Science.gov

Sample records for achieved energy resolution

  1. Time-resolved photoemission apparatus achieving sub-20-meV energy resolution and high stability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Y.; Togashi, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kiss, T.; Otsu, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shin, S.

    2014-12-15

    The paper describes a time- and angle-resolved photoemission apparatus consisting of a hemispherical analyzer and a pulsed laser source. We demonstrate 1.48-eV pump and 5.92-eV probe measurements at the ⩾10.5-meV and ⩾240-fs resolutions by use of fairly monochromatic 170-fs pulses delivered from a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser system operating typically at 250 kHz. The apparatus is capable to resolve the optically filled superconducting peak in the unoccupied states of a cuprate superconductor, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. A dataset recorded on Bi(111) surface is also presented. Technical descriptions include the followings: A simple procedure to fine-tune the spatio-temporal overlap of the pump-and-probe beams and their diameters; achieving a long-term stability of the system that enables a normalization-free dataset acquisition; changing the repetition rate by utilizing acoustic optical modulator and frequency-division circuit.

  2. Energy resolution enhancement of mercuric iodide detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, M.; Prince, T. A.; Padgett, L.; Prickett, B.; Schnepple, W.

    1984-01-01

    A pulse processing technique has been developed which improves the gamma-ray energy resolution of mercuric iodide detectors. The technique employs a fast (100 ns) and a slow (6.4 microsec) pulse height analysis to correct for signal variations due to variations in charge trapping. The capabilities of the technique for energy resolution enhancement are discussed as well as the utility of the technique for examining the trapping characteristics of individual detectors. An energy resolution of 2.6 percent FWHM at 662 keV was achieved with an acceptance efficiency of 100 percent from a mercuric iodide detector which gives 8.3 percent FWHM using standard techniques.

  3. A resolution commending the achievements and recognizing the importance of the Alliance to Save Energy on the 35th anniversary of the incorporation of the Alliance.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Warner, Mark R. [D-VA

    2012-03-26

    04/18/2012 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (text: CR S2517) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. High energy resolution plastic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Feng, Patrick; Markosyan, Gary; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Doty, Patrick; Shah, Kanai S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present results on a novel tin-loaded plastic scintillator. We will show that this particular plastic scintillator has a light output similar to that of BGO, a fast scintillation decay (< 10 ns), exhibits good neutron/gamma PSD with a Figure-of-Merit of 1.3 at 2.5 MeVee cut-off energy, and excellent energy resolution of about 12% (FWHM) at 662 keV. Under X-ray excitation, the radioluminescence spectrum exhibits a broad band between 350 and 500 nm peaking at 420 nm which is well-matched to bialkali photomultiplier tubes and UV-enhanced photodiodes.

  5. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  6. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agencies are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.

  7. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    DOE PAGES

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agenciesmore » are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.« less

  8. Can Atomic Force Microscopy Achieve Atomic Resolution in Contact Mode?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M. R.; Pérez, Rubén; Payne, M. C.

    2001-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy operating in the contact mode is studied using total-energy pseudopotential calculations. It is shown that, in the case of a diamond tip and a diamond surface, it is possible for a tip terminated by a single atom to sustain forces in excess of 30 nN. It is also shown that imaging at atomic resolution may be limited by blunting of the tip during lateral scanning.

  9. High resolution, large area, high energy x-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Trebes, J.E.; Dolan, K.W.; Haddad, W.S.; Haskins, J.J.; Lerche, R.A.; Logan, C.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Rikard, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    An x-ray tomography system is being developed for high resolution inspection of large objects. The goal is to achieve 25 micron resolution over object sizes that are tens of centimeters in extent. Typical objects will be metal in composition and therefore high energy, few MeV x-rays will be required. A proof-of-principle system with a limited field of view has been developed. Preliminary results are presented.

  10. Setting Goals and Achieving Aggressing Energy Savings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-30

    Path to a Low Energy Building Typical 90.1 Compliant Building National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our...flow 1 2 The Path to a Low Energy Building National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 0 0% 100...to a Low Energy Building National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 0 0% 100% Source Energy

  11. Prospects and achievement of renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayigh, A. A. M.

    1994-09-01

    The paper deals with climate change and global warning and concentrates on the various forms of renewable energy, mainly Photovoltaics, Solar Thermal, Biomass, Geothermal, Wave, Hydro and Wind Energy. Specific examples will be placed on Photovoltaic applications and the future prospects of this discipline to meet 20% of the electricity generated on a global scale by the year 2020. The paper discusses the various fundings and programs available around the world in renewable energy and concludes that renewable energy is the best energy strategy for any country.

  12. Achieving Self-Reliance: Backyard Energy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Stephen

    Appropriate technology (the process most appropriate for local cultural, economic, and social conditions) is geared toward projects which: are small in scale, decentralized, and energy efficient; use local materials, labor, and ingenuity; are not capital-intensive; and maximize the use of renewable energy resources. Descriptions of such projects…

  13. Achieving Energy Independence by Reviving America's Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Neil; Winterer, Amey

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how it is in our nation's energy interest that cities and city living prosper and that movement of people out of cities and into nonurban areas be reversed. However, national energy policy itself favors suburban sprawl-type development and works against city revival. (AM)

  14. Achieving Energy Security in the Caribbean Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    however. Jamaica Broilers Ethanol, a subsidiary of the private company Jamaica Broilers Group, is spending an additional $15 million to expand its...limited basis. Jamaica Broilers , for example, produces 5MW of energy, but it is investing approximately $5 million to generate an additional 10MW of...Minister Upbeat about Jamaica’s Ethanol Prospects," 16 Dec 08 50 The BioEnergySite News Desk, "Jamaica Broilers Ethanol to Double Capacity," Feb 09

  15. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  16. Techniques for mass resolution improvement achieved by typical plasma mass analyzers: Modeling and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, Georgios; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Fedorov, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Mass separation and particularly distinction between atomic ions and molecular ions are essential in understanding a wide range of plasma environments, with each consisted of different species with various properties. In this study we present the optimization results of light-weight (about 2 kg) magnetic mass analyzers with high g-factor for Rosetta (Ion Composition Analyser: ICA) and for Mars Express and Venus Express (Ion Mass Analyser: IMA). For the instrument's optimization we use SIMION, a 3D ion tracing software in which we can trace particle beams of several energies and directions, passing through the instrument's units. We first reproduced ICA and IMA results, which turned out to be different from simple models for low energy (< 100 eV). We then change the mechanical structure of several units of the instrument and we quantify the new mass resolution achieved with each change. Our goal is to find the optimal instrument's structure, which will allow us to achieve a proper mass resolution to distinguish atomic nitrogen from atomic oxygen for the purposes of a future magnetospheric mission.

  17. EPA Recognizes Holcim for Achieving 2015 ENERGY STAR Certification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (02/24/16 - ATLANTA ) -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that Holcim in Holly Hill, South Carolina, is among 70 manufacturing plants to have achieved Energy Star certification for their superior energy performance in 201

  18. EPA Announces Toyota Motor Manufacturing Achieved 2015 ENERGY STAR Certification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (02/24/16 - ATLANTA ) -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that Toyota Motor Manufacturing in Kentucky is among 70 manufacturing plants to have achieved Energy Star certification for their superior energy performance in 2

  19. Instrument for Achieving High Angular Resolution on the Infrared Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Donald N. B.

    1998-01-01

    Aberrations in stellar images caused by the atmosphere sets a significant limit on angular resolution in ground based astronomy. The largest of these aberrations is the image motion or wavefront tilt. Since the image motion is random it causes a blurring of the image, and this causes a blurring of the image from 0.3 arcseconds to about 0.7 arcseconds. The purpose of the tip-tilt project was to devise a system for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility that would measure the image movement and correct it by rapidly tilting a mirror in two axes (tip and tilt). The system would involve building a CCD sensor package to measure the image motion, a new top end for the telescope to hold the tip-tilt mirror, a control system, and software. The system was designed to correct images for the facility camera, NSFCAM, and for the facility spectrometer, SPEX. Both of these instruments are equipped with a cold beamsplitter to feed the sensor package.

  20. Composition and Energy Resolution with HAWC300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel-Arias, Zigfried

    2013-04-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a ground based TeV gamma-ray detector currently being deployed on the slopes of Volc'an Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, Mexico. The HAWC Observatory is an air shower array that will consist of 300 Water Cherenkov Detectors, each equipped with 4 upward-facing photomultiplier tubes, covering a total instrumented area of 22,000 m^2 at an altitude of 4100 m asl. We will discuss a proposed primary particle and energy estimator that uses the lateral distribution of a given air shower, i.e. the distribution of charge as a function of the distance to the central core of the shower. For a given event hit-pattern on the HAWC array, we use a maximum likelihood approach to identify the most likely mass and energy of the primary particle. The likelihood of hit patterns is calculated using probability tables based on simulated gamma-ray and hadronic showers that trigger the HAWC detector. Prior information, such as the core distribution of triggered events and the relative abundance of protons and gammas, can be taken into account. We will report on the efficiency for identifying the primary particle and the energy resolution of the proposed technique.

  1. Achieving High Spatial Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance Microscopy with Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian

    2017-03-07

    Surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) is a powerful platform for biomedical imaging and molecular binding kinetics analysis. However, the spatial resolution of SPRM along the plasmon propagation direction (longitudinal) is determined by the decaying length of the plasmonic wave, which can be as large as tens of microns. Different methods have been proposed to improve the spatial resolution, but each at the expense of decreased sensitivity or temporal resolution. Here we present a method to achieve high spatial resolution SPRM based on deconvolution of complex field. The method does not require additional optical setup and improves the spatial resolution in the longitudinal direction. We applied the method to image nanoparticles and achieved close-to-diffraction limit resolution in both longitudinal and transverse directions.

  2. Wavelength scanning achieves pixel super-resolution in holographic on-chip microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Göröcs, Zoltan; Zhang, Yibo; Feizi, Alborz; Greenbaum, Alon; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    Lensfree holographic on-chip imaging is a potent solution for high-resolution and field-portable bright-field imaging over a wide field-of-view. Previous lensfree imaging approaches utilize a pixel super-resolution technique, which relies on sub-pixel lateral displacements between the lensfree diffraction patterns and the image sensor's pixel-array, to achieve sub-micron resolution under unit magnification using state-of-the-art CMOS imager chips, commonly used in e.g., mobile-phones. Here we report, for the first time, a wavelength scanning based pixel super-resolution technique in lensfree holographic imaging. We developed an iterative super-resolution algorithm, which generates high-resolution reconstructions of the specimen from low-resolution (i.e., under-sampled) diffraction patterns recorded at multiple wavelengths within a narrow spectral range (e.g., 10-30 nm). Compared with lateral shift-based pixel super-resolution, this wavelength scanning approach does not require any physical shifts in the imaging setup, and the resolution improvement is uniform in all directions across the sensor-array. Our wavelength scanning super-resolution approach can also be integrated with multi-height and/or multi-angle on-chip imaging techniques to obtain even higher resolution reconstructions. For example, using wavelength scanning together with multi-angle illumination, we achieved a halfpitch resolution of 250 nm, corresponding to a numerical aperture of 1. In addition to pixel super-resolution, the small scanning steps in wavelength also enable us to robustly unwrap phase, revealing the specimen's optical path length in our reconstructed images. We believe that this new wavelength scanning based pixel super-resolution approach can provide competitive microscopy solutions for high-resolution and field-portable imaging needs, potentially impacting tele-pathology applications in resource-limited-settings.

  3. Picowatt Resolution Calorimetry for Micro and Nanoscale Energy Transport Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat, Seid H.

    Precise quantification of energy transport is key to obtaining insights into a wide range of phenomena across various disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. This thesis describes technical advancements into heat-flow calorimetry which enable measurement of energy transport at micro and nanoscales with picowatt resolution. I have developed two types of microfabricated calorimeter devices and demonstrated single digit picowatt resolution at room temperature. Both devices incorporate two distinct features; an active area isolated by a thermal conductance (GTh) of less than 1 microW/K and a high resolution thermometer with temperature resolution (DeltaTres) in the micro kelvin regime. These features enable measurements of heat currents (q) with picowatt resolution (q= Th xDeltaTres). In the first device the active area is suspended via silicon nitride beams with excellent thermal isolation (~600 nW/K) and a bimaterial cantilever (BMC) thermometer with temperature resolution of ~6 microK. Taken together this design enabled calorimetric measurements with 4 pW resolution. In the second device, the BMC thermometry technique is replaced by a high-resolution resistance thermometry scheme. A detailed noise analysis of resistance thermometers, confirmed by experimental data, enabled me to correctly predict the resolution of different measurement schemes and propose techniques to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in the resolution of resistive thermometers. By incorporating resistance thermometers with temperature resolution of ~30 microK, combined with a thermal isolation of ~150 nW/K, I demonstrated an all-electrical calorimeter device with a resolution of ~ 5 pW. Finally, I used these calorimeters to study Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer (NF-RHT). Using these devices, we studied--for the first time--the effect of film thickness on the NF-RHT between two dielectric surfaces. We showed that even a very thin film (~50 nm) of silicon

  4. Achieving Energy Efficiency in Accordance with Bioclimatic Architecture Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajcinovci, Bujar; Jerliu, Florina

    2016-12-01

    By using our natural resources, and through inefficient use of energy, we produce much waste that can be recycled as a useful resource, which further contributes to climate change. This study aims to address energy effective bioclimatic architecture principles, by which we can achieve a potential energy savings, estimated at thirty-three per cent, mainly through environmentally affordable reconstruction, resulting in low negative impact on the environment. The study presented in this paper investigated the Ulpiana neighbourhood of Prishtina City, focusing on urban design challenges, energy efficiency and air pollution issues. The research methods consist of empirical observations through the urban spatial area using a comparative method, in order to receive clearer data and information research is conducted within Ulpiana's urban blocks, shapes of architectural structures, with the objective focusing on bioclimatic features in terms of the morphology and microclimate of Ulpiana. Energy supply plays a key role in the economic development of any country, hence, bioclimatic design principles for sustainable architecture and energy efficiency, present an evolutive integrated strategy for achieving efficiency and healthier conditions for Kosovar communities. Conceptual findings indicate that with the integrated design strategy: energy efficiency, and passive bioclimatic principles will result in a bond of complex interrelation between nature, architecture, and community. The aim of this study is to promote structured organized actions to be taken in Prishtina, and Kosovo, which will result in improved energy efficiency in all sectors, and particularly in the residential housing sector.

  5. Energy and time resolution of a LYSO matrix prototype for the Mu2e experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Colao, F.; ...

    2015-09-28

    We have measured the performances of a LYSO crystal matrix prototype tested with electron and photon beams in the energy range 60–450 MeV. Furthermore, this study has been carried out to determine the achievable energy and time resolutions for the calorimeter of the Mu2e experiment.

  6. High resolution, low energy avalanche photodiode X-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R.; Vanderpuye, K.; Entine, G.; Squillante, M. R.

    1991-01-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes have been fabricated, and their performance as X-ray detectors has been measured. Photon sensitivity and energy resolution were measured as a function of size and operating parameters. Noise thresholds as low as 212 eV were obtained at room temperature, and backscatter X-ray fluorescence data were obtained for aluminum and other light elements. It is concluded that the results with the X-ray detector are extremely encouraging, and the performance is challenging the best available proportional counters. While not at the performance level of either cryogenic silicon or HgI2, these device operate at room temperature and can be reproduced in large numbers and with much larger areas than typically achieved with HgI2. In addition, they are rugged and appear to be indefinitely stable.

  7. Achieving the resolution of the spectrograph of the 6m large Azimuthal telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonenko, Dmitrii; Kukushkin, Dmitrii; Bakholdin, Alexey; Valyavin, Gennady

    2016-08-01

    Special Astrophysical Observatory of Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS) creates a spectrograph with high spectral resolution for the 6-meter telescope. The spectrograph consists of a mobile unit located at the focus of the telescope's main mirror, a stationary part located under the telescope and optical fibers which transmit light from the mobile part to the stationary one. The spectral resolution of the stationary part should be R=100000. To achieve such a value, the scheme has two spectral elements, with cross-dispersion. The main spectral element is an echelle grating. The second spectral element is a prism with a diffraction grating on one facet.

  8. Photon Detector For Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy With Improved Energy Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Maniraj, M.; D'Souza, S. W.; Barman, S. R.

    2011-07-15

    We present the results from newly designed and fabricated double window photon detector to improve the overall energy resolution for inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES). This simple design allows us to introduce an absorption gas (Krypton) to decrease the band-width of the energy selective photon detector and thus improve the resolution. Resonance absorption line of Kr of wavelength of 123.6 nm was used. By fitting the Fermi edge of the IPES spectrum of silver, we find an overall energy resolution improved by 73 meV. The design is modular and ensures ease and safety of handling.

  9. Implementation of parallel transmit beamforming using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing--achievable resolution and interbeam interference.

    PubMed

    Demi, Libertario; Viti, Jacopo; Kusters, Lieneke; Guidi, Francesco; Tortoli, Piero; Mischi, Massimo

    2013-11-01

    The speed of sound in the human body limits the achievable data acquisition rate of pulsed ultrasound scanners. To overcome this limitation, parallel beamforming techniques are used in ultrasound 2-D and 3-D imaging systems. Different parallel beamforming approaches have been proposed. They may be grouped into two major categories: parallel beamforming in reception and parallel beamforming in transmission. The first category is not optimal for harmonic imaging; the second category may be more easily applied to harmonic imaging. However, inter-beam interference represents an issue. To overcome these shortcomings and exploit the benefit of combining harmonic imaging and high data acquisition rate, a new approach has been recently presented which relies on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to perform parallel beamforming in transmission. In this paper, parallel transmit beamforming using OFDM is implemented for the first time on an ultrasound scanner. An advanced open platform for ultrasound research is used to investigate the axial resolution and interbeam interference achievable with parallel transmit beamforming using OFDM. Both fundamental and second-harmonic imaging modalities have been considered. Results show that, for fundamental imaging, axial resolution in the order of 2 mm can be achieved in combination with interbeam interference in the order of -30 dB. For second-harmonic imaging, axial resolution in the order of 1 mm can be achieved in combination with interbeam interference in the order of -35 dB.

  10. Superconducting High Energy Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, D T

    2002-02-22

    We have demonstrated that a bulk absorber coupled to a TES can serve as a good gamma-ray spectrometer. Our measured energy resolution of 70 eV at 60 keV is among the best measurements in this field. We have also shown excellent agreement between the noise predictions and measured noise. Despite this good result, we noted that our detector design has shortcomings with a low count rate and vulnerabilities with the linearity of energy response. We addressed these issues by implementation of an active negative feedback bias. We demonstrated the effects of active bias such as additional pulse shortening, reduction of TES change in temperature during a pulse, and linearization of energy response at low energy. Linearization at higher energy is possible with optimized heat capacities and thermal conductivities of the microcalorimeter. However, the current fabrication process has low control and repeatability over the thermal properties. Thus, optimization of the detector performance is difficult until the fabrication process is improved. Currently, several efforts are underway to better control the fabrication of our gamma-ray spectrometers. We are developing a full-wafer process to produce TES films. We are investigating the thermal conductivity and surface roughness of thicker SiN membranes. We are exploring alternative methods to couple the absorber to the TES film for reproducibility. We are also optimizing the thermal conductivities within the detector to minimize two-element phonon noise. We are experimenting with different absorber materials to optimize absorption efficiency and heat capacity. We are also working on minimizing Johnson noise from the E S shunt and SQUID amplifier noise. We have shown that our performance, noise, and active bias models agree very well with measured data from several microcalorimeters. Once the fabrication improvements have been implemented, we have no doubt that our gamma-ray spectrometer will achieve even more spectacular results.

  11. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  12. Method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.

    1986-01-01

    A method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy by illuminating a minute, solid density, hollow shell of a mixture of material such as deuterium and tritium with a high intensity, uniformly converging laser wave to effect an extremely rapid build-up of energy in inwardly traveling shock waves to implode the shell creating thermonuclear conditions causing a reaction of deuterons and tritons and a resultant high energy thermonuclear burn. Utilizing the resulting energy as a thermal source and to breed tritium or plutonium. The invention also contemplates a laser source wherein the flux level is increased with time to reduce the initial shock heating of fuel and provide maximum compression after implosion; and, in addition, computations and an equation are provided to enable the selection of a design having a high degree of stability and a dependable fusion performance by establishing a proper relationship between the laser energy input and the size and character of the selected material for the fusion capsule.

  13. Achieving Higher Energies via Passively Driven X-band Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipahi, Taylan; Sipahi, Nihan; Milton, Stephen; Biedron, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Due to their higher intrinsic shunt impedance X-band accelerating structures significant gradients with relatively modest input powers, and this can lead to more compact particle accelerators. At the Colorado State University Accelerator Laboratory (CSUAL) we would like to adapt this technology to our 1.3 GHz L-band accelerator system using a passively driven 11.7 GHz traveling wave X-band configuration that capitalizes on the high shunt impedances achievable in X-band accelerating structures in order to increase our overall beam energy in a manner that does not require investment in an expensive, custom, high-power X-band klystron system. Here we provide the design details of the X-band structures that will allow us to achieve our goal of reaching the maximum practical net potential across the X-band accelerating structure while driven solely by the beam from the L-band system.

  14. Fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy: Achieving sub-cycle time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatay, Durmus U.; Harrison, Jeffrey S.; Glaz, Micah S.; Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Ginger, David S.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to measure microsecond- and nanosecond-scale local dynamics below the diffraction limit with widely available atomic force microscopy hardware would enable new scientific studies in fields ranging from biology to semiconductor physics. However, commercially available scanning-probe instruments typically offer the ability to measure dynamics only on time scales of milliseconds to seconds. Here, we describe in detail the implementation of fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy using an oscillating cantilever as a means to measure fast local dynamics following a perturbation to a sample. We show how the phase of the oscillating cantilever relative to the perturbation event is critical to achieving reliable sub-cycle time resolution. We explore how noise affects the achievable time resolution and present empirical guidelines for reducing noise and optimizing experimental parameters. Specifically, we show that reducing the noise on the cantilever by using photothermal excitation instead of piezoacoustic excitation further improves time resolution. We demonstrate the discrimination of signal rise times with time constants as fast as 10 ns, and simultaneous data acquisition and analysis for dramatically improved image acquisition times.

  15. Achieving selective interrogation and sub-wavelength resolution in thin plates with embedded metamaterial acoustic lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Semperlotti, F. Zhu, H.

    2014-08-07

    In this study, we present an approach to ultrasonic beam-forming and high resolution identification of acoustic sources having critical implications for applications such as structural health monitoring. The proposed concept is based on the design of dynamically tailored structural elements via embedded acoustic metamaterial lenses. This approach provides a completely new alternative to conventional phased-array technology enabling the formation of steerable and collimated (or focused) ultrasonic beams by exploiting a single transducer. Numerical results show that the ultrasonic beam can be steered by simply tuning the frequency of the excitation. Also, the embedded lens can be designed to achieve sub-wavelength resolution to clustered acoustic sources, which is a typical scenario encountered in incipient structural damage.

  16. Building aggressively duty-cycled platforms to achieve energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Yuvraj

    Managing power consumption and improving energy efficiency is a key driver in the design of computing devices today. This is true for both battery-powered mobile devices as well as mains-powered desktop PCs and servers. In case of mobile devices, the focus of optimization is on energy efficiency to maximize battery lifetime. In case of mains-powered devices, we seek to optimize power consumption to reduce energy costs, thermal and environmental concerns. Traditionally, there are two main mechanisms to improve energy efficiency in systems: slowdown techniques that seek to reduce processor speed or radio power against the rate of work done, and shutdown techniques that seek to shut down specific components or subsystems -- such as processor, radio, memory -- to reduce power used by these components when not in use. The adverse effect of using these techniques is either reduced performance (e.g., increase in latency) and/or usability or loss of functionality. The thesis behind this dissertation is that improved energy efficiency can be achieved through system architectures that seek to design and exploit "collaboration" among heterogeneous but functionally similar subsystems. For instance, multiple radio interfaces with different power/performance characteristics can collaborate to provide an energy-efficient wireless communication subsystem. Furthermore, we show that in systems where such heterogeneity is not naturally present, we can introduce heterogeneous components to improve overall energy efficiency. We show that using collaboration, individual subsystems and even entire platforms can be shut down more aggressively to reduce energy consumption, while reducing adverse impacts on performance or usability. We have used collaboration to do energy efficient operation in several contexts. For battery powered mobile devices we show that wireless radios are the dominant power consumers, and then describe several techniques that use various heterogeneous radios present

  17. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... achieve energy efficiency....

  18. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  19. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  20. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  1. Development of scintillator plates with high energy resolution for alpha particles made of GPS scintillator grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Izaki, Kenji; Tsubota, Youichi; Higuchi, Mikio; Nishiyama, Shusuke

    2014-01-01

    A scintillator plate with high energy resolution was developed to produce an alpha particle monitor used in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel plants. Grains of a Gd2Si2O7 (GPS) scintillator of several 10 to 550 μm were fixed on a glass substrate and were then mechanically polished. By increasing the size of scintillator grains and removing fine powders, the collected light yield and energy resolution for alpha particles were drastically improved. Energy resolution of 9.3% was achieved using average grain size of 91 μm. Furthermore, the ratios between counts in a peak and total counts were improved by more than 60% by the further increase of grain size and adoption of mechanically polished surfaces on both sides. Beta and gamma ray influences were suppressed sufficiently by the thin 100 μm scintillator plates.

  2. Ultra-High Spatial Resolution, Multi-Energy CT using Photon Counting Detector Technology

    PubMed Central

    Leng, S.; Gutjahr, R.; Ferrero, A.; Kappler, S.; Henning, A.; Halaweish, A.; Zhou, W.; Montoya, J.; McCollough, C.

    2017-01-01

    Two ultra-high-resolution (UHR) imaging modes, each with two energy thresholds, were implemented on a research, whole-body photon-counting-detector (PCD) CT scanner, referred to as sharp and UHR, respectively. The UHR mode has a pixel size of 0.25 mm at iso-center for both energy thresholds, with a collimation of 32 × 0.25 mm. The sharp mode has a 0.25 mm pixel for the low-energy threshold and 0.5 mm for the high-energy threshold, with a collimation of 48 × 0.25 mm. Kidney stones with mixed mineral composition and lung nodules with different shapes were scanned using both modes, and with the standard imaging mode, referred to as macro mode (0.5 mm pixel and 32 × 0.5 mm collimation). Evaluation and comparison of the three modes focused on the ability to accurately delineate anatomic structures using the high-spatial resolution capability and the ability to quantify stone composition using the multi-energy capability. The low-energy threshold images of the sharp and UHR modes showed better shape and texture information due to the achieved higher spatial resolution, although noise was also higher. No noticeable benefit was shown in multi-energy analysis using UHR compared to standard resolution (macro mode) when standard doses were used. This was due to excessive noise in the higher resolution images. However, UHR scans at higher dose showed improvement in multi-energy analysis over macro mode with regular dose. To fully take advantage of the higher spatial resolution in multi-energy analysis, either increased radiation dose, or application of noise reduction techniques, is needed. PMID:28392615

  3. Ultra-High Spatial Resolution, Multi-Energy CT using Photon Counting Detector Technology.

    PubMed

    Leng, S; Gutjahr, R; Ferrero, A; Kappler, S; Henning, A; Halaweish, A; Zhou, W; Montoya, J; McCollough, C

    2017-02-11

    Two ultra-high-resolution (UHR) imaging modes, each with two energy thresholds, were implemented on a research, whole-body photon-counting-detector (PCD) CT scanner, referred to as sharp and UHR, respectively. The UHR mode has a pixel size of 0.25 mm at iso-center for both energy thresholds, with a collimation of 32 × 0.25 mm. The sharp mode has a 0.25 mm pixel for the low-energy threshold and 0.5 mm for the high-energy threshold, with a collimation of 48 × 0.25 mm. Kidney stones with mixed mineral composition and lung nodules with different shapes were scanned using both modes, and with the standard imaging mode, referred to as macro mode (0.5 mm pixel and 32 × 0.5 mm collimation). Evaluation and comparison of the three modes focused on the ability to accurately delineate anatomic structures using the high-spatial resolution capability and the ability to quantify stone composition using the multi-energy capability. The low-energy threshold images of the sharp and UHR modes showed better shape and texture information due to the achieved higher spatial resolution, although noise was also higher. No noticeable benefit was shown in multi-energy analysis using UHR compared to standard resolution (macro mode) when standard doses were used. This was due to excessive noise in the higher resolution images. However, UHR scans at higher dose showed improvement in multi-energy analysis over macro mode with regular dose. To fully take advantage of the higher spatial resolution in multi-energy analysis, either increased radiation dose, or application of noise reduction techniques, is needed.

