canada, 12 documents remained. Additional documents were obtained from each province’s EMR website and from the Canada Health Infoway website. Synthesis Since 2006, Canadian EMR adoption rates have increased from about 20% of practitioners to an estimated 62% of practitioners in 2013, with substantial regional disparities ranging from roughly 40% of physicians in New Brunswick and Quebec to more than 75% of physicians in Alberta. Provincial incentives vary widely but appear to have only a weak relationship with the rate of adoption. Many adopters use only a fraction of their software’s available functions. User-cited benefits to adoption include time savings, improved record keeping, heightened patient safety, and confidence in retrieved data when EMRs are used efficiently. Barriers to adoption include financial and time constraints, lack of knowledgeable support personnel, and lack of interoperability with hospital and pharmacy systems. Conclusion Canadian physicians remain at the stage of EMR adoption. Progression in EMR use requires experienced, knowledgeable technical support during implementation, and financial support for the transcription of patient data from paper to electronic media. The interoperability of EMR offerings for hospitals, pharmacies, and clinics is the rate-limiting factor in achieving a unified EMR solution for Canada. PMID:27035020

  8. Is managed care restraining the adoption of technology by hospitals?

    PubMed

    Mas, Núria; Seinfeld, Janice

    2008-07-01

    As health care costs increase, cost-control mechanisms become more widespread and it is crucial to understand their implications for the health care market. This paper examines the effect that managed care activity (based on the aim to control health care expenditure) has on the adoption of technologies by hospitals. We use a hazard rate model to investigate whether higher levels of managed care market share are associated with a decrease on medical technology adoption during the period 1982-1995. We analyze annual data on 5390 US hospitals regarding the adoption of 13 different technologies. Our results are threefold: first, we find that managed care has a negative effect on hospitals' technology acquisition for each of the 13 medical technologies in our study, and its effect is stronger for those technologies diffusing in the 1990s, when the managed care sector is at its largest. If managed care enrollment had remained at its 1984 level, there would be 5.3%, 7.3% and 4.1% more hospitals with diagnostic radiology, radiation therapy and cardiac technologies, respectively. Second, we find that the rise in managed care leads to long-term reductions in medical cost growth. Finally, we take into account that profitability analysis is one of the main dimensions considered by hospitals when deciding about the adoption of new technologies. In order to determine whether managed care affects technologies differently if they have a different cost-reimbursement ratio (CRR), we have created a unique data set with information on the cost-reimbursement for each of the 13 technologies and we find that managed care enrollment has a considerably larger negative effect on the adoption of less profitable technologies.

  9. Widespread Weathered Glass on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Briony; Bell, James F., III

    2012-01-01

    Low albedo sediments cover >10(exp 7) sq km in the northern lowlands of Mars, but the composition and origin of these widespread deposits have remained ambiguous despite many previous investigations. Here we use near-infrared spectra acquired by the Mars Express OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activite') imaging spectrometer to show that these sediments exhibit spectral characteristics that are consistent with both high abundances of iron-bearing glass and silica-enriched leached rinds on glass. This interpretation is supported by observations of low-albedo soil grains with possible rinds at the Phoenix Mars Lander landing site in the northern lowlands. By comparison with the extensive glass-rich dune fields and sand sheets of Iceland, we propose an explosive volcanic origin for these glass-rich sediments. We also propose that the glassy remnant rinds on the sediments are the result of post-depositional alteration, as these rinds are commonly formed in arid terrestrial volcanic environments during water-limited, moderately acidic leaching. These weathered, glass-rich deposits in the northern lowlands are also colocated with the strongest concentrations of a major global compositional surface type previously identified in mid-infrared spectra, suggesting that they may be representative of global processes. Our results provide potential confirmation of models suggesting that explosive volcanism has been widespread on Mars, and also raise the possibilities that glass-rich volcaniclastics are a major source of eolian sand on Mars and that widespread surficial aqueous alteration has occurred under Amazonian climatic conditions.

  10. Insecure attachment style is associated with chronic widespread pain.

    PubMed

    Davies, K A; Macfarlane, G J; McBeth, J; Morriss, R; Dickens, C

    2009-06-01

    Individuals with "insecure" adult attachment styles have been shown to experience more pain than people with secure attachment, though results of previous studies have been inconsistent. We performed a cross-sectional study on a large population-based sample to investigate whether, compared to pain free individuals, subjects with chronic widespread pain were more likely to report insecure adult attachment style. Subjects in a population-based cross-sectional study completed a self-rated assessment of adult attachment style. Attachment style was categorised as secure (i.e., normal attachment style); or preoccupied, dismissing or fearful (insecure attachment styles). Subjects completed a pain questionnaire from which three groups were identified: pain free; chronic widespread pain; and other pain. Subjects rated their pain intensity and pain-related disability on an 11 point Likert scale. Subjects (2509) returned a completed questionnaire (median age 49.9 years (IQR 41.2-50.0); 59.2% female). Subjects with CWP were more likely to report a preoccupied (RRR 2.6; 95%CI 1.8-3.7), dismissing (RRR 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-3.1) or fearful attachment style (RRR 1.4; 95%CI 1.1-1.8) than those free of pain. Among CWP subjects, insecure attachment style was associated with number of pain sites (Dismissing: RRR 2.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.3, Preoccupied: RRR=1.8, 95%CI 0.98-3.5) and degree of pain-related disability (Preoccupied: RRR=2.1, 95%CI 1.0-4.1), but not pain intensity. These findings suggest that treatment strategies based on knowledge of attachment style, possibly using support and education, may alleviate distress and disability in people at risk of, or affected by, chronic widespread pain.

  11. Widespread 3′-end uridylation in eukaryotic RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yayun; Shen, Jianguo; Wu, Huanian; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Lihua; Yang, Jinguang; Li, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    RNA 3′ uridylation occurs pervasively in eukaryotes, but is poorly characterized in viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that a broad array of RNA viruses, including mycoviruses, plant viruses and animal viruses, possess a novel population of RNA species bearing nontemplated oligo(U) or (U)-rich tails, suggesting widespread 3′ uridylation in eukaryotic viruses. Given the biological relevance of 3′ uridylation to eukaryotic RNA degradation, we propose a conserved but as-yet-unknown mechanism in virus-host interaction. PMID:27151171

  12. Laser light scattering in diagnostics of widespread diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Galina P.; Petrusevich, Yurii M.; Alexeev, Sergei G.; Ivanov, Andrei V.

    2002-08-01

    The multiparametric physical method for diagnosing of widespread diseases including oncological disease based on Rayleigh light scattering is proposed. There was studied simultaneously dynamic and static parameters of blood plasma proteins. This method is the product of extensive research conducted on a molecular level on the indicative fields of the human body such as blood serum or lymph. Comprehensive measurements at molecular level and determinations of parameters related to these fluids, especially blood serum, have revealed significant differences in the values of certain parameters in patients with oncological diseases and for healthy individuals.

  13. Ferroan anorthosite - A widespread and distinctive lunar rock type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, E.; Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1974-01-01

    Eight of eleven Apollo 16 rake-sample anorthosites are very similar to each other, to hand-specimen Apollo 16 anorthosites, and to Apollo 15 anorthosites. They have feldspar An-96.6, both high- and low-Ca pyroxene with a restricted range of (low-magnesium) composition, minor olivine, traces of ilmenite and chromite, and originally coarse-grained, but now cataclastic texture. Such ferroan anorthosite is evidently a coherent, distinctive and widespread lunar rock type of cumulate origin which may not necessarily be very closely related genetically to other highland rock types.

  14. Adoption law: a district nurse's guide.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-04-01

    The Government wants to see a large rise in the use of adoption as a means of giving children a secure, loving and permanent home. Guidance coming into effect from April calls for a more pragmatic approach to adoption placements, and calls for the active promotion of the adoption process by health and social care professionals. District nurses will encounter people interested in becoming prospective adopters, but who are unsure if their background or lifestyle makes them eligible. It is essential that district nurses have a working understanding of the guidance and provisions of the Adoption and Children Act 2002 to confidently advise others about adoption and clarify any issues raised.

  15. Personal health records: key adoption issues and implications for management.

    PubMed

    Raisinghani, Mahesh S; Young, Erika

    2008-01-01

    Electronic Personal Health Records (PHRs) has been perceived as the tool to empower consumers to become active decision-makers of their healthcare instead of leaving the decision to providers. However, there has been the lack of enthusiasm and adoption of PHRs. This paper examines the current healthcare climate and attempts to understand the major challenges associated with PHRs adoption. The paper-based and fragmented healthcare system is no longer appropriate for the digital economy of the 21st century. The integrated health information technology system is the solution to transform clinical practice to consumer centric and information driven. Tools such as PHRs are means to an end that provide better, safer and more affordable healthcare for consumers. However, there has been little research conducted to demonstrate PHR's tangible value, despite the widespread perceived value of these technologies. Although survey data reveals that there is a lack of awareness among the public, consumers are receptive to this concept, especially when a physician recommends it. Key issues in adopting PHRs and strategies for successful implementation of PHRs are discussed.

  16. In Their Own Words: Adopted Persons' Experiences of Adoption Disclosure and Discussion in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wydra, Maria; O'Brien, Karen M.; Merson, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored adoption disclosure in a sample of 18 adult adoptees who were adopted as infants. A qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with adoptees was used to learn about participants' experiences of adoption disclosure. The majority always knew they were adopted, were able to talk openly with parents about adoption, and had…

  17. Adoption of Children with Disabilities: An Exploration of the Issues for Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Gretchen A.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review is an exploration of issues for adoptive families throughout the adoption process and into the various phases of the life of the adoptive family. Although there has been much recent research related to adoption, in general, very little adoption literature addresses the often unspoken needs of families who want to…

  18. Widespread methanotrophic primary production in lowland chalk rivers.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Felicity; Grey, Jonathan; Trimmer, Mark

    2014-05-22

    Methane is oversaturated relative to the atmosphere in many rivers, yet its cycling and fate is poorly understood. While photosynthesis is the dominant source of autotrophic carbon to rivers, chemosynthesis and particularly methane oxidation could provide alternative sources of primary production where the riverbed is heavily shaded or at depth beneath the sediment surface. Here, we highlight geographically widespread methanotrophic carbon fixation within the gravel riverbeds of over 30 chalk rivers. In 15 of these, the potential for methane oxidation (methanotrophy) was also compared with photosynthesis. In addition, we performed detailed concurrent measurements of photosynthesis and methanotrophy in one large chalk river over a complete annual cycle, where we found methanotrophy to be active to at least 15 cm into the riverbed and to be strongly substrate limited. The seasonal trend in methanotrophic activity reflected that of the riverine methane concentrations, and thus the highest rates were measured in mid-summer. At the sediment surface, photosynthesis was limited by light for most of the year with heavy shading induced by dense beds of aquatic macrophytes. Across 15 rivers, in late summer, we conservatively calculated that net methanotrophy was equivalent to between 1% and 46% of benthic net photosynthetic production within the gravel riverbed, with a median value of 4%. Hence, riverbed chemosynthesis, coupled to the oxidation of methane, is widespread and significant in English chalk rivers.

  19. Widespread occurrence of expressed fungal secretory peroxidases in forest soils.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek J; Barbi, Florian; Kapturska, Danuta; Krüger, Dirk; Zak, Donald R; Marmeisse, Roland; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hofrichter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin) and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase), dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase). Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp.), which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation.

  20. Ice Nucleation Activity in the Widespread Soil Fungus Mortierella alpina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Pummer, B. G.; Franc, G. D.; Pöschl, U.

    2014-08-01

    Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nuclei (IN). So far, however, the abundance, diversity, sources, seasonality, and role of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. Across all investigated soils, 8% of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5 to -6 °C, and belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. M. alpina is known to be saprobic, widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic-elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be proteinaceous, <300 kDa in size, and can be easily washed off the mycelium. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, their contribution might accumulate over time, perhaps to be transported with soil dust and influencing its ice nucleating properties.

  1. Potential environmental functions of widespread, abundant, uncultured marine archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, K. G.; Schreiber, L.; Petersen, D. G.; Schramm, A.; Jorgensen, B.

    2012-12-01

    The vast majority of marine subsurface microorganisms are uncultivated, and therefore have unknown metabolisms. Much of the prokaryotes present in the marine subsurface are archaea, and, in turn, much of the archaea fall into the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group. These organisms are widely distributed globally and are phylogenetically diverse, comprising 17 distinct subgroups, defined by 16S rRNA genes (Kubo et al. 2012). The subgroups do not seem to have any well-defined environmental distribution (i.e., they are all present in different types of marine and terrestrial environments). However, the abundance of sequences from a certain environment type differs among subgroups, and may provide clues to their role in these environments. We sequenced the genome of a single cell of MCG extracted directly from marine sediments. Although coverage was low (~30%), the data quality was high. Conserved genes show that MCG is deeply branching within the newly named "Thaumarchaeota", and contains a complete pathway for the degradation or extracellular proteins. A further search through metagenomic data shows that this process may be widespread in marine sediments. We hypothesize that MCG archaea may be important in anaerobic protein decomposition in marine sediments. Reference Kubo et al., 2012. Archaea of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) are abundant, diverse, and widespread in marine sediments. ISME Journal, in press, doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.37.

  2. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclosed and 40 percent being mediated (Siegel & Livingston Smith, 2012). Although the context around each adoption is ... Society, 78 , 522–529. Siegel, D. H., & Livingston Smith, S. (2012). Openness in adoption: From secrecy and stigma ...

  3. The Place of Genetic Counselling in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Athel; Bain, Jill

    1982-01-01

    An approach combining social worker and geneticist expertise in adoption is outlined in the study involving 180 families. Genetic counseling has shown to be an essential safeguard to the preservation of the adoptive family unit. (Author/SW)

  4. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... situations were a soldier is trying to adopt a child. It applies to those situations where another person is trying to adopt a legitimate or illegitimate child of a soldier. A child born in or out of...

  5. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  6. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  7. The Adopted Adolescent. Selected Papers Number 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Anne

    This review of studies on clinical and nonclinical populations explores outcomes of adoption and developmental issues for adolescents, and in particular, developmental problems for adopted adolescents. Studies on nonclinical populations demonstrate that adoption is a highly successful form of substitute care. Prospective longitudinal studies show…

  8. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  9. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  10. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  11. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  12. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  13. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  14. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  15. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  16. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  17. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  18. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  19. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  20. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  1. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  2. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  3. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  4. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  5. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  6. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a...

  7. 40 CFR 1506.3 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 1506.3 Section 1506.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.3 Adoption. (a) An agency may adopt a Federal draft or final environmental impact statement or portion...

  8. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  9. 25 CFR 75.18 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption. 75.18 Section 75.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.18 Adoption. The Tribal Council of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be empowered to enact ordinances governing the adoption of new members....

  10. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adoption proceedings. 584.4 Section 584.4... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.4 Adoption proceedings. (a) General. This chapter does not apply to those... normally may not be put up for adoption without the consent of the parents. Therefore, communications...

  11. Child Adoption in Contemporary Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiguo

    2006-01-01

    Based on qualitative information from in-depth interviews and quantitative data from a survey of 425 adoptive families conducted in summer 2001 in rural China, this study attempts to explain the social and demographic patterns of adoption and investigate the roles of the State and families in adoption processes in contemporary rural China. Within…

  12. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  13. Talking with Young Children about Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Mary; Fisher, Susan

    Even though current wisdom holds that adoptive parents should talk with their child about adoption as early as possible, no guidelines exist to prepare parents for the various ways their children might respond when these conversations take place. This book discusses how young children make sense of the fact that they are adopted, how their…

  14. 78 FR 66609 - National Adoption Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9049 of October 31, 2013 National Adoption Month, 2013 By the President of... million children and teenagers. During National Adoption Month, we celebrate these families and stand... parents and children. This month, we celebrate adopted children, teenagers, and their diverse families....

  15. 2 x 2 Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Cluster Analysis of Students' Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Leong Yeok; Liu, Woon Chia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to better understand the adoption of multiple achievement goals at an intra-individual level, and its links to emotional well-being, learning, and academic achievement. Participants were 480 Secondary Two students (aged between 13 and 14 years) from two coeducational government schools. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed the…

  16. Tool to address green roof widespread implementation effect in flood characteristics for water management planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, R.; Lorenzini, F.; Allasia, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    In the last decades, new approaches were adopted to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible through technologies and devices that preserve and recreate natural landscape features. Green Roofs (GR) are examples of these devices that are also incentivized by city's stormwater management plans. Several studies show that GR decreases on-site runoff from impervious surfaces, however, the analysis of the effect of widespread implementation of GR in the flood characteristics at the urban basin scale in subtropical areas are little discussed, mainly because of the absence of data. Thereby, this paper shows results related to the monitoring of an extensive modular GR under subtropical weather conditions, the development of a rainfall-runoff model based on the modified Curve Number (CN) and SCS Triangular Unit Hydrograph (TUH) methods and the analysis of large-scale impact of GR by modelling different basins. The model was calibrated against observed data and showed that GR absorbed almost all the smaller storms and reduced runoff even during the most intense rainfall. The overall CN was estimated in 83 (consistent with available literature) with the shape of hydrographs well reproduced. Large-scale modelling (in basins ranging from 0.03 ha to several square kilometers) showed that the widespread use of GRs reduced peak flows (volumes) around 57% (48%) at source and 38% (32%) at the basin scale. Thus, this research validated a tool for the assessment of structural management measures (specifically GR) to address changes in flood characteristics in the city's water management planning. From the application of this model it was concluded that even if the efficiency of GR decreases as the basin scale increase they still provide a good option to cope with urbanization impact.

  17. Adoption of Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Grabenbauer, L; Fraser, R.; McClay, J.; Woelfl, N.; Thompson, C.B.; Cambell, J.; Windle, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Less than 20% of hospitals in the US have an electronic health record (EHR). In this qualitative study, we examine the perspectives of both academic and private physicians and administrators as stakeholders, and their alignment, to explore their perspectives on the use of technology in the clinical environment. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 74 participants who were asked a series of open-ended questions. Grounded theory was used to analyze the transcribed data and build convergent themes. The relevance and importance of themes was constructed by examining frequency, convergence, and intensity. A model was proposed that represents the interactions between themes. Results Six major themes emerged, which include the impact of EHR systems on workflow, patient care, communication, research/outcomes/billing, education/learning, and institutional culture. Academic and private physicians were confident of the future benefits of EHR systems, yet cautious about the current implementations of EHR, and its impact on interactions with other members of the healthcare team and with patients, and the amount of time necessary to use EHR’s. Private physicians differed on education and were uneasy about the steep learning curve necessary for use of new systems. In contrast to physicians, university and hospital administrators are optimistic, and value the availability of data for use in reporting. Conclusion The results of our study indicate that both private and academic physicians concur on the need for features that maintain and enhance the relationship with the patient and the healthcare team. Resistance to adoption is related to insufficient functionality and its potential negative impact on patient care. Integration of data collection into clinical workflows must consider the unexpected costs of data acquisition. PMID:23616868

  18. Ichthyosis associated with widespread tinea corporis: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro de; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane; Fontana, Hanae Rafaela; Gentili, Arthur Conelian; Hammerschmidt, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Ichthyoses are a common group of keratinization disorders. A non-inflammatory generalized persistent skin desquamation is observed. It is characterized by increased cell turnover, thickening of the stratum corneum and functional changes of sebaceous and sweat glands. All of these favor fungal proliferation. Dermatophytes may infect skin, hair and nails causing ringworm or tinea. They have the ability to obtain nutrients from keratinized material. One of its most prevalent genera is Trichophyton rubrum. Although tineas and ichthyoses are quite common, the association of the two entities is rarely reported in the literature. Three cases of ichthyosis associated with widespread infection by T. rubrum are presented. Resistance to several antifungal treatments was responsible for worsening of ichthyosis signs and symptoms.