  4. A high resolution, broad energy acceptance spectrometer for laser wakefield acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Christopher M. S.; Cuevas, Sofia Benavides; Veisz, Laszlo; Schramm, Ulrich; Schmid, Karl; Buck, Alexander; Habs, Dieter; Krausz, Ferenc

    2010-07-15

    Laser wakefield experiments present a unique challenge in measuring the resulting electron energy properties due to the large energy range of interest, typically several 100 MeV, and the large electron beam divergence and pointing jitter >1 mrad. In many experiments the energy resolution and accuracy are limited by the convolved transverse spot size and pointing jitter of the beam. In this paper we present an electron energy spectrometer consisting of two magnets designed specifically for laser wakefield experiments. In the primary magnet the field is produced by permanent magnets. A second optional electromagnet can be used to obtain better resolution for electron energies above 75 MeV. The spectrometer has an acceptance of 2.5-400 MeV (E{sub max}/E{sub min}>100) with a resolution of better than 1% rms for electron energies above 25 MeV. This high resolution is achieved by refocusing electrons in the energy plane and without any postprocessing image deconvolution. Finally, the spectrometer employs two complimentary detection mechanisms: (1) absolutely calibrated scintillation screens imaged by cameras outside the vacuum chamber and (2) an array of scintillating fibers coupled to a low-noise charge-coupled device.

  5. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  6. Achieving behavioral control with millisecond resolution in a high-level programming environment.

    PubMed

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2008-08-30

    The creation of psychophysical tasks for the behavioral neurosciences has generally relied upon low-level software running on a limited range of hardware. Despite the availability of software that allows the coding of behavioral tasks in high-level programming environments, many researchers are still reluctant to trust the temporal accuracy and resolution of programs running in such environments, especially when they run atop non-real-time operating systems. Thus, the creation of behavioral paradigms has been slowed by the intricacy of the coding required and their dissemination across labs has been hampered by the various types of hardware needed. However, we demonstrate here that, when proper measures are taken to handle the various sources of temporal error, accuracy can be achieved at the 1 ms time-scale that is relevant for the alignment of behavioral and neural events.

  7. A diamond 14 MeV neutron energy spectrometer with high energy resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Shimaoka, Takehiro Kaneko, Junichi H.; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Shimmyo, Hiroaki; Ochiai, Kentaro; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Osakabe, Masaki

    2016-02-15

    A self-standing single-crystal chemical vapor deposited diamond was obtained using lift-off method. It was fabricated into a radiation detector and response function measurements for 14 MeV neutrons were taken at the fusion neutronics source. 1.5% of high energy resolution was obtained by using the {sup 12}C(n, α){sup 9}Be reaction at an angle of 100° with the deuteron beam line. The intrinsic energy resolution, excluding energy spreading caused by neutron scattering, slowing in the target and circuit noises was 0.79%, which was also the best resolution of the diamond detector ever reported.

  8. Paradigms and poverty in global energy policy: research needs for achieving universal energy access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Bazilian, Morgan; Toman, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This research letter discusses elements of a long-term interdisciplinary research effort needed to help ensure the maximum social, economic, and environmental benefits of achieving secure universal access to modern energy services. Exclusion of these services affects the lives and livelihoods of billions of people. The research community has an important, but not yet well-defined, role to play.

  9. Prospects for High Energy Resolution Gamma Ray Spectroscopy with Europium-Doped Strontium Iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, N J; Payne, S A; Hawrami, R; Burger, A; Boatner, L; Van Loef, E; Shah, K

    2009-04-03

    Europium-doped strontium iodide scintillators offer a light yield exceeding 100,000 photons/MeV and excellent light yield proportionality, while at the same time, SrI{sub 2} is readily grown in single crystal form. Thus far, our collaboration has demonstrated an energy resolution with strontium iodide of 2.6% at 662 keV and 7.6% at 60 keV, and we have grown single crystals surpassing 30 cm{sup 3} in size (with lower resolution). Our analysis indicates that SrI{sub 2}(Eu) has the potential to offer 2% energy resolution at 662 keV with optimized material, optics, and read-out. In particular, improvements in feedstock purity may result in crystal structural and chemical homogeneity, leading to improved light yield uniformity throughout the crystal volume, and consequently, better energy resolution. Uniform, efficient light collection and detection, is also required to achieve the best energy resolution with a SrI{sub 2}(Eu) scintillator device.

  10. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  11. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  12. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  13. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  14. Energy efficiency enhancements for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software achieved in cool silicon cluster project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, Frank; Mikolajick, Thomas; Fettweis, Gerhard; Hentschel, Dieter; Kolodinski, Sabine; Warnecke, Helmut; Reppe, Thomas; Tzschoppe, Christoph; Dohl, Jan; Carta, Corrado; Fritsche, David; Tretter, Gregor; Wiatr, Maciej; Detlef Kronholz, Stefan; Mikalo, Ricardo Pablo; Heinrich, Harald; Paulo, Robert; Wolf, Robert; Hübner, Johannes; Waltsgott, Johannes; Meißner, Klaus; Richter, Robert; Michler, Oliver; Bausinger, Markus; Mehlich, Heiko; Hahmann, Martin; Möller, Henning; Wiemer, Maik; Holland, Hans-Jürgen; Gärtner, Roberto; Schubert, Stefan; Richter, Alexander; Strobel, Axel; Fehske, Albrecht; Cech, Sebastian; Aßmann, Uwe; Pawlak, Andreas; Schröter, Michael; Finger, Wolfgang; Schumann, Stefan; Höppner, Sebastian; Walter, Dennis; Eisenreich, Holger; Schüffny, René

    2013-07-01

    An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at < 200 W/m2 irradiation; 0.99 power factor, 87% efficiency and 0.088 distortion factor for dc supplies; 1 ns synchronization resolution via Ethernet; database accelerators allowing 85% energy savings for servers; adaptive software yielding energy reduction of 73% for e-Commerce applications; processors and corresponding data links with 40% and 70% energy savings, respectively, by adaption of clock frequency and supply voltage in less than 20 ns; clock generator chip with tunable frequency from 83-666 MHz and 0.62-1.6 mW dc power; 90 Gb/s on-chip link over 6 mm and efficiency of 174 fJ/mm; dynamic biasing system doubling efficiency in power amplifiers; 60 GHz BiCMOS frontends with dc power to bandwidth ratio of 0.17 mW/MHz; driver assistance systems reducing energy consumption by 10% in cars Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  15. Measurement of ion cascade energies through resolution degradation of alpha particle microcalorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Horansky, Robert D.; Stiehl, Gregory M.; Beall, James A.; Irwin, Kent D.; Ullom, Joel N.; Plionis, Alexander A.; Rabin, Michael W.

    2010-02-15

    Atomic cascades caused by ions impinging on bulk materials have remained of interest to the scientific community since their discovery by Goldstein in 1902. While considerable effort has been spent describing and, more recently, simulating these cascades, tools that can study individual events are lacking and several aspects of cascade behavior remain poorly known. These aspects include the material energies that determine cascade magnitude and the variation between cascades produced by monoenergetic ions. We have recently developed an alpha particle detector with a thermodynamic resolution near 100 eV full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and an achieved resolution of 1.06 keV FWHM for 5.3 MeV particles. The detector relies on the absorption of particles by a bulk material and a thermal change in a superconducting thermometer. The achieved resolution of this detector provides the highest resolving power of any energy dispersive technique and a factor of 8 improvement over semiconductor detectors. The exquisite resolution can be directly applied to improved measurements of fundamental nuclear decays and nuclear forensics. In addition, we propose that the discrepancy between the thermodynamic and achieved resolution is due to fluctuations in lattice damage caused by ion-induced cascades in the absorber. Hence, this new detector is capable of measuring the kinetic energy converted to lattice damage in individual atomic cascades. This capability allows new measurements of cascade dynamics; for example, we find that the ubiquitous modeling program, SRIM, significantly underestimates the lattice damage caused in bulk tin by 5.3 MeV alpha particles.

  16. Perspectives on achieving sustainable energy production and use

    EPA Science Inventory

    The traditional definition of sustainability calls for polices and strategies that meet society's present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Achieving operational sustainability requires three critical elements: advances in scien...

  17. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency. ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section...

  18. High-Resolution Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) Using a Monochromated TEM/STEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sai, Z. R.; Bradley, J. P.; Erni, R.; Browning, N.

    2005-01-01

    A 200 keV FEI TF20 XT monochromated (scanning) transmission electron microscope funded by NASA's SRLIDAP program is undergoing installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Instrument specifications in STEM mode are Cs =1.0 mm, Cc =1.2 mm, image resolution =0.18 nm, and in TEM mode Cs =1.3 mm, Cc =1.3 mm, information limit =0.14 nm. Key features of the instrument are a voltage-stabilized high tension (HT) supply, a monochromator, a high-resolution electron energy-loss spectrometer/energy filter, a high-resolution annular darkfield detector, and a solid-state x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer. The high-tension tank contains additional sections for 60Hz and high frequency filtering, resulting in an operating voltage of 200 kV plus or minus 0.005V, a greater than 10-fold improvement over earlier systems. The monochromator is a single Wien filter design. The energy filter is a Gatan model 866 Tridiem-ERS high resolution GIF spec d for less than or equal to 0.15 eV energy resolution with 29 pA of current in a 2 nm diameter probe. 0.13 eV has already been achieved during early installation. The x-ray detector (EDAX/Genesis 4000) has a take-off angle of 20 degrees, an active area of 30 square millimeters, and a solid angle of 0.3 steradians. The higher solid angle is possible because the objective pole-piece allows the detector to be positioned as close as 9.47 mm from the specimen. The voltage-stabilized HT supply, monochromator and GIF enable high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS) with energy resolution comparable to synchrotron XANES, but with approximately 100X better spatial resolution. The region between 0 and 100 eV is called the low-loss or valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) region where features due to collective plasma oscillations and single electron transitions of valence electrons are observed. Most of the low-loss VEELS features we are detecting are being observed for the first time in IDPs. A major focus of

  19. 12 New England Organizations Honored for Outstanding Achievements in Energy Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are honoring 12 New England businesses and organizations for their commitment to saving energy, saving money, and protecting the environment through superior energy efficiency achievements.

  20. Fast super-resolution imaging with ultra-high labeling density achieved by joint tagging super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhiping; Chen, Xuanze; Wang, Hening; Huang, Ning; Shan, Chunyan; Zhang, Hao; Teng, Junlin; Xi, Peng

    2015-02-10

    Previous stochastic localization-based super-resolution techniques are largely limited by the labeling density and the fidelity to the morphology of specimen. We report on an optical super-resolution imaging scheme implementing joint tagging using multiple fluorescent blinking dyes associated with super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (JT-SOFI), achieving ultra-high labeling density super-resolution imaging. To demonstrate the feasibility of JT-SOFI, quantum dots with different emission spectra were jointly labeled to the tubulin in COS7 cells, creating ultra-high density labeling. After analyzing and combining the fluorescence intermittency images emanating from spectrally resolved quantum dots, the microtubule networks are capable of being investigated with high fidelity and remarkably enhanced contrast at sub-diffraction resolution. The spectral separation also significantly decreased the frame number required for SOFI, enabling fast super-resolution microscopy through simultaneous data acquisition. As the joint-tagging scheme can decrease the labeling density in each spectral channel, thereby bring it closer to single-molecule state, we can faithfully reconstruct the continuous microtubule structure with high resolution through collection of only 100 frames per channel. The improved continuity of the microtubule structure is quantitatively validated with image skeletonization, thus demonstrating the advantage of JT-SOFI over other localization-based super-resolution methods.

  1. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used...

  2. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in New Schools, Advanced Energy Design Guides: K-12 Schools (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing elementary, middle, and high school buildings that will result in 50% less energy use than conventional new schools built to minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use school buildings (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller schools with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of schools.

  3. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in Office Buildings, Advanced Energy Design Guides: Office Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing new office buildings that result in 50% less energy use than conventional designs meeting minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use office buildings with gross floor areas up to 100,000 ft2 (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller office buildings with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of office buildings.

  4. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  5. Data processing for atomic resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Paul; Hovden, Robert; Mundy, Julia A; Xin, Huolin L; Muller, David A

    2012-08-01

    The high beam current and subangstrom resolution of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes has enabled electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) mapping with atomic resolution. These spectral maps are often dose limited and spatially oversampled, leading to low counts/channel and are thus highly sensitive to errors in background estimation. However, by taking advantage of redundancy in the dataset map, one can improve background estimation and increase chemical sensitivity. We consider two such approaches--linear combination of power laws and local background averaging--that reduce background error and improve signal extraction. Principal component analysis (PCA) can also be used to analyze spectrum images, but the poor peak-to-background ratio in EELS can lead to serious artifacts if raw EELS data are PCA filtered. We identify common artifacts and discuss alternative approaches. These algorithms are implemented within the Cornell Spectrum Imager, an open source software package for spectroscopic analysis.

  6. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, Kristen; Regnier, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program.3 The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%. The new 15,000-square foot (ft2) LBGO office building has two stories and houses private offices, open-plan cubicle offices, and a conference room and call center on the second floor. The building’s modular nature allowed LBGO to realize the cost benefits of fasttracked construction while saving substantial energy and reducing operational costs. The project was funded by the utility’s ratepayer revenue, which imposed a tight budget limit. The design process was a collaborative effort involving LBGO and its design-build team, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), and subcontractors Stantec (formerly Burt Hill) and LHB Inc. The team proposed efficiency measures based on computer modeling of the building in full compliance with ASHRAE 90.1-2007; in the modeled building, the lighting and cooling systems were the largest energy users, so increasing the efficiency of these systems was a top priority. Promising measures were modeled to estimate their energy performance, and each measure was evaluated for its feasibility within the budget.

  7. Improving Diamagnetic Flux Temporal Resolution to Measure ELM Energy Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, P. E.; Baylor, L. R.; Evans, T. E.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Strait, E. J.

    2010-11-01

    When an ELM occurs in a tokamak, a substantial loss of stored thermal energy can occur in a very short time, resulting in a change in the plasma diamagnetism. A diamagnetic loop is therefore an attractive diagnostic for characterizing the change in energy during ELMs. A loop external to the vessel can be used but it is bandwidth-limited by the vessel wall, therefore the signal is severely attenuated above 40 Hz in DIII-D. The temporal resolution can be improved by combining the (slow) diamagnetic signal with a properly scaled internal (fast) toroidal BT signal. The results agree with finely-spaced EFIT equilibrium reconstructions to within 10% before each ELM, but the diamagnetic calculation often shows up to twice the drop in energy at the ELM. The BT signal reveals the magnetic change completes in 0.5 ms or less with occasional dynamics above 10 kHz. This improved temporal resolution allows comparison of phenomenology in natural vs. pellet-triggered ELMs, and also effects of partial ELM suppression under resonant magnetic perturbation.

  8. Spin-flip resolution achieved with a one-proton self-excited oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guise, Nicholas Damien Sun-Wo

    In a Penning trap with an extremely large magnetic gradient, the axial frequency of a one-proton self-excited oscillator is resolved at the level of the shift from a proton spin flip. This sensitivity opens a possible path towards detection of single-proton spin flips, novel measurements of the proton and antiproton g-factors, and a stringent test of CPT invariance by comparing proton and antiproton magnetic moments at precision likely to be a million times higher than achieved to date. The central challenge of extending similar electron magnetic moment measurements to one proton is overcoming the substantially larger mass and weaker magnetic moment, which conspire to greatly reduce the frequency shift that signals a spin flip. Within a magnetic bottle gradient 50 times larger than used in the recent electron g-factor measurements, the proton spin-flip shift is still only 60 mHz out of a 553 kHz axial frequency. In such a large gradient, standard application of sideband cooling to reduce the magnetron radius changes the axial frequency by an amount greater than this spin-flip shift on average. Proton axial frequency resolution at the 60 mHz level is enabled by feedback techniques realized previously only with one electron. Self-excitation produces a narrow feature with large signal-to-noise, ideal for rapid frequency measurements at high precision. Unwanted effects of the strong magnetic gradient are minimized by axial and radial cooling. Feedback cooling is used to reduce the proton axial motion below the temperature of a damping resistor. Axial-magnetron sideband cooling of the undamped radial motion is then demonstrated to reach a 14 mK theoretical limit.

  9. Signal yields, energy resolution, and recombination fluctuations in liquid xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bramante, R.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of monoenergetic electronic recoil peaks in the dark-matter-search and calibration data from the first underground science run of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector. Liquid xenon charge and light yields for electronic recoil energies between 5.2 and 661.7 keV are measured, as well as the energy resolution for the LUX detector at those same energies. Additionally, there is an interpretation of existing measurements and descriptions of electron-ion recombination fluctuations in liquid xenon as limiting cases of a more general liquid xenon recombination fluctuation model. Measurements of the standard deviation of these fluctuations at monoenergetic electronic recoil peaks exhibit a linear dependence on the number of ions for energy deposits up to 661.7 keV, consistent with previous LUX measurements between 2 and 16 keV with 3H. We highlight similarities in liquid xenon recombination for electronic and nuclear recoils with a comparison of recombination fluctuations measured with low-energy calibration data.

  10. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E W; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ). The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  11. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-15

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  12. Sub-10 nm lateral spatial resolution in scanning capacitance microscopy achieved with solid platinum probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, E.; Williams, C. C.

    2004-02-01

    Sub-10 nm resolution can be obtained in scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) if the probe tip is approximately of the same size. Such resolution is observed, although infrequently, with present commercially available probes. To acquire routine sub-10 nm resolution, a solid Pt metal probe has been developed with a sub-10 nm tip radius. The probe is demonstrated by SCM imaging on a cross-sectioned 70 nm gatelength field-effect transistor (FET), a shallow implant (n+/p, 24 nm junction depth), and an epitaxial staircase (p, ˜75 nm steps). Sub-10 nm resolution is demonstrated on the FET device over the abrupt meeting between a silicon-on-insulator oxide layer and a neighboring Si region. Comparable resolution is observed on the implant structure, and quantitative SCM dopant profiling is performed on it with sub-10 nm accuracy. Finally, the epitaxial staircase structure is quantitatively profiled demonstrating the accuracy obtained in quantitative profiling with the tips.

  13. Stable topological insulators achieved using high energy electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lukas; Konczykowski, Marcin; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Begliarbekov, Milan; Chen, Zhiyi; Papalazarou, Evangelos; Marsi, Marino; Perfetti, Luca; Hruban, Andrzej; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are potentially transformative quantum solids with metallic surface states which have Dirac band structure and are immune to disorder. Ubiquitous charged bulk defects, however, pull the Fermi energy into the bulk bands, denying access to surface charge transport. Here we demonstrate that irradiation with swift (∼2.5 MeV energy) electron beams allows to compensate these defects, bring the Fermi level back into the bulk gap and reach the charge neutrality point (CNP). Controlling the beam fluence, we tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the Dirac energy dispersion. The CNP conductance has a two-dimensional character on the order of ten conductance quanta and reveals, both in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, the presence of only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces. The intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states is accessible disregarding the bulk size. PMID:26961901

  14. Achieving tunable sensitivity in composite high-energy density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklja, Maija M.; Tsyshevsky, Roman V.; Rashkeev, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Laser irradiation provides a unique opportunity for selective, predictive, and controlled initiation of energetic materials. We propose a consistent micro-scale mechanism of photoexcitation at the interface, formed by a molecular energetic material and a metal oxide. A specific PETN-MgO model composite is used to illustrate and explain seemingly puzzling experiments on selective laser initiation of energetic materials, which reported that the presence of metal oxide additives triggered the photoinitiation by an unusually low energy. We suggest that PETN photodecomposition is catalyzed by oxygen vacancies (F0 centers) at the MgO surface. The proposed model suggests ways to tune sensitivity of energetic molecular materials to photoinitiation. Our quantum-chemical calculations suggest that the structural point defects (e.g., oxygen vacancies) strongly interact with the molecular material (e.g., adsorbed energetic molecules) by inducing a charge transfer at the interface and hence play an imperative role in governing both energy absorption and energy release in the system. Our approach and conclusions provide a solid basis for novel design of energetic interfaces with desired properties and offers a new perspective in the field of explosive materials and devices.

  15. Energy Resolution of a Large-Scale Liquid Argon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Kevin; Mishra, Sanjib; LBNE Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The high granularity and feasibility of large-scale construction makes the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) a suitable technology for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) far detector. Particle identification relies largely on the topology and calorimetric information from the signature left in the detector. The measurements LBNE intends to make depend on accurately distinguishing charged current electron neutrino events from neutral current background events. A neutrino event featuring an electron produced by νe interaction will tag it as signal; although, gammas from π0 decays in neutral current events induce electromagnetic showers that resemble those of an electron. The granularity and high energy resolution of LArTPCs enable dE/dx to be extracted from the beginning of these showers which helps separate gammas from electrons and, ultimately, charged current electron neutrino events from neutral current events. Presented here is an estimation of the technology's energy resolution and a demonstration of its capabilities for separating electrons and gammas using dE/dx. Sanjib works closely with Kevin on the presented material.

  16. EPA Recognizes CEMEX in Clinchfield, Ga. for Achieving 2015 Energy Star Certification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced that CEMEX, in Clinchfield, Ga. is among 70 manufacturing plants nationally that have achieved Energy Star certification for their superior energy performance in 2015. Togethe

  17. EPA Recognizes Three Facilities in Tennessee Achieved 2015 ENERGY STAR Certification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (02/24/16 - ATLANTA) -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that three facilities in Tennessee are among 70 manufacturing plants to have achieved Energy Star certification for their superior energy performance in 2015. Toge

  18. EPA Recognizes Two Facilities in Alabama Achieve 2015 ENERGY STAR Certification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (02/24/16 - ATLANTA ) -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that two facilities in Alabama are among 70 manufacturing plants to have achieved Energy Star certification for their superior energy performance in 2015. Together

  19. EPA Recognizes Four Facilities in Florida for Achieving 2015 Energy Star Certification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced that four facilities in Florida are among 70 manufacturing plants nationally that have achieved Energy Star certification for their superior energy performance in 2015. Togeth

  20. Recovering Swift-XRT Energy Resolution through CCD Charge Trap Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagani, C.; Beardmore, A. P.; Abbey, A. F.; Mountford, C.; Osborne, J. P.; Capalbi, M.; Perri, M.; Angelini, L.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Cusaumano, G.; Evans, P. A.; Kennea, A.; Moretti, A.; Page, K. L.; Starling, R. L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The X-ray telescope on board the Swift satellite for gamma-ray burst astronomy has been exposed to the radiation of the space environment since launch in November 2004. Radiation causes damage to the detector, with the generation of dark current and charge trapping sites that result in the degradation of the spectral resolution and an increase of the instrumental background. The Swift team has a dedicated calibration program with the goal of recovering a significant proportion of the lost spectroscopic performance. Calibration observations of supernova remnants with strong emission lines are analysed to map the detector charge traps and to derive position-dependent corrections to the measured photon energies. We have achieved a substantial recovery in the XRT resolution by implementing these corrections in an updated version of the Swift XRT gain file and in corresponding improvements to the Swift XRT HEAsoft software. We provide illustrations of the impact of the enhanced energy resolution, and show that we have recovered most of the spectral resolution lost since launch

  1. Teachers, Technology and Training: A New Year's Resolution for 2006: Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing the glaring discrepancies in outcomes for many poor and minority children, the New York State Regents hosted an Education Summit in November 2005 with the theme of Closing the Achievement Gap. Leaders in business, government and education were in attendance and rallied to more thoroughly understand the achievement gap and produce…

  2. 77 FR 70433 - Resolute Marine Energy, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Resolute Marine Energy, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 25, 2012, Resolute Marine Energy, Inc....

  3. Ultralow Energy Electron Attachment at Sub-Millielectron Volt Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Kortyna, A.; Darrach, M. R.; Howe, P. -T.

    1999-01-01

    The technique of rare-gas photoionization has been extended by use of direct laser ionization to electron energies epsilon in the range 0-100 meV, with a resolution Delta(epsilon) of 0.4-0.5 meV (FWHM). Tunable UV light at (Lambda)276 nm is produced using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and nonlinear mixing techniques. The beam is frequency tripled in a pulsed jet of xenon. The VUV radiation, tunable at (Lambda)92 nm, is then used to photoionize Xe at its 2P(sub 1/2) threshold (single-photon ionization). The photoelectrons produced interact with admixed target gas to generate negative ions through the s-wave capture process. Recent results in electron attachment to SF(sub 6) will be reported which show resonance structure at the opening of the ground-state vibrational channels. This structure corresponds to the process of vibrational excitation + attachment, which is superimposed on the underlying s-wave (direct) capture process. It should be a general phenomenon, present in a wide variety of zero-energy electron attaching molecules.

  4. Pulse energy evolution for high-resolution Lamb wave inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jiadong; Lin, Jing; Zeng, Liang; Gao, Fei

    2015-06-01

    Generally, tone burst excitation methods are used to reduce the effect of dispersion in Lamb wave inspection. In addition, algorithms for dispersion compensation are required to simplify responses, especially in long-range inspection. However, the resolution is always limited by the time duration of tone burst excitation. A pulse energy evolution method is established to overcome this limitation. In this method, a broadband signal with a long time (e.g. a chirp, white noise signal, or a pseudo-random sequence) is used as excitation to actuate Lamb waves. First of all, pulse compression is employed to estimate system impulse response with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Then, dispersion compensation is applied repeatedly with systemically varied compensation distances, obtaining a series of compensated signals. In these signals, amplitude (or energy) evolution associated with the change of compensation distance is utilized to estimate the actual propagation distance of the interested wave packet. Finally, the defect position is detected by an imaging algorithm. Several experiments are given to validate the proposed method.

  5. Achieving atomic resolution magnetic dichroism by controlling the phase symmetry of an electron probe

    DOE PAGES

    Rusz, Jan; Idrobo, Juan -Carlos; Bhowmick, Somnath

    2014-09-30

    The calculations presented here reveal that an electron probe carrying orbital angular momentum is just a particular case of a wider class of electron beams that can be used to measure electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) with atomic resolution. It is possible to obtain an EMCD signal with atomic resolution by simply breaking the symmetry of the electron probe phase front using the aberration-corrected optics of a scanning transmission electron microscope. The probe’s required phase distribution depends on the sample’s magnetic symmetry and crystal structure. The calculations indicate that EMCD signals that use the electron probe’s phase are as strongmore » as those obtained by nanodiffraction methods.« less

  6. Achieving atomic resolution magnetic dichroism by controlling the phase symmetry of an electron probe

    SciTech Connect

    Rusz, Jan; Idrobo, Juan -Carlos; Bhowmick, Somnath

    2014-09-30

    The calculations presented here reveal that an electron probe carrying orbital angular momentum is just a particular case of a wider class of electron beams that can be used to measure electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) with atomic resolution. It is possible to obtain an EMCD signal with atomic resolution by simply breaking the symmetry of the electron probe phase front using the aberration-corrected optics of a scanning transmission electron microscope. The probe’s required phase distribution depends on the sample’s magnetic symmetry and crystal structure. The calculations indicate that EMCD signals that use the electron probe’s phase are as strong as those obtained by nanodiffraction methods.