  19. Widespread RNA 3′-end oligouridylation in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun S.; Patena, Weronika; Leavitt, Andrew D.; McManus, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Nontemplated 3′-end oligouridylation of RNA occurs in many species, including humans. Unlike the familiar phenomenon of polyadenylation, nontemplated addition of uridines to RNA is poorly characterized in higher eukaryotes. Recent studies have reported nontemplated 3′-end oligouridylation of small RNAs and mRNAs. Oligouridylation is involved in many aspects of microRNA biology from biogenesis to turnover of the mature species, and it may also mark long mRNAs for degradation by promoting decapping of the protective 5′-cap structure. To determine the prevalence of oligouridylation in higher eukaryotes, we used next-generation sequencing technology to deeply examine the population of small RNAs in human cells. Our data revealed widespread nontemplated nucleotide addition to the 3′ ends of many classes of RNA, with short stretches of uridine being the most frequently added nucleotide. PMID:22291204

  20. A widespread family of bacterial cell wall assembly proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Yoshikazu; Marles-Wright, Jon; Cleverley, Robert M; Emmins, Robyn; Ishikawa, Shu; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Heinz, Nadja; Bui, Nhat Khai; Hoyland, Christopher N; Ogasawara, Naotake; Lewis, Richard J; Vollmer, Waldemar; Daniel, Richard A; Errington, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Teichoic acids and acidic capsular polysaccharides are major anionic cell wall polymers (APs) in many bacteria, with various critical cell functions, including maintenance of cell shape and structural integrity, charge and cation homeostasis, and multiple aspects of pathogenesis. We have identified the widespread LytR–Cps2A–Psr (LCP) protein family, of previously unknown function, as novel enzymes required for AP synthesis. Structural and biochemical analysis of several LCP proteins suggest that they carry out the final step of transferring APs from their lipid-linked precursor to cell wall peptidoglycan (PG). In Bacillus subtilis, LCP proteins are found in association with the MreB cytoskeleton, suggesting that MreB proteins coordinate the insertion of the major polymers, PG and AP, into the cell wall. PMID:21964069

  1. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew P.; Sparks, John S.; Smith, W. Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world’s oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication. PMID:27276229

  2. The widespread threat of calcium decline in fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Jeziorski, Adam; Yan, Norman D; Paterson, Andrew M; Desellas, Anna M; Turner, Michael A; Jeffries, Dean S; Keller, Bill; Weeber, Russ C; McNicol, Don K; Palmer, Michelle E; McIver, Kyle; Arseneau, Kristina; Ginn, Brian K; Cumming, Brian F; Smol, John P

    2008-11-28

    Calcium concentrations are now commonly declining in softwater boreal lakes. Although the mechanisms leading to these declines are generally well known, the consequences for the aquatic biota have not yet been reported. By examining crustacean zooplankton remains preserved in lake sediment cores, we document near extirpations of calcium-rich Daphnia species, which are keystone herbivores in pelagic food webs, concurrent with declining lake-water calcium. A large proportion (62%, 47 to 81% by region) of the Canadian Shield lakes we examined has a calcium concentration approaching or below the threshold at which laboratory Daphnia populations suffer reduced survival and fecundity. The ecological impacts of environmental calcium loss are likely to be both widespread and pronounced.

  3. Widespread Losses of Vomeronasal Signal Transduction in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huabin; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2011-01-01

    The vertebrate vomeronasal system (VNS) detects intraspecific pheromones and environmental odorants. We sequenced segments of the gene encoding Trpc2, an ion channel crucial for vomeronasal signal transduction, in 11 species that represent all main basal lineages of Yinpterochiroptera, one of the two suborders of the order Chiroptera (bats). Our sequences show that Trpc2 is a pseudogene in each of the 11 bats, suggesting that all yinpterochiropterans lack vomeronasal sensitivity. The Trpc2 sequences from four species of Yangochiroptera, the other suborder of bats, suggest vomeronasal insensitivity in some but not all yangochiropterans. These results, together with the available morphological data from the bat VNS, strongly suggest multiple and widespread losses of vomeronasal signal transduction and sensitivity in bats. Future scrutiny of the specific functions of the VNS in the few bats that still retain the VNS may help explain why it is dispensable in most bats. PMID:20693241

  4. The characterization of widespread fatigue damage in fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.; Miller, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of widespread fatigue damage (WSFD) in fuselage riveted structure were established by detailed nondestructive and destructive examinations of fatigue damage contained in a full size fuselage test article. The objectives of this were to establish an experimental data base for validating emerging WSFD analytical prediction methodology and to identify first order effects that contribute to fatigue crack initiation and growth. Detailed examinations were performed on a test panel containing four bays of a riveted lap splice joint. The panel was removed from a full scale fuselage test article after receiving 60,000 full pressurization cycles. The results of in situ examinations document the progression of fuselage skin fatigue crack growth through crack linkup. Detailed tear down examinations and fractography of the lap splice joint region revealed fatigue crack initiation sites, crack morphology, and crack linkup geometry. From this large data base, distributions of crack size and locations are presented and discussions of operative damage mechanisms are offered.

  5. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew P; Sparks, John S; Smith, W Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world's oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication.

  6. Widespread transcription of a Qa region gene in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The mouse MHC class I family includes genes encoded in four regions: H- 2K, H-2D, Qa and Tla. While K/D genes are well characterized, relatively little is known about Qa or Tla genes. We have studied the transcription of a B10.P Qa region gene. DNA sequence comparisons of the transmembrane region, supported by Southern blot analysis of cosmid and genomic DNAs from BALB/c and C57BL/10, demonstrate the lambda 3a gene corresponds to Q4p. In both Northern blots and RNA protection experiments using probes derived from the 3' noncoding region, we found that Q4, like the H-2K and H-2D genes, is widely transcribed in B10.P tissues. These data demonstrate for the first time widespread transcription of a Qa gene. PMID:2439640

  7. Developing a Scenario for widespread use: Best practices, lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, S.; Jones, L.; Cox, D.

    2011-01-01

    The ShakeOut Scenario is probably the most widely known and used earthquake scenario created to date. Much of the credit for its widespread dissemination and application lies with scenario development criteria that focused on the needs and involvement of end users and with a suite of products that tailored communication of the results to varied end users, who ranged from emergency managers to the general public, from corporations to grassroots organizations. Products were most effective when they were highly visual, when they emphasized the findings of social scientists, and when they communicated the experience of living through the earthquake. This paper summarizes the development criteria and the products that made the ShakeOut Scenario so widely known and used, and it provides some suggestions for future improvements. ?? 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  8. Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Pummer, Bernhard G.; Yordanova, Petya; Franc, Gary D.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nucleators (IN). However, the sources and characteristics of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA, i.e., inducing ice formation in the probed range of temperature and concentration) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. For example, in harvested and ploughed sugar beet and potato fields, and in the organic horizon beneath Lodgepole pine forest, their relative abundances and concentrations among the cultivable fungi were 25% (8 x 103 CFU g-1), 17% (4.8 x 103 CFU g-1) and 17% (4 x 103 CFU g-1), respectively. Across all investigated soils, 8% (2.9 x 103 CFU g-1) of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5° C to -6° C and all belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. Mortierella alpina is known to be saprobic (utilizing non-living organic matter), widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be extracellular proteins of 100-300 kDa in size which are not anchored in the fungal cell wall. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, these small cell-free IN might contribute to the as yet uncharacterized pool of atmospheric IN released by soils as dusts.

  9. Are Epigenetic Factors Implicated in Chronic Widespread Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Andrea; Marinova, Zoya; Robinson, Mark D.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wahl, Simone; Kunze, Sonja; Gieger, Christian; Livshits, Gregory; Williams, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP) is the cardinal symptom of fibromyalgia and affects about 12% of the general population. Familial aggregation of CWP has been repeatedly demonstrated with estimated heritabilities of around 50%, indicating a genetic susceptibility. The objective of the study was to explore genome-wide disease-differentially methylated positions (DMPs) for chronic widespread pain (CWP) in a sample of unrelated individuals and a subsample of discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins. Methodology/Principle Findings A total of N = 281 twin individuals from the TwinsUK registry, including N = 33 MZ twins discordant for self-reported CWP, were part of the discovery sample. The replication sample included 729 men and 756 women from a subsample of the KORA S4 survey–an independent population-based cohort from Southern Germany. Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation was conducted using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 DNA BeadChip in both the discovery and replication sample. Of our 40 main loci that were carried forward for replication, three CPGs reached significant p-values in the replication sample, including malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2; p-value 0.017), tetranectin (CLEC3B; p-value 0.039), and heat shock protein beta-6 (HSPB6; p-value 0.016). The associations between the collagen type I, alpha 2 chain (COL1A2) and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) observed in the discovery sample–both of which have been previously reported to be biological candidates for pain–could not be replicated. Conclusion/Significance Our results may serve as a starting point to encourage further investigation in large and independent population-based cohorts of DNA methylation and other epigenetic changes as possible disease mechanisms in CWP. Ultimately, understanding the key mechanisms underlying CWP may lead to new treatments and inform clinical practice. PMID:27832094

  10. Widespread homologous recombination within and between Streptomyces species.

    PubMed

    Doroghazi, James R; Buckley, Daniel H

    2010-09-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is widespread in the microbial world, but its impact on the origin and persistence of microbial species remains poorly defined. HGT can result in either acquisition of new genetic material or homologous replacement of existing genes. The evolutionary significance of homologous recombination in a population can be quantified by examining the relative rates at which polymorphisms are introduced from recombination (rho) and mutation (theta(w)). We used multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to quantify both intraspecies and interspecies homologous recombination among streptomycetes, multicellular Gram-positive bacteria ubiquitous in soil, which are an important source of antibiotics and bioactive compounds. Intraspecies recombination was examined using strains of Streptomyces flavogriseus isolated from soils at five locations spanning 1000 km. The strains had >99.8% nucleotide identity across the loci examined. We found remarkable levels of gene exchange within S. flavogriseus (rho/theta(w)=27.9), and found that the population was in linkage equilibrium (standardized index of association=0.0018), providing evidence for a freely recombining sexual population structure. We also examined interspecies homologous recombination among different Streptomyces species in an MLSA data set and found that 40% of the species had housekeeping genes acquired through HGT. The recombination rate between these named species (rho/theta(w)=0.21) exceeds that observed within many species of bacteria. Despite widespread gene exchange in the genus, the intraspecies recombination rate exceeded the interspecies rate by two orders of magnitude suggesting that patterns of gene exchange and recombination may shape the evolution of streptomycetes.

  11. Predicting educational achievement from DNA

    PubMed Central

    Selzam, S; Krapohl, E; von Stumm, S; O'Reilly, P F; Rimfeld, K; Kovas, Y; Dale, P S; Lee, J J; Plomin, R

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide polygenic score (GPS), derived from a 2013 genome-wide association study (N=127,000), explained 2% of the variance in total years of education (EduYears). In a follow-up study (N=329,000), a new EduYears GPS explains up to 4%. Here, we tested the association between this latest EduYears GPS and educational achievement scores at ages 7, 12 and 16 in an independent sample of 5825 UK individuals. We found that EduYears GPS explained greater amounts of variance in educational achievement over time, up to 9% at age 16, accounting for 15% of the heritable variance. This is the strongest GPS prediction to date for quantitative behavioral traits. Individuals in the highest and lowest GPS septiles differed by a whole school grade at age 16. Furthermore, EduYears GPS was associated with general cognitive ability (~3.5%) and family socioeconomic status (~7%). There was no evidence of an interaction between EduYears GPS and family socioeconomic status on educational achievement or on general cognitive ability. These results are a harbinger of future widespread use of GPS to predict genetic risk and resilience in the social and behavioral sciences. PMID:27431296

  12. Statewide dissemination of a rural, non-chain restaurant intervention: adoption, implementation and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Nothwehr, F.; Haines, H.; Chrisman, M.; Schultz, U.

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic calls for greater dissemination of nutrition-related programs, yet there remain few studies of the dissemination process. This study, guided by elements of the RE-AIM model, describes the statewide dissemination of a simple, point-of-purchase restaurant intervention. Conducted in rural counties of the Midwest, United States, the study targeted randomly selected, non-chain, family-style restaurants. Owners were recruited through mail, then telephone follow-up. Data were collected through telephone at baseline, and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months post-adoption. Using mixed methods, measures captured the program adoption rate, characteristics of adopters and non-adopters, program implementation and maintenance issues, and owner and customer satisfaction. Analyses involved descriptive statistics and summaries of qualitative data. The program adoption rate was 28%. Adopters were similar to responding non-adopters demographically, but varied in attitudes. The majority of restaurants maintained the program for at least 12 months. Adopters and their customers expressed satisfaction with the program. With some adjustments, the RE-AIM model was helpful in guiding evaluation of this process. Results provide implications for future dissemination of this and other programs with regard to research procedures and potential barriers that may be encountered. Research on alternative strategies for widespread dissemination of such programs is needed in this and other settings. PMID:24650944

  13. Statewide dissemination of a rural, non-chain restaurant intervention: adoption, implementation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Nothwehr, F; Haines, H; Chrisman, M; Schultz, U

    2014-06-01

    The obesity epidemic calls for greater dissemination of nutrition-related programs, yet there remain few studies of the dissemination process. This study, guided by elements of the RE-AIM model, describes the statewide dissemination of a simple, point-of-purchase restaurant intervention. Conducted in rural counties of the Midwest, United States, the study targeted randomly selected, non-chain, family-style restaurants. Owners were recruited through mail, then telephone follow-up. Data were collected through telephone at baseline, and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months post-adoption. Using mixed methods, measures captured the program adoption rate, characteristics of adopters and non-adopters, program implementation and maintenance issues, and owner and customer satisfaction. Analyses involved descriptive statistics and summaries of qualitative data. The program adoption rate was 28%. Adopters were similar to responding non-adopters demographically, but varied in attitudes. The majority of restaurants maintained the program for at least 12 months. Adopters and their customers expressed satisfaction with the program. With some adjustments, the RE-AIM model was helpful in guiding evaluation of this process. Results provide implications for future dissemination of this and other programs with regard to research procedures and potential barriers that may be encountered. Research on alternative strategies for widespread dissemination of such programs is needed in this and other settings.

  14. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  15. Home Energy Displays: Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, J.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. We hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, we conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. First, after extensive outreach campaigns to apartment complexes with 760 units, only 8% of building's tenants elected to receive a free HED in their homes as part of the field study. Second, the HED used, a leading market model, had a spectrum of problems, including gateway miscommunications, failure to post to a data-hosting third party, and display malfunctions. In light of these challenges, we are pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  16. Battlefield Acupuncture: Is It Ready for Widespread Dissemination?

    PubMed

    Federman, Daniel G; Gunderson, Craig G

    2017-01-01

    The use of prescription opioids for chronic pain has increased markedly within the past few decades; thus, death rates associated with opioid overdoses have increased dramatically. Nonopioid pharmacologic therapies also are associated with adverse effects. Other pain-abatement modalities such as acupuncture may be useful in the treatment of several painful conditions. Battlefield acupuncture is being promulgated as a potential low-risk, nonpharmacological therapy for pain. In this narrative review we examine the published literature to support battlefield acupuncture. We conclude that the amount and quality of published research presently do not justify wide adoption of this practice by those strictly adherent to evidence-based medicine.

  17. Economic incentives and foster child adoption.

    PubMed

    Argys, Laura; Duncan, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Every year, a large number of children in the United States enter the foster care system. Many of them are eventually reunited with their biological parents or quickly adopted. A significant number, however, face long-term foster care, and some of these children are eventually adopted by their foster parents. The decision by foster parents to adopt their foster child carries significant economic consequences, including for feiting foster care payments while also assuming responsibility for medical, legal, and educational expenses, to name a few. Since 1980, U.S. states have begun to offer adoption subsidies to offset some of these expenses, significantly lowering the cost of adopting a child who is in the foster care system. This article presents empirical evidence of the role that these economic incentives play in foster parents' decision of when, or if, to adopt their foster child. We find that adoption subsidies increase adoptions through two distinct price mechanisms: by lowering the absolute cost of adoption, and by lowering the relative cost of adoption versus long-term foster care.

  18. Investment subsidies and the adoption of electronic medical records in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Dranove, David; Garthwaite, Craig; Li, Bingyang; Ody, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    In February 2009 the U.S. Congress unexpectedly passed the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH). HITECH provides up to $27 billion to promote adoption and appropriate use of Electronic Medical Records (EMR) by hospitals. We measure the extent to which HITECH incentive payments spurred EMR adoption by independent hospitals. Adoption rates for all independent hospitals grew from 48 percent in 2008 to 77 percent by 2011. Absent HITECH incentives, we estimate that the adoption rate would have instead been 67 percent in 2011. When we consider that HITECH funds were available for all hospitals and not just marginal adopters, we estimate that the cost of generating an additional adoption was $48 million. We also estimate that in the absence of HITECH incentives, the 77 percent adoption rate would have been realized by 2013, just 2 years after the date achieved due to HITECH.

  19. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model: A Developmental Conceptualization of the Adoption Process Within Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), a representation of the process by which an educational institution adopts an innovation, views adoption as a developmental process involving complex interaction between an adopting institution, a user system, and a resource system. The resource system is usually a formal organization whose expert…

  20. "Adoption Wisdom: A Guide to the Issues and Feelings of Adoption" by Marlou Russell. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews "Adoption Wisdom: A Guide to the Issues and Feelings of Adoption" by Marlou Russell. Maintains that its narrative/comment format and accounts of those involved in adoption validate the feelings of the adoption-triad members. Suggests that the book lacks information on individuals who contributed comments and contains few narratives from…

  1. Archaea were widespread in sediments of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birgel, Daniel; Peckmann, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) was among the most extreme and short-lived paleooceanographic events in Earth history and dramatically impacted the depositional environments of the Mediterranean. Many of the Messinian sedimentary sequences reflect environmental variability on extremely short time scales, typified by phenomena like evaporation and high salinities, anoxia, and desiccation. Only few organisms tolerate such severe conditions. Among those are archaea, many of which are especially well adapted to extreme conditions. We studied various MSC locations and deposits to shed light onto the role of archaea in the MSC, focusing on lipid biomarkers. These are (1) primary gypsum with abundant, yet problematic filamentous microfossils from various locations in the Mediterranean, (2) Calcare di Base, limestones from Sicily and Calabria, and (3) Calcare Solfifero, authigenic carbonates associated with native sulfur from Sicily. (1) Primary gypsum beds with abundant filamentous fossils are widespread in the Mediterranean. Archaea were found as important contributor of organic matter in these evaporites. The filaments, however, have previously been interpreted to represent cyanobacteria based on the extraction and amplification of cyanobacterial DNA. Cyanobacteria produce specific and long-lasting biomarkers, but no such compounds were found in the studied deposits, thus, the assignment of the filaments to cyanobacteria necessitates further verification. (2) The Calcare di Base are widespread, genetically heterogeneous Messinian limestones, which are particularly common in Sicily and Calabria. The environmental conditions during their deposition, as well as mechanisms and timing of formation are a matter of debate. The studied Calcare di Base samples were found to contain specific halophilic archaeal signatures and numerous pseudomorphs after halite. (3) The Calcare Solfifero, authigenic carbonates accompanied by elemental sulfur formed in the course of microbial

  2. Comparisons of Adopted and Nonadopted Adolescents in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brent C.; Fan, Xitao; Christensen, Mathew; Grotevant, Harold D.; van Dulmen, Manfred

    2000-01-01

    Compared adopted and nonadopted adolescents across variety of measures. Found that adopted adolescents were at higher risk in all domains examined, including school achievement and problems, psychological well-being, and physical health. Effect sizes for group differences were larger for males, younger or older adolescents, Hispanics or Asians,…

  3. Distinguishing the Learning Approaches Adopted by Undergraduates in Their Use of Online Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jasper

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study which sought to evaluate the different learning strategies adopted by students when accessing virtual learning environment (VLE)-hosted resources because, if student achievement corresponds to the learning strategy that is adopted whilst accessing VLE resources, directed tasks can be put in place that will encourage…

  4. Aligning science and policy to achieve evolutionarily enlightened conservation.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carly N; Sgrò, Carla M

    2016-11-11

    There is increasing recognition among conservation scientists that long-term conservation outcomes could be improved through better integration of evolutionary theory into management practices. Despite concerns that the importance of key concepts emerging from evolutionary theory (i.e., evolutionary principles and processes) are not being recognized by managers, there has been little effort to determine the level of integration of evolutionary theory into conservation policy and practice. We assessed conservation policy at 3 scales (international, national, and provincial) on 3 continents to quantify the degree to which key evolutionary concepts, such as genetic diversity and gene flow, are being incorporated into conservation practice. We also evaluated the availability of clear guidance within the applied evolutionary biology literature as to how managers can change their management practices to achieve better conservation outcomes. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of maintaining genetic diversity, conservation policies provide little guidance about how this can be achieved in practice and other relevant evolutionary concepts, such as inbreeding depression, are mentioned rarely. In some cases the poor integration of evolutionary concepts into management reflects a lack of decision-support tools in the literature. Where these tools are available, such as risk-assessment frameworks, they are not being adopted by conservation policy makers, suggesting that the availability of a strong evidence base is not the only barrier to evolutionarily enlightened management. We believe there is a clear need for more engagement by evolutionary biologists with policy makers to develop practical guidelines that will help managers make changes to conservation practice. There is also an urgent need for more research to better understand the barriers to and opportunities for incorporating evolutionary theory into conservation practice.

  5. Spatial effects on hybrid electric vehicle adoption

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Xiaoli; Roberts, Matthew C.; Sioshansi, Ramteen

    2017-03-08

    This paper examines spatial effects on hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) adoption. This is in contrast to most existing analyses, which concentrate on analyzing socioeconomic factors and demographics. This paper uses a general spatial model to estimate the strength of ‘neighbor effects’ on HEV adoption—namely that each consumer’s HEV-adoption decision can be influenced by the HEV-adoption decisions of geographic neighbors. We use detailed census tract-level demographic data from the 2010 United States Census and the 2012 American Community Survey and vehicle registration data collected by the Ohio Bureau of Motor Vehicles. We find that HEV adoption exhibits significant spatial effects. We furthermore » conduct a time-series analysis and show that historical HEV adoption has a spatial effect on future adoption. Lastly, these results suggest that HEVs may appear in more dense clusters than models that do not consider spatial effects predict.« less

  6. How Can Funding Equity Ensure Enhanced Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    After a funding-equity victory, there is no guarantee that districts will adopt effective programs to improve student achievement. Programs with the greatest payoff for disadvantaged students include early-childhood programs, one-on-one tutoring, Success for All, James Comer's School Development Program, and extensive staff development. (38…

  7. Heavy metal resistant strains are widespread along Streptomyces phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Analía; Catalano, Santiago A; Amoroso, María Julia

    2013-03-01

    The genus Streptomyces comprises a group of bacteria species with high economic importance. Several of these species are employed at industrial scale for the production of useful compounds. Other characteristic found in different strains within this genus is their capability to tolerate high level of substances toxic for humans, heavy metals among them. Although several studies have been conducted in different species of the genus in order to disentangle the mechanisms associated to heavy metal resistance, little is known about how they have evolved along Streptomyces phylogeny. In this study we built the largest Streptomyces phylogeny generated up to date comprising six genes, 113 species of Streptomyces and 27 outgroups. The parsimony-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that (i) Streptomyces is monophyletic and (ii) it appears as sister clade of a group formed by Kitasatospora and Streptacidiphilus species, both genera also monophyletic. Streptomyces strains resistant to heavy metals are not confined to a single lineage but widespread along Streptomyces phylogeny. Our result in combination with genomic, physiological and biochemical data suggest that the resistance to heavy metals originated several times and by different mechanisms in Streptomyces history.

  8. Recent Arctic tundra fire initiates widespread thermokarst development

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Arp, Christopher D.; ...

    2015-10-29

    Fire-induced permafrost degradation is well documented in boreal forests, but the role of fires in initiating thermokarst development in Arctic tundra is less well understood. Here we show that Arctic tundra fires may induce widespread thaw subsidence of permafrost terrain in the first seven years following the disturbance. Quantitative analysis of airborne LiDAR data acquired two and seven years post-fire, detected permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, compared to less than 1% in similar undisturbed, ice-rich tundra terrain units. The variability in thermokarst development appears to be influenced by the interaction of tundra fire burnmore » severity and near-surface, ground-ice content. Subsidence was greatest in severely burned, ice-rich upland terrain (yedoma), accounting for -50% of the detected subsidence, despite representing only 30% of the fire disturbed study area. Microtopography increased by 340% in this terrain unit as a result of ice wedge degradation. Increases in the frequency, magnitude, and severity of tundra fires will contribute to future thermokarst development and associated landscape change in Arctic tundra regions.« less

  9. Recent Arctic tundra fire initiates widespread thermokarst development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Arp, Christopher D.; Miller, Eric; Liu, Lin; Hayes, Daniel J.; Larsen, Christopher F.

    2015-10-29

    Fire-induced permafrost degradation is well documented in boreal forests, but the role of fires in initiating thermokarst development in Arctic tundra is less well understood. Here we show that Arctic tundra fires may induce widespread thaw subsidence of permafrost terrain in the first seven years following the disturbance. Quantitative analysis of airborne LiDAR data acquired two and seven years post-fire, detected permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, compared to less than 1% in similar undisturbed, ice-rich tundra terrain units. The variability in thermokarst development appears to be influenced by the interaction of tundra fire burn severity and near-surface, ground-ice content. Subsidence was greatest in severely burned, ice-rich upland terrain (yedoma), accounting for -50% of the detected subsidence, despite representing only 30% of the fire disturbed study area. Microtopography increased by 340% in this terrain unit as a result of ice wedge degradation. Increases in the frequency, magnitude, and severity of tundra fires will contribute to future thermokarst development and associated landscape change in Arctic tundra regions.

  10. [Widespread gastrointestinal CMV infection as the presenting manifestation of AIDS].

    PubMed

    Dayan, K; Neufeld, D M; Lang, R; Novis, B; Bernheim, J; Freund, U

    1993-02-01

    A 53-year-old man is reported who developed a widespread gastrointestinal infection due to cytomegalic (CMV) virus and was found to be suffering from AIDS. He died of overwhelming pulmonary infection. There is need for awareness of the rapid increase of AIDS in our local population, particularly in groups not regarded as at high risk. It is imperative to keep this diagnosis in mind when dealing with patients with gastroenterocolitis not responding to standard treatments. CMV has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, from carrier state to life-threatening infection. In the gastrointestinal system it causes inflammation and ulcers in the mucosa that may bleed or perforate. There are increasing numbers of reports of CMV ileocolitis in homosexuals with AIDS. The rate of sero-positive CMV in healthy homosexual populations is 94-100% and in 14% there is active infection. CMV is the main infective agent in patients suffering from AIDS; 90% will develop an infection with this virus and in most cases it will be fatal.

  11. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.

  12. Recent Arctic tundra fire initiates widespread thermokarst development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Arp, Christopher D.; Miller, Eric; Liu, Lin; Hayes, Daniel J.; Larsen, Christopher F.

    2015-10-01

    Fire-induced permafrost degradation is well documented in boreal forests, but the role of fires in initiating thermokarst development in Arctic tundra is less well understood. Here we show that Arctic tundra fires may induce widespread thaw subsidence of permafrost terrain in the first seven years following the disturbance. Quantitative analysis of airborne LiDAR data acquired two and seven years post-fire, detected permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, compared to less than 1% in similar undisturbed, ice-rich tundra terrain units. The variability in thermokarst development appears to be influenced by the interaction of tundra fire burn severity and near-surface, ground-ice content. Subsidence was greatest in severely burned, ice-rich upland terrain (yedoma), accounting for ~50% of the detected subsidence, despite representing only 30% of the fire disturbed study area. Microtopography increased by 340% in this terrain unit as a result of ice wedge degradation. Increases in the frequency, magnitude, and severity of tundra fires will contribute to future thermokarst development and associated landscape change in Arctic tundra regions.

  13. Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Lennart; Hägerroth, Per-Åke; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sigg, Lisa; Åkerman, Gun; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Oliveira, Kenneth; Ström, Karin; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlsson, Simon; Ström, Marika; van Manen, Mathijs; Berg, Anna-Lena; Halldórsson, Halldór P.; Strömquist, Jennie; Collier, Tracy K.; Börjeson, Hans; Mörner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported. PMID:27958327

  14. Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife.

    PubMed

    Balk, Lennart; Hägerroth, Per-Åke; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sigg, Lisa; Åkerman, Gun; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Honeyfield, Dale C; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Oliveira, Kenneth; Ström, Karin; McCormick, Stephen D; Karlsson, Simon; Ström, Marika; van Manen, Mathijs; Berg, Anna-Lena; Halldórsson, Halldór P; Strömquist, Jennie; Collier, Tracy K; Börjeson, Hans; Mörner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas

    2016-12-13

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  15. Recent Arctic tundra fire initiates widespread thermokarst development.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin M; Grosse, Guido; Arp, Christopher D; Miller, Eric; Liu, Lin; Hayes, Daniel J; Larsen, Christopher F

    2015-10-29

    Fire-induced permafrost degradation is well documented in boreal forests, but the role of fires in initiating thermokarst development in Arctic tundra is less well understood. Here we show that Arctic tundra fires may induce widespread thaw subsidence of permafrost terrain in the first seven years following the disturbance. Quantitative analysis of airborne LiDAR data acquired two and seven years post-fire, detected permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, compared to less than 1% in similar undisturbed, ice-rich tundra terrain units. The variability in thermokarst development appears to be influenced by the interaction of tundra fire burn severity and near-surface, ground-ice content. Subsidence was greatest in severely burned, ice-rich upland terrain (yedoma), accounting for ~50% of the detected subsidence, despite representing only 30% of the fire disturbed study area. Microtopography increased by 340% in this terrain unit as a result of ice wedge degradation. Increases in the frequency, magnitude, and severity of tundra fires will contribute to future thermokarst development and associated landscape change in Arctic tundra regions.

  16. Recent Arctic tundra fire initiates widespread thermokarst development

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Arp, Christopher D.; Miller, Eric; Liu, Lin; Hayes, Daniel J.; Larsen, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    Fire-induced permafrost degradation is well documented in boreal forests, but the role of fires in initiating thermokarst development in Arctic tundra is less well understood. Here we show that Arctic tundra fires may induce widespread thaw subsidence of permafrost terrain in the first seven years following the disturbance. Quantitative analysis of airborne LiDAR data acquired two and seven years post-fire, detected permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, compared to less than 1% in similar undisturbed, ice-rich tundra terrain units. The variability in thermokarst development appears to be influenced by the interaction of tundra fire burn severity and near-surface, ground-ice content. Subsidence was greatest in severely burned, ice-rich upland terrain (yedoma), accounting for ~50% of the detected subsidence, despite representing only 30% of the fire disturbed study area. Microtopography increased by 340% in this terrain unit as a result of ice wedge degradation. Increases in the frequency, magnitude, and severity of tundra fires will contribute to future thermokarst development and associated landscape change in Arctic tundra regions. PMID:26511650

  17. Recent Arctic tundra fire initiates widespread thermokarst development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Arp, Christopher D.; Miller, Eric K.; Liu, Lingli; Hayes, Daniel J.; Larsen, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    Fire-induced permafrost degradation is well documented in boreal forests, but the role of fires in initiating thermokarst development in Arctic tundra is less well understood. Here we show that Arctic tundra fires may induce widespread thaw subsidence of permafrost terrain in the first seven years following the disturbance. Quantitative analysis of airborne LiDAR data acquired two and seven years post-fire, detected permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, compared to less than 1% in similar undisturbed, ice-rich tundra terrain units. The variability in thermokarst development appears to be influenced by the interaction of tundra fire burn severity and near-surface, ground-ice content. Subsidence was greatest in severely burned, ice-rich upland terrain (yedoma), accounting for ~50% of the detected subsidence, despite representing only 30% of the fire disturbed study area. Microtopography increased by 340% in this terrain unit as a result of ice wedge degradation. Increases in the frequency, magnitude, and severity of tundra fires will contribute to future thermokarst development and associated landscape change in Arctic tundra regions.

  18. Widespread occurrence of (per)chlorate in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Coates, John D.; McKay, Christopher P.; Brundrett, Maeghan; Estrada, Nubia; Böhlke, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) and chlorate (ClO3-) are ubiquitous on Earth and ClO4- has also been found on Mars. These species can play important roles in geochemical processes such as oxidation of organic matter and as biological electron acceptors, and are also indicators of important photochemical reactions involving oxyanions; on Mars they could be relevant for human habitability both in terms of in situ resource utilization and potential human health effects. For the first time, we extracted, detected and quantified ClO4- and ClO3- in extraterrestrial, non-planetary samples: regolith and rock samples from the Moon, and two chondrite meteorites (Murchison and Fayetteville). Lunar samples were collected by astronauts during the Apollo program, and meteorite samples were recovered immediately after their fall. This fact, together with the heterogeneous distribution of ClO4- and ClO3- within some of the samples, and their relative abundance with respect to other soluble species (e.g., NO3-) are consistent with an extraterrestrial origin of the oxychlorine species. Our results, combined with the previously reported widespread occurrence on Earth and Mars, indicate that ClO4- and ClO3- could be present throughout the Solar System.

  19. Widespread transmission of independent cancer lineages within multiple bivalve species

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Michael J.; Villalba, Antonio; Carballal, María J.; Iglesias, David; Sherry, James; Reinisch, Carol; Muttray, Annette F.; Baldwin, Susan A.; Goff, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Most cancers arise from oncogenic changes in the genomes of somatic cells, and while the cells may migrate by metastasis, they remain within that single individual. Natural transmission of cancer cells from one individual to another has been observed in two distinctive cases in mammals (Tasmanian devils1 and dogs2,3), but these are generally considered to be rare exceptions in nature. The discovery of transmissible cancer in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria)4 suggested that this phenomenon might be more widespread. Here we analyzed disseminated neoplasia in mussels (Mytilus trossulus), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), and golden carpet shell clams (Polititapes aureus) and found that neoplasias in all three species are attributable to independent transmissible cancer lineages. In mussels and cockles, the cancer lineages are derived from their respective host species, but unexpectedly, cancer cells in P. aureus are all derived from Venerupis corrugata, a different species living in the same geographic area. No cases of disseminated neoplasia have thus far been found in V. corrugata from the same region. These findings show that transmission of cancer cells in the marine environment is common in multiple species, that it has originated many times, and that while most transmissible cancers were found spreading within the species of origin, cross-species transmission of cancer cells can occur. PMID:27338791

  20. Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balk, Lennart; Hägerroth, Per-Åke; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sigg, Lisa; Akerman, Gun; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tjarnlund, Ulla; Oliveira, Kenneth; Strom, Karin; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlsson, Simon; Strom, Marika; van Manen, Mathijs; Berg, Anna-Lena; Halldórsson, Halldór P.; Stromquist, Jennie; Collier, Tracy K.; Borjeson, Hans; Morner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  1. Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balk, Lennart; Hägerroth, Per-Åke; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sigg, Lisa; Åkerman, Gun; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Oliveira, Kenneth; Ström, Karin; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlsson, Simon; Ström, Marika; van Manen, Mathijs; Berg, Anna-Lena; Halldórsson, Halldór P.; Strömquist, Jennie; Collier, Tracy K.; Börjeson, Hans; Mörner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  2. Widespread tau seeding activity at early Braak stages.

    PubMed

    Furman, Jennifer L; Vaquer-Alicea, Jaime; White, Charles L; Cairns, Nigel J; Nelson, Peter T; Diamond, Marc I

    2017-01-01

    Transcellular propagation of tau aggregates may underlie the progression of pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Braak staging (B1, B2, B3) is based on phospho-tau accumulation within connected brain regions: entorhinal cortex (B1); hippocampus/limbic system (B2); and frontal and parietal lobes (B3). We previously developed a specific and sensitive assay that uses flow cytometry to quantify tissue seeding activity based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in cells that stably express tau reporter proteins. In a tauopathy mouse model, we have detected seeding activity far in advance of histopathological changes. It remains unknown whether individuals with AD also develop seeding activity prior to accumulation of phospho-tau. We measured tau seeding activity across four brain regions (hippocampus, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cerebellum) in 104 fresh-frozen human AD brain samples from all Braak stages. We observed widespread seeding activity, notably in regions predicted to be free of phospho-tau deposition, and in detergent-insoluble fractions that lacked tau detectable by ELISA. Seeding activity correlated positively with Braak stage and negatively with MMSE. Our results are consistent with early transcellular propagation of tau seeds that triggers subsequent development of neuropathology. The FRET-based seeding assay may also complement standard neuropathological classification of tauopathies.

  3. Widespread Macromolecular Interaction Perturbations in Human Genetic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Taipale, Mikko; Fuxman Bass, Juan I.; Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Yang, Fan; Peng, Jian; Weile, Jochen; Karras, Georgios I.; Wang, Yang; Kovács, István A.; Kamburov, Atanas; Krykbaeva, Irina; Lam, Mandy H.; Tucker, George; Khurana, Vikram; Sharma, Amitabh; Liu, Yang-Yu; Yachie, Nozomu; Zhong, Quan; Shen, Yun; Palagi, Alexandre; San-Miguel, Adriana; Fan, Changyu; Balcha, Dawit; Dricot, Amelie; Jordan, Daniel M.; Walsh, Jennifer M.; Shah, Akash A.; Yang, Xinping; Stoyanova, Ani; Leighton, Alex; Calderwood, Michael A.; Jacob, Yves; Cusick, Michael E.; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Whitesell, Luke J.; Sunyaev, Shamil; Berger, Bonnie; Barabási, Albert-László; Charloteaux, Benoit; Hill, David E.; Hao, Tong; Roth, Frederick P.; Xia, Yu; Walhout, Albertha J.M.; Lindquist, Susan; Vidal, Marc

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY How disease-associated mutations impair protein activities in the context of biological networks remains mostly undetermined. Although a few renowned alleles are well characterized, functional information is missing for over 100,000 disease-associated variants. Here we functionally profile several thousand missense mutations across a spectrum of Mendelian disorders using various interaction assays. The majority of disease-associated alleles exhibit wild-type chaperone binding profiles, suggesting they preserve protein folding or stability. While common variants from healthy individuals rarely affect interactions, two-thirds of disease-associated alleles perturb protein-protein interactions, with half corresponding to “edgetic” alleles affecting only a subset of interactions while leaving most other interactions unperturbed. With transcription factors, many alleles that leave protein-protein interactions intact affect DNA binding. Different mutations in the same gene leading to different interaction profiles often result in distinct disease phenotypes. Thus disease-associated alleles that perturb distinct protein activities rather than grossly affecting folding and stability are relatively widespread. PMID:25910212

  4. Building Adoption of Visual Analytics Software

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Cook, Kristin A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2012-01-05

    Adoption of technology is always difficult. Issues such as having the infrastructure necessary to support the technology, training for users, integrating the technology into current processes and tools, and having the time, managerial support, and necessary funds need to be addressed. In addition to these issues, the adoption of visual analytics tools presents specific challenges that need to be addressed. This paper discusses technology adoption challenges and approaches for visual analytics technologies.

  5. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption.

    PubMed

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2015-09-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices.

  6. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  7. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-05-13

    Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to

  8. Healthy depictions? Depicting adoption and adoption news events on broadcast news.

    PubMed

    Kline, Susan L; Chatterjee, Karishma; Karel, Amanda I

    2009-01-01

    Given that the public uses the media to learn about adoption as a family form, this study analyzes U.S. television news coverage of adoption between 2001 and 2005 (N = 309 stories), to identify the types of news events covered about adoption. A majority of news stories covered fraud, crime, legal disputes, and negative international adoption cases. Adoptees as defective or unhealthy were depicted more in negative news event stories, birth parents appeared less overall, and adoptive parents were most likely to have healthy depictions in positively oriented adoption experience, big family, and reunion stories. Although three quarters of the stories used primary adoption participants as news sources, one-third of the negative event stories did not contain healthy depictions of adoption participants. The authors discuss ways journalists and researchers might improve adoption news coverage.

  9. Contact Between Adoptive and Birth Families: Perspectives from the Minnesota Texas Adoption Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Ayers-Lopez, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of adoptive families have contact with their children’s birth relatives. The Minnesota Texas Adoption Research Project is examining longitudinally the consequences of variations in contact arrangements for birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children in domestic infant adoptions, and is studying the dynamics of relationships within these family systems. Individuals who had contact were more satisfied with their arrangements than those who did not have contact. Satisfaction with contact predicted more optimal adjustment among adopted adolescents and emerging adults. Adoption-related communication predicted identity development among adopted adolescents and emerging adults. Birth mothers who were more satisfied with their contact arrangements, regardless of level of contact, had less unresolved grief 12 to 20 years after placement. Adoptive and birth relatives who engage in contact need flexibility, strong interpersonal skills, and commitment to the relationship. These skills can be learned, and they can be supported by others, through informal, psychoeducational, and therapeutic means. PMID:23956791

  10. Envisaging the adoption process to strengthen gay- and lesbian-headed families: recommendations for adoption professionals.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John D; Cramer, Elizabeth P

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases of the adoption process-preplacement, placement, and postplacement-as well as provides suggestions for adoption professionals working with gays and lesbians. Data from a recent qualitative study of single, gay adoptive fathers are used to illustrate examples and expose areas of potential strengths of adoptive parents not generally explored in the preplacement or preparatory stage. Special attention also is given to the continuing needs of adoptive families headed by gays and lesbians after adoptive placement. Specifically explored are the needs for developing linkages with similar families, as well as providing resources designed to promote successful outcomes of adopted children raised by gays and lesbians.

  11. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation.