  7. Achieving High Resolution Ion Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Compact Multiturn Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Deng, Liulin; Zheng, Xueyun; Webb, Ian K.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Prost, Spencer A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    We report on ion mobility (IM) separations achievable using traveling waves (TW) in a Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) module having a 44 cm path length and 16 90° turns. The performance of the TW-SLIM module was evaluated for ion transmission and IM separations with different RF, TW parameters, and SLIM surface gaps in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In this work, TWs were created by the transient and dynamic application of DC potentials. The module demonstrated highly robust performance and, even with 16 closely spaced turns, achieving IM resolution performance and ion transmission comparable to a similar straight path module. We found an IM peak capacity of ~31 and peak generation rate of 780 s−1 for TW speeds of ~80 m/s using the current multi-turn TW-SLIM module. The separations achieved for isomers of peptides and tetrasaccharides were found to be comparable to those from a ~0.9-m drift tube-based IM-MS platform operated at the same pressure (4 Torr). The combined attributes of flexible design, low voltage requirements and lossless ion transmission through multiple turns for the present TW-SLIM module provides a basis for SLIM devices capable of achieving much greater IM resolution via greatly extended ion path lengths and using compact serpentine designs. PMID:27479234

  8. Achieving High Resolution Ion Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Compact Multiturn Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Deng, Liulin; Zheng, Xueyun; Webb, Ian K.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Prost, Spencer A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-09-20

    We report on ion mobility separations (IMS) achievable using traveling waves in a Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (TW-SLIM) module having a 44-cm path length and sixteen 90º turns. The performance of the TW-SLIM module was evaluated for ion transmission, and ion mobility separations with different RF, TW parameters and SLIM surface gaps in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In this work TWs were created by the transient and dynamic application of DC potentials. The TW-SLIM module demonstrated highly robust performance and the ion mobility resolution achieved even with sixteen close spaced turns was comparable to a similar straight path TW-SLIM module. We found an ion mobility peak capacity of ~ 31 and peak generation rate of 780 s-1 for TW speeds of <210 m/s using the current multi-turn TW-SLIM module. The separations achieved for isomers of peptides and tetrasaccharides were found to be comparable to those from a ~ 0.9-m drift tube-based IMS-MS platform operated at the same pressure (4 torr). The combined attributes of flexible design, low voltage requirements and lossless ion transmission through multiple turns for the present TW-SLIM module provides a basis for SLIM devices capable of achieving much greater ion mobility resolutions via greatly extended ion path lengths and compact serpentine designs that do not significantly impact the instrumentation profile, a direction described in a companion manuscript.

  9. The design of an animal PET: flexible geometry for achieving optimal spatial resolution or high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Terstegge, A; Herzog, H; Reinartz, R; Reinhart, P; Rongen, F; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Halling, H

    1997-10-01

    We present the design of a positron emission tomograph (PET) with flexible geometry dedicated to in vivo studies of small animals (TierPET). The scanner uses two pairs of detectors. Each detector consists of 400 small individual yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) scintillator crystals of dimensions 2 x 2 x 15 mm3, optically isolated and glued together, which are coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT's). The detector modules can be moved in a radial direction so that the detector-to-detector spacing can be varied. Special hardware has been built for coincidence detection, position detection, and real-time data acquisition, which is performed by a PC. The single-event data are transferred to workstations where the radioactivity distribution is reconstructed. The dimensions of the crystals and the detector layout are the result of extensive simulations which are described in this report, taking into account sensitivity, spatial resolution and additional parameters like parallax error or scatter effects. For the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction a genuine 3-D expectation-maximization (EM)-algorithm which can include the characteristics of the detector system has been implemented. The reconstruction software is flexible and matches the different detector configurations. The main advantage of the proposed animal PET scanner is its high flexibility, allowing the realization of various detector-system configurations. By changing the detector-to-detector spacing, the system is capable of either providing good spatial resolution or high sensitivity for dynamic studies of pharmacokinetics.

  10. Fluorescent microthermal imaging-theory and methodology for achieving high thermal resolution images

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, D.L.; Tangyunyong, P.

    1995-09-01

    The fluorescent microthermal imaging technique (FMI) involves coating a sample surface with an inorganic-based thin film that, upon exposure to UV light, emits temperature-dependent fluorescence. FMI offers the ability to create thermal maps of integrated circuits with a thermal resolution theoretically limited to 1 m{degrees}C and a spatial resolution which is diffraction-limited to 0.3 {mu}m. Even though the fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI) technique has been around for more than a decade, many factors that can significantly affect the thermal image quality have not been systematically studied and characterized. After a brief review of FMI theory, we will present our recent results demonstrating for the first time three important factors that have a dramatic impact on the thermal quality and sensitivity of FMI. First, the limitations imparted by photon shot noise and improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio realized through signal averaging will be discussed. Second, ultraviolet bleaching, an unavoidable problem with FMI as it currently is performed, will be characterized to identify ways to minimize its effect. Finally, the impact of film dilution on thermal sensitivity will be discussed.

  11. Achieving high-resolution in flat-panel imagers for digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Jeffrey T.; Lemmi, Francesco; Lu, Jeng-Ping; Mei, Ping; Street, Robert A.; Ready, Steve E.; Ho, Jackson; Apte, Raj B.; Van Schuylenbergh, Koenraad; Lau, Rachel; Weisfield, Richard L.; Lujan, Rene; Boyce, James B.

    1999-10-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) matrix-addressed imager sensors are the leading new technology for digital medical x-ray imaging. Large-area systems are now commercially available with good resolution and large dynamic range. These systems image x-rays either by detecting light emission from a phosphor screen onto an a-Si:H photodiode, or by collecting ionization charge in a thick x-ray absorbing photoconductor with as selenium, and both approaches have been widely discussed in the literature. While these systems meet the performance needs for general radiographic imaging, further improvements in sensitivity, noise and resolution are needed to fully satisfy the requirements for fluoroscopy and mammography. The approach taken for this paper uses indirect detection, with a phosphor layer for x-ray conversion. The thin a-Si:H photodiode layer for detects the scintillation light. In contrast with the present generation of devices, which have a mesa-isolated sensor at each pixel, these imagers use a continuous sensor covering the entire front surface of the array. The p+ and i layers of a-Si:H are continuous, while the n+ contact has been patterned to isolate adjacent pixels. The continuous photodiode layer maximizes light absorption from the phosphor and provides high x-ray conversion efficiency.

  12. A high resolution WRF model for wind energy forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Liu, Yubao

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of wind energy into national electricity markets has increased the demand for accurate surface layer wind forecasts. There has recently been a focus on forecasting the wind at wind farm sites using both statistical models and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent advances in computing capacity and non-hydrostatic NWP models means that it is possible to nest mesoscale models down to Large Eddy Simulation (LES) scales over the spatial area of a typical wind farm. For example, the WRF model (Skamarock 2008) has been run at a resolution of 123 m over a wind farm site in complex terrain in Colorado (Liu et al. 2009). Although these modelling attempts indicate a great hope for applying such models for detailed wind forecasts over wind farms, one of the obvious challenges of running the model at this resolution is that while some boundary layer structures are expected to be modelled explicitly, boundary layer eddies into the inertial sub-range can only be partly captured. Therefore, the amount and nature of sub-grid-scale mixing that is required is uncertain. Analysis of Liu et al. (2009) modelling results in comparison to wind farm observations indicates that unrealistic wind speed fluctuations with a period of around 1 hour occasionally occurred during the two day modelling period. The problem was addressed by re-running the same modelling system with a) a modified diffusion constant and b) two-way nesting between the high resolution model and its parent domain. The model, which was run with horizontal grid spacing of 370 m, had dimensions of 505 grid points in the east-west direction and 490 points in the north-south direction. It received boundary conditions from a mesoscale model of resolution 1111 m. Both models had 37 levels in the vertical. The mesoscale model was run with a non-local-mixing planetary boundary layer scheme, while the 370 m model was run with no planetary boundary layer scheme. It was found that increasing the

  13. Apparatus and method to achieve high-resolution microscopy with non-diffracting or refracting radiation

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Bingham, Philip R.; Hawari, Ayman I.

    2012-11-06

    An imaging system employing a coded aperture mask having multiple pinholes is provided. The coded aperture mask is placed at a radiation source to pass the radiation through. The radiation impinges on, and passes through an object, which alters the radiation by absorption and/or scattering. Upon passing through the object, the radiation is detected at a detector plane to form an encoded image, which includes information on the absorption and/or scattering caused by the material and structural attributes of the object. The encoded image is decoded to provide a reconstructed image of the object. Because the coded aperture mask includes multiple pinholes, the radiation intensity is greater than a comparable system employing a single pinhole, thereby enabling a higher resolution. Further, the decoding of the encoded image can be performed to generate multiple images of the object at different distances from the detector plane. Methods and programs for operating the imaging system are also disclosed.

  14. Focal plane actuation to achieve ultra-high resolution on suborbital balloon payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Miller, Alex; Challa, Priya; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Chris; Mauskopf, Phil

    2014-07-01

    Over the past few years there has been remarkable success flying imaging telescope systems suspended from suborbital balloon payload systems. These imaging systems have covered optical, ultraviolet, sub-­-millimeter and infrared passbands (i.e. BLAST, STO, SBI, Fireball and others). In recognition of these advances NASA is now considering ambitious programs to promote planetary imaging from high altitude at a fraction of the cost of similar fully orbital systems. The challenge with imaging from a balloon payload is delivering the full diffraction-­-limited resolution of the system from a moving payload. Good progress has been made with damping mechanisms and oscillation control to remove most macroscopic movement in the departures of the imaging focal plane from a static configuration, however a jitter component remains that is difficult to remove using external corrections. This paper reports on work to demonstrate in the laboratory the utility and performance of actuating a detector focal plane (of whatever type) to remove the final jitter terms using an agile hexapod design. The input to this demonstration is the jitter signal generated by the pointing system of a previously flown balloon mission (the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory, STO). Our group has a mature jitter compensation system that thermally isolates the control head from the focal plane itself. This allows the hexapod to remain at ambient temperature in a vacuum environment with the focal plane cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Our lab design mounts the focal plane on the hexapod in a custom cryostat and delivers an active optical stimulus together with the corresponding jitter signal, using the actuation of the hexapod to correct for the departures from a static, stable configuration. We believe this demonstration will make the case for inclusion of this technological solution in future balloon-­-borne imaging systems requiring ultra-­-high resolution.

  15. EPA Recognizes Nissan and Toyota Manufacturing Plants in Mississippi for Achieving 2015 Energy Star Certification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced Nissan NA in Canton and Toyota Motor Manufacturing Mississippi in Blue Springs, both in Mississippi, are among 70 manufacturing plants nationally that have achieved Energy Sta

  16. Interpreting 16S metagenomic data without clustering to achieve sub-OTU resolution

    PubMed Central

    Tikhonov, Mikhail; Leach, Robert W; Wingreen, Ned S

    2015-01-01

    The standard approach to analyzing 16S tag sequence data, which relies on clustering reads by sequence similarity into Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), underexploits the accuracy of modern sequencing technology. We present a clustering-free approach to multi-sample Illumina data sets that can identify independent bacterial subpopulations regardless of the similarity of their 16S tag sequences. Using published data from a longitudinal time-series study of human tongue microbiota, we are able to resolve within standard 97% similarity OTUs up to 20 distinct subpopulations, all ecologically distinct but with 16S tags differing by as little as one nucleotide (99.2% similarity). A comparative analysis of oral communities of two cohabiting individuals reveals that most such subpopulations are shared between the two communities at 100% sequence identity, and that dynamical similarity between subpopulations in one host is strongly predictive of dynamical similarity between the same subpopulations in the other host. Our method can also be applied to samples collected in cross-sectional studies and can be used with the 454 sequencing platform. We discuss how the sub-OTU resolution of our approach can provide new insight into factors shaping community assembly. PMID:25012900

  17. Construction of a new type of low-energy scanning electron microscope with atomic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastham, D. A.; Edmondson, P.; Donnelly, S.; Olsson, E.; Svensson, K.; Bleloch, A.

    2009-05-01

    We describe a new type of scanning electron microscope which works by directly imaging the electron field-emission sites on a nanotip. Electrons are extracted from the nanotip through a nanoscale aperture, accelerated in a high electric field and focussed to a spot using a microscale einzel lens. If the whole microscope (accelerating section and lens) and the focal length are both restricted in size to below 10 microns, then computer simulations show that the effects of aberration are extremely small and it is possible to have a system with approximately unit magnification, at electron energies as low as 300 eV. Thus a typical emission site of 1 nm diameter will produce an image of the same size and an atomic emission site with give a resolution of 0.1-0.2 nm (1-2 Å), and because the beam is not allowed to expand beyond 100nm in diameter the depth of field is large and the contribution to the beam spot size from chromatic aberrations is less than 0.02 nm (0.2 Å) for 500 eV electrons. Since it is now entirely possible to make stable atomic sized emitters (nanopyramids) it is expected that this instrument will have atomic resolution. Furthermore the brightness of the beam is determined only by the field-emission and can be up to a million times larger than in a typical (high-energy) electron microscope. The construction of this microscope, based on using a nanotip electron source which is mounted on a nanopositioner so that it can be positioned at the correct point adjacent to the microscope, entrance aperture, is described. In this geometry the scanning is achieved by moving the sample using piezos. Two methods for the construction of the microscope column are reviewed and the results of preliminary tests are described. The advantages of this low energy, bright-beam, electron microscope with atomic resolution are described. It can be used in either scanning mode or diffraction mode. The major advantage over existing microscopes is that because it works at very low

  18. Zernike-type phase contrast X-ray microscopy at 4 keV photon energy with 60 nm resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäusler, Ulrich; Schneider, Gerd

    2004-05-01

    X-ray microscopy in the multi-keV photon energy range offers unique possibilities to study thick dense samples with high spatial resolution. When employing a high numerical aperture (N.A.) condenser zone plate sample illumination in combination with a high resolution micro zone plate objective lens, a spatial resolution of currently 60 nm is achieved. Since the absorption becomes smaller with increasing photon energy, phase contrast imaging overcomes the limitation for imaging weakly absorbing structures in amplitude contrast mode. We report here on X-ray microscopy of advanced microelectronic devices imaged in Zernike phase contrast mode. While the amplitude contrast between copper and silicon dioxide in these samples is only 7 %, negative as well as positive phase contrast were demonstrated with a contrast of 40 % and 45 %, respectively.

  19. High resolution wind measurements for offshore wind energy development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, Son Van (Inventor); Neumann, Gregory (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, article of manufacture, and computer readable storage medium provide the ability to measure wind. Data at a first resolution (i.e., low resolution data) is collected by a satellite scatterometer. Thin slices of the data are determined. A collocation of the data slices are determined at each grid cell center to obtain ensembles of collocated data slices. Each ensemble of collocated data slices is decomposed into a mean part and a fluctuating part. The data is reconstructed at a second resolution from the mean part and a residue of the fluctuating part. A wind measurement is determined from the data at the second resolution using a wind model function. A description of the wind measurement is output.

  20. A Feasibility Study of 50 nm Resolution with Low Energy Electron Beam Proximity Projection Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Masaki; Savas, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Patterns of 50 nm lines and spaces were demonstrated by low energy electron beam proximity lithography using 47-nm-thick poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and stencil masks fabricated by achromatic interference lithography (AIL). The result indicates the validity of the resolution analysis previously reported and the resolution capabilities of low energy electron beam proximity projection lithography (LEEPL) as a 50 nm node technology.

  1. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  2. AY 2007-2008 Achieving U.S. Energy Security: Energy Industry Sector Report Seminar 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    2008 ABSTRACT: The source of U.S. national security strength stems in large part from the nation’s economic foundation; the ability to generate and...exploit inexpensive energy underpins that strength. Therefore, the United States has a vital interest in ensuring the viability and stability of...relationships with nations that broaden our energy portfolio to maintain diversity of source; 3.) Increase the U.S.’ global leadership role in

  3. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes. National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A.

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified by researchers from four national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes.

  4. High-energy-resolution monochromator for aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy/electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Ursin, Jonathan P; Bacon, Neil J; Corbin, George J; Dellby, Niklas; Hrncirik, Petr; Murfitt, Matthew F; Own, Christopher S; Szilagyi, Zoltan S

    2009-09-28

    An all-magnetic monochromator/spectrometer system for sub-30 meV energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope is described. It will link the energy being selected by the monochromator to the energy being analysed by the spectrometer, without resorting to decelerating the electron beam. This will allow it to attain spectral energy stability comparable to systems using monochromators and spectrometers that are raised to near the high voltage of the instrument. It will also be able to correct the chromatic aberration of the probe-forming column. It should be able to provide variable energy resolution down to approximately 10 meV and spatial resolution less than 1 A.

  5. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  6. The quality transformation: A catalyst for achieving energy`s strategic vision

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the initial six corporate quality goals for DOE. It also includes accompanying performance measures which will help DOE determine progress towards meeting these goals. The six goals are: (1) There is effective use of performance measurement based on regular assessment of Energy operations using the Presidential Award for Quality, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, or equivalent criteria. (2) All managers champion continuous quality improvement training for all employees through planning, attendance, and active application. (3) The Department leadership has provided the environment in which employees are enabled to satisfy customer requirements and realize their full potential. (4) The Department management practices foster employee involvement, development and recognition. (5) The Department continuously improves customer service and satisfaction, and internal and external customers recognize Energy as an excellent service provider. (6) The Department has a system which aligns strategic and operational planning with strategic intent, ensures this planning drives resource allocation, provides for regular evaluation of results, and provides feedback.

  7. High Resolution Atmospheric Modeling for Wind Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M; Bulaevskaya, V; Glascoe, L; Singer, M

    2010-03-18

    The ability of the WRF atmospheric model to forecast wind speed over the Nysted wind park was investigated as a function of time. It was found that in the time period we considered (August 1-19, 2008), the model is able to predict wind speeds reasonably accurately for 48 hours ahead, but that its forecast skill deteriorates rapidly after 48 hours. In addition, a preliminary analysis was carried out to investigate the impact of vertical grid resolution on the forecast skill. Our preliminary finding is that increasing vertical grid resolution does not have a significant impact on the forecast skill of the WRF model over Nysted wind park during the period we considered. Additional simulations during this period, as well as during other time periods, will be run in order to validate the results presented here. Wind speed is a difficult parameter to forecast due the interaction of large and small length scale forcing. To accurately forecast the wind speed at a given location, the model must correctly forecast the movement and strength of synoptic systems, as well as the local influence of topography / land use on the wind speed. For example, small deviations in the forecast track or strength of a large-scale low pressure system can result in significant forecast errors for local wind speeds. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary baseline of a high-resolution limited area model forecast performance against observations from the Nysted wind park. Validating the numerical weather prediction model performance for past forecasts will give a reasonable measure of expected forecast skill over the Nysted wind park. Also, since the Nysted Wind Park is over water and some distance from the influence of terrain, the impact of high vertical grid spacing for wind speed forecast skill will also be investigated.

  8. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  9. Sub-nanometre resolution imaging of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic blends using energy-filtered scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Masters, Robert C; Pearson, Andrew J; Glen, Tom S; Sasam, Fabian-Cyril; Li, Letian; Dapor, Maurizio; Donald, Athene M; Lidzey, David G; Rodenburg, Cornelia

    2015-04-24

    The resolution capability of the scanning electron microscope has increased immensely in recent years, and is now within the sub-nanometre range, at least for inorganic materials. An equivalent advance has not yet been achieved for imaging the morphologies of nanostructured organic materials, such as organic photovoltaic blends. Here we show that energy-selective secondary electron detection can be used to obtain high-contrast, material-specific images of an organic photovoltaic blend. We also find that we can differentiate mixed phases from pure material phases in our data. The lateral resolution demonstrated is twice that previously reported from secondary electron imaging. Our results suggest that our energy-filtered scanning electron microscopy approach will be able to make major inroads into the understanding of complex, nano-structured organic materials.

  10. Energy Harvesting by Subcutaneous Solar Cells: A Long-Term Study on Achievable Energy Output.

    PubMed

    Bereuter, L; Williner, S; Pianezzi, F; Bissig, B; Buecheler, S; Burger, J; Vogel, R; Zurbuchen, A; Haeberlin, A

    2017-01-03

    Active electronic implants are powered by primary batteries, which induces the necessity of implant replacement after battery depletion. This causes repeated interventions in a patients' life, which bears the risk of complications and is costly. By using energy harvesting devices to power the implant, device replacements may be avoided and the device size may be reduced dramatically. Recently, several groups presented prototypes of implants powered by subcutaneous solar cells. However, data about the expected real-life power output of subcutaneously implanted solar cells was lacking so far. In this study, we report the first real-life validation data of energy harvesting by subcutaneous solar cells. Portable light measurement devices that feature solar cells (cell area = 3.6 cm(2)) and continuously measure a subcutaneous solar cell's output power were built. The measurement devices were worn by volunteers in their daily routine in summer, autumn and winter. In addition to the measured output power, influences such as season, weather and human activity were analyzed. The obtained mean power over the whole study period was 67 µW (=19 µW cm(-2)), which is sufficient to power e.g. a cardiac pacemaker.

  11. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in California

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generators under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.

  12. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Solar Photovoltaic Energy Penetration in California

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generators under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.

  13. Electron attachment to oxygen clusters studied with high energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matejcik, S.; Stampfli, P.; Stamatovic, A.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.

    1999-08-01

    Highly monochromatized electrons (with energy distributions of less than 30 meV FWHM) are used in a crossed beam experiments to investigate electron attachment to oxygen clusters (O2)n at electron energies from approximately zero eV up to several eV. At energies close to zero the attachment cross section for the reaction (O2)n+e→(O2)m- (for m=1, 2, and 3) rises strongly with decreasing electron energy compatible with s-wave electron capture to (O2)n. Peaks in the oxygen attachment cross sections present at higher energies (≈80 meV, 193 meV, 302 meV) can be ascribed to vibrational levels of the anion populated by attachment of an electron to a single oxygen molecule within the target cluster via a direct Franck-Condon transition from the ground vibrational state v=0 to a vibrational excited state v'=7,8,9,… of the anion produced. The vibrational structures observed here for the first time can be quantitatively accounted for by model calculations using a microscopic model to examine the attachment of an electron to an oxygen molecule inside a cluster. This involves (i) molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the structure of neutral clusters prior to the attachment process and (ii) calculation of the solvation energy of an oxygen anion in the cluster from the electrostatic polarization of the molecules of the cluster. The occurrence of this polarization energy at the surface of larger clusters explains the appearance of an s-wave capturing cross section at 0 eV and the slightly smaller spacings (compared to the monomer case) between the peaks at finite energy, as observed experimentally. The relative transition probabilities from the ground state of the neutral oxygen molecule to the different vibrational levels of the anion are obtained by calculating the corresponding Franck-Condon factors thereby resulting in a reasonable theoretical fit to the observed yields of negatively charged oxygen molecules and clusters.

  14. Toward 10 meV electron energy-loss spectroscopy resolution for plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Bellido, Edson P; Rossouw, David; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2014-06-01

    Energy resolution is one of the most important parameters in electron energy-loss spectroscopy. This is especially true for measurement of surface plasmon resonances, where high-energy resolution is crucial for resolving individual resonance peaks, in particular close to the zero-loss peak. In this work, we improve the energy resolution of electron energy-loss spectra of surface plasmon resonances, acquired with a monochromated beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope, by the use of the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm. We test the performance of the algorithm in a simulated spectrum and then apply it to experimental energy-loss spectra of a lithographically patterned silver nanorod. By reduction of the point spread function of the spectrum, we are able to identify low-energy surface plasmon peaks in spectra, more localized features, and higher contrast in surface plasmon energy-filtered maps. Thanks to the combination of a monochromated beam and the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, we improve the effective resolution down to 30 meV, and evidence of success up to 10 meV resolution for losses below 1 eV. We also propose, implement, and test two methods to limit the number of iterations in the algorithm. The first method is based on noise measurement and analysis, while in the second we monitor the change of slope in the deconvolved spectrum.

  15. Transparent ceramic garnet scintillator optimization via composition and co-doping for high-energy resolution gamma spectrometers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Beck, Patrick R.; Swanberg, Erik L.; Hunter, Steven L.

    2016-09-01

    Breakthrough energy resolution, R(662keV) <4%, has been achieved with an oxide scintillator, Cerium-doped Gadolinium Yttrium Gallium Aluminum Garnet, or GYGAG(Ce), by optimizing fabrication conditions. Here we describe the dependence of scintillation light yield and energy resolution on several variables: (1) Stoichiometry, in particular Gd/Y and Ga/Al ratios which modify the bandgap energy, (2) Processing methods, including vacuum vs. oxygen sintering, and (3) Trace co-dopants that influence the formation of Ce4+ and modify the intra-bandgap trap distribution. To learn about how chemical composition influences the scintillation properties of transparent ceramic garnet scintillators, we have measured: scintillation decay component amplitudes; intensity and duration of afterglow; thermoluminescence glow curve peak positions and amplitudes; integrated light yield; light yield non-proportionality, as measured in the Scintillator Light Yield Non-Proportionality Characterization Instrument (SLYNCI); and energy resolution for gamma spectroscopy. Optimized GYGAG(Ce) provides R(662 keV) =3.0%, for 0.05 cm3 size ceramics with Silicon photodiode readout, and R(662 keV) =4.6%, at 2 in3 size with PMT readout.

  16. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes: National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, researchers from four of the national laboratories involved in residential research (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) were asked to prepare papers focusing on the key longer term research challenges, market barriers, and technology gaps that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes. This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified in the national laboratory white papers.

  17. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

  18. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Alp, Ercan E.; Mooney, Timothy M.; Toellner, Thomas

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  19. Phenomenological Model for Predicting the Energy Resolution of Neutron-Damaged Coaxial HPGe Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    C. DeW. Van Siclen; E. H. Seabury; C. J. Wharton; A. J. Caffrey

    2012-10-01

    The peak energy resolution of germanium detectors deteriorates with increasing neutron fluence. This is due to hole capture at neutron-created defects in the crystal which prevents the full energy of the gamma-ray from being recorded by the detector. A phenomenological model of coaxial HPGe detectors is developed that relies on a single, dimensionless parameter that is related to the probability for immediate trapping of a mobile hole in the damaged crystal. As this trap parameter is independent of detector dimensions and type, the model is useful for predicting energy resolution as a function of neutron fluence.

  20. Air-sea Energy Transfer at Mesoscale in a Coupled High-resolution Model: Impact of Resolution and Current Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jullien, S.; Colas, F.; Masson, S. G.; Oerder, V.; Echevin, V.; Samson, G.; Crétat, J.; Berthet, S.; Hourdin, C.

    2015-12-01

    Winds are usually considered to force the ocean but recent studies suggested that oceanic mesoscale activity, characterized by eddies, filaments and fronts, could also affect the wind field. These structures feature abrupt changes in sea surface temperature (SST), surface pressure and surface currents that could impact the atmosphere by enhancing/reducing air-sea fluxes, accelerating/decelerating winds, modifying the wind-pressure balance… At this time, the detailed processes associated to such coupling, its intensity and significance remain a matter of research. Here, a state-of-the-art WRF-OASIS-NEMO coupled model is set up over a wide tropical channel (45°S-45°N) at various resolutions: 3/4°, 1/4° and 1/12° in both the ocean and the atmosphere. Several experiments are conducted in forced, partially or fully coupled modes, to highlight the effect of resolution and the role of SST vs. current feedback to energy injection into the ocean and the atmosphere. In strong mesoscale activity regions, a negative wind power input from the atmosphere to the ocean is seen at scales ranging from 100km to more than 1000km. Nonexistent at 3/4°, this negative forcing, acting against oceanic mesoscale activity, is almost twice more important at 1/12° than at 1/4°. In addition, partially coupled simulations, i.e. without current feedback, show that the impact of thermal coupling on this process is very limited. Energy injection to the marine atmospheric boundary layer also features imprints from oceanic mesoscale. Energy injection by scales shorter than 300km represents up to 20% of the total. Finally we show that increasing oceanic resolution, and therefore mesoscale activity, is necessary to resolve the full wind stress spectrum and has an upscaling effect by enhancing atmospheric mesoscale, which is larger scale than in the ocean. Using 1/4°oceanic resolution instead of 1/12° leads to a 50% loss of energy in the atmospheric mesoscale.

  1. Alternative Formats to Achieve More Efficient Energy Codes for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Halverson, Mark A.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Makela, Eric J.

    2013-01-26

    This paper identifies and examines several formats or structures that could be used to create the next generation of more efficient energy codes and standards for commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) to provide technical support to the development of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. While the majority of PNNL’s ASHRAE Standard 90.1 support focuses on developing and evaluating new requirements, a portion of its work involves consideration of the format of energy standards. In its current working plan, the ASHRAE 90.1 committee has approved an energy goal of 50% improvement in Standard 90.1-2013 relative to Standard 90.1-2004, and will likely be considering higher improvement targets for future versions of the standard. To cost-effectively achieve the 50% goal in manner that can gain stakeholder consensus, formats other than prescriptive must be considered. Alternative formats that include reducing the reliance on prescriptive requirements may make it easier to achieve these aggressive efficiency levels in new codes and standards. The focus on energy code and standard formats is meant to explore approaches to presenting the criteria that will foster compliance, enhance verification, and stimulate innovation while saving energy in buildings. New formats may also make it easier for building designers and owners to design and build the levels of efficiency called for in the new codes and standards. This paper examines a number of potential formats and structures, including prescriptive, performance-based (with sub-formats of performance equivalency and performance targets), capacity constraint-based, and outcome-based. The paper also discusses the pros and cons of each format from the viewpoint of code users and of code enforcers.

  2. KINETIC ENERGY FROM SUPERNOVA FEEDBACK IN HIGH-RESOLUTION GALAXY SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Christine M.; Bryan, Greg L.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Hummels, Cameron

    2015-08-10

    We describe a new method for adding a prescribed amount of kinetic energy to simulated gas modeled on a cartesian grid by directly altering grid cells’ mass and velocity in a distributed fashion. The method is explored in the context of supernova (SN) feedback in high-resolution (∼10 pc) hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation. Resolution dependence is a primary consideration in our application of the method, and simulations of isolated explosions (performed at different resolutions) motivate a resolution-dependent scaling for the injected fraction of kinetic energy that we apply in cosmological simulations of a 10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙} dwarf halo. We find that in high-density media (≳50 cm{sup −3}) with coarse resolution (≳4 pc per cell), results are sensitive to the initial kinetic energy fraction due to early and rapid cooling. In our galaxy simulations, the deposition of small amounts of SN energy in kinetic form (as little as 1%) has a dramatic impact on the evolution of the system, resulting in an order-of-magnitude suppression of stellar mass. The overall behavior of the galaxy in the two highest resolution simulations we perform appears to converge. We discuss the resulting distribution of stellar metallicities, an observable sensitive to galactic wind properties, and find that while the new method demonstrates increased agreement with observed systems, significant discrepancies remain, likely due to simplistic assumptions that neglect contributions from SNe Ia and stellar winds.

  3. Kinetic Energy from Supernova Feedback in High-resolution Galaxy Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Christine M.; Bryan, Greg L.; Hummels, Cameron; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a new method for adding a prescribed amount of kinetic energy to simulated gas modeled on a cartesian grid by directly altering grid cells’ mass and velocity in a distributed fashion. The method is explored in the context of supernova (SN) feedback in high-resolution (˜10 pc) hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation. Resolution dependence is a primary consideration in our application of the method, and simulations of isolated explosions (performed at different resolutions) motivate a resolution-dependent scaling for the injected fraction of kinetic energy that we apply in cosmological simulations of a 109 M⊙ dwarf halo. We find that in high-density media (≳50 cm-3) with coarse resolution (≳4 pc per cell), results are sensitive to the initial kinetic energy fraction due to early and rapid cooling. In our galaxy simulations, the deposition of small amounts of SN energy in kinetic form (as little as 1%) has a dramatic impact on the evolution of the system, resulting in an order-of-magnitude suppression of stellar mass. The overall behavior of the galaxy in the two highest resolution simulations we perform appears to converge. We discuss the resulting distribution of stellar metallicities, an observable sensitive to galactic wind properties, and find that while the new method demonstrates increased agreement with observed systems, significant discrepancies remain, likely due to simplistic assumptions that neglect contributions from SNe Ia and stellar winds.

  4. Electrostatic analyzer design for solar wind proton measurements with high temporal, energy, and angular resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Antoine; Lavraud, Benoit; Fedorov, Andrei; De Keyser, Johan; DeMarco, Rossana; Marcucci, M. Federica; Valentini, Francesco; Servidio, Sergio; Bruno, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    We present the design study of an electrostatic analyzer that permits combined high temporal, energy, and angular resolution measurements of solar wind ions. The requirements for high temporal, energy, and angular resolutions, combined with the need for sufficient counting statistics, lead to an electrostatic analyzer with large radius (140 mm) and large geometric factor. The resulting high count rates require the use of channel electron multipliers (CEMs), instead of microchannel plates, to avoid saturation. The large radius further permits the placement of 32 CEM detectors at the analyzer focal plane, thereby providing very high angular resolution in azimuth (1.5°). Electrostatic simulations were performed to define the analyzer geometric factor, energy resolution, analyzer constant (K), elevation response, etc. Simulations were also performed to define the geometry of the deflectors and collimator that are used to provide the proper energy resolution, field of view, and angular resolution (1.5°) in elevation as well (the total field of view of the design is ±24° × ±24°). We show how this design permits unprecedented measurements of the fine structure of the solar wind proton beam and other important features such as temperature anisotropy. This design is used for the Cold Solar Wind instrument of the medium-class Turbulent Heating ObserveR mission, currently in phase A at the European Space Agency. These unprecedented measurement capabilities are in accordance with and even beyond the requirements of the mission.

  5. High resolution 17 keV to 75 keV backlighters for High Energy Density experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Maddox, B R; Giraldez, E; Hatchett, S P; Hudson, L; Izumi, N; Key, M H; Pape, S L; MacKinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; Patel, P K; Phillips, T W; Remington, B A; Seely, J F; Tommasini, R; Town, R; Workman, J

    2008-02-25

    We have developed 17 keV to 75 keV 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional high-resolution (< 10 {micro}m) radiography using high-intensity short pulse lasers. High energy K-{alpha} sources are created by fluorescence from hot electrons interacting in the target material after irradiation by lasers with intensity I{sub L} > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. We have achieved high resolution point projection 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional radiography using micro-foil and micro-wire targets attached to low-Z substrate materials. The micro-wire size was 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m x 300 {micro}m on a 300 {micro}m x 300 {micro}m x 5 {micro}m CH substrate. The radiography performance was demonstrated using the Titan laser at LLNL. We observed that the resolution is dominated by the micro-wire target size and there is very little degradation from the plasma plume, implying that the high energy x-ray photons are generated mostly within the micro-wire volume. We also observe that there are enough K{alpha} photons created with a 300 J, 1-{omega}, 40 ps pulse laser from these small volume targets, and that the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high, for single shot radiography experiments. This unique technique will be used on future high energy density (HED) experiments at the new Omega-EP, ZR and NIF facilities.

  6. Achieving Land, Energy, and Environmental Compatibility: Utility-Scale Solar Energy Potential and Land-Use in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Field, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Solar energy is an archetype renewable energy technology with great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when substituted for carbon-intensive energy. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., > 1 MW) necessitates large quantities of space making the efficient use of land for USSE development critical to realizing its full potential. However, studies elucidating the interaction between land-use and utility-scale solar energy (USSE) are limited. In this study, we assessed 1) the theoretical and technical potential of terrestrial-based USSE systems, and 2) land-use and land-cover change impacts from actual USSE installations (> 20 MW; planned, under construction, operating), using California as a case study due to its early adoption of renewable energy systems, unique constraints on land availability, immense energy demand, and vast natural resources. We used topo-climatic (e.g., slope, irradiance), infrastructural (e.g., proximity to transmission lines), and ecological constraints (e.g., threatened and endangered species) to determine highly favorable, favorable, and unfavorable locations for USSE and to assess its technical potential. We found that the theoretical potential of photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) in California is 26,097 and 29,422 kWh/m2/day, respectively. We identified over 150 planned, under construction, and operating USSE installations in California, ranging in size from 20 to 1,000 MW. Currently, 29% are located on shrub- and scrublands, 23% on cultivated crop land, 13% on pasture/hay areas, 11% on grassland/herbaceous and developed open space, and 7% in the built environment. Understanding current land-use decisions of USSE systems and assessing its future potential can be instructive for achieving land, energy, and environmental compatibility, especially for other global regions that share similar resource demands and limitations.

  7. High harmonic generation based time resolved ARPES at 30 eV with 50 meV energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Timm; Sie, Edbert J.; Mahmood, Fahad; Gedik, Nuh

    Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has emerged as a leading technique in identifying equilibrium properties of complex electronic systems as well as their correlated dynamics. By using femtosecond high harmonic generation (HHG) pulses, this technique can be extended to monitor ultrafast changes in the electronic structure in response to an optical excitation. However, the broad bandwidth of the HHG pulses has been a major experimental limitation. In this contribution, we combine the HHG source with an off-axis Czerny-Turner XUV monochromator and a three-dimensional ``ARTOF'' photoelectron detector to achieve an unrivaled overall energy resolution of 50 meV in multiple harmonic energies. Moreover, the use of a stack of different gratings enables us to fine control both the photon energy and time vs. energy resolution to its particular needs. The performance of our setup is demonstrated by studies on the transition metal dichalcogenide IrTe2 which undergoes a first-order structural transition and accompanied reconstruction of the band structure upon cooling without the characteristic opening of an energy gap.

  8. Potential Next Steps for the New Orleans City Council Energy Efficiency Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted from an actual February 2008 deliverable memo and report delivered by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the Department of Energy Project Officer in February of 2008. In January 2008, the New Orleans Utility Committee requested review, commentary, and suggestions for Utility Committee next steps related to the Energy Efficiency Resolution (the Resolution) passed by the City Council in December 2007. The suggestions are reprinted here as: (1) An illustration of opportunities for other local governments for the development and implementation of effective energy efficiency ordinances and resolutions; and (2) An example of the type of policy technical assistance that DOE/NREL provides to communities. For more information on the strategy for delivering assistance, please see: www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/48689.pdf. Based on experience in other communities and energy efficiency policies and programs, NREL found the Resolution to be a solid framework for increasing the responsible use of energy efficiency and reaping the associated economic and environmental benefits in the city of New Orleans. The remainder of this document provides the requested suggestions for next steps in implementing the word and spirit of the resolution. These suggestions integrate the extensive work of other entities, including the New Orleans Mayor's office, the New Orleans Energy Advisory Committee, the Energy Efficiency Initiative, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency. In general, three actions were suggested for funding mechanisms, two for near-term successes, and two for longer-term success.

  9. High-resolution reflecting time-of-flight momentum and energy mapping system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chao; Kang Yifan; Weaver, Larry; Chang Zenghu

    2009-07-15

    A new system to map electron momentum and energy is proposed. A reflecting electrode is introduced into a time-of-flight (TOF) system whose decelerating electric field sends all the electrons back to a position-sensitive detector close to but behind the source of the electrons. The longer flying distance that results makes it possible to significantly improve the energy-resolved performance, especially in the higher energy region. The dependence of the new TOF system on its characteristic parameters is analyzed, along with its application to attosecond streak cameras. Experimental results verified a relative energy resolution better than 0.2 eV for 22 eV electrons and also revealed the availability of the improved relative energy resolution smaller than 1.0% for electron energy ranging from 30 to 40 eV.

  10. Development of High-Energy-Resolution Display-Type Photoelectron Spectrometer in the Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohno, Tomohito; Matsui, Fumihiko; Hamada, Yohji; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Takeda, Sakura; Hattori, Ken; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    We have built a newly designed 2D-photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) analyzer for the measurement of wide-angle photoelectron angular distribution patterns in the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) region with no distortion. The spherical electric field inside the analyzer is achieved by the 158 tin obstacle rings placed on the inner surface of the machinable ceramic outer hemisphere. The inner surface of the outer hemisphere is covered with graphite powder to avoid charging. Hence, the ideal shape and the smooth change of the potential on the surface of the hemisphere could be realized. The energy resolution (Δ E/ EP) is estimated to be 0.43% (73 meV) at a kinetic energy of 16.85 eV and 0.16% at a kinetic energy of 300 eV.

  11. An (e, 2e + ion) study of low-energy electron-impact ionization and fragmentation of tetrahydrofuran with high mass and energy resolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xueguang Pflüger, Thomas; Weyland, Marvin; Baek, Woon Yoon; Rabus, Hans; Ullrich, Joachim; Dorn, Alexander

    2014-10-07

    We study the low-energy (E{sub 0} = 26 eV) electron-impact induced ionization and fragmentation of tetrahydrofuran using a reaction microscope. All three final-state charged particles, i.e., two outgoing electrons and one fragment ion, are detected in triple coincidence such that the momentum vectors and, consequently, the kinetic energies for charged reaction products are determined. The ionic fragments are clearly identified in the experiment with a mass resolution of 1 amu. The fragmentation pathways of tetrahydrofuran are investigated by measuring the ion kinetic energy spectra and the binding energy spectra where an energy resolution of 1.5 eV has been achieved using the recently developed photoemission electron source. Here, we will discuss the fragmentation reactions for the cations C{sub 4}H{sub 8}O{sup +}, C{sub 4}H{sub 7}O{sup +}, C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sup +}, C{sub 3}H{sub 6}{sup +}, C{sub 3}H{sub 5}{sup +}, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +}, CH{sub 3}O{sup +}, CHO{sup +}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +}.

  12. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; van Ruijven, Bas J.; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2013-06-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US200565-86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially.

  13. Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging using a high-resolution linear radon transform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Liu, J.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear-wave profile. One of the key steps in the MASW method is to generate an image of dispersive energy in the frequency-velocity domain, so dispersion curves can be determined by picking peaks of dispersion energy. In this paper, we propose to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy by high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). The shot gather is first transformed along the time direction to the frequency domain and then the Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy can be imaged by high-resolution LRT using a weighted preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Synthetic data with a set of linear events are presented to show the process of generating dispersive energy. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that, compared with the slant stacking algorithm, high-resolution LRT can improve the resolution of images of dispersion energy by more than 50%. ?? Birkhaueser 2008.

  14. Resolution and transfer width of thermal energy atomic scattering from solid surfaces (TEAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, G.

    1999-04-01

    The resolution of TEAS has been investigated as a function of energy spread of atomic beam. The model calculations have been executed within the framework of time dependent Schrödinger equation. The energy spread of realistic atomic beam has been taken into account by a wave-packet. The wave-packet describes the atomic beam as an ensemble of independent particles by quantum mechanics. Taking ideally periodic surface the resolution of diffraction peaks increases when the energy spread is decreased. This fact underlines the higher efficiency of the supersonic atomic source than the effusive atomic source. Furthermore the transfer width of experimental equipment increases—when the atomic beam monochromaticity is also increased—according to the concept of the transfer width. The relation between the transfer width and the size of the period of the surface topography significantly determines the resolution of the diffraction pattern.

  15. Ultrahigh Energy Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometers for Precision Measurements of Uranium Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S; Hau, I D; Niedermayr, T R; Friedrich, S

    2006-06-09

    Superconducting Gamma-ray detectors offer an order of magnitude higher energy resolution than conventional high-purity germanium detectors. This can significantly increase the precision of non-destructive isotope analysis for nuclear samples where line overlap affects the errors of the measurement. We have developed Gamma-detectors based on superconducting molybdenum-copper sensors and bulk tin absorbers for nuclear science and national security applications. They have, depending on design, an energy resolution between {approx}50 and {approx}150 eV FWHM at {approx}100 keV. Here we apply this detector technology to the measurement of uranium isotope ratios, and discuss the trade-offs between energy resolution and quantum efficiency involved in detector design.

  16. Jet energy scale and resolution in the CMS experiment in pp collisions at 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Damiao, D. De Jesus; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Mohammed, Y.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Chowdhury, S. Roy; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Fanzago, F.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gonella, F.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Maron, G.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. 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A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P., III; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-02-01

    Improved jet energy scale corrections, based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, are presented. The corrections as a function of pseudorapidity η and transverse momentum pT are extracted from data and simulated events combining several channels and methods. They account successively for the effects of pileup, uniformity of the detector response, and residual data-simulation jet energy scale differences. Further corrections, depending on the jet flavor and distance parameter (jet size) R, are also presented. The jet energy resolution is measured in data and simulated events and is studied as a function of pileup, jet size, and jet flavor. Typical jet energy resolutions at the central rapidities are 15–20% at 30 GeV, about 10% at 100 GeV, and 5% at 1 TeV. The studies exploit events with dijet topology, as well as photon+jet, Z+jet and multijet events. Several new techniques are used to account for the various sources of jet energy scale corrections, and a full set of uncertainties, and their correlations, are provided.The final uncertainties on the jet energy scale are below 3% across the phase space considered by most analyses (pT>30 GeV and 0| η| <5.). In the barrel region (| η| <1.3) an uncertainty below 1% for pT>30 GeV is reached, when excluding the jet flavor uncertainties, which are provided separately for different jet flavors. A new benchmark for jet energy scale determination at hadron colliders is achieved with 0.32% uncertainty for jets with \\pt of the order of 165–330\\GeV, and | η| <0.8.

  17. Jet energy scale and resolution in the CMS experiment in pp collisions at 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; ...

    2017-02-22

    Improved jet energy scale corrections, based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fbmore » $$^{-1}$$ collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, are presented. The corrections as a function of pseudorapidity $$\\eta$$ and transverse momentum $$p_{\\mathrm{T}}$$ are extracted from data and simulated events combining several channels and methods. They account successively for the effects of pileup, uniformity of the detector response, and residual data-simulation jet energy scale differences. Further corrections, depending on the jet flavor and distance parameter (jet size) $R$, are also presented. The jet energy resolution is measured in data and simulated events and is studied as a function of pileup, jet size, and jet flavor. Typical jet energy resolutions at the central rapidities are 15-20% at 30 GeV, about 10% at 100 GeV, and 5% at 1 TeV. The studies exploit events with dijet topology, as well as photon+jet, Z+jet and multijet events. Several new techniques are used to account for the various sources of jet energy scale corrections, and a full set of uncertainties, and their correlations, are provided.The final uncertainties on the jet energy scale are below 3% across the phase space considered by most analyses ($$p_{\\mathrm{T}}> $$ 30 GeV and $$| \\eta| < $$ 5.0). In the barrel region ($$| \\eta| < $$ 1.3) an uncertainty below 1% for $$p_{\\mathrm{T}}> $$ 30 GeV is reached, when excluding the jet flavor uncertainties, which are provided separately for different jet flavors. Finally, a new benchmark for jet energy scale determination at hadron colliders is achieved with 0.32% uncertainty for jets with $$p_{\\mathrm{T}}$$ of the order of 165-330 GeV, and $$| \\eta| < $$ 0.8.« less

  18. Jet energy scale and resolution in the CMS experiment in pp collisions at 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-07-13

    Improved jet energy scale corrections, based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, are presented. The corrections as a function of pseudorapidity $\\eta$ and transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ are extracted from data and simulated events combining several channels and methods. They account successively for the effects of pileup, uniformity of the detector response, and residual data-simulation jet energy scale differences. Further corrections, depending on the jet flavor and distance parameter (jet size) $R$, are also presented. The jet energy resolution is measured in data and simulated events and is studied as a function of pileup, jet size, and jet flavor. Typical jet energy resolutions at the central rapidities are 15-20% at 30 GeV, about 10% at 100 GeV, and 5% at 1 TeV. The studies exploit events with dijet topology, as well as photon+jet, Z+jet and multijet events. Several new techniques are used to account for the various sources of jet energy scale corrections, and a full set of uncertainties, and their correlations, are provided.The final uncertainties on the jet energy scale are below 3% across the phase space considered by most analyses ($p_{\\mathrm{T}}> $ 30 GeV and $| \\eta| < $ 5.0). In the barrel region ($| \\eta| < $ 1.3) an uncertainty below 1% for $p_{\\mathrm{T}}> $ 30 GeV is reached, when excluding the jet flavor uncertainties, which are provided separately for different jet flavors. A new benchmark for jet energy scale determination at hadron colliders is achieved with 0.32% uncertainty for jets with $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ of the order of 165-330 GeV, and $| \\eta| < $ 0.8.

  19. An Overview of High-Resolution, Non-Dispersive, Imaging Spectrometers for High-Energy Photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy has become a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites initiated a new era in x-ray astronomy. Despite their successes, there is still need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band and for extended sources. What is needed is a non-dispersive imaging spectrometer - essentially a 14-bit x-ray color camera. And a requirement for a nondispersive spectrometer designed to provide eV-scale spectral resolution is a temperature below 0.1 K. The required spectral resolution and the constraints of thermodynamics and engineering dictate the temperature regime nearly independently of the details of the sensor or the read-out technology. Low-temperature spectrometers can be divided into two classes - - equilibrium and non-equilibrium. In the equilibrium devices, or calorimeters, the energy is deposited in an isolated thermal mass and the resulting increase in temperature is measured. In the non-equilibrium devices, the absorbed energy produces quantized excitations that are counted to determine the energy. The two approaches have different strong points, and within each class a variety of optimizations have been pursued. I will present the basic fundamentals of operation and the details of the most successful device designs to date. I will also discuss how the measurement priorities (resolution, energy band, count rate) influence the optimal choice of detector technology.

  20. Performance Achievements and Challenges for FELs based on Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2006-08-27

    During the past decade several groups have assembled free electron lasers based on energy recovered linacs (ERLs). Such arrangements have been built to obtain high average power electron and photon beams, by using high repetition rate beam pulses driving FEL oscillators. In this paper the performance of many existing and several proposed facilities from around the world are reviewed. Going forward, many questions must be addressed to achieve still better performance including: higher average current injectors, better optimized accelerating cavities, higher energy acceptance and lower loss beam recirculation systems, and better optical cavity designs for dealing with the optical beam power circulating in the ERL FELs. This paper presents some of the current thinking on each of these issues.

  1. Achieving the 30% Goal: Energy and Cost Savings Analysis of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Wang, Weimin; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Cho, Heejin; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2011-05-24

    This Technical Support Document presents the energy and cost savings analysis that PNNL conducted to measure the potential energy savings of 90.1-2010 relative to 90.1-2004. PNNL conducted this analysis with inputs from many other contributors and source of information. In particular, guidance and direction was provided by the Simulation Working Group under the auspices of the SSPC90.1. This report documents the approach and methodologies that PNNL developed to evaluate the energy saving achieved from use of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010. Specifically, this report provides PNNL’s Progress Indicator process and methodology, EnergyPlus simulation framework, prototype model descriptions. This report covers the combined upgrades from 90.1-2004 to 90.1-2010, resulting in a total of 153 addenda. PNNL has reviewed and considered all 153 addenda for quantitative analysis in the Progress Indicator process. 53 of those are included in the quantitative analysis. This report provides information on the categorization of all of the addenda, a summary of the content, and deeper explanation of the impact and modeling of 53 identified addenda with quantitative savings.

  2. Potential Offshore Wind Energy Applications for Enhanced Resolution Scatterometer Products (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagge, A. M.; Epps, B.

    2013-12-01

    The multi-decadal record of ocean surface vector winds provided by scatterometer measurements is a valuable resource that has been underutilized by the wind energy sector. Previously, these data were not considered applicable for offshore wind energy analysis; chiefly, the sensors' low resolution limited their desirability. Now, however, enhanced products provide high quality wind vectors at resolutions between 3 and 5km. Potential energy applications currently under investigation include (1) validation of existing commercial wind resource assessment models, (2) investigations of interactions between large existing wind farms and the atmospheric boundary layer including attempts to identify wakes, and (3) an extension of previous studies comparing SAR and scatterometer wind fields with regard to specific wind energy concerns, including wind spectra and Weibull parameters.

  3. Low energy nuclear spin excitations in Ho metal investigated by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Tapan; Jalarvo, Niina

    2013-04-17

    We have investigated the low energy excitations in metallic Ho by high resolution neutron spectroscopy. We found at T = 3 K clear inelastic peaks in the energy loss and energy gain sides, along with the central elastic peak. The energy of this low energy excitation, which is 26.59 ± 0.02 μeV at T = 3 K, decreased continuously and became zero at TN ≈ 130 K. By fitting the data in the temperature range 100-127.5 K with a power law we obtained the power-law exponent β = 0.37 ± 0.02, which agrees with the expected value β = 0.367 for a three-dimensional Heisenberg model. Thus the energy of the low energy excitations can be associated with the order parameter.

  4. Angular Resolution of an EAS Array for Gamma Ray Astronomy at Energies Greater Than 5 x 10 (13) Ev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apte, A. R.; Gopalakrishnan, N. V.; Tonwar, S. C.; Uma, V.

    1985-01-01

    A 24 detector extensive air shower array is being operated at Ootacamund (2300 m altitude, 11.4 deg N latitude) in southern India for a study of arrival directions of showers of energies greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV. Various configurations of the array of detectors have been used to estimate the accuracy in determination of arrival angle of showers with such an array. These studies show that it is possible to achieve an angular resolution of better than 2 deg with the Ooty array for search for point sources of Cosmic gamma rays at energies above 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV.

  5. High resolution energy loss research: Si compound ceramics and composites. [1990 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R W; Lin, S H

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses proposed work on silicon compound ceramics and composites. High resolution composition and structure analysis of interfaces in ceramic and metal matrix composites and certain grain boundaries in silicon and its interfaces with oxides and nitrides is proposed. Composition and bonding analysis will be done with high spatial resolution (20 Angstroms or better) parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy using a field emission analytical electron microscope. Structural analysis will be done at the 1.8 Angstrom resolution level at 200kV by HREM. Theoretical electron energy loss cross section computations will be used to interpret electronic structure of these materials. Both self-consistent field MO and multiple scattering computational methods are being done and evaluated.

  6. Energy and coincidence time resolution measurements of CdTe detectors for PET.

    PubMed

    Ariño, G; Chmeissani, M; De Lorenzo, G; Puigdengoles, C; Cabruja, E; Calderón, Y; Kolstein, M; Macias-Montero, J G; Martinez, R; Mikhaylova, E; Uzun, D

    2013-02-01

    We report on the characterization of 2 mm thick CdTe diode detector with Schottky contacts to be employed in a novel conceptual design of PET scanner. Results at -8°C with an applied bias voltage of -1000 V/mm show a 1.2% FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV. Coincidence time resolution has been measured by triggering on the preamplifier output signal to improve the timing resolution of the detector. Results at the same bias and temperature conditions show a FWHM of 6 ns with a minimum acceptance energy of 500 keV. These results show that pixelated CdTe Schottky diode is an excellent candidate for the development of next generation nuclear medical imaging devices such as PET, Compton gamma cameras, and especially PET-MRI hybrid systems when used in a magnetic field immune configuration.