  12. Genomes of Abundant and Widespread Viruses from the Deep Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ghai, Rohit; Saghaï, Aurélien; López-García, Purificación

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The deep sea is a massive, largely oligotrophic ecosystem, stretched over nearly 65% of the planet’s surface. Deep-sea planktonic communities are almost completely dependent upon organic carbon sinking from the productive surface, forming a vital component of global biogeochemical cycles. However, despite their importance, viruses from the deep ocean remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the first complete genomes of deep-sea viruses assembled from metagenomic fosmid libraries. “Candidatus Pelagibacter” (SAR11) phage HTVC010P and Puniceispirillum phage HMO-2011 are considered the most abundant cultured marine viruses known to date. Remarkably, some of the viruses described here recruited as many reads from deep waters as these viruses do in the photic zone, and, considering the gigantic scale of the bathypelagic habitat, these genomes provide information about what could be some of the most abundant viruses in the world at large. Their role in the viral shunt in the global ocean could be very significant. Despite the challenges encountered in inferring the identity of their hosts, we identified one virus predicted to infect members of the globally distributed SAR11 cluster. We also identified a number of putative proviruses from diverse taxa, including deltaproteobacteria, bacteroidetes, SAR11, and gammaproteobacteria. Moreover, our findings also indicate that lysogeny is the preferred mode of existence for deep-sea viruses inhabiting an energy-limited environment, in sharp contrast to the predominantly lytic lifestyle of their photic-zone counterparts. Some of the viruses show a widespread distribution, supporting the tenet “everything is everywhere” for the deep-ocean virome. PMID:27460793

  13. Widespread Occurrence of Bd in French Guiana, South America

    PubMed Central

    Courtois, Elodie A.; Gaucher, Philippe; Chave, Jérôme; Schmeller, Dirk S.

    2015-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area’s high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1) determine its geographical distribution, (2) test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera) to define sentinel species for future work, (3) track changes in prevalence through time and (4) determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012). At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4%) as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 %) and Hylidae (1.5%). In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield. PMID:25902035

  14. The Acraman impact and its widespread ejecta, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostin, V. A.; Keays, R. R.; Wallace, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    Discovery of a widespread horizon of shock-deformed volcaniclastic ejecta preserved in Late Proterozoic (approx. 600 Ma) shales in South Australia and its probable link to the Acraman impact structure in the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range. Volcanics provide a rare opportunity to study the effects of a major terrestrial impact, including the sedimentology and distribution of an ejecta blanket and its precious-metal signature. The ejecta horizon occurs in the Bunyeroo Formation at many localities within the Adelaide Geosyncline, including the Wearing Hills, which are approx. 350 km northeast of the Acraman impact site. Following a search at the same stratigraphic level in other basins in South Australia, the ejecta has been located within the Lower Rodda beds of the Officer Basin, extending the limits of the ejecta to approx. 470 km northwest of the Acraman impact structure. The ejecta is therefore widely dispersed, and provides an important chronostratigraphic marker enabling precise correlation of Late Proterozoic sequences in southern Australia. In summary, the Bunyeroo ejecta is unique as the only known example of a widely dispersed, coarse-grained ejecta blanket that is, moreover, strongly linked to a known major impact structure. The marked Ir-PGE anomalies in the ejecta horizon provide support for the hypothesis that meteorite impact events can produce Ir anomalies interrestrial sediments. The findings also indicate that Ir can be mobilized and concentrated in sediments by low-temperature diagenetic processes. The identification of ejecta horizons in sedimentary rocks therefore should be based on the coincidence of shock-metamorphic features in the detritus and clear Ir anomalies.

  15. Widespread positive selection in the photosynthetic Rubisco enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Kapralov, Maxim V; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2007-01-01

    Background Rubisco enzyme catalyzes the first step in net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and photorespiratory carbon oxidation and is responsible for almost all carbon fixation on Earth. The large subunit of Rubisco is encoded by the chloroplast rbcL gene, which is widely used for reconstruction of plant phylogenies due to its conservative nature. Plant systematicists have mainly used rbcL paying little attention to its function, and the question whether it evolves under Darwinian selection has received little attention. The purpose of our study was to evaluate how common is positive selection in Rubisco among the phototrophs and where in the Rubisco structure does positive selection occur. Results We searched for positive selection in rbcL sequences from over 3000 species representing all lineages of green plants and some lineages of other phototrophs, such as brown and red algae, diatoms, euglenids and cyanobacteria. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis found the presence of positive selection in rbcL of most analyzed land plants, but not in algae and cyanobacteria. The mapping of the positively selected residues on the Rubisco tertiary structure revealed that they are located in regions important for dimer-dimer, intradimer, large subunit-small subunit and Rubisco-Rubisco activase interactions, and that some of the positively selected residues are close to the active site. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that despite its conservative nature, Rubisco evolves under positive selection in most lineages of land plants, and after billions of years of evolution Darwinian selection still fine-tunes its performance. Widespread positive selection in rbcL has to be taken into account when this gene is used for phylogenetic reconstructions. PMID:17498284

  16. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species.

  17. Widespread Chemical Detoxification of Alkaloid Venom by Formicine Ants.

    PubMed

    LeBrun, Edward G; Diebold, Peter J; Orr, Matthew R; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2015-10-01

    The ability to detoxify defensive compounds of competitors provides key ecological advantages that can influence community-level processes. Although common in plants and bacteria, this type of detoxification interaction is extremely rare in animals. Here, using laboratory behavioral assays and analyses of videotaped interactions in South America, we report widespread venom detoxification among ants in the subfamily Formicinae. Across both data sets, nine formicine species, representing all major clades, used a stereotyped grooming behavior to self-apply formic acid (acidopore grooming) in response to fire ant (Solenopsis invicta and S. saevissima) venom exposure. In laboratory assays, this behavior increased the survivorship of species following exposure to S. invicta venom. Species expressed the behavior when exposed to additional alkaloid venoms, including both compositionally similar piperidine venom of an additional fire ant species and the pyrrolidine/pyrroline alkaloid venom of a Monomorium species. In addition, species expressed the behavior following exposure to the uncharacterized venom of a Crematogaster species. However, species did not express acidopore grooming when confronted with protein-based ant venoms or when exposed to monoterpenoid-based venom. This pattern, combined with the specific chemistry of the reaction of formic acid with venom alkaloids, indicates that alkaloid venoms are targets of detoxification grooming. Solenopsis thief ants, and Monomorium species stand out as brood-predators of formicine ants that produce piperidine, pyrrolidine, and pyrroline venom, providing an important ecological context for the use of detoxification behavior. Detoxification behavior also represents a mechanism that can influence the order of assemblage dominance hierarchies surrounding food competition. Thus, this behavior likely influences ant-assemblages through a variety of ecological pathways.

  18. Cholinergic urethral brush cells are widespread throughout placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Deckmann, Klaus; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Rafiq, Amir; Herden, Christine; Wichmann, Judy; Knauf, Sascha; Nassenstein, Christina; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We previously identified a population of cholinergic epithelial cells in murine, human and rat urethrae that exhibits a structural marker of brush cells (villin) and expresses components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade (α-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), transient receptor potential cation channel melanostatin 5 (TRPM5)). These cells serve as sentinels, monitoring the chemical composition of the luminal content for potentially hazardous compounds such as bacteria, and initiate protective reflexes counteracting further ingression. In order to elucidate cross-species conservation of the urethral chemosensory pathway we investigated the occurrence and molecular make-up of urethral brush cells in placental mammals. We screened 11 additional species, at least one in each of the five mammalian taxonomic units primates, carnivora, perissodactyla, artiodactyla and rodentia, for immunohistochemical labeling of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), villin, and taste cascade components (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, TRPM5). Corresponding to findings in previously investigated species, urethral epithelial cells with brush cell shape were immunolabeled in all 11 mammals. In 8 species, immunoreactivities against all marker proteins and ChAT were observed, and double-labeling immunofluorescence confirmed the cholinergic nature of villin-positive and chemosensory (TRPM5-positive) cells. In cat and horse, these cells were not labeled by the ChAT antiserum used in this study, and unspecific reactions of the secondary antiserum precluded conclusions about ChAT-expression in the bovine epithelium. These data indicate that urethral brush cells are widespread throughout the mammalian kingdom and evolved not later than about 64.5millionyears ago.

  19. Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Susan; de Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

    2014-04-01

    To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed "horizontal transmission"). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants.

  20. Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Susan; Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

    2014-01-01

    To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed “horizontal transmission”). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants. PMID:24834319

  1. Chronic widespread pain in the spectrum of rheumatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2007-06-01

    Chronic pain is very common in all European countries, with musculoskeletal problems predominating. About 1% of the adult population develops a syndrome of chronic muscle pain, fibromyalgia (FMS), characterized by multiple tender points, back or neck pain, and a number of associated problems from other organs, including a high frequency of fatigue. Evidence points to central sensitization as an important neurophysiological aberration in the development of FMS. Importantly, these neurological changes may result from inadequately treated chronic focal pain problems such as osteoarthritis or myofascial pain. It is important for health professionals to be aware of this syndrome and to diagnose the patients to avoid a steady increase in diagnostic tests. On the other hand, patients with chronic widespread pain have an increased risk of developing malignancies, and new or changed symptoms should be diagnosed even in FMS. In rheumatology practice it is especially important to be aware of the existence of FMS in association with immune inflammatory diseases, most commonly lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Differential diagnoses are other causes of chronic pain, e.g. thyroid disease. The costs of this syndrome are substantial due to loss of working capability and direct expenses of medication and health-system usage. Fibromyalgia patients need recognition of their pain syndrome if they are to comply with treatment. Lack of empathy and understanding by healthcare professionals often leads to patient frustration and inappropriate illness behavior, often associated with some exaggeration of symptoms in an effort to gain some legitimacy for their problem. FMS is multifaceted, and treatment consists of both medical interventions, with emphasis on agents acting on the central nervous system, and physical exercises.

  2. Widespread reductions in gray matter volume in depression☆

    PubMed Central

    Grieve, Stuart M.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Koslow, Stephen H.; Gordon, Evian; Williams, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities in functional limbic–anterior cingulate–prefrontal circuits associated with emotional reactivity, evaluation and regulation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, existing knowledge about structural alterations in depression is equivocal and based on cohorts of limited sample size. This study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based cortical thickness to investigate the structure of these circuits in a large and well-characterized patient cohort with MDD. Non-geriatric MDD outpatients (n = 102) and age- and gender-matched healthy control participants (n = 34) provided T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data during their baseline visit as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression. Whole-brain VBM volumetric and surface-based cortical thickness assessments were performed voxel-wise and compared (at p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons) between the MDD and control groups. MDD participants had reduced gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, regions of the prefrontal circuits, including dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, and lateral and medial orbitofrontal cortices, but not in limbic regions. Additional reductions were observed cortically in the posterior temporal and parieto-occipital cortices and, subcortically in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Focal cortical thinning in the medial orbitofrontal cortex was also observed for the MDD group. These alterations in volume and cortical thickness were not associated with severity of depressive symptoms. The findings demonstrate that widespread gray matter structural abnormalities are present in a well-powered study of patients with depression. The patterns of gray matter loss correspond to the same brain functional network regions that were previously established to be abnormal in MDD, which may support an underlying structural abnormality for these circuits. PMID

  3. Direct chemical evidence for widespread dairying in prehistoric Britain

    PubMed Central

    Copley, M. S.; Berstan, R.; Dudd, S. N.; Docherty, G.; Mukherjee, A. J.; Straker, V.; Payne, S.; Evershed, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    Domesticated animals formed an important element of farming practices in prehistoric Britain, a fact revealed through the quantity and variety of animal bone typically found at archaeological sites. However, it is not known whether the ruminant animals were raised purely for their tissues (e.g., meat) or alternatively were exploited principally for their milk. Absorbed organic residues from pottery from 14 British prehistoric sites were investigated for evidence of the processing of dairy products. Our ability to detect dairy fats rests on the observation that the δ13C values of the C18:0 fatty acids in ruminant dairy fats are ≈2.3‰ lower than in ruminant adipose fats. This difference can be ascribed to (i) the inability of the mammary gland to biosynthesize C18:0; (ii) the biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen; and (iii) differences (i.e., 8.1‰) in the δ13C values of the plant dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates. The lipids from a total of 958 archaeological pottery vessels were extracted, and the compound-specific δ13C values of preserved fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were determined via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The results provide direct evidence for the exploitation of domesticated ruminant animals for dairy products at all Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age settlements in Britain. Most significantly, studies of pottery from a range of key early Neolithic sites confirmed that dairying was a widespread activity in this period and therefore probably well developed when farming was introduced into Britain in the fifth millennium B.C. PMID:12574520

  4. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B.; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y.; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F.; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species.

  5. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    PubMed

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  6. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  7. Critical Information Literacy as Core Skill for Lifelong STEM Learning in the 21st Century: Reflections on the Desirability and Feasibility for Widespread Science Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storksdieck, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Grace Reid and the late Stephen Norris argue in this issue the urgent need for widespread Science Media Education (SME) as an integral part of formal and informal science education. SME is to achieve two goals: First, allow learners to critically evaluate any media as a source for scientific information by understanding the socio-economic and…

  8. Nurturing Development of Foster and Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate early childhood teachers' perspective of teaching foster and adopted children. The main purpose is to seek suggestions how teachers can nurture the development of foster and adopted children. A 6 question survey was sent to 44 teachers pursuing graduate studies in early childhood education. Of this 50%…

  9. Faculty Adoption of Active Learning Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek

    2016-01-01

    Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…

  10. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  11. Conservation Tillage: Monitoring Adoption with Satellite Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage is a commonly adopted best management practice for improving soil quality and reducing erosion. However, there are currently no methods in place to monitor conservation tillage adoption at the watershed scale. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of ...

  12. 75 FR 68166 - National Adoption Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... countless American lives, and to encourage the adoption of children from foster care. Currently, thousands of children await adoption or are in foster care, looking forward to permanent homes. These children... children out of foster care. Last year, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius was...

  13. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  14. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  15. MSW Students' Attitudes toward Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaegoo; Crolley-Simic, Josie; Vonk, M. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the attitudes of MSW students ("N"?=?147) toward transracial adoption and included an investigation of the students' personal experiences that may affect their attitudes. Statistical analyses revealed that although the majority of students supported the practice of transracial adoption, a number of students gave…

  16. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  17. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  18. 33 CFR 230.21 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption. 230.21 Section 230.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.21 Adoption. See 40 CFR 1506.3. A district commander will normally...

  19. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    PubMed

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  20. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 341.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  1. 77 FR 66517 - National Adoption Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8896 of November 1, 2012 National Adoption Month, 2012 By the President of... knowing the love and protection of a permanent family. During National Adoption Month, we give voice to... nurture their development and well-being. Later this month, many Americans will also mark...

  2. Predictors of Adopting Motivational Enhancement Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Richard; Roahen-Harrison, Stephanie; Toriello, Paul J.; Kissinger, Patricia; Morse, Patricia; Morse, Edward; Carney, Linton; Rice, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors have shown limited success in adopting evidence-based practices (EBPs). The purpose of this paper is to identify the barriers and facilitators of adopting an EBP called motivational enhancement therapy (MET). One hundred thirty-six predominantly female (60%) African American (68%) addiction counselors representing over…

  3. Understanding Innovation Adoption in the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Production Management, 22: 152-194 (Spring 2002). Frambach, Ruud T. “An Integrated Model of Organizational Adoption and Diffusion of Innovations...European Journal of Marketing, 27: 22-41 (May 1993). Frambach, Ruud T. and Niels Schillewaert. “Organizational Innovation Adoption. A Multi

  4. Wrongful Adoption: Law, Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn; Peterson, Lisa

    The past decade has seen an increase in cases where adoptive parents fail to receive accurate or complete information about a child's physical, emotional, or developmental problems or about the child's birth family and history. In these cases adoptive parents are confronted with extremely expensive medical care or mental health care. This…

  5. Covering Adoption: General Depictions in Broadcast News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Susan L.; Karel, Amanda I.; Chatterjee, Karishma

    2006-01-01

    Using theories of stigma (Goffman, 1963) and media frames (Iyengar, 1991), 292 news stories pertaining to adoption that appeared on major broadcast networks between 2001 and 2004 were analyzed. Media coverage of adoptees contained more problematic than positive depictions. Although birth parents were not always depicted, adoptive parent and…

  6. Adoptive Parents' Attitudes Toward Open Birth Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geissinger, Shirley

    1984-01-01

    Investigated adoptive parents' (N=42) attitudes toward the open birth record issues using a mail survey. Analysis indicated that parental fear was the most important variable. Most supported a measure allowing adult adoptees access to birth records, provided such access was agreeable to birth and adoptive parents. (JAC)

  7. Why Wasn't This Child Adopted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspberry, William

    1982-01-01

    Critizes the public child care policy with regard to adoption services through the story of "Joey", a black child in his teens. Shortly after his birth, Joey was sent by his teenage mother to a city agency for adoption and until now no real effort has been made to place him in a permanent home. (Author/MP)

  8. Issues in Adoption and Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, H. Philip

    This speech presents an overview of issues and trends in the provision of foster care and adoption services in Canada. The number of children "in care" in Canada (in foster homes, institutions, or adoptive homes) appears to have peaked around 1969 and declined thereafter. Information on contraceptives and the availaibility of abortions…

  9. Role of memory T cell subsets for adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Busch, Dirk H; Fräßle, Simon P; Sommermeyer, Daniel; Buchholz, Veit R; Riddell, Stanley R

    2016-02-01

    Adoptive transfer of primary (unmodified) or genetically engineered antigen-specific T cells has demonstrated astonishing clinical results in the treatment of infections and some malignancies. Besides the definition of optimal targets and antigen receptors, the differentiation status of transferred T cells is emerging as a crucial parameter for generating cell products with optimal efficacy and safety profiles. Long-living memory T cells subdivide into phenotypically as well as functionally different subsets (e.g. central memory, effector memory, tissue-resident memory T cells). This diversification process is crucial for effective immune protection, with probably distinct dependencies on the presence of individual subsets dependent on the disease to which the immune response is directed as well as its organ location. Adoptive T cell therapy intends to therapeutically transfer defined T cell immunity into patients. Efficacy of this approach often requires long-term maintenance of transferred cells, which depends on the presence and persistence of memory T cells. However, engraftment and survival of highly differentiated memory T cell subsets upon adoptive transfer is still difficult to achieve. Therefore, the recent observation that a distinct subset of weakly differentiated memory T cells shows all characteristics of adult tissue stem cells and can reconstitute all types of effector and memory T cell subsets, became highly relevant. We here review our current understanding of memory subset formation and T cell subset purification, and its implications for adoptive immunotherapy.

  10. Cost-Savings Achieved in Two Semesters through the Adoption of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John Levi, III; Robinson, Jared; Wiley, David; Ackerman, J. Dale

    2014-01-01

    Textbooks represent a significant portion of the overall cost of higher education in the United States. The burden of these costs is typically shouldered by students, those who support them, and the taxpayers who fund the grants and student loans which pay for textbooks. Open educational resources (OER) provide students a way to receive…

  11. Improving Student Achievement and Satisfaction by Adopting a Blended Learning Approach to Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Neil A.; Bland, Will; Christie, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    A blended learning approach to the teaching of a level 2 inorganic chemistry module is presented. Lectures were replaced by study packs, which were supported by formative on-line assessment delivered via Blackboard and a programme of 20 workshops. Learning activities written using the Lockwood format were included in the study pack to facilitate…

  12. Developmental Outcomes of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Janet A.; Viana, Andres G.

    2013-01-01

    This study followed the development of a sample of 106 (67 girls) internationally adopted children over a period of 18 months. Children were adopted from five birth regions, including China, Korea, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and other Asian countries. Mean age at adoption was 11 months. Mothers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) at 6, 12, and 24 months post-adoption, assessing children's gross and fine motor, communicative, personal-social, and problem solving skills. Results revealed that the sample as a whole demonstrated linear improvement over time in most developmental domains, but children with initially low scores remained significantly lower than other children at the 18-month follow-up. At the first time point, communication was the domain where children most commonly experienced delays. Children with medical problems had significantly lower developmental scores than those without medical diagnoses. ASQ scores were unrelated to age at adoption, but significant differences by birth country region were found. Across most domains, children adopted from Eastern Europe showed generally lower scores than children adopted from other birth regions. PMID:23908583

  13. [International adoption: children's health risk evolution].

    PubMed

    Dartiguenave, C

    2012-05-01

    The socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in many countries make it necessary to weigh as precisely as possible the uncertainties which might affect the health of internationally adopted children, which is one of the key drivers to adoption decision. Indeed, health troubles are more and more frequent among children proposed by countries, at a time when there are fewer children to be adopted. Hence the institutions and the actors in the field of international adoption are compelled to frequently update their professional practices, so as to cope both with the declining offer for adoptable children and with the increasing pressure from the birth countries of children to make host countries adopt children with high age or with special needs. It also requires from the administrations the will to provide better initial information and to implement the demand for an agreement. Meanwhile, in spite of those growing constraints, adopting families have been more and more risk adverse during the latest decades, this being a common trend in our developed countries.