  7. Energy and coincidence time resolution measurements of CdTe detectors for PET

    PubMed Central

    Ariño, G.; Chmeissani, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Puigdengoles, C.; Cabruja, E.; Calderón, Y.; Kolstein, M.; Macias-Montero, J.G.; Martinez, R.; Mikhaylova, E.; Uzun, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the characterization of 2 mm thick CdTe diode detector with Schottky contacts to be employed in a novel conceptual design of PET scanner. Results at −8°C with an applied bias voltage of −1000 V/mm show a 1.2% FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV. Coincidence time resolution has been measured by triggering on the preamplifier output signal to improve the timing resolution of the detector. Results at the same bias and temperature conditions show a FWHM of 6 ns with a minimum acceptance energy of 500 keV. These results show that pixelated CdTe Schottky diode is an excellent candidate for the development of next generation nuclear medical imaging devices such as PET, Compton gamma cameras, and especially PET-MRI hybrid systems when used in a magnetic field immune configuration. PMID:23750177

  8. Energy and coincidence time resolution measurements of CdTe detectors for PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariño, G.; Chmeissani, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Puigdengoles, C.; Cabruja, E.; Calderón, Y.; Kolstein, M.; Macias-Montero, J. G.; Martinez, R.; Mikhaylova, E.; Uzun, D.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the characterization of 2 mm thick CdTe diode detector with Schottky contacts to be employed in a novel conceptual design of PET scanner. Results at -8°C with an applied bias voltage of -1000 V/mm show a 1.2% FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV. Coincidence time resolution has been measured by triggering on the preamplifier output signal to improve the timing resolution of the detector. Results at the same bias and temperature conditions show a FWHM of 6 ns with a minimum acceptance energy of 500 keV. These results show that pixelated CdTe Schottky diode is an excellent candidate for the development of next generation nuclear medical imaging devices such as PET, Compton gamma cameras, and especially PET-MRI hybrid systems when used in a magnetic field immune configuration.

  9. Improving Alpha Spectrometry Energy Resolution by Ion Implantation with ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, Michael P.; Liezers, Martin; Farmer, Orville T.; Miller, Brian W.; Morley, Shannon M.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    We report results of a novel technique using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) as a method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry. This method produced thin, contaminant free 241Am samples which yielded extraordinary energy resolution which appear to be at the lower limit of the detection technology used in this research.

  10. Development of mm2-size high energy resolution X-ray detectors using W-SPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angloher, G.; Bento, A.; Kraus, H.; Pröbst, F.; Seidel, W.

    2002-02-01

    The low transition temperature of tungsten should allow fabrication of X-ray detectors combining high-energy resolution and enlarged absorber area (~1 mm2). We present first results obtained for lead and gold absorbers read out by tungsten superconducting phase transition thermometers (W-SPT) using a variety of detector geometries. .

  11. Superconducting gamma and fast-neutron spectrometers with high energy resolution

    DOEpatents

    Friedrich, Stephan; , Niedermayr, Thomas R.; Labov, Simon E.

    2008-11-04

    Superconducting Gamma-ray and fast-neutron spectrometers with very high energy resolution operated at very low temperatures are provided. The sensor consists of a bulk absorber and a superconducting thermometer weakly coupled to a cold reservoir, and determines the energy of the incident particle from the rise in temperature upon absorption. A superconducting film operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state is used as the thermometer, and sensor operation at reservoir temperatures around 0.1 K reduces thermal fluctuations and thus enables very high energy resolution. Depending on the choice of absorber material, the spectrometer can be configured either as a Gamma-spectrometer or as a fast-neutron spectrometer.

  12. Observations of unstained biological specimens using a low-energy, high-resolution STEM.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Akio; Hasegawa, Toshiaki

    2006-06-01

    Low-energy, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is introduced as a convenient method for observing unstained biological specimens. By reducing the electron energy, the cross section for light elements becomes comparable to that of conventional electron microscopy observations. The STEM mode exhibited the advantage that the induced energy loss and charge build-up in the sample affected the image to a lesser extent than in the TEM or SEM mode. Furthermore, the efficiency of an STEM detector is high, and the total radiation damage can be reduced if thermal damage due to localized heating at a slow scan operation can be overcome. We applied this method for observations of biological samples that were in the form of thin slices, fine fibers and small particles. When the supporting film for samples is absent, the resolution and the contrast of STEM images can be maintained similar to SEM and TEM images, respectively.

  13. On reachable energy resolution of SiPM based scintillation counters for X-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuper, K. E.; Oleynikov, V. P.; Porosev, V. V.; Savinov, G. A.; Drozdowski, W.

    2017-01-01

    Presently, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very attractive devices to replace photomultipliers for light detection in many different fields. For example, they could be used in detectors of photons with energies of 20-150 keV for medical and nondestructive testing applications. The small size and high electron gain of SiPMs make them very attractive candidates for pixelated X-ray detectors operating in a photon counting mode. In this research we evaluated the detector performance that can be reached with up-to-date Lu-based scintillators. Application of LYSO:Ce and LFS-3 scintillators provides high count rate capability because of a short scintillator decay time of ~ 40 ns but enables reaching just a moderate energy resolution. Meanwhile, with a LuYAG:Pr scintillator of quite low non-proportionality one can attain much better energy resolution at a reduced rate.

  14. High-resolution monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy of organic photovoltaic materials.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jessica A; Scheltens, Frank J; Drummy, Lawrence F; Durstock, Michael F; Hage, Fredrik S; Ramasse, Quentin M; McComb, David W

    2017-03-02

    Advances in electron monochromator technology are providing opportunities for high energy resolution (10 - 200meV) electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to be performed in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The energy-loss near-edge structure in core-loss spectroscopy is often limited by core-hole lifetimes rather than the energy spread of the incident illumination. However, in the valence-loss region, the reduced width of the zero loss peak makes it possible to resolve clearly and unambiguously spectral features at very low energy-losses (<3eV). In this contribution, high-resolution EELS was used to investigate four materials commonly used in organic photovoltaics (OPVs): poly(3-hexlythiophene) (P3HT), [6,6] phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and fullerene (C60). Data was collected on two different monochromated instruments - a Nion UltraSTEM 100 MC 'HERMES' and a FEI Titan(3) 60-300 Image-Corrected S/TEM - using energy resolutions (as defined by the zero loss peak full-width at half-maximum) of 35meV and 175meV, respectively. The data was acquired to allow deconvolution of plural scattering, and Kramers-Kronig analysis was utilized to extract the complex dielectric functions. The real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric functions obtained from the two instruments were compared to evaluate if the enhanced resolution in the Nion provides new opto-electronic information for these organic materials. The differences between the spectra are discussed, and the implications for STEM-EELS studies of advanced materials are considered.

  15. Identifying high energy density stream-reaches through refined geospatial resolution in hydropower resource assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yang, Majntxov; Yeasmin, Dilruba; ...

    2016-01-07

    Benefited from the rapid development of multiple geospatial data sets on topography, hydrology, and existing energy-water infrastructures, the reconnaissance level hydropower resource assessment can now be conducted using geospatial models in all regions of the US. Furthermore, the updated techniques can be used to estimate the total undeveloped hydropower potential across all regions, and may eventually help identify further hydropower opportunities that were previously overlooked. To enhance the characterization of higher energy density stream-reaches, this paper explored the sensitivity of geospatial resolution on the identification of hydropower stream-reaches using the geospatial merit matrix based hydropower resource assessment (GMM-HRA) model. GMM-HRAmore » model simulation was conducted with eight different spatial resolutions on six U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 8-digit hydrologic units (HUC8) located at three different terrains; Flat, Mild, and Steep. The results showed that more hydropower potential from higher energy density stream-reaches can be identified with increasing spatial resolution. Both Flat and Mild terrains exhibited lower impacts compared to the Steep terrain. Consequently, greater attention should be applied when selecting the discretization resolution for hydropower resource assessments in the future study.« less

  16. Identifying high energy density stream-reaches through refined geospatial resolution in hydropower resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yang, Majntxov; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Saetern, Sen; Kao, Shih -Chieh; Smith, Brennan T.

    2016-01-07

    Benefited from the rapid development of multiple geospatial data sets on topography, hydrology, and existing energy-water infrastructures, the reconnaissance level hydropower resource assessment can now be conducted using geospatial models in all regions of the US. Furthermore, the updated techniques can be used to estimate the total undeveloped hydropower potential across all regions, and may eventually help identify further hydropower opportunities that were previously overlooked. To enhance the characterization of higher energy density stream-reaches, this paper explored the sensitivity of geospatial resolution on the identification of hydropower stream-reaches using the geospatial merit matrix based hydropower resource assessment (GMM-HRA) model. GMM-HRA model simulation was conducted with eight different spatial resolutions on six U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 8-digit hydrologic units (HUC8) located at three different terrains; Flat, Mild, and Steep. The results showed that more hydropower potential from higher energy density stream-reaches can be identified with increasing spatial resolution. Both Flat and Mild terrains exhibited lower impacts compared to the Steep terrain. Consequently, greater attention should be applied when selecting the discretization resolution for hydropower resource assessments in the future study.

  17. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  18. Sustainable energy for all. Technical report of task force 1 in support of the objective to achieve universal access to modern energy services by 2030

    SciTech Connect

    Birol, Fatih

    2012-04-15

    The UN Secretary General established the Sustainable Energy for All initiative in order to guide and support efforts to achieve universal access to modern energy, rapidly increase energy efficiency, and expand the use of renewable energies. Task forces were formed involving prominent energy leaders and experts from business, government, academia and civil society worldwide. The goal of the Task Forces is to inform the implementation of the initiative by identifying challenges and opportunities for achieving its objectives. This report contains the findings of Task Force One which is dedicated to the objective of achieving universal access to modern energy services by 2030. The report shows that universal energy access can be realized by 2030 with strong, focused actions set within a coordinated framework.

  19. Wavelet multi-resolution analysis of energy transfer in turbulent premixed flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeonglae; Bassenne, Maxime; Towery, Colin; Poludnenko, Alexei; Hamlington, Peter; Ihme, Matthias; Urzay, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed flames are examined using wavelet multi-resolution analyses (WMRA) as a diagnostics tool to evaluate the spatially localized inter-scale energy transfer in reacting flows. In non-reacting homogeneous-isotropic turbulence, the net energy transfer occurs from large to small scales on average, thus following the classical Kolmogorov energy cascade. However, in turbulent flames, our prior work suggests that thermal expansion leads to a small-scale pressure-work contribution that transfers energy in an inverse cascade on average, which has important consequences for LES modeling of reacting flows. The current study employs WMRA to investigate, simultaneously in physical and spectral spaces, the characteristics of this combustion-induced backscatter effect. The WMRA diagnostics provide spatial statistics of the spectra, scale-conditioned intermittency of velocity and vorticity, along with energy-transfer fluxes conditioned on the local progress variable.

  20. The effect of energy deposition on pattern resolution in electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Ananthan

    Electron beam lithography is one of the most important tools for nanofabrication. Electron beam lithography has consistently been able to offer higher resolution, typically better than 10 nm or so, compared to other techniques. In this work the contribution of electron-substrate interaction to pattern resolution is investigated. In electron beam lithography the incident beam is scattered in the resist-substrate stack by a combination of elastic and inelastic events which is described by the point spread function. Using a Vistec VB300 Gaussian beam lithography tool operating at 100 keV the experimental point spread function is investigated by a technique called point exposure distribution measurements. The experimental results indicate that the scattering in the sub-100 nm range shows several orders of the magnitude difference with that obtained via Monte Carlo simulations. In high energy electron beam lithography where forward scattering in small, contribution of secondary electrons generated by the primary beam must be taken into account. The chemical change leading to resist exposure is through bond scission, which is typically a low energy event between 3 -- 5 eV. Compared to the primary beam, the secondary electrons have a significantly higher probability of scission due to their lower energy. These secondary electrons are also generated with large emission angles and can travel several nanometers, leading to an increase in observed line widths compared to the size of the beam. An analytical model developed here, that considers the energy deposited by the secondary electrons, is able to predict the dependence of dose on observed diameter to within a reasonable accuracy. This technique used in conjunction with the knowledge of resist contrast is also indicative of pattern resolution limits in high energy electron beam lithography. It is also found that for negative resists, backscatter effects and resist contrast significantly degrade the resolution for large

  1. High-resolution surface charge image achieved by a multiforce sensor based on a quartz tuning fork in electrostatic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-yong; Bao, Jian-bin; Zhang, Hong-hai; Guo, Wen-ming

    2002-08-01

    A multiforce sensor was fabricated by attaching a tiny tungsten tip to a tuning fork. By operating an ac modulation bias on the minitip of the needle sensor, we have achieved a dynamic noncontact mode electrostatic force microscope with high spatial resolution. It can utilize the van der Waals force and electrostatic force signals between the microtip and the sample, respectively, to obtain the images of topography and quantitative surface charge density of an open-gate field effect transistor simultaneously.

  2. Achieving Superior Tropical Cyclone Intensity Forecasts by Improving the Assimilation of High-Resolution Satellite Data into Mesoscale Prediction Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    intensity analyses/predictions is being assessed. The main science focus is on investigating and understanding how the assimilation of the satellite...the impact of the enhanced AMV observations at high model resolution (i.e. ɜkm spacing). It involves sampling an ensemble of bogus vortices from...specifically for implementation as a hybrid data assimilation system using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Among many other advantages

  3. A method for achieving an order-of-magnitude increase in the temporal resolution of a standard CRT computer monitor.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, Matthew P; Eagleman, David M

    2008-09-15

    As the frequency of a flickering light is increased, the perception of flicker is replaced by the perception of steady light at what is known as the critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT). This threshold provides a useful measure of the brain's information processing speed, and has been used in medicine for over a century both for diagnostic and drug efficacy studies. However, the hardware for presenting the stimulus has not advanced to take advantage of computers, largely because the refresh rates of typical monitors are too slow to provide fine-grained changes in the alternation rate of a visual stimulus. For example, a cathode ray tube (CRT) computer monitor running at 100Hz will render a new frame every 10 ms, thus restricting the period of a flickering stimulus to multiples of 20 ms. These multiples provide a temporal resolution far too low to make precise threshold measurements, since typical CFFT values are in the neighborhood of 35 ms. We describe here a simple and novel technique to enable alternating images at several closely-spaced periods on a standard monitor. The key to our technique is to programmatically control the video card to dynamically reset the refresh rate of the monitor. Different refresh rates allow slightly different frame durations; this can be leveraged to vastly increase the resolution of stimulus presentation times. This simple technique opens new inroads for experiments on computers that require more finely-spaced temporal resolution than a monitor at a single, fixed refresh rate can allow.

  4. Development of a High Resolution Liquid Xenon Imaging Telescope for Medium Energy Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1992-01-01

    In the third year of the research project, we have (1) tested a 3.5 liter prototype of the Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber, (2) used a prototype having a 4.4 cm drift gap to study the charge and energy resolution response of the 3.5 liter chamber, (3) obtained an energy resolution as good as that previously measured by us using chambers with drift gaps of the order of millimeters, (4) observed the induction signals produced by MeV gamma rays, (4) used the 20 hybrid charge sensitive preamplifiers for a nondestructive readout of the electron image on the induction wires, (5) performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations to obtain results on efficiency, background rejection capability, and source flux sensitivity, and (6) developed a reconstruction algorithm for events with multiple interaction points.

  5. Attojoule energy resolution of direct detector based on hot electron bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstov, S. V.; Rusova, A. A.; Kaurova, N. S.; Voronov, B. M.; Goltsman, G. N.

    2016-08-01

    We characterize superconducting antenna-coupled NbN hot-electron bolometer (HEB) for direct detection of THz radiation operating at a temperature of 9.0 K. At signal frequency of 2.5 THz, the measured value of the optical noise equivalent power is 2.0×10-13 W-Hz-0.5. The estimated value of the energy resolution is about 1.5 aJ. This value was confirmed in the experiment with pulsed 1.55-μm laser employed as a radiation source. The directly measured detector energy resolution is 2 aJ. The obtained risetime of pulses from the detector is 130 ps. This value was determined by the properties of the RF line. These characteristics make our detector a device-of-choice for a number of practical applications associated with detection of short THz pulses.

  6. Novel Equipment for In Situ Alpha Spectrometry with Good Energy Resolution.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, Roy; Turunen, Jani; Karhunen, Tero; Peräjärvi, Kari; Siiskonen, Teemu; Wirta, Markus; Turunen, Asko

    2015-12-01

    An approach for in situ alpha spectrometry that allows one to measure the spectra with good energy resolution at ambient air pressure has been developed recently. Here, novel equipment is introduced for in situ measurements. Neither vacuum pumps nor radiochemical sample processing are necessary. Flat and smooth surfaces are ideal sources provided that the radionuclide contamination represents a thin layer on the surface. Other sources, such as air filters or evaporation residues, are also possible. Alpha particle collimation is used to obtain good energy resolution, but the equipment can also be used without collimation. An estimation of the detection efficiency with and without collimation is given using an extended area source containing 241Am.

  7. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    This case study describes how the U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, Minnesota, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  8. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-01

    The U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, MN, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  9. Divergence identities in curved space-time a resolution of the stress-energy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Hüseyin

    1989-03-01

    It is noted that the joint use of two basic differential identities in curved space-time, namely, 1) the Einstein-Hilbert identity (1915), and 2) the identity of P. Freud (1939), permits a viable alternative to general relativity and a resolution of the "field stress-energy" problem of the gravitational theory. (A tribute to Eugene P. Wigner's 1957 presidential address to the APS)

  10. High-resolution submicron retarding field energy analyzer for low-temperature plasma analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blain, M. G.; Stevens, J. E.; Woodworth, J. R.

    1999-12-20

    A retarding potential energy analyzer having 750 nm diameter, self-aligned grid apertures and micron scale grid separation has been fabricated using polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide. High-resolution in situ measurements of ion velocity distributions have been demonstrated in inductively coupled argon plasmas. Measurement results agree well with those from a macroscopic analyzer. Important differences are observed in the energies of plasma ions when measured with respect to chamber wall versus those measured with respect to the plasma floating potential. Preliminary measurements under rf bias conditions have also been made and results follow the expected trends. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Superconducting tunneling-junction detectors of X-ray radiation. Issues concerning the energy resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, V. A. Gor'kov, V. P. Koshelets, V. P. Filippenko, L. V.

    2007-02-15

    The effect of the recombination-and edge-related losses of nonequilibrium quasiparticles on the energy resolution of superconducting tunneling detectors is studied. The dependence of the signal on the energy of X-ray photons is measured and the shape of instrument-related lines is studied for the Ti/Nb/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al/Nb/NbN detectors with the Ti/Nb passive electrode. Experimental data are analyzed using the diffusion-based model of tunneling detectors.

  12. High-spin research with HERA (High Energy-Resolution Array)

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The topic of this report is high spin research with the High Energy Resolution Array (HERA) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This is a 21 Ge detector system, the first with bismuth germanate (BGO) Compton suppression. The array is described briefly and some of the results obtained during the past year using this detector facility are discussed. Two types of studies are described: observation of superdeformation in the light Nd isotopes, and rotational damping at high spin and excitation energy in the continuum gamma ray spectrum.

  13. Energy-level statistics in the fine conformational resolution of RNA folding dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel; Burastero, Teresita; Salthú, Rodolfo; Tablar, Ana

    1999-11-01

    This work is aimed at determining the energy-level statistics of the fine resolution of soft-mode dynamics warranting an adiabatically simplified structural relaxation of a folding biopolymer chain. The parameters defining the intrabasin structure relaxation are specified for RNA, so that each Watson-Crick base-pairing pattern may be treated as a quasiequilibrium ensemble of substates or torsional isomers within relevant folding time scales. The temperature-dependent threshold for energy dispersion associated with the fine structure of each superbasin is determined so as to warrant the adiabatic entrainment of the torsional dynamics.

  14. Scintillating screens sensitivity and resolution studies for low energy, low intensity beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Harasimowicz, Janusz; Welsch, Carsten P.; Cosentino, Luigi; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Pappalardo, Alfio

    2010-10-15

    In order to investigate the limits of scintillating screens for beam profile monitoring in the ultra-low energy, ultra-low intensity regime, CsI:Tl, YAG:Ce, and a Tb glass-based scintillating fiber optic plate (SFOP) were tested. The screens response to 200 and 50 keV proton beams with intensities ranging from a few picoampere down to the subfemtoampere region was examined. In the following paper, the sensitivity and resolution studies are presented in detail for CsI:Tl and the SFOP, the two most sensitive screens. In addition, a possible use of scintillators for ultra-low energy antiproton beam monitoring is discussed.

  15. Monte Carlo Simulations of Ultra-High Energy Resolution Gamma Detectors for Nuclear Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Robles, A; Drury, O B; Friedrich, S

    2009-08-19

    Ultra-high energy resolution superconducting gamma-ray detectors can improve the accuracy of non-destructive analysis for unknown radioactive materials. These detectors offer an order of magnitude improvement in resolution over conventional high purity germanium detectors. The increase in resolution reduces errors from line overlap and allows for the identification of weaker gamma-rays by increasing the magnitude of the peaks above the background. In order to optimize the detector geometry and to understand the spectral response function Geant4, a Monte Carlo simulation package coded in C++, was used to model the detectors. Using a 1 mm{sup 3} Sn absorber and a monochromatic gamma source, different absorber geometries were tested. The simulation was expanded to include the Cu block behind the absorber and four layers of shielding required for detector operation at 0.1 K. The energy spectrum was modeled for an Am-241 and a Cs-137 source, including scattering events in the shielding, and the results were compared to experimental data. For both sources the main spectral features such as the photopeak, the Compton continuum, the escape x-rays and the backscatter peak were identified. Finally, the low energy response of a Pu-239 source was modeled to assess the feasibility of Pu-239 detection in spent fuel. This modeling of superconducting detectors can serve as a guide to optimize the configuration in future spectrometer designs.

  16. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-06-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400-800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively.

  17. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400–800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  18. A new technique of beam energy resolution by using only quadrupole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, P. R.

    2003-08-01

    In the standard technique of beam energy resolution one uses the property of momentum dispersion by dipole magnets. It is shown that one can, alternatively, use three quadrupole magnets to select the beam momentum or energy. The lengths and magnetic fields of the quadrupoles can be adjusted to focus the particles of the required energy and simultaneously defocus the particles of higher or lower energies. For obtaining a very high resolving power one can use such triplets in cascade. The resolving powers of these are multiplicative, whereas in the case of dipoles one can use just two bending magnets for roughly doubling the resolving power. This method is different from the technique used in quadrupole mass filters where RF field is used in quadrupoles.

  19. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  20. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10(13) photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO2 converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  1. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-19

    have recently been proposed for energy production, is critically reviewed. There are major challenges remaining that are shortly outlined. Scientific/technical achievements that are required in the light of the Fukushima accident are highlighted.

  2. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-01

    recently been proposed for energy production, is critically reviewed. There are major challenges remaining that are shortly outlined. Scientific/technical achievements that are required in the light of the Fukushima accident are highlighted.

  3. Computed tomography dosimetry with high-resolution detectors commonly used in radiotherapy - an energy dependence study.

    PubMed

    Liebmann, Mario; Poppe, Bjoern; von Boetticher, Heiner

    2015-09-08

    New methods of dosimetry in computed tomography (CT) X-ray fields require the use of high-resolution detectors instead of pencil-type ionization chambers typically used for CT dose index (CTDI) measurements. This paper presents a study on the suitability of a wide range of ionization chambers, diodes, and a two-dimensional detector array, used primarily in radiation therapy, for CT and cone-beam CT dosimetry. Specifically, the energy dependence of these detectors from 50 kVp up to 125 kVp is reported. All measurements were performed in reference to a calibrated diode for use in this energy region. The radiation quality correction factors provided by the manufacturer were used, depending on the measured half-value layer (HVL) for the particular X-ray beam. Our study demonstrated the general usability of thimble ionization chambers. These thimble ionization chambers showed a maximum variation in energy response of 5%. Ionization chambers with even smaller sensitive volume, and which exhibit similar variation in energy dependence, can be used if higher spatial resolution is required. Furthermore, the investigated detectors are better suited for dosimetry at CT and CBCT units than conventional large volume or flat detectors, due to their rotational symmetry. Nevertheless, a flat detector can be used for certain measurement tasks, such as the acquisition of percent depth-dose curves or beam profiles for nonrotating beams, which are important for beam characterization.

  4. Theoretical consideration of the energy resolution in planar HPGe detectors for low energy X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, theoretical consideration of the processes in planar High Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors for low energy X-rays using the random stochastic processes formalism was carried out. Using the random stochastic processes formalism, the generating function of the processes of X-rays registration in a planar HPGe detector was derived. The power serial expansions of the detector amplitude and the variance in terms of the inverse bias voltage were derived. The coefficients of these expansions allow determining the Fano factor, electron mobility lifetime product, nonuniformity of the trap density, and other characteristics of the semiconductor material. (authors)

  5. Water and energy link in the cities of the future - achieving net zero carbon and pollution emissions footprint.

    PubMed

    Novotny, V

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the link between water conservation, reclamation, reuse and energy use as related to the goal of achieving the net zero carbon emission footprint in future sustainable cities. It defines sustainable ecocities and outlines quantitatively steps towards the reduction of energy use due to water and used water flows, management and limits in linear and closed loop water/stormwater/wastewater management systems. The three phase water energy nexus diagram may have a minimum inflection point beyond which reduction of water demand may not result in a reduction of energy and carbon emissions. Hence, water conservation is the best alternative solution to water shortages and minimizing the carbon footprint. A marginal water/energy chart is developed and proposed to assist planners in developing future ecocities and retrofitting older communities to achieve sustainability.

  6. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  7. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolosi, Marco; Mills, Andrew D; Wiser, Ryan H

    2010-10-08

    Traditionally, modeling investment and dispatch problems in electricity economics has been limited by computation power. Due to this limitation, simplifications are applied. One common practice, for example, is to reduce the temporal resolution of the dispatch by clustering similar load levels. The increase of intermittent electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) changes the validity of this assumption. RES-E already cover a certain amount of the total demand. This leaves an increasingly volatile residual demand to be matched by the conventional power market. This paper quantifies differences in investment decisions by applying three different time-resolution residual load patterns in an investment and dispatch power system model. The model optimizes investment decisions in five year steps between today and 2030 with residual load levels for 8760, 288 and 16 time slices per year. The market under consideration is the four zone ERCOT market in Texas. The results show that investment decisions significantly differ across the three scenarios. In particular, investments into base-load technologies are substantially reduced in the high resolution scenario (8760 residual load levels) relative to the scenarios with lower temporal resolution. Additionally, the amount of RES-E curtailment and the market value of RES-E exhibit noteworthy differences.

  8. The Effect of Gamma-ray Detector Energy Resolution on the Ability to Identify Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K E; Gosnell, T B; Knapp, D A

    2009-03-05

    This report describes the results of an initial study on radiation detector spectral resolution, along with the underlying methodology used. The study was done as part of an ongoing effort in Detection Modeling and Operational Analysis (DMOA) for the DNDO System Architecture Directorate. The study objective was to assess the impact of energy resolution on radionuclide identification capability, measured by the ability to reliably discriminate between spectra associated with 'threats' (defined as fissile materials) and radioactive 'non-threats' that might be present in the normal stream of commerce. Although numerous factors must be considered in deciding which detector technology is appropriate for a specific application, spectral resolution is a critical one for homeland security applications in which a broad range of non-threat sources are present and very low false-alarm rates are required. In this study, we have proposed a metric for quantifying discrimination capability, and have shown how this metric depends on resolution. In future work we will consider other important factors, such as efficiency and volume, and the relative frequency of spectra known to be discrimination challenges in practical applications.

  9. Energy optimization of a regular macromolecular crystallography beamline for ultra-high-resolution crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, Gerd; Ginell, Stephan L.; Chen, Julian C.-H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a practical method for operating existing undulator synchrotron beamlines at photon energies considerably higher than their standard operating range is described and applied at beamline 19-ID of the Structural Biology Center at the Advanced Photon Source enabling operation at 30 keV. Adjustments to the undulator spectrum were critical to enhance the 30 keV flux while reducing the lower- and higher-energy harmonic contamination. A Pd-coated mirror and Al attenuators acted as effective low- and high-bandpass filters. The resulting flux at 30 keV, although significantly lower than with X-ray optics designed and optimized for this energy, allowed for accurate data collection on crystals of the small protein crambin to 0.38 Å resolution.