  14. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  15. Open Adoption of Infants: Adoptive Parents' Perceptions of Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted qualitative study of adoptive parents' (n=21 couples) reactions to recent open adoptions of their infants. Findings indicated overwhelmingly positive feelings about open adoption. Respondents often noted that issue of openness was eclipsed by other concerns: coping with infertility, finding a baby, dealing with personnel, and dealing…

  16. Cultural Tourism in Transnational Adoption: "Staged Authenticity" and Its Implications for Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Pamela Anne

    2012-01-01

    The discursive practices of adoptive parents in two online transnational adoption forums (2006-2008) and observations of five international adoption workshops suggest that what Heather Jacobson described as "culture keeping", the cultural socialization of children that retains a sense of native group identity, is more aptly characterized as…

  17. Factors Influencing the Adoption Decision: An Analysis of Adopters and Nonadopters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Robert N.; Rollins, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    An agricultural innovation (nitrogen testing) had been used by 127 of a sample of 220 farmers. Adoption of the technique was influenced by information and change agents' attitudes. Adopters were also motivated by cost savings. Both adopters and nonadopters either did not have or use soil sampling skills needed to perform the test correctly.…

  18. Characterisation of adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kebebe, E G; Oosting, S J; Baltenweck, I; Duncan, A J

    2017-04-01

    While there is a general consensus that using dairy technologies, such as improved breeds of dairy cows, can substantially increase farm productivity and income, adoption of such technologies has been generally low in developing countries. The underlying reasons for non-adoption of beneficial technologies in the dairy sector are not fully understood. In this study, we characterised adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya based on farmers' resources ownership in order to identify why many farmers in Ethiopia and Kenya have not adopted improved dairy technologies. As compared to non-adopters, farmers who adopt dairy technology own relatively more farm resources. The result signals that differences in resource endowments could lead to divergent technology adoption scenarios. Results show that a higher proportion of sample smallholders in Kenya have adopted dairy technologies than those in Ethiopia. Except for the use of veterinary services, fewer than 10% of sample farmers in Ethiopia have adopted dairy technologies-less than half the number of adopters in Kenya. The higher level of dairy technology adoption in Kenya can be ascribed partly to the long history of dairy development, including improvements in the value chain for the delivery of inputs, services and fluid milk marketing. Interventions that deal with the constraints related to access to farm resources and input and output markets could facilitate uptake of dairy technology in developing countries.

  19. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  20. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: building on success.

    PubMed

    Gattinoni, Luca; Powell, Daniel J; Rosenberg, Steven A; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2006-05-01

    Adoptive cell transfer after host preconditioning by lymphodepletion represents an important advance in cancer immunotherapy. Here, we describe how a lymphopaenic environment enables tumour-reactive T cells to destroy large burdens of metastatic tumour and how the state of differentiation of the adoptively transferred T cells can affect the outcome of treatment. We also discuss how the translation of these new findings might further improve the efficacy of adoptive cell transfer through the use of vaccines, haematopoietic-stem-cell transplantation, modified preconditioning regimens, and alternative methods for the generation and selection of the T cells to be transferred.

  1. Pricing Health Behavior Interventions to Promote Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Kurt M.; Leeman, Jennifer; Glasser, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high cost of delivering many public health interventions limits their potential for broad public impact by reducing their likelihood of adoption and maintenance over time. Practitioners identify cost as the primary factor for which interventions they select to implement, but researchers rarely disseminate cost information or consider its importance when developing new interventions. A new approach is proposed, whereby intervention developers assess what individuals and agencies adopting their interventions are willing to pay and then design interventions that are responsive to this price range. The ultimate goal is to develop effective and affordable interventions, called lean interventions, which are widely adopted and have greater public health impact. PMID:24842743

  2. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  3. Five constants of information technology adoption in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Mariel L; McCreless, Tamuchin; Côté, Murray J

    2007-01-01

    The healthcare industry has developed a dependence on information technology (IT) for maintaining and improving both clinical and business operations. Whether IT is used for office automation or for reducing medical errors, there are five constants that routinely influence the successful integration of IT in healthcare. These constants are the proper use and maintenance of the IT budget, the role of supportive leadership, the use of project management, the process of implementation, and the significance of end user involvement. These constants challenge healthcare organizations to efficiently and effectively use their financial and human resources when adopting new IT. These constants also shape how the healthcare industry approaches the adoption and utilization of new IT. A collective understanding of these constants and their interrelationships will enable healthcare organizations to better integrate new IT and achieve organizational goals of developing a solid technological infrastructure to truly enhance the delivery of quality healthcare.

  4. Adoption of waste minimization technology to benefit electroplaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, E.M.K.; Li, C.P.H.; Yu, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Because of increasingly stringent environmental legislation and enhanced environmental awareness, electroplaters in Hong Kong are paying more heed to protect the environment. To comply with the array of environmental controls, electroplaters can no longer rely solely on the end-of-pipe approach as a means for abating their pollution problems under the particular local industrial environment. The preferred approach is to adopt waste minimization measures that yield both economic and environmental benefits. This paper gives an overview of electroplating activities in Hong Kong, highlights their characteristics, and describes the pollution problems associated with conventional electroplating operations. The constraints of using pollution control measures to achieve regulatory compliance are also discussed. Examples and case studies are given on some low-cost waste minimization techniques readily available to electroplaters, including dragout minimization and water conservation techniques. Recommendations are given as to how electroplaters can adopt and exercise waste minimization techniques in their operations. 1 tab.

  5. Gender identity disorder in a girl: insights from adoption.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, K

    1995-01-01

    Gender identity disorder in girls is reported far less frequently than in boys. The analysis of a six-year-old adopted girl with gender identity disorder is presented to show the importance of the mother-infant relationship and of parental, especially maternal, attitudes toward gender in the normal development of gender identity and gender role definition. This child's unusual history included a late adoption, with clear evidence of separation trauma, and the ongoing influence of maternal infertility. Her symptoms of gender identity disorder appeared before her second birthday and were well established by three years of age. The analysis, from age six to thirteen, achieved a better adaptation to her gender. Her masculine strivings gradually became incorporated into an essentially feminine orientation.

  6. Adoption of right turn on red: effects on crashes at signalized intersections

    SciTech Connect

    Zador, P.; Moshman, J.; Marcus, L.

    1980-01-01

    By the end of the 1970's, all states in the US had modified their laws to permit drivers to turn right on steady red at signalized intersections. Police-reported crash data from six states (New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and Wisconsin) where permissive right-turn-on-red laws were adopted during 1974 to 1977, as well as data from three states where the law in effect was unchanged throughout the period, were used to determine the effect of adopting such laws on the frequency of crashes involving right turning maneuvers at signalized intersections. It was found that the increase in the overall frequency of such crashes in states that adopted permissive right-turn-on-red laws exceeded by more than 20% the comparable change in states that retained the same laws. Larger than average increases were found for crashes in urban areas (25%) and for crashes involving a single vehicle and a pedestrian (57%) especially in urban areas (79%). An increase of over 30% was found for child pedestrians. A 100% increase was found for adults, and 110% increase in pedestrian crashes was found for the elderly after adoption of RTOR. It was concluded that the widespread and indiscriminate adoption of permissive right-turn-on-red laws was in conflict with the Congressional intent of adopting such laws only to the maximum extent practicable consistent with safety.

  7. Widespread refertilization of cratonic and circum-cratonic lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Ying, Ji-Feng; Su, Ben-Xun

    2013-03-01

    Studies of mantle xenoliths have confirmed that Archean subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) is highly depleted in basaltic components (such as Al, Ca and Na) due to high-degree extraction of mafic and ultramafic melts and thus is refractory and buoyant, which made it chronically stable as tectonically independent units. However, increasing studies show that ancient SCLM can be refertilized by episodic rejuvenation events like infiltration of upwelling fertile material. The North China Craton is one of the most typical cases for relatively complete destruction of its Archean keel since the eruption of Paleozoic kimberlites, as is evidenced by a dramatic change in the compositions of mantle xenoliths sampled by Paleozoic to Cenozoic magmas, reflecting significant lithospheric thinning and the change in the character of the SCLM. The compositional change has been interpreted as the result of refertilization of Archean SCLM via multiple-stage peridotite-melt reactions, suggested by linear correlations between MgO and indices of fertility, covariations of Al2O3 with CaO, La/Yb, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 187Os/188Os and Re-depletion ages (TRD), high Re abundances, scatter in Re-Os isotopic plot, variable in situ TRD ages of sulfides, and correlation between TRD ages and olivine Fo of peridotite xenoliths in Paleozoic kimberlites and Cenozoic basalts on the craton. By integrating major and trace element, Sr, Nd and Os isotopic compositions of peridotite xenoliths and orogenic massif peridotites from the continents of Europe, Asia, America, Africa and Australia, together with previous studies of petrology and geochemistry of global peridotites, we suggest that (1) refertilization of cratonic and circum-cratonic lithospheric mantle is widespread; (2) Archean SCLM worldwide has experienced a multi-stage history of melt depletion and refertilization since segregation from the convecting mantle; (3) cratonic SCLM may be more susceptible to compositional change caused by

  8. No evidence for change in oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) after widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal cotton.

    PubMed

    Zalucki, M P; Cunningham, J P; Downes, S; Ward, P; Lange, C; Meissle, M; Schellhorn, N A; Zalucki, J M

    2012-08-01

    Cotton growing landscapes in Australia have been dominated by dual-toxin transgenic Bt varieties since 2004. The cotton crop has thus effectively become a sink for the main target pest, Helicoverpa armigera. Theory predicts that there should be strong selection on female moths to avoid laying on such plants. We assessed oviposition, collected from two cotton-growing regions, by female moths when given a choice of tobacco, cotton and cabbage. Earlier work in the 1980s and 1990s on populations from the same geographic locations indicated these hosts were on average ranked as high, mid and low preference plants, respectively, and that host rankings had a heritable component. In the present study, we found no change in the relative ranking of hosts by females, with most eggs being laid on tobacco, then cotton and least on cabbage. As in earlier work, some females laid most eggs on cotton and aspects of oviposition behaviour had a heritable component. Certainly, cotton is not avoided as a host, and the implications of these finding for managing resistance to Bt cotton are discussed.

  9. College Students' Conceptions of Chemical Stability: The Widespread Adoption of a Heuristic Rule out of Context and beyond Its Range of Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports evidence that learners commonly develop a notion of chemical stability that, whilst drawing upon ideas taught in the curriculum, is nevertheless inconsistent with basic scientific principles. A series of related small-scale studies show that many college-level students consider a chemical species with an octet structure, or a…

  10. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  11. Drivers and Barriers in Health IT Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Avgar, A.C.; Litwin, A.S.; Pronovost, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite near (and rare) consensus that the adoption and diffusion of health information technology (health IT) will bolster outcomes for organizations, individuals, and the healthcare system as a whole, there has been surprisingly little consideration of the structures and processes within organizations that might drive the adoption and effective use of the technology. Management research provides a useful lens through which to analyze both the determinants of investment and the benefits that can ultimately be derived from these investments. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding health IT adoption. In doing so, this paper highlights specific organizational barriers or enablers at different stages of the adoption process – investment, implementation, and use – and at different levels of organizational decision-making – strategic, operational, and frontline. This framework will aid both policymakers and organizational actors as they make sense of the transition from paper-based to electronic systems. PMID:23646093

  12. Parental Bonding in Older-Child Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Examines various factors (such as periods of high emotion, ritual and claiming behaviors and positive interaction) in the attachment process between adoptive parents and older children. Shows that most components parallel those of bonding in biological parents. (Author/RH)

  13. 76 FR 81 - Adoption of Recommendation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Adoption of Recommendation AGENCY: Administrative Conference of... the attached recommendation at its Fifty-third Plenary Session. The recommendation addresses issues... makes recommendations for improvements to the agencies, collectively or individually, and to...

  14. When to Tell Your Child About Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  15. Internationally Adopted Children: Important Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  16. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  17. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  18. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  19. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  20. 43 CFR 10010.20 - Adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... augment such an EA when it is essentially, but not entirely, in compliance in order to make it so. (c) If an EA or augmented EA is adopted, the responsible Commission official must prepare his/her own NOI...

  1. Adopting Integrated Pest Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, William E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of an effective Integrated Pest Management program is discussed. Provided are the common goals and procedures involved in adopting an Integrated Pest Management program for schools. (CW)

  2. Are You Pregnant and Thinking about Adoption?

    MedlinePlus

    ... place their children for adoption include money problems, personal goals, and family attitudes. Why do some expectant ... your child learn more about his or her personal history, family background, medical information, and the reasons ...

  3. A physical chemical screening model for anticipating widespread contamination of community water supply wells by gasoline constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arey, J. Samuel; Gschwend, Philip M.

    2005-01-01

    Continuing modifications of fuels like gasoline should include evaluations of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as subsurface water supplies. Consequently, we developed a screening model to estimate well water concentrations and transport times for gasoline components migrating from underground fuel tank (UFT) releases to typical at-risk community water supply wells. Representative fuel release volumes and hydrogeologic characteristics were used to parameterize the transport calculation. Subsurface degradation processes were neglected in the model in order to make risk-conservative assessments. The model was tailored to individual compounds based on their abundances in gasoline, gasoline-water partition coefficients ( Kgw), and organic matter-water partition coefficients ( Kom). Transport calculations were conducted for 20 polar and 4 nonpolar compounds found in gasoline, including methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other ether oxygenates, ethanol, methanol, and some aromatic hydrocarbons. With no calibration, the screening model successfully captured the reported magnitude of MTBE contamination of at-risk community supply wells. Such screening indicates that other oxygenates would cause similar widespread problems unless they were biodegradable. Stochastic analysis of field parameter variability concluded that community supply well contamination estimates had order-of-magnitude reliability. This indicated that such pre-manufacturing analyses may reasonably anticipate widespread environmental problems and/or inspire focused investigations into chemical properties (e.g., biodegradability) before industrial adoption of new fuel formulations.

  4. Adoption first? The disposition of human embryos.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-06-01

    Anja Karnein has suggested that because of the importance of respect for persons, law and policy should require some human embryos created in vitro to be available for adoption for a period of time. If no one comes forward to adopt the embryos during that time, they may be destroyed (in the case of embryos left over from fertility medicine) or used in research (in the case of embryos created for that purpose or left over from fertility medicine). This adoption option would increase the number of embryos available for couples looking for help in having children, but that effect is less important--Karnein argues--than the observance of respect for human persons. As possible persons, she holds that embryos ought to be treated, as if they will become children, if only for a while. If enacted as a matter of law and policy, an 'adoption option' would wrongly interfere with the dispositional rights women and men ought to have over embryos they create in the course of trying to have children. Karnein's proposal would also deprive researchers of certainty that the embryos they create for research would actually be available that way, leading to increased burdens of time and money and maybe even to more embryos than would otherwise be produced. Karnein's analysis does not show, moreover, that any duty of rescue applies to embryos. No woman is required to adopt any embryo, which significantly undercuts the justification for an obligatory adoption period.

  5. Enhancing adoptive parenting: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan; Monck, Elizabeth; Leese, Morven; McCrone, Paul; Sharac, Jessica

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to conduct a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate two parenting programmes designed for adopters of children late placed from care. Adoptive parents, with children between 3 and 8 years who were screened to have serious behavioural problems early in the placement, participated in home-based, manualized, parenting programmes delivered by trained and supervised family social workers. The adopters who agreed to join the study were randomly allocated to one of two parenting interventions or to a "services as usual" group. Baseline, immediate post-intervention and six-month follow-ups were assessed using questionnaires and adopter interviews. No cases were lost to follow-up at any point and satisfaction was high with both parenting interventions. At the six-month follow-up, a significant difference (p < 0.007) was found for "satisfaction with parenting" in favour of the intervention group (Effect Size d = 0.7). Negative parenting approaches were reduced in the intervention group. However, no significant differences in child problems were found between the intervention groups and control group, adjusting for baseline scores. Costs analysis showed that a relatively modest investment in post-adoption support would be well spent in improving adopters' satisfaction with parenting in the intervention group compared to the routine service group.

  6. Social Context and Hearing Aid Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Launer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Hearing rehabilitation tends to focus on the influence of intraindividual factors and concepts such as readiness for change and health beliefs. In contrast, less is known about the role of social context and the potential role of significant others on hearing aid adoption. This explorative retrospective study investigated whether hearing aid adoption is associated with significant other attendance at audiology appointments. The study sample consisted of 33,933 and 27,031 individuals who attended appointments either alone or with a significant other, respectively (n = 60,964). It was found that hearing aid adoption was significantly greater when patients attended audiology appointments with a significant other (63.8%) than when attending appointments alone (50.6%). The association between hearing aid adoption and attendance by a significant other was hearing dependent, with 96% higher hearing aid adoption for patients with mild hearing losses when patients attended appointments with a significant other than when attending appointments alone. Hearing aid return rates were comparable when patients attended appointments alone (27%) or with a significant other (24%). Several potential explanations for the observed association are discussed. The pattern of results is consistent with the view that greater adherence is observed when audiologic care is provided from a patient-centered care perspective. Future research should establish whether there is a causal relationship between attendance at appointments by significant others and hearing aid adoption and should attempt to better understand the mechanisms underpinning the relationship between these variables. PMID:27733672

  7. Bridging the divide: openness in adoption and postadoption psychosocial adjustment among birth and adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Martin, David M; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Villareal, Georgette; Scaramella, Laura; Reid, John B; Reiss, David

    2008-08-01

    Using 323 matched parties of birth mothers and adoptive parents, this study examined the association between the degree of adoption openness (e.g., contact and knowledge between parties) and birth and adoptive parents' postadoption adjustment shortly after the adoption placement (6 to 9 months). Data from birth fathers (N = 112), an understudied sample, were also explored. Openness was assessed by multiple informants. Results indicated that openness was significantly related to satisfaction with adoption process among adoptive parents and birth mothers. Increased openness was positively associated with birth mothers' postplacement adjustment, as indexed by birth mothers' self-reports and the interviewers' impression of birth mothers' adjustment. Birth fathers' report of openness was associated with their greater satisfaction with the adoption process and better postadoption adjustment.

  8. An integrative approach to delimiting species in a rare but widespread mycoheterotrophic orchid.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Craig F; Freudenstein, John V

    2011-07-01

    In the spirit of recent calls for species delimitation studies to become more pluralistic, incorporating multiple sources of evidence, we adopted an integrative, phylogeographic approach to delimiting species and evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) in the Corallorhiza striata species complex. This rare, North American, mycoheterotrophic orchid has been a taxonomic challenge regarding species boundaries, displaying complex patterns of variation and reduced vegetative morphology. We employed plastid DNA, nuclear DNA and morphometrics, treating the C. striata complex as a case study for integrative species delimitation. We found evidence for the differentiation of the endangered C. bentleyi (eastern USA) + C. striata var. involuta (Mexico) from the remaining C. striata (= C. striata s.s.; USA, Canada, Mexico). Corallorhiza striata involuta and C. bentleyi, disjunct by thousands of kilometres (Mexico-Appalachia), were genetically identical but morphologically distinct. Evidence suggests the C. striata complex represents three species: C. bentleyi, C. involuta and a widespread C. striata s.s under operational criteria of diagnosability and common allele pools. In contrast, Bayesian coalescent estimation delimited four species, but more informative loci and a resultant species tree will be needed to place higher confidence in future analyses. Three distinct groupings were identified within C. striata s.s., corresponding to C. striata striata, C. striata vreelandii, and Californian accessions, but these were not delimited as species because of occupying a common allele pool. Each comprises an ESU, warranting conservation considerations. This study represents perhaps the most geographically comprehensive example of integrative species delimitation for any orchid and any mycoheterotroph.

  9. Moses and Superman Come Home: Counseling Adoptees and Adoptive Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiz, Stephen G.

    This paper looks at three parties impacted by adoption: the adoptive parents, the adopted child, and the adoptive family. When working with adoptive parents, counselors should respect the strength of the couple, their commitment to parenthood, and the closeness that may develop from weathering the issue of childlessness. Adoptive parents are…

  10. Psychological Ramifications of Adoption and Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Andrew A.; Ruthven, Dorothy H.

    1990-01-01

    Examines adoption issues including family member loss, infertility, transracial adoptions, special-needs adoptions, older child adoption, inherited traits, adoptive family, biological parents, and open adoption. Suggests specific therapeutic interventions including redefinition, use of paradox, family therapy approaches, group therapy, and…

  11. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  12. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  13. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  14. Adoption Activities on the Internet: A Call for Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; White, Holly

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents,…

  15. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  16. 5 CFR 843.404 - Proof of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proof of adoption. 843.404 Section 843... Proof of adoption. (a) An adopted child is— (1) A child adopted by the employee or retiree before the... petition for adoption was filed by the employee or retiree and who is adopted by the current spouse of...

  17. Teachers' Implementation of Instructional Strategies: Frequencies, Views on Importance, Inhibiting Factors, and Relationship to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alice

    2011-01-01

    The achievement gap among students in the United States is widespread, as attested to by state-mandated test scores. In New York State school districts, achievement has been mixed. In 2007, in a high-achieving district, 94.9% of fourth-grade students met or surpassed the minimum standards in the fourth-grade English Language Arts test, compared to…

  18. Who Adopts Queer and Pansexual Sexual Identities?

    PubMed

    Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2016-12-02

    Some nonheterosexual individuals are eschewing lesbian/gay and bisexual identities for queer and pansexual identities. The present study aimed to examine the sexual and demographic characteristics of nonheterosexual individuals who adopt these labels. A convenience sample of 2,220 nonheterosexual (1,459 lesbian/gay, 413 bisexual, 168 queer, 146 pansexual, and 34 other "write-in") individuals were recruited for a cross-sectional online survey. In support of our hypotheses, those adopting pansexual identities were younger than those adopting lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities, and those adopting queer and pansexual identities were more likely to be noncisgender than cisgender, and more likely to be cisgender women than men. The majority of pansexual individuals demonstrated sexual orientation indices within the bisexual range, and showed equivalent patterns of sexual attraction, romantic attraction, sexual behavior, and partner gender as bisexual-identified men and women. In contrast, three-quarters of queer men, and more than half of queer women, reported sexual attraction in the homosexual range. This study found that rather than a general movement toward nontraditional sexual identities, queer and pansexual identities appear most appealing to nonheterosexual women and noncisgender individuals. These findings contribute important information regarding who adopts queer and pansexual identities in contemporary sexual minority populations.

  19. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  20. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  1. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  2. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  3. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  4. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  5. The Consumer Health Information System Adoption Model.

    PubMed

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    Derived from overlapping concepts in consumer health, a consumer health information system refers to any of the broad range of applications, tools, and educational resources developed to empower consumers with knowledge, techniques, and strategies, to manage their own health. As consumer health information systems become increasingly popular, it is important to explore the factors that impact their adoption and success. Accumulating evidence indicates a relationship between usability and consumers' eHealth Literacy skills and the demands consumer HISs place on their skills. Here, we present a new model called the Consumer Health Information System Adoption Model, which depicts both consumer eHealth literacy skills and system demands on eHealth literacy as moderators with the potential to affect the strength of relationship between usefulness and usability (predictors of usage) and adoption, value, and successful use (actual usage outcomes). Strategies for aligning these two moderating factors are described.

  6. Disinhibited social behavior among internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Tarullo, Amanda R; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-01-01

    Postinstitutionalized children frequently demonstrate persistent socioemotional difficulties. For example, some postinstitutionalized children display an unusual lack of social reserve with unfamiliar adults. This behavior, which has been referred to as indiscriminate friendliness, disinhibited attachment behavior, and disinhibited social behavior, was examined by comparing children internationally adopted from institutional care to children internationally adopted from foster care and children raised by their biological families. Etiological factors and behavioral correlates were also investigated. Both groups of adopted children displayed more disinhibited social behavior than the nonadopted children. Of the etiological factors examined, only the length of time in institutional care was related to disinhibited social behavior. Disinhibited social behavior was not significantly correlated with general cognitive ability, attachment-related behaviors, or basic emotion abilities. However, this behavior was negatively associated with inhibitory control abilities even after controlling for the length of time in institutional care. These results suggest that disinhibited social behavior might reflect underlying deficits in inhibitory control.

  7. "You can always adopt": what clinic staff need to know about adoption and fostering?

    PubMed

    Balen, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents information and research about adoption and fostering, and explains some of the relevant processes. In order that those providing infertility services can play an informed, supportive and empowering role in the decision-making of those whose infertility treatment has been unsuccessful, a number of issues are highlighted. These include the changing profile of children awaiting adoption and fostering; ongoing contact between children and their birth families; the adoption of children from abroad; moving from infertility treatment to adoption or fostering; and the potential ongoing impact of infertility and failed treatment.

  8. Accepting adoption's uncertainty: the limited ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Kimberly J

    2014-06-01

    An increasing number of children are adopted in the United States from countries where both medical care and environmental conditions are extremely poor. In response to worries about the accuracy of medical histories, prospective adoptive parents increasingly request genetic testing of children prior to adoption. Though a general consensus on the ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing (PAGT) argues against permitting genetic testing on children available for adoption that is not also permitted for children in general, a view gaining traction argues for expanding the tests permitted. The reasoning behind this view is that the State has a duty to provide a child with parents who are the best "match," and thus all information that advances this end should be obtained. While the matching argument aims to promote the best interests of children, I show how it rests on the claim that what is in the best interests of children available for adoption is for prospective adoptive parents to have their genetic preferences satisfied such that the "genetics" of the children they end up adopting accurately reflects those preferences. Instead of protecting a vulnerable population, I conclude, PAGT contributes to the risks of harm such children face as it encourages people with strong genetic preferences to adopt children whose genetic backgrounds will always be uncertain.

  9. Intelligence in childhood and chronic widespread pain in middle age: the National Child Development Survey.

    PubMed

    Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Cooper, Cyrus; Batty, G David

    2012-12-01

    Psychological factors are thought to play a part in the aetiology of chronic widespread pain. We investigated the relationship between intelligence in childhood and risk of chronic widespread pain in adulthood in 6902 men and women from the National Child Development Survey (1958 British Birth Cohort). Participants took a test of general cognitive ability at age 11 years; and chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, was assessed at age 45 years. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using log-binomial regression, adjusting for sex and potential confounding or mediating factors. Risk of chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, rose in a stepwise fashion as intelligence fell (P for linear trend <0.0001). In sex-adjusted analyses, for an SD lower intelligence quotient, the RR of chronic widespread pain was 1.26 (95% CI 1.17-1.35). In multivariate backwards stepwise regression, lower childhood intelligence remained as an independent predictor of chronic widespread pain (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.19), along with social class, educational attainment, body mass index, smoking status, and psychological distress. Part of the effect of lower childhood intelligence on risk of chronic widespread pain in midlife was significantly mediated through greater body mass index and more disadvantaged socioeconomic position. Men and women with higher intelligence in childhood are less likely as adults to report chronic widespread pain.

  10. Exploring the business case for ambulatory electronic health record system adoption.

    PubMed

    Song, Paula H; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Robbins, Julie; McCullough, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    Widespread implementation and use of electronic health record (EHR) systems has been recognized by healthcare leaders as a cornerstone strategy for systematically reducing medical errors and improving clinical quality. However, EHR adoption requires a significant capital investment for healthcare providers, and cost is often cited as a barrier. Despite the capital requirements, a true business case for EHR system adoption and implementation has not been made. This is of concern, as the lack of a business case can influence decision making about EHR investments. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of business case analysis in healthcare organizations' decisions to invest in ambulatory EHR systems, and to identify what factors organizations considered when justifying an ambulatory EHR. Using a qualitative case study approach, we explored how five organizations that are considered to have best practices in ambulatory EHR system implementation had evaluated the business case for EHR adoption. We found that although the rigor of formal business case analysis was highly variable, informants across these organizations consistently reported perceiving that a positive business case for EHR system adoption existed, especially when they considered both financial and non-financial benefits. While many consider EHR system adoption inevitable in healthcare, this viewpoint should not deter managers from conducting a business case analysis. Results of such an analysis can inform healthcare organizations' understanding about resource allocation needs, help clarify expectations about financial and clinical performance metrics to be monitored through EHR systems, and form the basis for ongoing organizational support to ensure successful system implementation.

  11. Building Local Infrastructure for Community Adoption of Science-Based Prevention: The Role of Coalition Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    The widespread adoption of science-based prevention requires local infrastructures for prevention service delivery. Communities That Care (CTC) is a tested prevention service delivery system that enables a local coalition of community stakeholders to use a science-based approach to prevention and improve the behavioral health of young people. This paper uses data from the Community Youth Development Study (CYDS), a community-randomized trial of CTC, to examine the extent to which better internal team functioning of CTC coalitions increases the community-wide adoption of science-based prevention within 12 communities, relative to 12 matched comparison communities. Specifically, this paper examines the potential of both a direct relationship between coalition functioning and the community-wide adoption of science-based prevention and a direct relationship between functioning and the coalition capacities that ultimately enable the adoption of science-based prevention. Findings indicate no evidence of a direct relationship between four dimensions of coalition functioning and the community-wide adoption of a science-based approach to prevention, but suggest a relationship between coalition functioning and coalition capacities (building new member skills and establishing external linkages with existing community organizations) that enable science-based prevention. PMID:26017632

  12. Building Local Infrastructure for Community Adoption of Science-Based Prevention: The Role of Coalition Functioning.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Valerie B; Hawkins, J David; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2015-11-01

    The widespread adoption of science-based prevention requires local infrastructures for prevention service delivery. Communities That Care (CTC) is a tested prevention service delivery system that enables a local coalition of community stakeholders to use a science-based approach to prevention and improve the behavioral health of young people. This paper uses data from the Community Youth Development Study (CYDS), a community-randomized trial of CTC, to examine the extent to which better internal team functioning of CTC coalitions increases the community-wide adoption of science-based prevention within 12 communities, relative to 12 matched comparison communities. Specifically, this paper examines the potential of both a direct relationship between coalition functioning and the community-wide adoption of science-based prevention and a direct relationship between functioning and the coalition capacities that ultimately enable the adoption of science-based prevention. Findings indicate no evidence of a direct relationship between four dimensions of coalition functioning and the community-wide adoption of a science-based approach to prevention, but suggest a relationship between coalition functioning and coalition capacities (building new member skills and establishing external linkages with existing community organizations) that enable science-based prevention.

  13. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer or viruses.

    PubMed

    Maus, Marcela V; Fraietta, Joseph A; Levine, Bruce L; Kalos, Michael; Zhao, Yangbing; June, Carl H

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy, or the infusion of lymphocytes, is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer and certain chronic viral infections. The application of the principles of synthetic biology to enhance T cell function has resulted in substantial increases in clinical efficacy. The primary challenge to the field is to identify tumor-specific targets to avoid off-tumor, on-target toxicity. Given recent advances in efficacy in numerous pilot trials, the next steps in clinical development will require multicenter trials to establish adoptive immunotherapy as a mainstream technology.

  14. Adoptive Immunotherapy for Cancer or Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Marcela V.; Fraietta, Joseph A.; Levine, Bruce L.; Kalos, Michael; Zhao, Yangbing; June, Carl H.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy, or the infusion of lymphocytes, is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer and certain chronic viral infections. The application of the principles of synthetic biology to enhance T cell function has resulted in substantial increases in clinical efficacy. The primary challenge to the field is to identify tumor-specific targets to avoid off-tissue, on-target toxicity. Given recent advances in efficacy in numerous pilot trials, the next steps in clinical development will require multicenter trials in order to establish adoptive immunotherapy as a mainstream technology. PMID:24423116

  15. International adoption as a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Dyer, Janyce G

    2006-08-01

    International adoption research has been called a natural experiment by many child development researchers. How do studies of severe early deprivation inform us about risk factors experienced by many of these children and their impact on developmental outcomes? Three longitudinal studies conducted by British and American researchers in the 1990s are reviewed. Each year, over 20,000 children are adopted from overseas, and a significant number are now entering adolescence; the impact of their prenatal risk factors, early institutionalization, and ameliorative postadoptive environments is also reviewed. The feasibility of generalizing findings to other children in foster care is also addressed.

  16. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  17. Optimizing technology development and adoption in medical imaging using the principles of innovation diffusion, part II: practical applications.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adoption of new technology development can be accentuated by learning and applying the scientific principles of innovation diffusion. This is of particular importance to areas within the medical imaging practice which have lagged in innovation; perhaps, the most notable of which is reporting which has remained relatively stagnant for over a century. While the theoretical advantages of structured reporting have been well documented throughout the medical imaging community, adoption to date has been tepid and largely relegated to the academic and breast imaging communities. Widespread adoption will likely require an alternative approach to innovation, which addresses the heterogeneity and diversity of the practicing radiologist community along with the ever-changing expectations in service delivery. The challenges and strategies for reporting innovation and adoption are discussed, with the goal of adapting and customizing new technology to the preferences and needs of individual end-users.

  18. Environmental Justice and Green-Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an environmental justice (EJ) program adopted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as a part of its regulation to phase out a toxic chemical used by dry cleaners. SCAQMD provided financial incentives to switch early and gave establishments in EJ neighborhoods priority in applying for…

  19. Examining Teachers' Decisions to Adopt New Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William; Crawley, Frank; Fine, Bethann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined teachers' beliefs about technology adoption as a reasoned, deliberate, intentional decision-making process, as reflected in Ajzen's (1985) Theory of Planned Behavior. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from teachers in four schools located in the southeastern region of the United States. Overall results indicated…

  20. The African Orphan Crisis and International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; Shaw, Stacey A.

    2006-01-01

    The plight of Africa's AIDS orphans has reached crisis proportions, and the international community is beginning to mobilize at the family, community, national, and international levels. Despite these encouraging efforts, the response is inadequate, and increased attention and action are needed. The authors suggest that international adoption,…

  1. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  2. International Adoption: Benefits, Risks, and Vulnerabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Tamsen; Richter, Linda

    2007-01-01

    International adoption is on the rise in the United States and is not without controversy. Reasons for the increase include higher rates of infertility in couples who have delayed parenthood; increased numbers of children who are relinquished, abandoned, or orphaned around the world; and the influence of third party agencies. Internationally…

  3. The Mad, Mad World of Textbook Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B Fordham Foundation and Institute, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Textbook Adoption: The process, in place in twenty-one states, of reviewing textbooks according to state guidelines and then mandating specific books that schools must use, or lists of approved textbooks that schools must choose from. It consistently produces second-rate textbooks that replicate the same flaws and failings over and over again.…

  4. TILE at Iowa: Adoption and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florman, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces a University of Iowa effort to enhance and support active learning pedagogies in technology-enhanced (TILE) classrooms and three elements that proved essential to the campus-wide adoption of those pedagogies. It then describes the impact of those professional development efforts on the curricula and cultures of three…

  5. 76 FR 68613 - National Adoption Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... unconditional love that will help them succeed. And yet, more than 100,000 children in America await this most... celebrate the acts of compassion and love that unite children with adoptive families, and we rededicate..., let us recommit to ensuring every child is given the sustaining love of family, the assurance of...

  6. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  7. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  8. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  9. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  10. 50 CFR 38.7 - Adopted offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.7 Adopted offenses. Any person who commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although... commits any act or omission on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge which, although not made...

  11. Pre-Parenting Training: Adopter's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    Based on a pilot project in ten Oregon high schools, this adopter's guide describes a training program designed to prepare high school students to be mentally and emotionally healthy parents. Three overall curriculum goals are identified: providing practice in clarification of personal values and responsible decision making, clarifying and…

  12. 32 CFR 584.4 - Adoption proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL FAMILY SUPPORT, CHILD... for leave to attend an adoption hearing on (date), if made, would be approved. (iii) Due to military... soldier's new military address to the court or judge. The commander then will send a copy of the...

  13. Trailblazing Teacher Contract Agreement Adopted in Baltimore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Baltimore City Public Schools made national headlines late last year when the district adopted a new contract designed to take student learning and teacher professionalism to the next level. The three-year deal replaced conventional approaches to compensation--regular pay increases based on years in the system--with a new approach that gives…

  14. Adopting Learning Technologies: From Belief to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothma, Cornelius H.; Cant, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    A challenge faced by most heads of academic departments around the world is to manage the adoption and use of appropriate learning technologies in order to support the department's learning offerings to students. Earlier research undertaken by the authors revealed that lecturers within the Department of Marketing and Retail Management at the…

  15. Faculty Members' Instructional Priorities for Adopting OER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung; Hong, Seongyoun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and classify faculty members' instructional priorities for adopting OER. In-depth interview data were collected from 10 faculty members from different regions and analyzed with NVivo 10. The original supposition was that the well-established instructional priorities, effectiveness, efficiency, and appeal would…

  16. Children in Adoptive Families: Overview and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickman, Steven L.; Rosenfeld, Alvin A.; Fine, Paul; MacIntyre, James C.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Howe, Ruth-Arlene; Derdeyn, Andre; Gonzales, Mayu Bonoan; Forsythe, Linda; Sveda, Sally A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the past 10 years of published research concerning the 2% of American children younger than 18 years old who are adoptees. Method: Review recent literature on developmental influences, placement outcome, psychopathology, and treatment. Results: Adoption carries developmental opportunities and risks. Many adoptees have…

  17. Distributed PV Adoption - Sensitivity to Market Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2016-02-01

    NREL staff used the dSolar (distributed solar) model to forecast the adoption of distributed, behind-the-meter PV through the year 2050 for 9 different scenarios. The scenarios varied in their assumptions about a carbon tax, the cost of PV systems in the future, and what credit would be given for excess generation once current net metering policies expire.

  18. Adopt-A-Stream Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Labs, Inc., Rochester, NY.

    Water pollution is not a recently discovered problem. Humankind's ability to generate pollutants continues to exceed its ability to control them. The Adopt-A-Stream program invites people who care for waterways to take an active role in assuring their well-being. High school groups supported by local co-sponsors agree to evaluate their adopted…

  19. Adoption of Energy Conservation among California Homeowners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard-Barton, Dorothy; Rogers, Everett M.

    In spring 1977, just as California was emerging from one of the worst droughts in its history, 215 Palo Alto homeowners were interviewed about their views on energy and water conservation, and about the extent to which they had adopted 11 energy-conserving practices (ECP) in the home. The objective was to discover variables both important to…

  20. Enhancing the Fiscal Base for NDN Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capla Associates, Inc., Rochelle Park, NJ.

    This material is intended to help state facilitators or developer/demonstrators locate the funding sources most likely to meet the needs of local education agencies (LEAs) as potential National Diffusion Network adopters. LEAs that have identified a specific need that may be met by one of the NDN programs would be encouraged to submit a grant…

  1. Personal Contacts and the Adoption of Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, E. Patrick; Verner, Coolie

    A study undertaken among commercial strawberry growers in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada, sought to define the network of personal contacts as used by the farmers in obtaining information relevant to growing practices. Growers were divided into four adopter categories: laggards, late majority, early majority, and innovator-early…

  2. Comment on the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Michael Levin argues that data from the study are consistent with a black/white IQ difference that is significantly genetic. Richard Lynn maintains that adoption by middle-class, white families has no effect on intelligence. Waldman, Weinberg, and Scarr respond to these criticisms and support the original conclusions. (SLD)

  3. Negotiating the Dance: Consulting with Adoptive Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kent W.; Carson, David K.; Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    For marriage and family therapists and educators who train future marriage and family therapists, families formed by means of adoption offer an abundance of learning opportunities in both the areas of assessment and intervention. The following consultation case represents a composite family designed to highlight the unique features of adoptive…

  4. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  5. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  6. Trajectory of change in pain, depression, and physical functioning after physical activity adoption in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Bigatti, Silvia M; Ang, Dennis C

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with widespread pain, depression, and declines in physical functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectory of these symptoms over time related to physical activity adoption and maintenance via motivational interviewing versus education, to increase physical activity. There were no treatment group differences; we divided the sample (n = 184) based on changes in physical activity. Repeated measures analyses demonstrated differential patterns in depression, pain, and physical functioning at 24 and 36 weeks. Findings suggest increased physical activity may serve as a multiple-target intervention that provides moderate to large, long-lasting benefits for individuals with fibromyalgia.

  7. The California Clinical Data Project: a case study in the adoption of clinical data standards for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Sujansky, Walter; Chang, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    The California Clinical Data Project is a statewide initiative to remove barriers to the widespread and effective use of information technology to improve chronic disease care. The project is a case study in the development and widespread adoption of clinical data standards by varied and often competing stakeholders. As an initial step, the project defined precise data standards for the batch reporting of pharmacy claims data and laboratory results data. These uniform standards facilitate the flow of existing electronic clinical information into disease registries and electronic health record systems. Pharmacy and lab results data now are being exchanged electronically with this standard among the largest health plans, medical groups, and clinical laboratories participating in California's pay-for-performance programs. Lessons from this project may apply to the development and adoption of data standards for other states and locales and for the emerging national health information infrastructure.

  8. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families.