  10. Energy optimization of a regular macromolecular crystallography beamline for ultra-high-resolution crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenbaum, Gerd; Ginell, Stephan L.; Chen, Julian C.-H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a practical method for operating existing undulator synchrotron beamlines at photon energies considerably higher than their standard operating range is described and applied at beamline 19-ID of the Structural Biology Center at the Advanced Photon Source enabling operation at 30 keV. Adjustments to the undulator spectrum were critical to enhance the 30 keV flux while reducing the lower- and higher-energy harmonic contamination. A Pd-coated mirror and Al attenuators acted as effective low- and high-bandpass filters. The resulting flux at 30 keV, although significantly lower than with X-ray optics designed and optimized for this energy, allowed for accuratemore » data collection on crystals of the small protein crambin to 0.38 Å resolution.« less

  11. Testing the limits of Paleozoic chronostratigraphic correlation via high-resolution (13Ccarb) biochemostratigraphy across the Llandovery–Wenlock (Silurian) boundary: Is a unified Phanerozoic time scale achievable?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Loydell, David K.; Samtleben, Christian; Munnecke, Axel; Kaljo, Dimitri; Mannik, Peep; Martma, Tonu; Jeppsson, Lennart; Kleffner, Mark A.; Barrick, James E.; Johnson, Craig A.; Emsbo, Poul; Joachimski, Michael M.; Bickert, Torsten; Saltzman, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The resolution and fidelity of global chronostratigraphic correlation are direct functions of the time period under consideration. By virtue of deep-ocean cores and astrochronology, the Cenozoic and Mesozoic time scales carry error bars of a few thousand years (k.y.) to a few hundred k.y. In contrast, most of the Paleozoic time scale carries error bars of plus or minus a few million years (m.y.), and chronostratigraphic control better than ??1 m.y. is considered "high resolution." The general lack of Paleozoic abyssal sediments and paucity of orbitally tuned Paleozoic data series combined with the relative incompleteness of the Paleozoic stratigraphic record have proven historically to be such an obstacle to intercontinental chronostratigraphic correlation that resolving the Paleozoic time scale to the level achieved during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic was viewed as impractical, impossible, or both. Here, we utilize integrated graptolite, conodont, and carbonate carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) data from three paleocontinents (Baltica, Avalonia, and Laurentia) to demonstrate chronostratigraphic control for upper Llando very through middle Wenlock (Telychian-Sheinwoodian, ~436-426 Ma) strata with a resolution of a few hundred k.y. The interval surrounding the base of the Wenlock Series can now be correlated globally with precision approaching 100 k.y., but some intervals (e.g., uppermost Telychian and upper Shein-woodian) are either yet to be studied in sufficient detail or do not show sufficient biologic speciation and/or extinction or carbon isotopic features to delineate such small time slices. Although producing such resolution during the Paleozoic presents an array of challenges unique to the era, we have begun to demonstrate that erecting a Paleozoic time scale comparable to that of younger eras is achievable. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  12. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Cruciani, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Tomei, C.

    2015-08-01

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm2 are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm2 silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σE = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  13. A cryogenically cooled, ultra-high-energy-resolution, trap-based positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Natisin, M. R. Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.

    2016-01-11

    A technique is described to produce a pulsed, magnetically guided positron beam with significantly improved beam characteristics over those available previously. A pulsed, room-temperature positron beam from a buffer gas trap is used as input to a trap that captures the positrons, compresses them both radially and axially, and cools them to 50 K on a cryogenic CO buffer gas before ejecting them as a pulsed beam. The total energy spread of the beam formed using this technique is 6.9 ± 0.7 meV FWHM, which is a factor of ∼5 better than the previous state-of-the-art, while simultaneously having sub-microsecond temporal resolution and millimeter spatial resolution. Possible further improvements in beam quality are discussed.

  14. High Spatial Resolution STXM at 6.2 keV Photon Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Kewish, Cameron M.; Thibault, Pierre; Guzenko, Vitaliy; Gorelick, Sergey; Menzel, Andreas; Bunk, Oliver; David, Christian; Dierolf, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Pilvi, Tero; Faerm, Elina; Ritala, Mikko

    2010-04-06

    We report on a zone-doubling technique that bypasses the electron-beam lithography limitations for the production of X-ray diffractive optics and enables the fabrication of Fresnel zone plates with smaller outermost zone widths than other well-established approaches. We have applied this method to manufacture hard X-ray Fresnel zone plates with outermost zone widths of 25 and 20 nm. These lenses have been tested in scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at energies up to 6.2 keV, producing images of test structures that demonstrate a spatial resolution of 25 nm. High spatial resolution STXM images of several biological specimens have been acquired in transmission, dark-field and differential phase contrast modes.

  15. The Marriage of Residential Energy Codes and Rating Systems: Conflict Resolution or Just Conflict?

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-08-21

    After three decades of coexistence at a distance, model residential energy codes and residential energy rating systems have come together in the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code. At the October, 2013, International Code Council’s Public Comment Hearing, a new compliance path based on an Energy Rating Index was added to the IECC. Although not specifically named in the code, RESNET’s HERS rating system is the likely candidate Index for most jurisdictions. While HERS has been a mainstay in various beyond-code programs for many years, its direct incorporation into the most popular model energy code raises questions about the equivalence of a HERS-based compliance path and the traditional IECC performance compliance path, especially because the two approaches use different efficiency metrics, are governed by different simulation rules, and have different scopes with regard to energy impacting house features. A detailed simulation analysis of more than 15,000 house configurations reveals a very large range of HERS Index values that achieve equivalence with the IECC’s performance path. This paper summarizes the results of that analysis and evaluates those results against the specific Energy Rating Index values required by the 2015 IECC. Based on the home characteristics most likely to result in disparities between HERS-based compliance and performance path compliance, potential impacts on the compliance process, state and local adoption of the new code, energy efficiency in the next generation of homes subject to this new code, and future evolution of model code formats are discussed.

  16. SU-E-J-126: Respiratory Gating Quality Assurance: A Simple Method to Achieve Millisecond Temporal Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B; Wiersma, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Low temporal latency between a gating on/off signal and a linac beam on/off during respiratory gating is critical for patient safety. Although, a measurement of temporal lag is recommended by AAPM Task Group 142 for commissioning and annual quality assurance, there currently exists no published method. Here we describe a simple, inexpensive, and reliable method to precisely measure gating lag at millisecond resolutions. Methods: A Varian Real-time Position Management™ (RPM) gating simulator with rotating disk was modified with a resistive flex sensor (Spectra Symbol) attached to the gating box platform. A photon diode was placed at machine isocenter. Output signals of the flex sensor and diode were monitored with a multichannel oscilloscope (Tektronix™ DPO3014). Qualitative inspection of the gating window/beam on synchronicity were made by setting the linac to beam on/off at end-expiration, and the oscilloscope's temporal window to 100 ms to visually examine if the on/off timing was within the recommended 100-ms tolerance. Quantitative measurements were made by saving the signal traces and analyzing in MatLab™. The on and off of the beam signal were located and compared to the expected gating window (e.g. 40% to 60%). Four gating cycles were measured and compared. Results: On a Varian TrueBeam™ STx linac with RPM gating software, the average difference in synchronicity at beam on and off for four cycles was 14 ms (3 to 30 ms) and 11 ms (2 to 32 ms), respectively. For a Varian Clinac™ 21EX the average difference at beam on and off was 127 ms (122 to 133 ms) and 46 ms (42 to 49 ms), respectively. The uncertainty in the synchrony difference was estimated at ±6 ms. Conclusion: This new gating QA method is easy to implement and allows for fast qualitative inspection and quantitative measurements for commissioning and TG-142 annual QA measurements.

  17. Bulk GaN alpha-particle detector with large depletion region and improved energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Mulligan, Padhraic; Wang, Jinghui; Chuirazzi, William; Cao, Lei

    2017-03-01

    An alpha-particle detector was fabricated using a freestanding n-type bulk GaN wafer with a Au/Ni/GaN sandwich Schottky structure. Current-voltage measurements at room temperature revealed a Schottky contact with a leakage current of 7.53±0.3 nA at a reverse bias of 200 V. The detector had a large depletion depth that can capture much of the energy from 5.486 MeV alpha particles emitted from a 241Am source. The resolution of its alpha-particle energy spectrum was improved to 2.2±0.2% at 5.486 MeV under a bias of 550 V. This superior resolution was attributed to the shortening of the carrier transit time and the large energy deposition within the large depletion depth, i.e., 27 μm at -550 V, which all resulted in a more complete charge collection. A model developed using the ATLAS simulation framework from Silvaco Inc. was employed to study the charge collection process. The simulation results were found to agree closely with the experimental results. This detector will be beneficial for research at neutron scattering facilities, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and the Large Hadron Collider, among other institutions, where the Si-based charged particle detectors could be quickly degraded in an intense radiation field.

  18. High time resolution electron measurement by Fast Electron energy Spectrum Analyzer (FESA)

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Fujimoto, Masaki; Maezawa, Kiyoshi; Shinohara, Iku; Tsuda, Yuichi; Sasaki, Shintaro; Kojima, Hirotsugu

    2009-06-16

    We have newly developed an electron energy analyzer FESA (Fast Electron energy Spectrum Analyzer) for a future magnetospheric satellite mission SCOPE. The SCOPE mission is designed in order that observational studies from the cross-scale coupling viewpoint are enabled. One of the key observations necessary for the SCOPE mission is high-time resolution electron measurement. Eight FESAs on a spinning spacecraft are capable of measuring three dimensional electron distribution function with time resolution of 8 msec. FESA consists of two electrostatic analyzers that are composed of three nested hemispherical deflectors. Single FESA functions as four top-hat type electrostatic analyzers that can measure electrons with four different energies simultaneously. By measuring the characteristics of the test model FESA, we proved the validity of the design concept of FESA. Based on the measured characteristics, we designed FESA optimized for the SCOPE mission. This optimized analyzer has good enough performance to measure three dimensional electron distribution functions around the magnetic reconnection region in the Earth's magnetotail.

  19. NASA Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource High Resolution Meteorology Data For Sustainable Building Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project is to adapt and infuse NASA's solar and meteorological data into the energy, agricultural, and architectural industries. Improvements are continuously incorporated when higher resolution and longer-term data inputs become available. Climatological data previously provided via POWER web applications were three-hourly and 1x1 degree latitude/longitude. The NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data set provides higher resolution data products (hourly and 1/2x1/2 degree) covering the entire globe. Currently POWER solar and meteorological data are available for more than 30 years on hourly (meteorological only), daily, monthly and annual time scales. These data may be useful to several renewable energy sectors: solar and wind power generation, agricultural crop modeling, and sustainable buildings. A recent focus has been working with ASHRAE to assess complementing weather station data with MERRA data. ASHRAE building design parameters being investigated include heating/cooling degree days and climate zones.

  20. Improvement of depth resolution of ADF-SCEM by deconvolution: effects of electron energy loss and chromatic aberration on depth resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Takeguchi, Masaki; Hashimoto, Ayako; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Tezuka, Meguru; Shimojo, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) is a new imaging technique that is capable of depth sectioning with nanometer-scale depth resolution. However, the depth resolution in the optical axis direction (Z) is worse than might be expected on the basis of the vertical electron probe size calculated with the existence of spherical aberration. To investigate the origin of the degradation, the effects of electron energy loss and chromatic aberration on the depth resolution of annular dark-field SCEM were studied through both experiments and computational simulations. The simulation results obtained by taking these two factors into consideration coincided well with those obtained by experiments, which proved that electron energy loss and chromatic aberration cause blurs at the overfocus sides of the Z-direction intensity profiles rather than degrade the depth resolution much. In addition, a deconvolution method using a simulated point spread function, which combined two Gaussian functions, was adopted to process the XZ-slice images obtained both from experiments and simulations. As a result, the blurs induced by energy loss and chromatic aberration were successfully removed, and there was also about 30% improvement in the depth resolution in deconvoluting the experimental XZ-slice image.

  1. Establishment and analysis of High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaohang; Liao, Xiaohan; Dong, Wenjie; Yuan, Wenping

    2015-04-01

    For better prediction and understanding of water-energy exchange process and land-atmospheric interaction, the in-situ observed meteorological data which were acquired from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) were assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the monthly Green Vegetation Coverage (GVF) data, which was calculated by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of Earth Observing System Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS), Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) system were also integrated in the WRF model over China. Further, the High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China (HRADC) was produced by WRF model. This dataset include 25 km horizontal resolution near surface meteorological data such as air temperature, humidity, ground temperature, and pressure at 19 levels, soil temperature and soil moisture at 4 levels, green vegetation coverage, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and ground heat flux for 3 hours. In this study, we 1) briefly introduce the cycling 3D-Var assimilation method; 2) Compare results of meteorological elements such as 2 m temperature, precipitation and ground temperature generated by the HRADC with the gridded observation data from CMA, and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) output data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is found that the results of 2 m temperature were improved compared with the control simulation and has effectively reproduced the observed patterns, and the simulated results of ground temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature and specific humidity were as much closer to GLDAS outputs. Root mean square errors are reduced in assimilation run than control run, and the assimilation run of ground temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature, radiation and surface fluxes were agreed well with the GLDAS outputs over China. The HRADC could be used in further research

  2. Neutron emission spectroscopy of DT plasmas at enhanced energy resolution with diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, L.; Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Rigamonti, D.; Milocco, A.; Tardocchi, M.; Chen, Z. J.; Du, T. F.; Fan, T. S.; Hu, Z. M.; Peng, X. Y.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Gorini, G.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents measurements done at the Peking University Van de Graaff neutron source of the response of single crystal synthetic diamond (SD) detectors to quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of 14-20 MeV. The results show an energy resolution of 1% for incoming 20 MeV neutrons, which, together with 1% detection efficiency, opens up to new prospects for fast ion physics studies in high performance nuclear fusion devices such as SD neutron spectrometry of deuterium-tritium plasmas heated by neutral beam injection.

  3. A compact sub-Kelvin ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope with high energy resolution and high stability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Miyamachi, T; Tomanić, T; Dehm, R; Wulfhekel, W

    2011-10-01

    We designed a scanning tunneling microscope working at sub-Kelvin temperatures in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) in order to study the magnetic properties on the nanoscale. An entirely homebuilt three-stage cryostat is used to cool down the microscope head. The first stage is cooled with liquid nitrogen, the second stage with liquid (4)He. The third stage uses a closed-cycle Joule-Thomson refrigerator of a cooling power of 1 mW. A base temperature of 930 mK at the microscope head was achieved using expansion of (4)He, which can be reduced to ≈400 mK when using (3)He. The cryostat has a low liquid helium consumption of only 38 ml/h and standing times of up to 280 h. The fast cooling down of the samples (3 h) guarantees high sample throughput. Test experiments with a superconducting tip show a high energy resolution of 0.3 meV when performing scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The vertical stability of the tunnel junction is well below 1 pm (peak to peak) and the electric noise floor of tunneling current is about 6fA/√Hz. Atomic resolution with a tunneling current of 1 pA and 1 mV was achieved on Au(111). The lateral drift of the microscope at stable temperature is below 20 pm/h. A superconducting spilt-coil magnet allows to apply an out-of-plane magnetic field of up to 3 T at the sample surface. The flux vortices of a Nb(110) sample were clearly resolved in a map of differential conductance at 1.1 K and a magnetic field of 0.21 T. The setup is designed for in situ preparation of tip and samples under UHV condition.

  4. Application of high-resolution linear Radon transform for Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging and mode separating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear-wave profile. One of the key steps in the MASW method is to generate an image of dispersive energy in the frequency-velocity domain, so dispersion curves can be determined by picking peaks of dispersion energy. In this paper, we image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy and separate multimodes from a multichannel record by high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). We first introduce Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging by high-resolution LRT. We then show the process of Rayleigh-wave mode separation. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that (1) compared with slant stacking algorithm, high-resolution LRT can improve the resolution of images of dispersion energy by more than 50% (2) high-resolution LRT can successfully separate multimode dispersive energy of Rayleigh waves with high resolution; and (3) multimode separation and reconstruction expand frequency ranges of higher mode dispersive energy, which not only increases the investigation depth but also provides a means to accurately determine cut-off frequencies.

  5. Beta-gamma coincidence counting efficiency and energy resolution optimization by Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations for a phoswich well detector.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Mekarski, Pawel; Ungar, Kurt

    2010-12-01

    A single-channel phoswich well detector has been assessed and analysed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of (131m)Xe and (133m)Xe. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic cell (BC-404) embedded in a CsI(Tl) crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). It can be used to distinguish 30.0-keV X-ray signals of (131m)Xe and (133m)Xe using their unique coincidence signatures between the conversion electrons (CEs) and the 30.0-keV X-rays. The optimum coincidence efficiency signal depends on the energy resolutions of the two CE peaks, which could be affected by relative positions of the plastic cell to the CsI(Tl) because the embedded plastic cell would interrupt scintillation light path from the CsI(Tl) crystal to the PMT. In this study, several relative positions between the embedded plastic cell and the CsI(Tl) crystal have been evaluated using Monte Carlo modeling for its effects on coincidence detection efficiency and X-ray and CE energy resolutions. The results indicate that the energy resolution and beta-gamma coincidence counting efficiency of X-ray and CE depend significantly on the plastic cell locations inside the CsI(Tl). The degraded X-ray and CE peak energy resolutions due to light collection efficiency deterioration by the embedded cell can be minimised. The optimum of CE and X-ray energy resolution, beta-gamma coincidence efficiency as well as the ease of manufacturing could be achieved by varying the embedded plastic cell positions inside the CsI(Tl) and consequently setting the most efficient geometry.

  6. Is the Consumption of Energy Drinks Associated With Academic Achievement Among College Students?

    PubMed

    Champlin, Sara E; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Despite widely reported side effects, use of energy drinks has increased among college students, who report that they consume energy drinks to help them complete schoolwork. However, little is known about the association between energy drink use and academic performance. We explored the relationship between energy drink consumption and current academic grade point average (GPA) among first-year undergraduate students. Participants included 844 first-year undergraduates (58.1 % female; 50.7 % White). Students reported their health behaviors via an online survey. We measured energy drink consumption with two measures: past month consumption by number of drinks usually consumed in 1 month and number consumed during the last occasion of consumption. We used multiple linear regression modeling with energy drink consumption and current GPA, controlling for gender, race, weekend and weekday sleep duration, perceived stress, perceived stress management, media use, and past month alcohol use. We found that past month energy drink consumption quantity by frequency (p < 0.001), and energy drinks consumed during the last occasion (p < 0.001), were associated with a lower GPA. Energy drinks consumed during the last occasion of consumption (p = 0.01) remained significantly associated with a lower GPA when controlling for alcohol use. While students report using energy drinks for school-related reasons, our findings suggest that greater energy drink consumption is associated with a lower GPA, even after controlling for potential confounding variables. Longitudinal research is needed that addresses whether GPA declines after continued use of energy drinks or if students struggling academically turn to energy drinks to manage their schoolwork.

  7. Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission system with a superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Guiling; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Guochun; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Wentao; Liu, Haiyun; Zhao, Lin; Meng, Jianqiao; Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Zhou, X J

    2008-02-01

    The design and performance of the first vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser-based angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) system are described. The VUV laser with a photon energy of 6.994 eV and bandwidth of 0.26 meV is achieved from the second harmonic generation using a novel nonlinear optical crystal KBe2BO3F2. The new VUV laser-based ARPES system exhibits superior performance, including superhigh energy resolution better than 1 meV, high momentum resolution, superhigh photon flux, and much enhanced bulk sensitivity, which are demonstrated from measurements on a typical Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 high temperature superconductor. Issues and further development related to the VUV laser-based photoemission technique are discussed.

  8. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals: A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  9. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals. A Review of Current Practices and Considerations.

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Sumner, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon "footprinting" and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  10. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals. A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Sumner, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  11. Army Reserve Center Las Cruces, New Mexico Energy Reduction Pilot Project: Achieving Net Zero

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-11

    not apply) • Financial Options  Direct Purchase  Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) Single/Multiple Solar Energy – Photovoltaics POV Parking Solar ...Military Equipment Parking 15,760 SY - POV Parking 149 Spaces 5,236 SY Energy Reduction Pilot Program Goals 1. Determine impacts...Investigate LEED Platinum Rating 4. Investigate renewable energy opportunities Regional Site Imperatives • Ideal orientation for efficiency and solar

  12. A high resolution gas scintillation proportional counter for studying low energy cosmic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, T. T.; Hailey, C. J.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Novick, R.

    1980-01-01

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the development of large area gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) suitable for use in X-ray astronomy. The paper deals with a low-energy GSPC for use in detecting sub-keV X-rays from cosmic sources. This instrument has a measured energy resolution of 85 eV (FWHM) at 149 eV over a sensitive area of 5 sq cm. The development of imaging capability for this instrument is discussed. Tests are performed on the feasibility of using an arrangement of several phototubes placed adjacent to one another to determine event locations in a large flat counter. A simple prototype has been constructed and successfully operated.

  13. High resolution simulations of energy absorption in dynamically loaded cellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Eakins, D. E.; McShane, G.

    2016-04-01

    Cellular materials have potential application as absorbers of energy generated by high velocity impact. CTH, a Sandia National Laboratories Code which allows very severe strains to be simulated, has been used to perform very high resolution simulations showing the dynamic crushing of a series of two-dimensional, stainless steel metal structures with varying architectures. The structures are positioned to provide a cushion between a solid stainless steel flyer plate with velocities ranging from 300 to 900 m/s, and an initially stationary stainless steel target. Each of the alternative architectures under consideration was formed by an array of identical cells each of which had a constant volume and a constant density. The resolution of the simulations was maximised by choosing a configuration in which one-dimensional conditions persisted for the full period over which the specimen densified, a condition which is most readily met by impacting high density specimens at high velocity. It was found that the total plastic flow and, therefore, the irreversible energy dissipated in the fully densified energy absorbing cell, increase (a) as the structure becomes more rodlike and less platelike and (b) as the impact velocity increases. Sequential CTH images of the deformation processes show that the flow of the cell material may be broadly divided into macroscopic flow perpendicular to the compression direction and jetting-type processes (microkinetic flow) which tend to predominate in rod and rodlike configurations and also tend to play an increasing role at increased strain rates. A very simple analysis of a configuration in which a solid flyer impacts a solid target provides a baseline against which to compare and explain features seen in the simulations. The work provides a basis for the development of energy absorbing structures for application in the 200-1000 m/s impact regime.

  14. High-resolution electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy of giant palladium clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, V.; Volkov, V.; Gijbels, R.; Jacob, W.; Vargaftik, M.; Moiseev, I.; van Tendeloo, G.

    1995-12-01

    Combined structural and chemical characterization of cationic polynuclear palladium coordination compounds Pd561L60(OAc)180, where L=1,10-phenantroline or 2,2'-bipyridine has been carried out by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and analytical electron microscopy methods including electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), zero-loss electron spectroscopic imaging, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The cell structure of the cluster matter with almost completely uniform metal core size distributions centered around 2.3 ±0.5 nm was observed. Zero-loss energy filtering allowed to improve the image contrast and resolution. HREM images showed that most of the palladium clusters had a cubo-octahedral shape. Some of them had a distorted icosahedron structure exhibiting multiple twinning. The selected-area electron diffraction patterns confirmed the face centered cubic structure with lattice parameter close to that of metallic palladium. The energy-loss spectra of the populations of clusters contained several bands, which could be assigned to the delayed Pd M4, 5-edge at 362 eV, the Pd M3-edge at 533 eV and the Pd M2-edge at 561 eV, the NK-edge at about 400 eV, the O K-edge at 532 eV overlapping with the Pd M3-edge and the carbon C K-edge at 284 eV. Background subtraction was applied to reveal the exact positions and fine structure of low intensity elemental peaks. EELS evaluations have been confirmed by EDX. The recorded series of the Pd M-edges and the N K-edge in the spectra of the giant palladium clusters obviously were related to Pd-Pd- and Pd-ligand bonding.

  15. High resolution simulations of energy absorption in dynamically loaded cellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Eakins, D. E.; McShane, G.

    2017-03-01

    Cellular materials have potential application as absorbers of energy generated by high velocity impact. CTH, a Sandia National Laboratories Code which allows very severe strains to be simulated, has been used to perform very high resolution simulations showing the dynamic crushing of a series of two-dimensional, stainless steel metal structures with varying architectures. The structures are positioned to provide a cushion between a solid stainless steel flyer plate with velocities ranging from 300 to 900 m/s, and an initially stationary stainless steel target. Each of the alternative architectures under consideration was formed by an array of identical cells each of which had a constant volume and a constant density. The resolution of the simulations was maximised by choosing a configuration in which one-dimensional conditions persisted for the full period over which the specimen densified, a condition which is most readily met by impacting high density specimens at high velocity. It was found that the total plastic flow and, therefore, the irreversible energy dissipated in the fully densified energy absorbing cell, increase (a) as the structure becomes more rodlike and less platelike and (b) as the impact velocity increases. Sequential CTH images of the deformation processes show that the flow of the cell material may be broadly divided into macroscopic flow perpendicular to the compression direction and jetting-type processes (microkinetic flow) which tend to predominate in rod and rodlike configurations and also tend to play an increasing role at increased strain rates. A very simple analysis of a configuration in which a solid flyer impacts a solid target provides a baseline against which to compare and explain features seen in the simulations. The work provides a basis for the development of energy absorbing structures for application in the 200-1000 m/s impact regime.

  16. Chrysler: Save Energy Now Assessment Enables a Vehicle Assembly Complex to Achieve Significant Natural Gas Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-01

    This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how Chrysler LLC saves more than 70,000 MMBtu and $627,000 annually after increasing the steam system energy efficiency of a truck and minivan assembly plant in St. Louis, Missouri.

  17. Attitudes toward Nuclear Energy: One Potential Path for Achieving Scientific Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulski, Richard E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identifies the attitudes of secondary school students toward several science-related topical areas (i.e., nuclear energy, environmental issues, energy concepts, science concepts, space exploration, and metrication) for the purpose of enhancing students' attitudinal development toward science-related topical areas. Discusses respondents attitude…

  18. Sustained Energy Savings Achieved through Successful Industrial Customer Interaction with Ratepayer Programs: Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Amelie; Hedman, Bruce; Taylor, Robert P.; Russell, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Many states have implemented ratepayer-funded programs to acquire energy efficiency as a predictable and reliable resource for meeting existing and future energy demand. These programs have become a fixture in many U.S. electricity and natural gas markets as they help postpone or eliminate the need for expensive generation and transmission investments. Industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is an energy efficiency resource that is not only a low cost option for many of these efficiency programs, but offers productivity and competitive benefits to manufacturers as it reduces their energy costs. However, some industrial customers are less enthusiastic about participating in these programs. IEE ratepayer programs suffer low participation by industries across many states today despite a continual increase in energy efficiency program spending across all types of customers, and significant energy efficiency funds can often go unused for industrial customers. This paper provides four detailed case studies of companies that benefited from participation in their utility’s energy efficiency program offerings and highlights the business value brought to them by participation in these programs. The paper is designed both for rate-payer efficiency program administrators interested in improving the attractiveness and effectiveness of industrial efficiency programs for their industrial customers and for industrial customers interested in maximizing the value of participating in efficiency programs.