  9. Envisaging the Adoption Process to Strengthen Gay- and Lesbian-Headed Families: Recommendations for Adoption Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John D.; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases…

  10. The Social Construction of Adoption: Clinical and Community Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miall, Charlene E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the social construction of adoptive parenting and adopted children as reflected in clinical and adoption triangle research. Although clinicians view adoptive families as second best to biologically related families, a random sample of 150 respondents did not differentiate between the functioning of adoptive and biologically related…

  11. Books on Adoption for Young Children: Looking at Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption,…

  12. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption fee. 4750.4-2 Section 4750.4-2... HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-2 Adoption fee. (a) Does BLM charge an adoption fee for wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt....

  13. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship resulting from equitable adoption... adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an equitably adopted child....

  14. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption fee. 4750.4-2 Section 4750.4-2... HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-2 Adoption fee. (a) Does BLM charge an adoption fee for wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt....

  15. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption fee. 4750.4-2 Section 4750.4-2... HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-2 Adoption fee. (a) Does BLM charge an adoption fee for wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt....

  16. 43 CFR 4750.4-2 - Adoption fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption fee. 4750.4-2 Section 4750.4-2... HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-2 Adoption fee. (a) Does BLM charge an adoption fee for wild horses and burros? You must pay an adoption fee for each wild horse or burro you adopt....

  17. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship resulting from equitable adoption... adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an equitably adopted child....

  18. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  19. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.

  20. Electronic Health Record Adoption In US Hospitals: Progress Continues, But Challenges Persist.

    PubMed

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; DesRoches, Catherine M; Kralovec, Peter; Foster, Gregory; Worzala, Chantal; Charles, Dustin; Searcy, Talisha; Jha, Ashish K

    2015-12-01

    Achieving nationwide adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) remains an important policy priority. While EHR adoption has increased steadily since 2010, it is unclear how providers that have not yet adopted will fare now that federal incentives have converted to penalties. We used 2008-14 national data, which includes the most recently available, to examine hospital EHR trends. We found large gains in adoption, with 75 percent of US hospitals now having adopted at least a basic EHR system--up from 59 percent in 2013. However, small and rural hospitals continue to lag behind. Among hospitals without a basic EHR system, the function most often not yet adopted (in 61 percent of hospitals) was physician notes. We also saw large increases in the ability to meet core stage 2 meaningful-use criteria (40.5 percent of hospitals, up from 5.8 percent in 2013); much of this progress resulted from increased ability to meet criteria related to exchange of health information with patients and with other physicians during care transitions. Finally, hospitals most often reported up-front and ongoing costs, physician cooperation, and complexity of meeting meaningful-use criteria as challenges. Our findings suggest that nationwide hospital EHR adoption is in reach but will require attention to small and rural hospitals and strategies to address financial challenges, particularly now that penalties for lack of adoption have begun.

  1. Electronic Health Records: Applying Diffusion of Innovation Theory to the Relationship between Multifactor Authentication and EHR Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Daeron C.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems are increasingly becoming accepted as future direction of medical record management systems. Programs such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act have provided incentives to hospitals that adopt EHR systems. In spite of these incentives, the perception of EHR adoption is that is has not achieved the…

  2. Unequal Contribution of Widespread and Narrow-Ranged Species to Botanical Diversity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Raes, Niels; Wieringa, Jan J.; Sosef, Marc S. M.

    2016-01-01

    In conservation studies, solely widespread species are often used as indicators of diversity patterns, but narrow-ranged species can show different patterns. Here, we assess how well subsets of narrow-ranged, widespread or randomly selected plant species represent patterns of species richness and weighted endemism in Gabon, tropical Africa. Specifically, we assess the effect of using different definitions of widespread and narrow-ranged and of the information content of the subsets. Finally, we test if narrow-ranged species are overrepresented in species-rich areas. Based on distribution models of Gabonese plant species, we defined sequential subsets from narrow-ranged-to-widespread, widespread-to-narrow-ranged, and 100 randomly arranged species sequences using the range sizes of species in tropical Africa and within Gabon. Along these sequences, correlations between subsets and the total species richness and total weighted endemism patterns were computed. Random species subsets best represent the total species richness pattern, whereas subsets of narrow-ranged species best represent the total weighted endemism pattern. For species ordered according to their range sizes in tropical Africa, subsets of narrow-ranged species represented the total species richness pattern better than widespread species subsets did. However, the opposite was true when range sizes were truncated by the Gabonese national country borders. Correcting for the information content of the subset results in a skew of the sequential correlations, its direction depending on the range-size frequency distribution. Finally, we find a strong, positive, non-linear relation between weighted endemism and total species richness. Observed differences in the contribution of narrow-ranged, widespread and randomly selected species to species richness and weighted endemism patterns can be explained by the range-size frequency distribution and the use of different definitions of widespread or narrow-ranged. We

  3. Self-acceptance: a factor in the adoption process.

    PubMed

    DiGiulio, J F

    1988-01-01

    This study determined that high self-acceptance of adoptive parents influenced high parental acceptance of their adopted children. A case is made for emphasizing self-acceptance in adoption procedures.

  4. International adoption: assessment of adaptive and maladaptive behavior of adopted minors in Spain.

    PubMed

    Barcons-Castel, Natalia; Fornieles-Deu, Albert; Costas-Moragas, Carme

    2011-05-01

    Research on adjustment of internationally adopted children indicates that, although they have adequate development, more emotional and behavioral problems are detected compared with nonadopted children. In this research, emotional and behavioral characteristics of a sample of 52 internationally adopted minors were examined with the BASC (Parent Rating Scales and Self-Report of Personality), comparing the outcomes with 44 nonadopted minors, all of them of ages between 6 and 11 years (mean age = 8.01 years). Results indicate differences between adopted and nonadopted children related to somatization, adopted minors are those that obtain lower scores in the scale, and in the adaptability scale, where nonadopted minors obtain higher scores. Significant differences were found in the adaptive abilities scales, suggesting that nonadopted boys show better abilities than adopted ones, and no differences were found among girls. In general, boys present higher scores in externalizing symptomatology and depression than girls. Among adopted children, time spent in an institution is a variable that has negative impact on the onset of externalizing and internalizing problems. Minors coming from Eastern Europe display more attentional problems, poorer adaptive abilities and poorer interpersonal relations than the rest of the minors. According to the age at placement, attentional problems appear in minors adopted after the age of 3 years.

  5. Nursing students' perceptions of adoption: educational preparation needed.

    PubMed

    Foli, Karen J; Forster, Anna; Lim, Eunjung

    2014-01-01

    Adoption is a worldwide practice; most know someone who has been adopted, has adopted a child, or has relinquished a child for adoption. Healthcare professionals will have contact with patients who have a connection to adoption. This study examined the overall perceptions, current knowledge, and gaps in a nursing curriculum as reported by undergraduate nursing students and offers insight into caring for those impacted by adoption.

  6. Evaluating IPv6 Adoption in the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colitti, Lorenzo; Gunderson, Steinar H.; Kline, Erik; Refice, Tiziana

    As IPv4 address space approaches exhaustion, large networks are deploying IPv6 or preparing for deployment. However, there is little data available about the quantity and quality of IPv6 connectivity. We describe a methodology to measure IPv6 adoption from the perspective of a Web site operator and to evaluate the impact that adding IPv6 to a Web site will have on its users. We apply our methodology to the Google Web site and present results collected over the last year. Our data show that IPv6 adoption, while growing significantly, is still low, varies considerably by country, and is heavily influenced by a small number of large deployments. We find that native IPv6 latency is comparable to IPv4 and provide statistics on IPv6 transition mechanisms used.

  7. ENHANCING PRESCRIPTION DRUG INNOVATION AND ADOPTION

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, G. Caleb; O’Connor, Alec B.; Stafford, Randall S.

    2014-01-01

    The adoption and use of a new drug would ideally be guided by its Innovation and cost-effectiveness. The adoption and use of a new drug would ideally be guided by its innovation and cost-effectiveness. However, information about the relative efficacy and safety of a drug is typically incomplete even well after market entry, and various other forces create a market place in which most new drugs are little better than their older counterparts. Five proposed mechanisms are considered for promoting innovation and reducing the use of therapies ultimately found to offer poor value or have unacceptable risks. These changes range from increasing the evidence required for U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval to modifying the structure of drug reimbursement. Despite the challenges of policy implementation, the United States has a long history of successfully improving the societal value and safe use of prescription medicines. PMID:21690598

  8. Treaty to Curb Mercury Pollution Adopted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    The international Minamata Convention on Mercury to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds was formally adopted at a 10 October meeting in Minamata, Japan. The legally binding treaty, currently signed by 92 countries, comes 57 years after the government of Japan officially acknowledged, in 1956, the existence of Minamata disease, which was caused by eating seafood contaminated with methylmercury compounds discharged into Minamata Bay in southern Japan.

  9. Isolation of Immune Cells for Adoptive Transfer.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Tlili; Paradis, Pierre; Mann, Koren K; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2017-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes is a useful technique to characterize the role of the immune system in hypertension and vascular disease. Here we describe as an example the isolation of splenic T regulatory cells from donor mice processed to obtain a single cell suspension, followed by negative and positive selection to obtain CD4(+) T cells and CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells, respectively. Treg cells can be subsequently transferred to recipient animals.

  10. 45 CFR 1356.41 - Nonrecurring expenses of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) There must be no income eligibility requirement (means test) for adopting parents in determining whether... psychological examination, supervision of the placement prior to adoption, transportation and the...

  11. 45 CFR 1356.41 - Nonrecurring expenses of adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) There must be no income eligibility requirement (means test) for adopting parents in determining whether... psychological examination, supervision of the placement prior to adoption, transportation and the...

  12. Children after adoption: Exploring their psychological needs.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Margaret; Hodges, Jill; Malik, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Children adopted from care are known to be at increased risk for mental health difficulties although relatively little research has been carried out to explore this question. This study assessed the mental health and psychological development of children placed for adoption by one UK Local Authority. We compared the pattern and prevalence of difficulties to existing data including that on Looked-After Children (LAC) children. Totally, 106 families were initially approached and parent interviews and at least partial questionnaire data were gathered on 47 children, 72.3% of whom were known to have been maltreated prior to adoption. Of the 34 children with a complete data set including Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), 76.4% met full criteria for at least one neurodevelopmental or mental health diagnosis, a markedly higher rate than comparison data on LAC or community samples. Less than half of those identified with a mental health diagnosis had received any prior diagnosis, and only a minority had received appropriate services. Despite the children's difficulties, the great majority of parents reported high enjoyment of bringing up their child.

  13. Widespread correction of central nervous system disease after intracranial gene therapy in a feline model of Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, V J; Rockwell, H E; Arthur, J R; Bradbury, A M; Johnson, A K; Randle, A N; Brunson, B L; Hwang, M; Gray-Edwards, H L; Morrison, N E; Johnson, J A; Baker, H J; Cox, N R; Seyfried, T N; Sena-Esteves, M; Martin, D R

    2015-02-01

    Sandhoff disease (SD) is caused by deficiency of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase (Hex) resulting in pathological accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in lysosomes of the central nervous system (CNS) and progressive neurodegeneration. Currently, there is no treatment for SD, which often results in death by the age of five years. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy achieved global CNS Hex restoration and widespread normalization of storage in the SD mouse model. Using a similar treatment approach, we sought to translate the outcome in mice to the feline SD model as an important step toward human clinical trials. Sixteen weeks after four intracranial injections of AAVrh8 vectors, Hex activity was restored to above normal levels throughout the entire CNS and in cerebrospinal fluid, despite a humoral immune response to the vector. In accordance with significant normalization of a secondary lysosomal biomarker, ganglioside storage was substantially improved, but not completely cleared. At the study endpoint, 5-month-old AAV-treated SD cats had preserved neurological function and gait compared with untreated animals (humane endpoint, 4.4±0.6 months) demonstrating clinical benefit from AAV treatment. Translation of widespread biochemical disease correction from the mouse to the feline SD model provides optimism for treatment of the larger human CNS with minimal modification of approach.

  14. A review of barriers and myths preventing the more widespread use of intrauterine contraception in nulliparous women

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kirsten; Lotke, Pamela; Buhling, Kai J.; Zite, Nikki B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Intrauterine contracepives (IUCs) are highly effective and safe for use in all women, including those who are nulliparous. However, many myths and barriers prevent more widespread utilisation. The objective of this article was to explore the health care provider (HCP), health system and user issues that prevent more widespread use of IUCs, particularly among nulliparous women, and to present the evidence that supports achieving greater utilisation of these devices. Methods MEDLINE, PubMed and Embase were used to identify studies reporting attitudes and beliefs around IUCs, and clinical studies providing evidence of their risks and benefits. Results HCP, health system and user factors limiting use of IUCs were identified. The most widely explored barriers in published studies are those at the HCP level. User barriers are less well documented and health system barriers are mostly assessed through indirect evidence. Many, but not all, of the barriers can be reduced through greater understanding of the evidence. Conclusions Efforts need to be made to disseminate the evidence, which shows that few contraindications exist to IUC use. Addressing HCP lack of knowledge, training and confidence with IUC insertions, particularly in nulliparous women, could make a substantial positive impact on IUC utilisation. PMID:22834648

  15. Endemic and widespread coral reef fishes have similar mitochondrial genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Maynard, Jeffrey; Planes, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Endemic species are frequently assumed to have lower genetic diversity than species with large distributions, even if closely related. This assumption is based on research from the terrestrial environment and theoretical evolutionary modelling. We test this assumption in the marine environment by analysing the mitochondrial genetic diversity of 33 coral reef fish species from five families sampled from Pacific Ocean archipelagos. Surprisingly, haplotype and nucleotide diversity did not differ significantly between endemic and widespread species. The probable explanation is that the effective population size of some widespread fishes locally is similar to that of many of the endemics. Connectivity across parts of the distribution of the widespread species is probably low, so widespread species can operate like endemics at the extreme or isolated parts of their range. Mitochondrial genetic diversity of many endemic reef fish species may not either limit range size or be a source of vulnerability. PMID:25355471

  16. Endemic and widespread coral reef fishes have similar mitochondrial genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Maynard, Jeffrey; Planes, Serge

    2014-12-22

    Endemic species are frequently assumed to have lower genetic diversity than species with large distributions, even if closely related. This assumption is based on research from the terrestrial environment and theoretical evolutionary modelling. We test this assumption in the marine environment by analysing the mitochondrial genetic diversity of 33 coral reef fish species from five families sampled from Pacific Ocean archipelagos. Surprisingly, haplotype and nucleotide diversity did not differ significantly between endemic and widespread species. The probable explanation is that the effective population size of some widespread fishes locally is similar to that of many of the endemics. Connectivity across parts of the distribution of the widespread species is probably low, so widespread species can operate like endemics at the extreme or isolated parts of their range. Mitochondrial genetic diversity of many endemic reef fish species may not either limit range size or be a source of vulnerability.

  17. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  18. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  19. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  20. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  1. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  2. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  3. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  4. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  5. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  6. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  7. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  8. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  9. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  10. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  11. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  12. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  13. Common and unique associated factors for medically unexplained chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue☆

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, J.; Tomenson, B.; Chew-Graham, C.A.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Jackson, J.; Littlewood, A.; Creed, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue share common associated factors but these associations may be explained by the presence of concurrent depression and anxiety. Methods We mailed questionnaires to a randomly selected sample of people in the UK to identify participants with chronic widespread pain (ACR 1990 definition) and those with chronic fatigue. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic factors, health status, healthcare use, childhood factors, adult attachment, and psychological stress including anxiety and depression. To identify persons with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue; we examined participant's medical records to exclude medical illness that might cause these symptoms. Results Of 1443 participants (58.0% response rate) medical records of 990 were examined. 9.4% (N = 93) had unexplained chronic widespread pain and 12.6% (N = 125) had unexplained chronic fatigue. Marital status, childhood psychological abuse, recent threatening experiences and other somatic symptoms were commonly associated with both widespread pain and fatigue. No common effect was found for few years of education and current medical illnesses (more strongly associated with chronic widespread pain) or recent illness in a close relative, neuroticism, depression and anxiety scores (more strongly associated with chronic fatigue). Putative associated factors with a common effect were associated with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue only when there was concurrent anxiety and/or depression. Discussion This study suggests that the associated factors for chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue need to be studied in conjunction with concurrent depression/anxiety. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of concurrent anxiety or depression. PMID:26652592

  14. Non-random brood mixing suggests adoption in a colonial cichlid.

    PubMed

    Schaedelin, Franziska C; van Dongen, Wouter F D; Wagner, Richard H

    2013-03-01

    Parental care of unrelated offspring is widespread but not well understood. We used 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate the relatedness of fry and parentally caring adults in a 118-nest colony of the socially and genetically monogamous cichlid fish Neolamprologus caudopunctatus in Lake Tanganyika. There was a high proportion of brood mixing, with 59% of 32 broods containing fry unrelated to both parents, and 18% of all 291 sampled fry being unrelated to the breeding pair. There was no evidence of kin selection for adoption because the genetic and foster parents were not more related than expected by chance. Parentage was assigned to 12 adopted fry from 10 broods. Distances traversed by fry varied markedly, from less than one to over 40 meters. The larger distances suggest that at least some brood mixing was instigated by parents transporting portions of their broods in their mouths, as occurs in some cichlids. Further evidence of non-random brood mixing was that foreign fry did not differ in size from their foster siblings within broods, even though they were significantly larger than fry produced by the tending pairs within the colony. These findings suggest that at least some foreign fry had dispersed non-randomly and were adopted by their foster parents. Enlarged broods are known to provide reduced per capita predation, making it potentially adaptive for breeders to adopt unrelated offspring.

  15. Exploring adoption with clients: the need for adoption education within the genetic counseling profession.

    PubMed

    Perry, Cassandra L; Henry, Martha J

    2010-08-01

    Genetic counselors and other health professionals may encounter adoption during any counseling session. They must be skilled in using appropriate language and understand how to approach and discuss this topic with clients. A thorough knowledge of adoption as an option for clients facing a prenatal or postnatal diagnosis is necessary when presenting individuals with non-biased information needed for informed decision-making. However, three preliminary studies have demonstrated an absence of graduate education and lack of a professional knowledge base regarding this option (Mates 2008; Oksala 2007; Perry 2003). We discuss the impact of medical professionals' preconceptions on client decision-making, increasing early identification of fetal anomalies, deficiency of adoption knowledge and resources, and the resulting need for genetic counselors and other health professionals to develop their skills in discussing adoption with clients.

  16. Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine.

    PubMed Central

    Nulman, I; Rovet, J; Altmann, D; Bradley, C; Einarson, T; Koren, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopment of adopted children who had been exposed in utero to cocaine. DESIGN: A case-control observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children aged 14 months to 6.5 years exposed in utero to cocaine and their adoptive mothers, and 23 age-matched control children not exposed to cocaine and their mothers, matched with the adoptive mothers for IQ and socioeconomic status. SETTING: The Motherisk Programme at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, a consultation service for chemical exposure during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Height, weight and head circumference at birth and at follow-up, and achievement on standard tests of cognitive and language development. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, children exposed in utero to cocaine had an 8-fold increased risk for microcephaly (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 42.3); they also had a lower mean birth weight (p = 0.005) and a lower gestational age (p = 0.002). In follow-up the cocaine-exposed children caught up with the control subjects in weight and stature but not in head circumference (mean 31st percentile v. 63rd percentile) (p = 0.001). Although there were no significant differences between the two groups in global IQ, the cocaine-exposed children had significantly lower scores than the control subjects on the Reynell language test for both verbal comprehension (p = 0.003) and expressive language (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document that intrauterine exposure to cocaine is associated with measurable and clinically significant toxic neurologic effects, independent of postnatal home and environmental confounders. Because women who use cocaine during pregnancy almost invariably smoke cigarettes and often use alcohol, it is impossible to attribute the measured toxic effects to cocaine alone. PMID:7954158

  17. Adoption of Speech Recognition Technology in Community Healthcare Nursing.

    PubMed

    Al-Masslawi, Dawood; Block, Lori; Ronquillo, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of new health information technology is shown to be challenging. However, the degree to which new technology will be adopted can be predicted by measures of usefulness and ease of use. In this work these key determining factors are focused on for design of a wound documentation tool. In the context of wound care at home, consistent with evidence in the literature from similar settings, use of Speech Recognition Technology (SRT) for patient documentation has shown promise. To achieve a user-centred design, the results from a conducted ethnographic fieldwork are used to inform SRT features; furthermore, exploratory prototyping is used to collect feedback about the wound documentation tool from home care nurses. During this study, measures developed for healthcare applications of the Technology Acceptance Model will be used, to identify SRT features that improve usefulness (e.g. increased accuracy, saving time) or ease of use (e.g. lowering mental/physical effort, easy to remember tasks). The identified features will be used to create a low fidelity prototype that will be evaluated in future experiments.