  19. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit: Lessons from the University of Hawaii at Manoa

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  20. Practical spatial resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shah, A B; Ramasse, Q M; Wen, J G; Bhattacharya, A; Zuo, J M

    2011-08-01

    The resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is limited by delocalization of inelastic electron scattering rather than probe size in an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). In this study, we present an experimental quantification of EELS spatial resolution using chemically modulated 2×(LaMnO(3))/2×(SrTiO(3)) and 2×(SrVO(3))/2×(SrTiO(3)) superlattices by measuring the full width at half maxima (FWHM) of integrated Ti M(2,3), Ti L(2,3), V L(2,3), Mn L(2,3), La N(4,5), La N(2,3) La M(4,5) and Sr L(3) edges over the superlattices. The EELS signals recorded using large collection angles are peaked at atomic columns. The FWHM of the EELS profile, obtained by curve-fitting, reveals a systematic trend with the energy loss for the Ti, V, and Mn edges. However, the experimental FWHM of the Sr and La edges deviates significantly from the observed experimental tendency.

  1. Electrodynamics and energy characteristics of aurora at high resolution by optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlgren, H.; Lanchester, B. S.; Ivchenko, N.; Whiter, D. K.

    2016-06-01

    Technological advances leading to improved sensitivity of optical detectors have revealed that aurora contains a richness of dynamic and thin filamentary structures, but the source of the structured emissions is not fully understood. In addition, high-resolution radar data have indicated that thin auroral arcs can be correlated with highly varying and large electric fields, but the detailed picture of the electrodynamics of auroral filaments is yet incomplete. The Auroral Structure and Kinetics (ASK) instrument is a state-of-the-art ground-based instrument designed to investigate these smallest auroral features at very high spatial and temporal resolution, by using three electron multiplying CCDs in parallel for three different narrow spectral regions. ASK is specifically designed to utilize a new optical technique to determine the ionospheric electric fields. By imaging the long-lived O+ line at 732 nm, the plasma flow in the region can be traced, and since the plasma motion is controlled by the electric field, the field strength and direction can be estimated at unprecedented resolution. The method is a powerful tool to investigate the detailed electrodynamics and current systems around the thin auroral filaments. The two other ASK cameras provide information on the precipitation by imaging prompt emissions, and the emission brightness ratio of the two emissions, together with ion chemistry modeling, is used to give information on the energy and energy flux of the precipitating electrons. In this paper, we discuss these measuring techniques and give a few examples of how they are used to reveal the nature and source of fine-scale structuring in the aurora.

  2. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  3. A New Focus Lens for Improved Energy Resolution in the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenn, D.; Herrero, F.; Syrstad, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) is a novel neutral particle sensor capable of simultaneously measuring neutral winds, temperature, composition, and density in the upper atmosphere. This compact, low-power instrument is ideally suited for in situ thermospheric measurements on small-satellite platforms. Building on work previously performed, we detail here endeavors to more fully characterize the effects of proposed instrument modifications, leading to a greater understanding of their impact on overall sensor performance. Additionally, laboratory testing of the WATS seeks to confirm theoretical data previously gathered. WATS utilizes electron impact ionization, a crossed Small Deflection Energy Analyzer (SDEA) pair, and a microchannel plate (MCP) detector with linear spatial readout to measure the full 3-D velocity distribution of an incoming neutral stream. A minor weakness in the original WATS design was that a large ion beam divergence at the SDEA entrance led to degraded energy resolution. To address this problem, a simple focusing lens system with a large acceptance angle range, dubbed the Tapered Quad Deflector (TQD), was designed and previously presented. Here, the results of ion trajectory calculations (Simion 3D) and Monte Carlo simulations (Matlab) are used to explore various aspects of the TQD’s functionality. With no modifications to the instrument aside from the addition of the TQD, simulations show an increase in the energy resolution by a factor of two. Further simulations reveal that reducing the width of the instrument’s collimator slit decreases the beam divergence (with a corresponding increase in instrument energy resolution) for both the original and modified WATS. However, this effect is markedly more pronounced in the latter, meaning that the TQD could enable a significant reduction in beam divergence while minimizing the loss of signal that would result from narrowing the collimator slit. Also presented are the results of

  4. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources.

  5. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01

    A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy' home produces at least as much energy as it purchases over the course of a year, regardless of the time and form of the energy (e.g., electricity, heat, or fuel) consumed or produced. A 'zero net cost' home is no more expensive than a traditional home of comparable size and comfort, when evaluated over the course of a 30-year mortgage. In other words, the 'green premium' must have a payback period less than 30 years, based on the value of energy saved. The overarching goal of the competition is to develop affordable, high-performance homes that can be mass-produced at a large scale, and are able to meet occupant needs in harsh climates (as can be found where the competition will be held in Illinois). This report outlines the goals of the competition, and gauges their feasibility using both modeling results and published data. To ensure that the established rules are challenging, yet reasonable, this report seeks to refine the competition goals after exploring their feasibility through case studies, cost projections, and energy modeling. The authors of this report conducted a survey of the most progressive home energy-efficiency practices expected to appear in competition design submittals. In Appendix A, a summary can be found of recent projects throughout the United States, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan, where some of the most progressive technologies have been implemented. As with past energy efficient home projects, EFHC competitors will incorporate a multitude of energy efficiency measures into their home designs. The authors believe that the cost of electricity generated by home

  6. Achieving Actionable Results from Available Inputs: Metamodels Take Building Energy Simulations One Step Further

    SciTech Connect

    Horsey, Henry; Fleming, Katherine; Ball, Brian; Long, Nicholas

    2016-08-26

    Modeling commercial building energy usage can be a difficult and time-consuming task. The increasing prevalence of optimization algorithms provides one path for reducing the time and difficulty. Many use cases remain, however, where information regarding whole-building energy usage is valuable, but the time and expertise required to run and post-process a large number of building energy simulations is intractable. A relatively underutilized option to accurately estimate building energy consumption in real time is to pre-compute large datasets of potential building energy models, and use the set of results to quickly and efficiently provide highly accurate data. This process is called metamodeling. In this paper, two case studies are presented demonstrating the successful applications of metamodeling using the open-source OpenStudio Analysis Framework. The first case study involves the U.S. Department of Energy's Asset Score Tool, specifically the Preview Asset Score Tool, which is designed to give nontechnical users a near-instantaneous estimated range of expected results based on building system-level inputs. The second case study involves estimating the potential demand response capabilities of retail buildings in Colorado. The metamodel developed in this second application not only allows for estimation of a single building's expected performance, but also can be combined with public data to estimate the aggregate DR potential across various geographic (county and state) scales. In both case studies, the unique advantages of pre-computation allow building energy models to take the place of topdown actuarial evaluations. This paper ends by exploring the benefits of using metamodels and then examines the cost-effectiveness of this approach.

  7. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  8. Spatial resolution of synchrotron x-ray microtomography in high energy range: Effect of x-ray energy and sample-to-detector distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, D.; Tomizato, F.; Toda, H.; Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Kobayashi, M.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial resolution of three-dimensional images obtained by synchrotron X-ray microtomography technique is evaluated using cyclic bar patterns machined on a steel wire. Influences of X-ray energy and the sample-to-detector distance on spatial resolution were investigated. High X-ray energies of 33-78 keV are applied due to the high X-ray absorption of transition metals. Best spatial resolution of about 1.2 μm pitch was observed at the sample-to-detector distance range of 20-110 mm and at the energy range of 68-78 keV. Several factors such as X-ray scattering and diffraction phenomena affecting the degradation of spatial resolution are also discussed.

  9. Achievable rate maximization for decode-and-forward MIMO-OFDM networks with an energy harvesting relay.

    PubMed

    Du, Guanyao; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the system achievable rate for the multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system with an energy harvesting (EH) relay. Firstly we propose two protocols, time switching-based decode-and-forward relaying (TSDFR) and a flexible power splitting-based DF relaying (PSDFR) protocol by considering two practical receiver architectures, to enable the simultaneous information processing and energy harvesting at the relay. In PSDFR protocol, we introduce a temporal parameter to describe the time division pattern between the two phases which makes the protocol more flexible and general. In order to explore the system performance limit, we discuss the system achievable rate theoretically and formulate two optimization problems for the proposed protocols to maximize the system achievable rate. Since the problems are non-convex and difficult to solve, we first analyze them theoretically and get some explicit results, then design an augmented Lagrangian penalty function (ALPF) based algorithm for them. Numerical results are provided to validate the accuracy of our analytical results and the effectiveness of the proposed ALPF algorithm. It is shown that, PSDFR outperforms TSDFR to achieve higher achievable rate in such a MIMO-OFDM relaying system. Besides, we also investigate the impacts of the relay location, the number of antennas and the number of subcarriers on the system performance. Specifically, it is shown that, the relay position greatly affects the system performance of both protocols, and relatively worse achievable rate is achieved when the relay is placed in the middle of the source and the destination. This is different from the MIMO-OFDM DF relaying system without EH. Moreover, the optimal factor which indicates the time division pattern between the two phases in the PSDFR protocol is always above 0.8, which means that, the common division of the total transmission time into two equal phases in

  10. Achieving cheap clean energy for all in the 21^st Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajan

    2006-11-01

    Energy is essential for modern life and is a critical resource that we take for granted. Unfortunately, we are increasingly confronted by many unsettling questions: Is there enough cheap oil and gas remaining and should we start changing our life styles towards energy efficiency? What will be the price of oil and gas next year and will we face shortages? Are rising prices reflective of greed and manipulation or geopolitics or of real constraints? Will renewable sources provide a significant fraction of our energy needs? Is global warming already happening and is it a result of our ``addiction to oil''? If the answer to these is ``yes'', then what can we, as individuals, do to help ourselves, the nation, and the world? This talk will attempt to answer these questions by examining the global oil, gas and other resources, emerging constraints and opportunities, and geopolitics.

  11. Refining the Resolution of Future Energy-Water Projection through High Performance Computing (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, S.; Naz, B.; Ashfaq, M.; Mei, R.

    2013-12-01

    With the advance of high performance computing and more abundant historic observation, the resolution and accuracy of hydro-climate projection can now be efficiently improved. Based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections, a series of hydro-climatic models and datasets, including Regional Climate Models, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, historic runoff-generation relationships and a national hydropower dataset, are jointly utilized to project the future hydropower production at various U.S. regions. To refine spatial resolution and reduce modeling uncertainty, particular efforts were focused on calibrating the VIC hydrologic model at 4-Km spatial resolution. Driven by 1980-2008 DAYMET meteorological observation (biased adjusted by PRISM dataset), the simulated VIC total runoff (baseflow + surface runoff) was calibrated to U.S. Geological Survey WaterWatch monthly runoff observation at 2107 hydrologic Subbasins (HUC8s) in the Conterminous U.S. Each HUC8 was subdivided into 16, 32, or 48 computation units for parallel computing. The simulation was conducted using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Titan supercomputer, a Cray XK7 system with 18,688 computational nodes, each equipped with four quad-core CPUs and two GPU cards. To date, ~2.5 million CPU-hours (i.e., the number of CPUs multiplied by the average hours used by each CPU) have been used to improve the modeling performance for most of the HUC8s. Using the calibrated model, hydro-climate projections will be produced for various dynamically-downscaled CMIP5 simulations, and will be utilized to project seasonal and monthly hydropower production for various U.S. regions. It is expected that with reduced modeling uncertainty, the regional water budget can be more accurately estimated and it will eventually lead to better simulation and allocation of limited water resources under climate, energy, and water nexus.

  12. Experimental study of the maximum resolution and packing density achievable in sintered and non-sintered binder-jet 3D printed steel microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Benedict, Michael; Kiggans Jr, James O

    2015-01-01

    Developing high resolution 3D printed metallic microchannels is a challenge especially when there is an essential need for high packing density of the primary material. While high packing density could be achieved by heating the structure to the sintering temperature, some heat sensitive applications require other strategies to improve the packing density of primary materials. In this study the goal is to develop high green or pack densities microchannels on the scale of 2-300 microns which have a robust mechanical structure. Binder-jet 3D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which droplets of binder are deposited via inkjet into a bed of powder. By repeatedly spreading thin layers of powder and depositing binder into the appropriate 2D profiles, complex 3D objects can be created one layer at time. Microchannels with features on the order of 500 microns were fabricated via binder jetting of steel powder and then sintered and/or infiltrated with a secondary material. The average particle size of the steel powder was varied along with the droplet volume of the inkjet-deposited binder. The resolution of the process, packing density of the primary material, the subsequent features sizes of the microchannels, and the overall microchannel quality were characterized as a function of particle size distribution, droplet sizes and heat treatment temperatures.

  13. Does resolution of flow field observation influence apparent habitat use and energy expenditure in juvenile coho salmon?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tullos, Desiree D.; Walter, Cara; Dunham, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how the resolution of observation influences interpretation of how fish, juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), exploit the hydraulic environment in streams. Our objectives were to evaluate how spatial resolution of the flow field observation influenced: (1) the velocities considered to be representative of habitat units; (2) patterns of use of the hydraulic environment by fish; and (3) estimates of energy expenditure. We addressed these objectives using observations within a 1:1 scale physical model of a full-channel log jam in an outdoor experimental stream. Velocities were measured with Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry at a 10 cm grid spacing, whereas fish locations and tailbeat frequencies were documented over time using underwater videogrammetry. Results highlighted that resolution of observation did impact perceived habitat use and energy expenditure, as did the location of measurement within habitat units and the use of averaging to summarize velocities within a habitat unit. In this experiment, the range of velocities and energy expenditure estimates increased with coarsening resolution (grid spacing from 10 to 100 cm), reducing the likelihood of measuring the velocities locally experienced by fish. In addition, the coarser resolutions contributed to fish appearing to select velocities that were higher than what was measured at finer resolutions. These findings indicate the need for careful attention to and communication of resolution of observation in investigating the hydraulic environment and in determining the habitat needs and bioenergetics of aquatic biota.

  14. Does resolution of flow field observation influence apparent habitat use and energy expenditure in juvenile coho salmon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, Desirée.; Walter, Cara; Dunham, Jason

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated how the resolution of observation influences interpretation of how fish, juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), exploit the hydraulic environment in streams. Our objectives were to evaluate how spatial resolution of the flow field observation influenced: (1) the velocities considered to be representative of habitat units; (2) patterns of use of the hydraulic environment by fish; and (3) estimates of energy expenditure. We addressed these objectives using observations within a 1:1 scale physical model of a full-channel log jam in an outdoor experimental stream. Velocities were measured with Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry at a 10 cm grid spacing, whereas fish locations and tailbeat frequencies were documented over time using underwater videogrammetry. Results highlighted that resolution of observation did impact perceived habitat use and energy expenditure, as did the location of measurement within habitat units and the use of averaging to summarize velocities within a habitat unit. In this experiment, the range of velocities and energy expenditure estimates increased with coarsening resolution (grid spacing from 10 to 100 cm), reducing the likelihood of measuring the velocities locally experienced by fish. In addition, the coarser resolutions contributed to fish appearing to select velocities that were higher than what was measured at finer resolutions. These findings indicate the need for careful attention to and communication of resolution of observation in investigating the hydraulic environment and in determining the habitat needs and bioenergetics of aquatic biota.

  15. Carrots and Sticks: A Comprehensive Business Model for the Successful Achievement of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards Environmental Energy Technologies DivisionMarch 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Satchwell, Andrew; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2011-03-22

    Energy efficiency resource standards (EERS) are a prominent strategy to potentially achieve rapid and aggressive energy savings goals in the U.S. As of December 2010, twenty-six U.S. states had some form of an EERS with savings goals applicable to energy efficiency (EE) programs paid for by utility customers. The European Union has initiated a similar type of savings goal, the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive, where it is being implemented in some countries through direct partnership with regulated electric utilities. U.S. utilities face significant financial disincentives under traditional regulation which affects the interest of shareholders and managers in aggressively pursuing cost-effective energy efficiency. Regulators are considering some combination of mandated goals ('sticks') and alternative utility business model components ('carrots' such as performance incentives) to align the utility's business and financial interests with state and federal energy efficiency public policy goals. European countries that have directed their utilities to administer EE programs have generally relied on non-binding mandates and targets; in the U.S., most state regulators have increasingly viewed 'carrots' as a necessary condition for successful achievement of energy efficiency goals and targets. In this paper, we analyze the financial impacts of an EERS on a large electric utility in the State of Arizona using a pro-forma utility financial model, including impacts on utility earnings, customer bills and rates. We demonstrate how a viable business model can be designed to improve the business case while retaining sizable ratepayer benefits. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other countries looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own utility-administered EE programs.

  16. Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Personalized, online homework was used to supplement textbook homework, quizzes, and exams for one section of a course in material and energy balances. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that students using personalized, online homework earned better grades in the course. The online homework system asks the same questions of…

  17. The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade…

  18. How America can look within to achieve energy security and reduce global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Burton; Goldston, David; Crabtree, George; Glicksman, Leon; Goldstein, David; Greene, David; Kammen, Dan; Levine, Mark; Lubell, Michael; Savitz, Maxine; Sperling, Daniel; Schlachter, Fred; Scofield, John; Dawson, James

    2008-10-01

    The American Physical Society regularly produces reports on issues of public import that require technical understanding and for which an objective and authoritative analysis would be of particular use to the public and policy makers. This report, entitled Energy Future: Think Efficiency, is the latest in the series and appears here as a special supplement issue of Reviews of Modern Physics, as have other such reports. It is hard to imagine a more timely study topic, given the urgent environmental, geopolitical, and economic incentives for improving energy efficiency at this juncture. Energy Future: Think Efficiency provides a valuable and broadly applicable guide to effective approaches, many of which employ existing technologies and, surprisingly, need not be difficult or expensive. In order to have the most immediate impact, an earlier version of Energy Future: Think Efficiency was issued at a press release in Washington, D.C. in September of 2008 in hard copy and online. Prior to its release a distinguished review panel examined the report and its conclusions. Thus the study has been rigorously refereed although this was outside of the usual review process employed by RMP. Except for adjustments in pagination, this version is unchanged from the earlier version. The report introduction contains full information on the study personnel, review panel members, and other acknowledgments, so these are not repeated here. What is repeated is an expression of deep appreciation to all those involved in the preparation of a revelatory report on a topic of critical importance.

  19. Jet energy resolution in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] recorded in 2010 with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

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Soldevila, U; Solfaroli Camillocci, E; Solodkov, A A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Soni, N; Sopko, V; Sopko, B; Sosebee, M; Soualah, R; Soukharev, A; Spagnolo, S; Spanò, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiwoks, R; Spousta, M; Spreitzer, T; Spurlock, B; St Denis, R D; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Staude, A; Stavina, P; Steele, G; Steinbach, P; Steinberg, P; Stekl, I; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoerig, K; Stoicea, G; Stonjek, S; Strachota, P; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strang, M; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Strong, J A; Stroynowski, R; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stumer, I; Stupak, J; Sturm, P; Styles, N A; Soh, D A; Su, D; Subramania, Hs; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Suhr, C; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Swedish, S; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Sánchez, J; Ta, D; Tackmann, K; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A; Tamsett, M C; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tanasijczuk, A J; Tani, K; Tannoury, N; Tapprogge, S; Tardif, D; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tassi, E; Tatarkhanov, M; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, C; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teinturier, M; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thong, W M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tic, T; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Y A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tonoyan, A; Topfel, C; Topilin, N D; Torchiani, I; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Triplett, N; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiakiris, M; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tua, A; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuggle, J M; Turala, M; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Tzanakos, G; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Uhrmacher, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Usai, G; Uslenghi, M; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Vahsen, S; Valenta, J; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Poel, E; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Vulpen, I; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vari, R; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Vegni, G; Veillet, J J; Veloso, F; Veness, R; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinek, E; Vinogradov, V B; Virchaux, M; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Viti, M; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorwerk, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Voss, T T; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahlen, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walch, S; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watanabe, I; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Weber, M S; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Wellenstein, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Weydert, C; Whalen, K; Wheeler-Ellis, S J; White, A; White, M J; White, S; Whitehead, S R; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicek, F; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilhelm, I; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Willis, W; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, M G; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wong, W C; Wooden, G; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, M; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xie, S; Xu, C; Xu, D; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamaoka, J; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yao, Y; Yasu, Y; Ybeles Smit, G V; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Young, C; Young, C J; Youssef, S; Yu, D; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zajacova, Z; Zanello, L; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zendler, C; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zinonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhan, Z; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, L; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhou, Y; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhuravlov, V; Zieminska, D; Zimin, N I; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Živković, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    The measurement of the jet energy resolution is presented using data recorded with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text]. The sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35 pb(-1). Jets are reconstructed from energy deposits measured by the calorimeters and calibrated using different jet calibration schemes. The jet energy resolution is measured with two different in situ methods which are found to be in agreement within uncertainties. The total uncertainties on these measurements range from 20 % to 10 % for jets within |y|<2.8 and with transverse momenta increasing from 30 GeV to 500 GeV. Overall, the Monte Carlo simulation of the jet energy resolution agrees with the data within 10 %.

  20. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    SciTech Connect

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C.; Di Domizio, S.; Castellano, M. G.; Tomei, C.

    2015-08-31

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm{sup 2} are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σ{sub E} = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  1. Seasonal variability of eddy kinetic energy in a global high-resolution ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieck, Jan K.; Böning, Claus W.; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Scheinert, Markus

    2015-11-01

    A global ocean model with 1/12° horizontal resolution is used to assess the seasonal cycle of surface eddy kinetic energy (EKE). The model reproduces the salient features of the observed mean surface EKE, including amplitude and phase of its seasonal cycle in most parts of the ocean. In all subtropical gyres of the Pacific and Atlantic, EKE peaks in summer down to a depth of ˜350 m, below which the seasonal cycle is weak. Investigation of the possible driving mechanisms reveals the seasonal changes in the thermal interactions with the atmosphere to be the most likely cause of the summer maximum of EKE. The development of the seasonal thermocline in spring and summer is accompanied by stronger mesoscale variations in the horizontal temperature gradients near the surface which corresponds, by thermal wind balance, to an intensification of mesoscale velocity anomalies toward the surface.

  2. The bending potential energy function of HDO obtained from high-resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudert, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Line position and line intensity analyses of the high-resolution spectrum of the HDO isotopic species of the water molecule are performed with an extended version of the Bending-Rotation approach up to the (0 1 0) state and J = 22 . The line position analysis involves 3992 microwave, far infrared and infrared lines, and 421 experimental energy levels which were reproduced with a 1.1 unitless standard deviation. The data set considered in the line intensity analysis consists of 1405 infrared absorpon lines and 4 Stark coefficients fitted with a 1.2 unitless standard deviation. The results of both analyses are compared with previous investigations and are used to build a spectroscopic database which is compared with other available databases and should be useful for interpreting measurements carried out with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI).

  3. High-efficiency high-energy-resolution spectrometer for inelastic X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Q.; Tyson, T. A.; Caliebe, W. A.; Kao, C.-C.

    2005-12-01

    A nine-element analyzer system for inelastic X-ray scattering has been designed and constructed. Each individual analyzer crystal is carefully aligned with an inverse joystick goniometer. For the analyzers silicon wafers with 100 mm diameter are spherically bent to 1 or 0.85 m radius, respectively. Additionally, an analyzer with an extra small radius of 0.182 m and diameter of 100 mm was constructed for X-ray absorption spectroscopy in fluorescence mode. All analyzer crystals with large radius have highly uniform focusing property. The total energy resolution is approximately 0.5 eV at backscattering for the 1 m radius Si(440) analyzer array and approximately 4 eV for the 0.182 m radius Si(440) analyzer at 6493 eV.

  4. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; and others

    2012-06-15

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  5. Energy-Level Modulation of Small-Molecule Electron Acceptors to Achieve over 12% Efficiency in Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Sunsun; Ye, Long; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhang, Shaoqing; Mukherjee, Subhrangsu; Ade, Harald; Hou, Jianhui

    2016-11-01

    Fine energy-level modulations of small-molecule acceptors (SMAs) are realized via subtle chemical modifications on strong electron-withdrawing end-groups. The two new SMAs (IT-M and IT-DM) end-capped by methyl-modified dicycanovinylindan-1-one exhibit upshifted lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels, and hence higher open-circuit voltages can be observed in the corresponding devices. Finally, a top power conversion efficiency of 12.05% is achieved.

  6. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A.; Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  7. A new variable-resolution associative memory for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Annovi, A.; Amerio, S.; Beretta, M.; Bossini, E.; Crescioli, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; Giannetti, P.; Hoff, J.; Liu, T.; Magalotti, D.; Piendibene, M.; Sacco, I.; Schoening, A.; Soltveit, H. K.; Stabile, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Liberali, V.; Vitillo, R.; Volpi, G.

    2011-07-01

    We describe an important advancement for the Associative Memory device (AM). The AM is a VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Content Addressable Memory (CAM) architecture. The AM is optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. Pattern matching is carried out by finding track candidates in coarse resolution 'roads'. A large AM bank stores all trajectories of interest, called 'patterns', for a given detector resolution. The AM extracts roads compatible with a given event during detector read-out. Two important variables characterize the quality of the AM bank: its 'coverage' and the level of fake roads. The coverage, which describes the geometric efficiency of a bank, is defined as the fraction of tracks that match at least one pattern in the bank. Given a certain road size, the coverage of the bank can be increased just adding patterns to the bank, while the number of fakes unfortunately is roughly proportional to the number of patterns in the bank. Moreover, as the luminosity increases, the fake rate increases rapidly because of the increased silicon occupancy. To counter that, we must reduce the width of our roads. If we decrease the road width using the current technology, the system will become very large and extremely expensive. We propose an elegant solution to this problem: the 'variable resolution patterns'. Each pattern and each detector layer within a pattern will be able to use the optimal width, but we will use a 'don't care' feature (inspired from ternary CAMs) to increase the width when that is more appropriate. In other words we can use patterns of variable shape. As a result we reduce the number of fake roads, while keeping the efficiency high and avoiding excessive bank size due to the reduced width. We describe the idea, the implementation in the new AM design and the implementation of the algorithm in the simulation. Finally we show the effectiveness of the 'variable resolution patterns' idea using simulated

  8. Wastewater as a resource: a unique approach to achieving energy sustainability.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P M; Rittmann, B E; Schraa, O J; Banaszak, J E; Togna, A P

    2011-01-01

    A wastewater-treatment flowsheet was developed to integrate uniquely designed biological processes with physical-chemical unit processes, allowing conversion of the organic carbon in the wastewater to methane, the removal and recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen from the wastewater, and the production of water suitable for reuse. In the flowsheet, energy is derived from the wastewater by first shunting a large fraction of the organic carbon in the wastewater to a solids slurry which is treated via anaerobic digestion. The anaerobic digestion system consists of focused pulsed (FP) pretreatment coupled to anaerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Computer modelling and simulation results are used to optimize design of the system. Energy generation from the system is maximized and costs are reduced by using modest levels of recycle flow from the anaerobic MBRS to the FP pretreatment step.

  9. The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students' Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec

    2013-02-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade students classified in three ability level tracks. Data were gathered through pre/posttest content knowledge assessments, daily classroom observations, and daily reflective meetings with the teacher. Findings indicated a significant increase in the energy content knowledge for all the students. Effect sizes were large for all three ability level tracks, with the middle and low track classes having larger effect sizes than the upper track class. Learners in all three tracks were highly engaged with the curriculum. Curriculum effectiveness and practical issues involved with using geospatial technologies to support science learning are discussed.