  18. Factors affecting adoption of improved management practices in the pastoral industry in Great Barrier Reef catchments.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, John; Gregg, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Substantial efforts are being made by industry and government in Australia to reduce adverse impacts of pastoral operations on water quality draining to the Great Barrier Reef. A key target is to achieve rapid adoption of better management practices by landholders, but current theoretical frameworks provide limited guidance about priorities for improving adoption. In this study information from direct surveys with landholders in the two largest catchments draining into the Great Barrier Reef has been collected and analysed. Study outcomes have important implications for policy settings, because they confirm that substantial variations in adoption drivers exist across landholders, enterprises and practices. The results confirm that the three broad barriers to adoption of information gaps, financial incentives and risk perceptions are relevant. This implies that different policy mechanisms, including extension and incentive programs, remain important, although financial incentives were only identified as important to meet capital and transformational costs rather than recurrent costs.

  19. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  20. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  1. Comparisons of adopted and nonadopted adolescents in a large, nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, B C; Fan, X; Christensen, M; Grotevant, H D; van Dulmen, M

    2000-01-01

    There are conflicting findings about whether adopted children have more psychological and behavioral problems than nonadoptees. Research results are discrepant partly because many previous studies were based on small clinical samples or on samples biased by self-selection. A nationally representative school survey (Add Health) was used to compare adopted (n = 1,587) and nonadopted adolescents (total N = 87,165) across a wide variety of measures. Standardized mean differences show that adopted adolescents are at higher risk in all of the domains examined, including school achievement and problems, substance use, psychological well-being, physical health, fighting, and lying to parents. Demographic and background variable breakdowns show that the effect sizes for differences between adopted and nonadopted adolescents were larger for males, younger or older adolescents, Hispanics or Asians, and adolescents living in group homes or with parents of low education. Distributional analyses revealed approximately a 1:1 ratio of adopted to nonadopted adolescents in the middle ranges of the outcome variables but a ratio of 3:1 or greater near the tails of the distributions. These data clearly show that more adopted adolescents have problems of various kinds than their nonadopted peers; effect sizes were small to moderate based on mean differences, but comparisons of distributions suggest much larger proportions of adopted than nonadopted adolescents at the extremes of salient outcome variables.

  2. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component "hepatitis c virus" separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such "Ab.IgG", "DNA", and "RNA". We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into nine languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC's open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange.

  3. Adoptive cell transfer therapy for malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Eiichi; Takano, Shingo; Ohno, Tadao; Tsuboi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To date, various adoptive immunotherapies have been attempted for treatment of malignant gliomas using nonspecific and/or specific effector cells. Since the late 1980s, with the development of rIL-2, the efficacy of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell therapy with or without rIL-2 for malignant gliomas had been tested with some modifications in therapeutic protocols. With advancements in technology, ex vivo expanded tumor specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) or those lineages were used in clinical trials with higher tumor response rates. In addition, combinations of those adoptive cell transfer using LAK cells, CTLs or natural killer (NK) cells with autologous tumor vaccine (ATV) therapy were attempted. Also, a strategy of high-dose (or lymphodepleting) chemotherapy followed by adoptive cell transfer has been drawing attentions recently. The most important role of these clinical studies using cell therapy was to prove that these ex vivo expanded effector cells could kill tumor cells in vivo. Although recent clinical results could demonstrate radiologic tumor shrinkage in a number of cases, cell transfer therapy alone has been utilized less frequently, because of the high cost of ex vivo cell expansion, the short duration of antitumor activity in vivo, and the recent shift of interest to vaccine immunotherapy. Nevertheless, NK cell therapy using specific feeder cells or allergenic NK cell lines have potentials to be a good choice of treatment because of easy ex vivo expansion and their efficacy especially when combined with vaccine therapy as they are complementary to each other. Also, further studies are expected to clarify the efficacy of the high-dose chemotherapy followed by a large scale cell transfer therapy as a new therapeutic strategy for malignant gliomas.

  4. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  5. Classification system adopted for fixed cutter bits

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.J.; Doiron, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The drilling industry has begun adopting the 1987 International Association of Drilling Contractors' (IADC) method for classifying fixed cutter drill bits. By studying the classification codes on bit records and properly applying the new IADC fixed cutter dull grading system to recently run bits, the end-user should be able to improve the selection and usage of fixed cutter bits. Several users are developing databases for fixed cutter bits in an effort to relate field performance to some of the more prominent bit design characteristics.

  6. Understanding Technology Adoption: Theory and Future Directions for Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straub, Evan T.

    2009-01-01

    How and why individuals adopt innovations has motivated a great deal of research. This article examines individuals' computing adoption processes through the lenses of three adoption theories: Rogers's innovation diffusion theory, the Concerns-Based Adoption Model, the Technology Acceptance Model, and the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of…

  7. Creating Grander Families: Older Adults Adopting Younger Kin and Nonkin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinterlong, James; Ryan, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There is a dearth of research on older adoptive parents caring for minor children, despite a growing number of such adoptions finalized each year. This study offers a large-scale investigation of adoptive families headed by older parents. We describe these families and explore how preadoptive kinship between the adoptive parent and the…

  8. The Adoption Experience: Families Who Give Children a Second Chance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ann

    This book examines the adoption process in Great Britain, recounting first-hand experiences to take the reader through each stage of the process from the adopter's point of view. The book also examines the success and failure of several types of adoption. The chapters are: (1) "You Want to Adopt"; (2) "First Meetings, First Months,…

  9. Sensory Processing in Internationally Adopted, Post-Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbarger, Julia; Gunnar, Megan; Schneider, Mary; Pollak, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Background/Methods: Sensory processing capacities of 8-12-year-old internationally adopted (IA) children who experienced prolonged institutional care (greater than 12 months with 75% of pre-adoption lives in institutional care) prior to adoption into family environments (PI) were compared to a group of IA children who were adopted early (less than…

  10. Partitioning the Adoption Process to Better Predict Permanency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Tom; Press, Alan; Billings, Peggy; Moore, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Under federal outcome standards established by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, discharges to adoption are expected to occur within 24 months of the most recent removal from home for at least 32% of cases. In the research recounted here, adoption is treated as a process composed of two discrete steps: adoptive placement, and adoption…

  11. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

  12. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  13. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.71 Adoption of an EA. RUS may adopt a Federal EA or EIS or a portion thereof as its EA. RUS shall make the...

  14. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adoption. 222.34 Section 222.34 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... equitable adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an...

  15. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

  16. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  17. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

  18. 22 CFR 96.12 - Authorized adoption service providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authorized adoption service providers. 96.12... AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Accreditation and Approval Requirements for the Provision of Adoption Services § 96.12 Authorized adoption service providers. (a) Once...

  19. Connecting the Dots: Exploring Themes in Adoption Picturebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattix, April A.; Crawford, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 1.4 million school-aged children entered their families through adoption. As such, adoption represents a real and complex social issue with which young children--adopted or not--can grapple. Adoption picturebooks provide a medium by which children can explore this complicated concept. This manuscript analyzes a standard library…

  20. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

  1. 27 CFR 19.187 - Adoption of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 19... After Original Qualification § 19.187 Adoption of formulas. (a) Forms 5110.38. The adoption by a... the appropriate TTB officer. The application shall list the formulas for adoption by (1)...

  2. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adoption. 222.34 Section 222.34 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... equitable adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an...

  3. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adoption. 222.34 Section 222.34 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... equitable adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an...

  4. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  5. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  6. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

  7. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

  8. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

  9. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  10. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.71 Adoption of an EA. RUS may adopt a Federal EA or EIS or a portion thereof as its EA. RUS shall make the...

  11. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

  12. 22 CFR 96.12 - Authorized adoption service providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authorized adoption service providers. 96.12... AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Accreditation and Approval Requirements for the Provision of Adoption Services § 96.12 Authorized adoption service providers. (a) Once...

  13. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

  14. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.71 Adoption of an EA. RUS may adopt a Federal EA or EIS or a portion thereof as its EA. RUS shall make the...

  15. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

  16. 22 CFR 96.12 - Authorized adoption service providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authorized adoption service providers. 96.12... AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Accreditation and Approval Requirements for the Provision of Adoption Services § 96.12 Authorized adoption service providers. (a) Once...

  17. Communication Development in Infants and Toddlers Adopted from Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 20,000 children are adopted from foreign countries each year. Of these children, approximately 46% are adopted before they are 12 months old and 43% are adopted between 1 and 4 years of age. The development of children adopted from abroad before or by 2 years of age is the focus of this article. Given the impoverished language input…

  18. Adoption and the Guatemalan Journey to American Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Emily J.

    2007-01-01

    Examining the adoption of Guatemalan children by US citizens, this article argues that adoptive parents make meanings and form identities through their participation in the adoption process and in their production of both Internet-based and spoken narratives about adoption. Using theories of globalization and narrative theory, the article…

  19. Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling…

  20. Launching a Baby's Adoption: Practical Strategies for Parents and Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Patricia Irwin

    Intended for adoptive parents and adoption practitioners and intermediaries, this book uses the metaphor of space exploration to provide practical strategies for meeting the adopted infant's needs and smoothing the transition. Chapter 1, "Mission: To Explore New Worlds," discusses adoptive and birth parent preparation, loss issues, and society's…

  1. An Empirically Grounded Model of the Adoption of Intellectual Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    1992-01-01

    Data on adoption of 43 user-developed computing applications in 3 large corporations were analyzed to develop an empirically grounded model of the adoption process for intellectual technologies. A five-stage model consisting of Resource Acquisition, Application Development, Adoption/Renewal, Routinization/Enhancement, and External Adoption was…

  2. The Role of Individual Differences in Employee Adoption of TQM Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A. -M.; Morrow, Paula C.

    2003-01-01

    Employee surveys before and 9 and 32 months after total quality management (TQM) implementation (n=186, 166, 118) identified three individual characteristics that collectively explained the variance in and better predicted TQM adoption: organizational commitment, trust in colleagues, and importance of higher-order needs for achievement and…

  3. Adoption of Lean Principles in a High-Volume Molecular Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, P. Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved. PMID:24829247

  4. The Common Core State Standards Initiative: An Event History Analysis of State Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVenia, Mark; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Lang, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Today, with states' near-universal adoption of the Common Core State Standards, the political system has achieved that which was not possible less than 2 decades ago. Just why this is so remains unanswered. Some observers have attributed states' embrace of the standards to the substantial financial incentives that the federal government embedded…

  5. Adoption of lean principles in a high-volume molecular diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, P Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Yao, Joseph D C

    2014-07-01

    Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved.

  6. Language Learning as Culture Keeping: Family Language Policies of Transnational Adoptive Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how parents of international adoptees explain their decision to pursue birth-language education for their children and how they go about achieving their goals. It focuses on the perspectives of 16 White U.S. parents who have at least one adopted school-aged child (ages 5 to 18) either currently or previously enrolled in a…

  7. Are Associations between Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment Genetically Mediated? An Adoption Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Caspi, Avshalom; DeFries, John C.; Plomin, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Data from Colorado Adoption Project were used to examine hypothesis that association between parental divorce and children's adjustment is mediated by genetic factors. Findings for psychopathology were consistent with an environmentally mediated explanation for the association. Findings for achievement and social adjustment were consistent with a…

  8. Performance Management Practices, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Adoption and Managed Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagaari, James R. K.; Munene, John C.; Ntayi, Joseph Mpeera

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need for managers of public universities to pay attention to performance management practices and information communication technology (ICT) adoption in order to achieve successful managed performance. Design/methodology/approach: Using a disproportionate stratified purposive approach, a…

  9. Post-Adoption Issues Related to Cloud-Based IT Solutions: A Multi-Method Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Due to their low cost of implementation and considerable elasticity, cloud-based IT solutions are being widely adopted or considered in organizations across various industries. However, such IT solutions bring forth several unique challenges--challenges that make it difficult for organizations to achieve successful utilization of cloud-based…

  10. The Role of Self-Efficacy, Task Value, and Achievement Goals in Predicting Learning Strategies, Task Disengagement, Peer Relationship, and Achievement Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Lau, Shun; Nie, Youyan

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a combination of expectancy-value and achievement goal theories, this study examined the role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in students' learning strategies, task disengagement, peer relationship, and English achievement outcome. A sample of 1475 Year-9 students participated in the study. A structural equation model…

  11. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  12. Adoption activities on the Internet: a call for regulation.

    PubMed

    Roby, Jini L; White, Holly

    2010-07-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents, sometimes through an adoption brokerage service. International adoptions can also be plagued by unethical practices as the Internet has become available in both developed and developing countries. These activities, although offering the benefits of privacy and convenience, also pose serious problems of potential fraud, exploitation, and, most important, lack of professional consideration of the child's best interest. In this article, the authors review the landscape of current Internet-based adoption activities, examine the benefits and risks of Internet-based adoption activities, and call for social work self-regulation and leadership.

  13. Galvanising the NHS to Adopt Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Parris, Stuart; Cochrane, Gavin; Marjanovic, Sonja; Ling, Tom; Chataway, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Department of Health and the Wellcome Trust, in co-operation with NHS England, asked RAND Europe to conduct a limited consultation with key stakeholders about the practicality of measures and incentives proposed as part of the NHS Accelerated Access Review (AAR), which aims to assess the pathways for the development, assessment, and adoption of innovative medicines and medical technology. Through a focused engagement exercise with key healthcare stakeholders this project explored the implications of selected interim AAR propositions and feasibility of implementation for key actors, in primary and secondary care as well as commissioners and academia. Specifically, the project investigated the feasibility of implementation of three specific propositions including: a new earmarked fund to encourage AHSNs and other key innovation actors to re-design systems to embrace innovation; mobilising the influence of clinical system leaders to champion change; and encouraging secondary care organisations to take on “innovation champion” roles linked to financial incentives and a new emphasis on accountable care organisations. Data was collected on the feasibility of the three AAR propositions from a workshop with AHSN CEOs and Commercial Directors and interviews with senior NHS staff in three AHSN regions (South West, University College London Partners, and North East, North Cumbria). The study concludes with reflections on the feasibility of each recommendation and identifies factors expected to facilitate or challenge their implementation, as well as considering the wider cross cutting issues that may influence the adoption and diffusion of innovation in the NHS. PMID:28083436

  14. Skin diseases in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Rigal, Émilie; Nourrisson, Céline; Sciauvaud, Julie; Pascal, Julie; Texier, Charlotte; Corbin, Violaine; Poirier, Véronique; Beytout, Jean; Labbe, André; Lesens, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Internationally adopted children often present diseases contracted in the country of origin. Skin diseases are common in new arrivals, and diagnosis may prove challenging for GPs or even dermatologists if they are inexperienced in the extensive geographic and ethnic diversity of international adoptees. To analyse the frequency and characteristics of skin diseases in international adoptees. In total, 142 adoptees were evaluated for a cross-sectional cohort study. The most frequent diseases observed at arrival were dermatological conditions. Of the adoptees, 70% presented at least one skin disease, of which 57.5% were infectious; Tinea capitis being the most frequent (n = 42). The recovery rate of Tinea capitis was 89% (n = 32/36). Ten cases of scabies were diagnosed. Other diseases included viral skin infection (n = 22), with 16 cases of Molluscum contagiosum and bacterial infection. Skin diseases are very common in internationally adopted children. There is a need for close collaboration between dermatologists and paediatricians to diagnose such infections, as well as clear guidelines to treat them.

  15. Adoption of an official ISEA glossary.

    PubMed

    Zartarian, Valerie; Bahadori, Tina; McKone, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The International Society for Exposure Analysis (ISEA) and its Nomenclature Committee have been involved since the mid-1990s in an intermittent but ongoing effort to develop an official ISEA glossary. Several related activities have stimulated greater interest and discussion nationally and internationally on a common exposure language. Among these activities are a 1997 Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology feature article on exposure and dose definitions and a 1999-initiated project of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (WHO/ILO/UNEP) to confront terminology issues hindering harmonization in the area of exposure assessment. Recently, the ISEA members voted in support of adopting the IPCS glossary as the official ISEA glossary, and the ISEA Executive Board agreed to accept this recommendation. In this feature article, we (1) describe the process through which the ISEA adopted the IPCS glossary as the official ISEA glossary, (2) present the joint IPCS/ISEA glossary of terms and their definitions, and (3) discuss plans for how the glossary can be used by ISEA and updated over time by ISEA and IPCS. The glossary is intended to be a living document that reflects the latest usage and maintains international harmonization of exposure terminology that can be practically applied to improve communication in exposure and related fields.

  16. Overcoming the Adoption Barrier to Electric Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Nickol, Craig L.; Jones, Frank P.; Yasky, Richard J.; Woodham, Kurt; Fell, Jared S.; Litherland, Brandon L.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Samuel, Aamod G.

    2016-01-01

    Electrically-powered aircraft can enable dramatic increases in efficiency and reliability, reduced emissions, and reduced noise as compared to today's combustion-powered aircraft. This paper describes a novel flight demonstration concept that will enable the benefits of electric propulsion, while keeping the extraordinary convenience and utility of common fuels available at today's airports. A critical gap in airborne electric propulsion research is addressed by accommodating adoption at the integrated aircraft-airport systems level, using a confluence of innovative but proven concepts and technologies in power generation and electricity storage that need to reside only on the airframe. Technical discriminators of this demonstrator concept include (1) a novel, high-efficiency power system that utilizes advanced solid oxide fuel cells originally developed for ultra-long-endurance aircraft, coupled with (2) a high-efficiency, high-power electric propulsion system selected from mature products to reduce technical risk, assembled into (3) a modern, high-performance demonstration platform to provide useful and compelling data, both for the targeted early adopters and the eventual commercial market.

  17. Exploratory Bifactor Analysis of the WJ-III Achievement at School Age via the Schmid-Leiman Orthogonalization Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of academic achievement measures has been rarely investigated in the literature apart from that which appears in the instruments' technical manuals. This is concerning, given the widespread use of academic achievement instruments when making educational decisions about children. The Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Achievement for…

  18. Big school, small school: (re)testing assumptions about high school size, school engagement and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Christopher C; Carolan, Brian V; Baker-Smith, E Christine

    2010-02-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In response, this article employs a composite measure of engagement that combines organizational, sociological, and psychological theories. We use this composite measure with the most recent nationally-representative dataset of tenth graders, Educational Longitudinal Study: 2002, (N = 10,946, 46% female) to better assess a generalizable relationship among school engagement, mathematics achievement and school size with specific focus on cohort size. Findings confirm these measures to be highly related to student engagement. Furthermore, results derived from multilevel regression analysis indicate that, as with school size, moderately sized cohorts or grade-level groups provide the greatest engagement advantage for all students and that there are potentially harmful changes when cohorts grow beyond 400 students. However, it is important to note that each group size affects different students differently, eliminating the ability to prescribe an ideal cohort or school size.

  19. Mitigating Effects of the Adoptive Caregiving Environment on Inattention/Overactivity in Children Adopted from Romanian Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Karyn; Le Mare, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    We examined inattention/overactivity (I/O) over time and in relation to caregiving in three matched groups: (1) Romanian Orphans (RO) with a minimum of eight months' deprivation prior to adoption, (2) Early Adopted (EA) children adopted from Romania prior to age four months, and (3) Canadian Born (CB) non-adopted children. Comparisons among groups…

  20. Genomic and enzymatic evidence for acetogenesis among multiple lineages of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota widespread in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Li, M; Perumal, V; Feng, X; Fang, J; Xie, J; Sievert, S M; Wang, F

    2016-04-04

    Members of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota are widespread and abundant in the energy-deficient marine subsurface sediments. However, their life strategies have remained largely elusive. Here, we provide genetic evidence that some lineages of Bathyarchaeota are acetogens, being capable of homoacetogenesis, a metabolism so far restricted to the domain Bacteria. Metabolic reconstruction based on genomic bins assembled from the metagenome of deep-sea subsurface sediments shows that the metabolism of some lineages of Bathyarchaeota is similar to that of bona fide bacterial homoacetogens, by having pathways for acetogenesis and for the fermentative utilization of a variety of organic substrates. Heterologous expression and activity assay of the acetate kinase gene ack from Bathyarchaeota, demonstrate further the capability of these Bathyarchaeota to grow as acetogens. The presence and expression of bathyarchaeotal genes indicative of active acetogenesis was also confirmed in Peru Margin subsurface sediments where Bathyarchaeota are abundant. The analyses reveal that this ubiquitous and abundant subsurface archaeal group has adopted a versatile life strategy to make a living under energy-limiting conditions. These findings further expand the metabolic potential of Archaea and argue for a revision of the role of Archaea in the carbon cycle of marine sediments.