  10. Compact pnCCD-based X-ray camera with high spatial and energy resolution: a color X-ray camera.

    PubMed

    Scharf, O; Ihle, S; Ordavo, I; Arkadiev, V; Bjeoumikhov, A; Bjeoumikhova, S; Buzanich, G; Gubzhokov, R; Günther, A; Hartmann, R; Kühbacher, M; Lang, M; Langhoff, N; Liebel, A; Radtke, M; Reinholz, U; Riesemeier, H; Soltau, H; Strüder, L; Thünemann, A F; Wedell, R

    2011-04-01

    For many applications there is a requirement for nondestructive analytical investigation of the elemental distribution in a sample. With the improvement of X-ray optics and spectroscopic X-ray imagers, full field X-ray fluorescence (FF-XRF) methods are feasible. A new device for high-resolution X-ray imaging, an energy and spatial resolving X-ray camera, is presented. The basic idea behind this so-called "color X-ray camera" (CXC) is to combine an energy dispersive array detector for X-rays, in this case a pnCCD, with polycapillary optics. Imaging is achieved using multiframe recording of the energy and the point of impact of single photons. The camera was tested using a laboratory 30 μm microfocus X-ray tube and synchrotron radiation from BESSY II at the BAMline facility. These experiments demonstrate the suitability of the camera for X-ray fluorescence analytics. The camera simultaneously records 69,696 spectra with an energy resolution of 152 eV for manganese K(α) with a spatial resolution of 50 μm over an imaging area of 12.7 × 12.7 mm(2). It is sensitive to photons in the energy region between 3 and 40 keV, limited by a 50 μm beryllium window, and the sensitive thickness of 450 μm of the chip. Online preview of the sample is possible as the software updates the sums of the counts for certain energy channel ranges during the measurement and displays 2-D false-color maps as well as spectra of selected regions. The complete data cube of 264 × 264 spectra is saved for further qualitative and quantitative processing.

  11. Advanced liquid cooling in HCPVT systems to achieve higher energy efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, S.; Helmers, H.; Tiwari, M. K.; Escher, W.; Paredes, S.; Neves, P.; Poulikakos, D.; Wiesenfarth, M.; Bett, A. W.; Michel, B.

    2013-09-01

    The benefits of advanced thermal packaging are demonstrated through a receiver package consisting of a monolithic interconnected module (MIM) which is directly attached to a high performance microchannel heat sink. Those packages can be applied in high-concentration photovoltaic systems and the generated heat can be used in addition to the electrical power output (CPVT systems). Thus, the total energy efficiency of the system increases significantly. A detailed exergy analysis of the receiver power output underscores the advantages of the new cooling approach.

  12. The Role of Occupant Behavior in Achieving Net Zero Energy: A Demonstration Project at Fort Carson

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Zalesny, Mary D.; Fernandez, Nicholas

    2013-09-30

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. General Services Administration’s Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, aimed to understand the potential for institutional and behavioral change to enhance the performance of buildings, through a demonstration project with the Department of Defense in five green buildings on the Fort Carson, Colorado, Army base. To approach this study, the research team identified specific occupant behaviors that had the potential to save energy in each building, defined strategies that might effectively support behavior change, and implemented a coordinated set of actions during a three-month intervention.

  13. Energy spectrum in high-resolution direct numerical simulations of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Morishita, Koji; Yokokawa, Mitsuo; Uno, Atsuya; Kaneda, Yukio

    2016-12-01

    A study is made about the energy spectrum E (k ) of turbulence on the basis of high-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of forced incompressible turbulence in a periodic box using a Fourier spectral method with the number of grid points and the Taylor scale Reynolds number Rλ up to 12 2883 and approximately 2300, respectively. The DNS data show that there is a wave-number range (approximately 5 ×10-3 2 /3k-5 /3] =c (kL ) m , where <ɛ > is the mean energy dissipation rate per unit mass; L is the integral length scale; and m ≈-0.12 . The coefficient c is independent of k , but has a Rλ dependence, such as c =C Rλζ , where C ≈0.9 and ζ ≈0.14 .

  14. Hexagonal boron nitride thin film thermal neutron detectors with high energy resolution of the reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, T. C.; Majety, S.; Grenadier, S.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2015-05-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is highly promising for solid-state thermal neutron detector applications due to its many outstanding physical properties, especially its very large thermal neutron capture cross-section (~3840 barns for 10B), which is several orders of magnitude larger than those of most other isotopes. The focus of the present work is to carry out studies on h-BN thin film and detector properties to lay the foundation for the development of a direct-conversion solid-state thermal neutron detector with high sensitivity. The measured carrier mobility-lifetime (μτ) product of h-BN thin films grown on sapphire substrates is 2.83×10-7 cm2/V for electrons and holes, which is comparable to the value of about 10-7 cm2/V for GaN thin films grown on sapphire. Detectors based on h-BN thin films were fabricated and the nuclear reaction product pulse height spectra were measured. Under a bias of 20 V, very narrow individual peaks corresponding to the reaction product energies of α and Li particles as well as the sum peaks have been clearly resolved in the pulse height spectrum for the first time by a B-based direct-conversion semiconductor neutron detector. Our results indicate that h-BN thin film detectors possess unique advantages including small size, low weight, portability, low voltage operation and high energy resolution of specific reaction products.

  15. Hsp70 chaperones are non-equilibrium machines that achieve ultra-affinity by energy consumption.

    PubMed

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Barducci, Alessandro

    2014-05-27

    70-kDa Heat shock proteins are ATP-driven molecular chaperones that perform a myriad of essential cellular tasks. Although structural and biochemical studies have shed some light on their functional mechanism, the fundamental issue of the role of energy consumption, due to ATP-hydrolysis, has remained unaddressed. Here we establish a clear connection between the non-equilibrium nature of Hsp70, due to ATP hydrolysis, and the determining feature of its function, namely its high affinity for its substrates. Energy consumption can indeed decrease the dissociation constant of the chaperone-substrate complex by several orders of magnitude with respect to an equilibrium scenario. We find that the biochemical requirements for observing such ultra-affinity coincide with the physiological conditions in the cell. Our results rationalize several experimental observations and pave the way for further analysis of non-equilibrium effects underlying chaperone functions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02218.001.

  16. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  17. Aggregation and Disaggregation Techniques Applied on Remotely Sensed Data to Obtain Optimum Resolution for Surface Energy Fluxes Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, N.; Kustas, W. P.; Li, F.; Anderson, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    Continuous monitoring of surface energy fluxes provides an important tool for precision agriculture management. It is, therefore, desirable to obtain these fluxes at agricultural field size (length scale ~ 10-100 m). To date, land surface temperature (LST), a fundamental input required for flux computations, is usually available at a nominal resolution of 1 km, which disables field-scale monitoring. Disaggregating LST data into field-scale sub-pixels was found to be possible, with deterioration in temperature accuracy as sub-pixel size is reduced. In contrast to LST, land use and fractional vegetation cover (LU and FC, additional key inputs) are available at high spatial resolution (e.g., 30 m). Aggregation of LU and FC to meet the lower resolution LST data introduces errors when aggregating to larger pixel sizes. The objective of this research is to find the optimum resolution that will minimize the errors due to aggregation of LU/FC and disaggregation of LST data, to provide continuous estimates of field scale surface energy fluxes. Data were used from the 2002 Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX02) conducted over the upper Midwest corn and soybean production region of Iowa. Three dates during the period of rapid crops growth (June 23, July 1, and July 8) for which Landsat TM images are available were analyzed. The original pixels were aggregated to form 960 m pixels (to mimic thermal data currently available from MODIS) and were then disaggregated following the procedure suggested by Kustas et al. (2003)* to form 60, 120, and 240 m sub-pixels. LU and FC were obtained at 30 m resolution and then aggregated to 60, 120, 240, and 960 m. The Two-Source-Model was run at each of the resolutions using the pertinent inputs. The model output at 60 m resolution, using the original LST data was considered the base line, to which all other outputs were compared. For comparing the flux results at the lower resolutions, the 60 m flux output was aggregated. The

  18. The VSGB 2.0 Model: A Next Generation Energy Model for High Resolution Protein Structure Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianing; Abel, Robert; Zhu, Kai; Cao, Yixiang; Zhao, Suwen; Friesner, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    A novel energy model (VSGB 2.0) for high resolution protein structure modeling is described, which features an optimized implicit solvent model as well as physics-based corrections for hydrogen bonding, π-π interactions, self-contact interactions and hydrophobic interactions. Parameters of the VSGB 2.0 model were fit to a crystallographic database of 2239 single side chain and 100 11–13 residue loop predictions. Combined with an advanced method of sampling and a robust algorithm for protonation state assignment, the VSGB 2.0 model was validated by predicting 115 super long loops up to 20 residues. Despite the dramatically increasing difficulty in reconstructing longer loops, a high accuracy was achieved: all of the lowest energy conformations have global backbone RMSDs better than 2.0 Å from the native conformations. Average global backbone RMSDs of the predictions are 0.51, 0.63, 0.70, 0.62, 0.80, 1.41, and 1.59 Å for 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 residue loop predictions, respectively. When these results are corrected for possible statistical bias as explained in the text, the average global backbone RMSDs are 0.61, 0.71, 0.86, 0.62, 1.06, 1.67, and 1.59 Å. Given the precision and robustness of the calculations, we believe that the VSGB 2.0 model is suitable to tackle “real” problems, such as biological function modeling and structure-based drug discovery. PMID:21905107

  19. In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Charles H N; Lang, Sommer A; Bilal, Haris; Rammohan, Kandadai S

    2014-06-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?'. Altogether more than 200 papers were found using the reported search, of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Subcutaneous emphysema is usually a benign, self-limiting condition only requiring conservative management. Interventions are useful in the context of severe patient discomfort, respiratory distress or persistent air leak. In the absence of any comparative study, it is not possible to choose definitively between infraclavicular incisions, drain insertion and increasing suction on an in situ drain as the best method for managing severe subcutaneous emphysema. All the three techniques described have been shown to provide effective relief. Increasing suction on a chest tube already in situ provided rapid relief in patients developing SE following pulmonary resection. A retrospective study showed resolution in 66%, increasing to 98% in those who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery with identification and closure of the leak. Insertion of a drain into the subcutaneous tissue also provided rapid sustained relief. Several studies aided drainage by using regular compressive massage. Infraclavicular incisions were also shown to provide rapid relief, but were noted to be more invasive and carried the potential for cosmetic defect. No major complications were illustrated.

  20. Development of a low-noise readout ASIC for Silicon Drift Detectors in high energy resolution X-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, E.; Levin, V.; Malankin, E.; Shumikhin, V.

    2017-03-01

    ASIC with a low-noise readout channel for Silicon Drift Detectors in high energy resolution X-ray spectrometry was designed and prototyped in the AMS 350 nm CMOS process via Europractice as a miniASIC. For the analog readout channel tests there was used the detector module SDD-10-130-PTW LTplus-ic (PNDetector GmbH). The measured energy resolution of this module with the designed readout channel: 200 eV (FWHM) at 55Fe, -16 °C, 1 kcps and a peaking time of 8 μs.

  1. Observation of Odd Symmetry Surface Phonon Modes on NICKEL(100) and SILVER(100) Surfaces Using the New Multichannel High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eue-Jin

    A multichannel detection high resolution electron analyzer has been constructed and tested. The capabilities of achieving out-of-plane scattering geometry, high resolution and high sensitivity has made it possible to detect for the first time the odd-symmetry surface phonon modes on Ni(100) and Ag(100) surfaces. Initial tests were performed to verify the performance of the spectrometer. The best instrumental resolution obtained was 3.5 meV and analyzer count rate could be maintained at 1000 Hz in large angle scattering geometry. This represents an improvement in performance of a factor of at least 50 compared to the existing conventional single channel spectrometers. Odd symmetry surface phonon modes found on Ag(100) surfaces have been measured to be 3.2 meV which agrees closely with available calculations. An additional interesting feature found to be interesting is that the background width of odd symmetry modes appear to be narrower than that of the even symmetry mode scattering data. This effect has not been predicted or explained by theory. As it stands now, the large angle high-resolution electron energy loss cross sections are not completely characterized by theory.

  2. The use of ECDIS equipment to achieve an optimum value for energy efficiency operation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.; Stanca, C.

    2015-11-01

    To reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed a set of technical, operational and management measures. The subject of our research addresses the operational measures for minimizing CO2 air emissions and the way how the emission value could be influenced by external factors regardless of ship-owners’ will. This study aims to analyse the air emissions for a loaded voyage leg performed by an oil tanker. The formula that allows us to calculate the predicted Energy Efficiency Operational Index involves the estimation of distance and fuel consumption, while the quantity of cargo is known. The electronic chart display and information system, ECDIS Simulation Software, will be used for adjusting the passage plan in real time, given the predicted severe environmental conditions. The distance will be determined using ECDIS, while the prediction of the fuel consumption will consider the sea trial and the vessel experience records. That way it will be possible to compare the estimated EEOI value in the case of great circle navigation in adverse weather condition with the estimated EEOI value for weather navigation.

  3. Dark Energy, Black Holes and Exploding Stars: NASA's Chandra Observatory Marks Five Years of Scientific Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    On Aug. 12, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened its sunshade doors for the first time, allowing celestial X-ray light to reach the observatory's mirrors. This one small step for the observatory proved to be a giant leap for science as Chandra began its mission to shed new light on a violent, mysterious universe invisible to the human eye. The Marshall Center manages the Chandra program. On August 12, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened its sunshade doors for the first time, allowing celestial X-ray light to reach the observatory's mirrors. This one small step for the observatory proved to be a giant leap for science as Chandra began its mission to shed new light on a violent, mysterious universe invisible to the human eye. "Humans cannot see X-rays, but Chandra can," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin C. Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "And what the observatory has revealed in five short years has been nothing short of amazing. Thanks to Chandra, we've gleaned new information on dark energy, black holes, exploding stars and all other categories of astronomical objects." "Chandra's resolving power is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper headline a half-mile away," said Chandra Program Manager Keith Hefner of the Marshall Center. "It's an engineering marvel that has performed nearly flawlessly and provided major science discoveries over the past five years." A Chandra timeline reveals some of its most noteworthy discoveries: * Chandra finds a ring around the Crab Nebula. After only two months in space, the observatory reveals a brilliant ring around the heart of the Crab Pulsar in the Crab Nebula - the remains of a stellar explosion - providing clues about how the nebula is energized by a pulsing neutron, or collapsed, star. (Sept. 28, 1999) * Chandra reveals a possible black hole in the Milky Way. Culminating 25 years of searching by astronomers, researchers say that a faint X-ray source, newly

  4. Image acquisition with immersion objective lenses using electrons emitted with several tenths of an electron volt energies: towards high spatial resolution ESCA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, M

    2006-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the spatial resolution achievable with photoelectrons in order to perform localised UPS or XPS analyses on various heterogeneous samples. This investigation is intentionally restricted to direct image acquisition by immersion objective lenses, involving electrons ejected with initial energies of several tenths of an electron-volt. In order to characterise the contribution of all optical elements, analytical investigations were associated to numerical simulations based on SIMION 7 software. The acquisition of high-quality images implies a simultaneous reduction in spherical and chromatic aberrations by a narrow aperture stop placed at the output pupil of the objective. With such limitations in useful emission angles, it is shown that monochromatic electron beams build images with a resolution of about 1 nm, especially for the acceleration bias mode where the focussing electrode is biased at a positive high voltage. Even energy dispersed electron beams, limited by a 4 eV band pass spectrometer, can produce images convenient for highly localised ESCA analyses (resolution 3 nm), where the objective lens is associated with an aperture stop of 30 microm in diameter without using acceleration voltages above 5000 V.

  5. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): −0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. PMID:26193310

  6. Simulating SiD Calorimetry: Software Calibration Procedures and Jet Energy Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Cassell, Ron; /SLAC

    2009-02-23

    Simulated calorimeter performance in the SiD detector is examined. The software calibration procedures are described, as well as the perfect pattern recognition PFA reconstruction. Performance of the SiD calorimeters is summarized with jet energy resolutions from calorimetry only, perfect pattern recognition and the SiD PFA algorithm. Presented at LCWS08[1]. Our objective is to simulate the calorimeter performance of the SiD detector, with and without a Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA). Full Geant4 simulations using SLIC[2] and the SiD simplified detector geometry (SiD02) are used. In this geometry, the calorimeters are represented as layered cylinders. The EM calorimeter is Si/W, with 20 layers of 2.5mm W and 10 layers of 5mm W, segmented in 3.5 x 3.5mm{sup 2} cells. The HAD calorimeter is RPC/Fe, with 40 layers of 20mm Fe and a digital readout, segmented in 10 x 10mm{sup 2} cells. The barrel detectors are layered in radius, while the endcap detectors are layered in z(along the beam axis).

  7. Attenuation of 10 MeV electron beam energy to achieve low doses does not affect Salmonella spp. inactivation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieke, Anne-Sophie Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV electron beam on Salmonella inactivation kinetics was investigated. No statistically significant differences were observed between the D10 values of either Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- or a Salmonella cocktail (S. 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella) when irradiated with either a non-attenuated 10 MeV eBeam or an attenuated 10 MeV eBeam (~2.9±0.22 MeV). The results show that attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV eBeam to achieve low doses does not affect the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. when compared to direct 10 MeV eBeam irradiation.

  8. Time resolution of a 1-inch cylindrical CeBr{sub 3} crystal at {sup 60}Co energies

    SciTech Connect

    Vedia, V.; Fraile, L. M.; Olaizola, B.; Paziy, V.; Picado, E.; Udias, J. M.; Mach, H.

    2013-06-10

    We have measured time resolutions of a cylindrical CeBr{sub 3} scintillator of 1-inch in height and 1-inch in diameter coupled to two different fast photomultiplier tubes, Hamamatsu R9779 and Photonis XP20D0, as a function of applied high voltages and different settings of a Constant Fraction Discriminator ORTEC 935. The time resolution was measured using a time-delayed coincidence set-up involving a fast reference detector. The best result of 119(2) ps at {sup 60}Co energies was obtained for the CeBr{sub 3} crystal coupled to the Hamamatsu PMT. This result is comparable to the resolution of 107 ps reported for a LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) crystal of the same size. For the coupling of the CeBr{sub 3} scintillator to the Photonis PMT we got the time resolution of 146(2) ps.

  9. Simple super-resolution live-cell imaging based on diffusion-assisted Förster resonance energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sangyeon; Jang, Jaeduck; Song, Chaeyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Ganesan, Prabhakar; Yoon, Tae-Young; Kim, Mahn Won; Choi, Myung Chul; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Heo, Won Do; Park, YongKeun

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development of several super-resolution fluorescence microscopic techniques, there are still few techniques that can be readily employed in conventional imaging systems. We present a very simple, rapid, general and cost-efficient super-resolution imaging method, which can be directly employed in a simple fluorescent imaging system with general fluorophores. Based on diffusion-assisted Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescent donor molecules that label specific target structures can be stochastically quenched by diffusing acceptor molecules, thereby temporally separating otherwise spatially overlapped fluorescence signals and allowing super-resolution imaging. The proposed method provides two- to three-fold-enhancement in spatial resolution, a significant optical sectioning property, and favorable temporal resolution in live-cell imaging. We demonstrate super-resolution live-cell dynamic imaging using general fluorophores in a standard epi-fluorescence microscope with light-emitting diode (LED) illumination. Due to the simplicity of this approach, we expect that the proposed method will prove an attractive option for super-resolution imaging. PMID:23383376

  10. Achieving High-Energy-High-Power Density in a Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Sodium Ion Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongsen; Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-14

    Simultaneous integration of high-energy output with high-power delivery is a major challenge for electrochemical energy storage systems, limiting dual fine attributes on a device. We introduce a quasi-solid-state sodium ion capacitor (NIC) based on a battery type urchin-like Na2Ti3O7 anode and a capacitor type peanut shell derived carbon cathode, using a sodium ion conducting gel polymer as electrolyte, achieving high-energy-high-power characteristics in solid state. Energy densities can reach 111.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 800 W kg(-1), and 33.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 11200 W kg(-1), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art NICs. The designed device also exhibits long-term cycling stability over 3000 cycles with capacity retention ∼86%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the assembly of a highly flexible quasi-solid-state NIC and it shows no obvious capacity loss under different bending conditions.

  11. Beamline P02.1 at PETRA III for high-resolution and high-energy powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Dippel, Ann-Christin; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Delitz, Jan Torben; Walter, Peter; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst; Seeck, Oliver H; Franz, Hermann

    2015-05-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction techniques largely benefit from the superior beam quality provided by high-brilliance synchrotron light sources in terms of photon flux and angular resolution. The High Resolution Powder Diffraction Beamline P02.1 at the storage ring PETRA III (DESY, Hamburg, Germany) combines these strengths with the power of high-energy X-rays for materials research. The beamline is operated at a fixed photon energy of 60 keV (0.207 Å wavelength). A high-resolution monochromator generates the highly collimated X-ray beam of narrow energy bandwidth. Classic crystal structure determination in reciprocal space at standard and non-ambient conditions are an essential part of the scientific scope as well as total scattering analysis using the real space information of the pair distribution function. Both methods are complemented by in situ capabilities with time-resolution in the sub-second regime owing to the high beam intensity and the advanced detector technology for high-energy X-rays. P02.1's efficiency in solving chemical and crystallographic problems is illustrated by presenting key experiments that were carried out within these fields during the early stage of beamline operation.

  12. Beamline P02.1 at PETRA III for high-resolution and high-energy powder diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Dippel, Ann-Christin; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Delitz, Jan Torben; Walter, Peter; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst; Seeck, Oliver H.; Franz, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction techniques largely benefit from the superior beam quality provided by high-brilliance synchrotron light sources in terms of photon flux and angular resolution. The High Resolution Powder Diffraction Beamline P02.1 at the storage ring PETRA III (DESY, Hamburg, Germany) combines these strengths with the power of high-energy X-rays for materials research. The beamline is operated at a fixed photon energy of 60 keV (0.207 Å wavelength). A high-resolution monochromator generates the highly collimated X-ray beam of narrow energy bandwidth. Classic crystal structure determination in reciprocal space at standard and non-ambient conditions are an essential part of the scientific scope as well as total scattering analysis using the real space information of the pair distribution function. Both methods are complemented by in situ capabilities with time-resolution in the sub-second regime owing to the high beam intensity and the advanced detector technology for high-energy X-rays. P02.1’s efficiency in solving chemical and crystallographic problems is illustrated by presenting key experiments that were carried out within these fields during the early stage of beamline operation. PMID:25931084

  13. The BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Catalog. I. High Time Resolution Spectroscopy of Bright Bursts Using High Energy Resolution Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, R. D.; Briggs, M. S.; Mallozzi, R. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Band, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    This is the first in a series of gamma-ray burst spectroscopy catalogs from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, each covering a different aspect of burst phenomenology. In this paper, we present time sequences of spectral fit parameters for 156 bursts selected for either their high peak flux or fluence. All bursts have at least eight spectra in excess of 45 σ above background and span burst durations from 1.66 to 278 s. Individual spectral accumulations are typically 128 ms long at the peak of the brightest events but can be as short as 16 ms, depending on the type of data selected. We have used mostly high energy resolution data from the Large Area Detectors, covering an energy range of typically 28-1800 keV. The spectral model chosen is from a small empirically determined set of functions, such as the well-known ``GRB'' function, that best fits the time-averaged burst spectra. Thus, there are generally three spectral shape parameters available for each of the 5500 total spectra: a low-energy power-law index, a characteristic break energy, and possibly a high-energy power-law index. We present the distributions of the observed sets of these parameters and comment on their implications. The complete set of data that accompanies this paper is necessarily large and thus is archived in the electronic edition of the Astrophysical Journal.

  14. The cyclopropene radical cation: Rovibrational level structure at low energies from high-resolution photoelectron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilatou, K.; Michaud, J. M.; Baykusheva, D.; Grassi, G.; Merkt, F.

    2014-08-14

    The cyclopropene radical cation (c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +}) is an important but poorly characterized three-membered-ring hydrocarbon. We report on a measurement of the high-resolution photoelectron and photoionization spectra of cyclopropene and several deuterated isotopomers, from which we have determined the rovibrational energy level structure of the X{sup ~+} {sup 2}B{sub 2} ground electronic state of c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +} at low energies for the first time. The synthesis of the partially deuterated isotopomers always resulted in mixtures of several isotopomers, differing in their number of D atoms and in the location of these atoms, so that the photoelectron spectra of deuterated samples are superpositions of the spectra of several isotopomers. The rotationally resolved spectra indicate a C{sub 2v}-symmetric R{sub 0} structure for the ground electronic state of c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +}. Two vibrational modes of c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +} are found to have vibrational wave numbers below 300 cm{sup −1}, which is surprising for such a small cyclic hydrocarbon. The analysis of the isotopic shifts of the vibrational levels enabled the assignment of the lowest-frequency mode (fundamental wave number of ≈110 cm{sup −1} in c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +}) to the CH{sub 2} torsional mode (ν{sub 8}{sup +}, A{sub 2} symmetry) and of the second-lowest-frequency mode (≈210 cm{sup −1} in c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +}) to a mode combining a CH out-of-plane with a CH{sub 2} rocking motion (ν{sub 15}{sup +}, B{sub 2} symmetry). The potential energy along the CH{sub 2} torsional coordinate is flat near the equilibrium structure and leads to a pronounced anharmonicity.

  15. High-Resolution Images with Minimum Energy Dissipation and Maximum Field-of-View in Camera-Based Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Aghdasi, Hadi S.; Bisadi, Pouya; Moghaddam, Mohsen Ebrahimi; Abbaspour, Maghsoud

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution images with wide field of view are important in realizing many applications of wireless multimedia sensor networks. Previous works that generally use multi-tier topology and provide such images by increasing the capabilities of camera sensor nodes lead to an increase in network cost. On the other hand, the resulting energy consumption is a considerable issue that has not been seriously considered in previous works. In this paper, high-resolution images with wide field of view are generated without increasing the total cost of network and with minimum energy dissipation. This is achieved by using image stitching in WMSNs, designing a two-tier network topology with new structure, and proposing a camera selection algorithm. In the proposed two-tier structure, low cost camera sensor nodes are used only in the lower-tier and sensor nodes without camera are considered in the upper-tier which decreases total network cost as much as possible. Also, since a simplified image stitching method is implemented and a new algorithm for selecting active nodes is utilized, energy dissipation in the network is decreased by applying the proposed methods. The results of simulations supported the preceding statements. PMID:22454591

  16. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR -/-) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Longo, Kenneth A; Berryman, Darlene E; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; Distefano, Peter S; Geddes, Brad J; Kopchick, John J

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR -/- mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (M(b)) changes and physical activity in 17month-old female GHR -/- mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR -/- mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit M(b), had greater EE per unit M(b) and had an increase in 24-h EE/M(b) that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR -/- mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, M(b) and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for M(b) and LMA, the GHR -/- mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR -/- mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR -/- mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final 3h of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR -/- mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable M(b). Relative to wild type mice, the GHR -/- mice consumed more calories per unit M(b), which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR -/- mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA.

  17. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR−/−) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Kenneth A.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; DiStefano, Peter S.; Geddes, Brad J.; Kopchick, John

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR −/− mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (Mb) changes and physical activity in 17 month-old female GHR −/− mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR −/− mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit Mb, had greater EE per unit Mb and had an increase in 24-h EE/Mb that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR −/− mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, Mb and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for Mb and LMA, the GHR −/− mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR −/− mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR −/− mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final three hours of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR −/− mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable Mb. Relative to wild type mice, the GHR −/− mice consumed more calories per unit Mb, which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR −/− mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA. PMID:19747867

  18. Energy resolution measurements of LaBr 3:Ce scintillating crystals with an ultra-high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, R.; Cinti, M. N.; Scafè, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Vittorini, F.; Bennati, P.; Ridolfi, S.; Lo Meo, S.; Mattioli, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Pisacane, F.; Navarria, F.; Moschini, G.; Boccaccio, P.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Sacco, D.

    2009-10-01

    The performance of the new prototype of high quantum efficiency PMT (43% at 380 nm), Hamamatsu R7600U-200, was studied coupled to a LaBr 3:Ce crystal with the size of ∅12.5 mm×12.5 mm. The energy resolution results were compared with ones from two PMTs, Hamamatsu R7600U and R6231MOD, with 22% and 30% quantum efficiency (QE), respectively. Moreover, the photodetectors were equipped with tapered and un-tapered voltage dividers to study the non-linearity effects on pulse height distribution, due to very high peak currents induced in the PMT by the fast and intense light pulse of LaBr 3:Ce. The results show an energy resolution improvement with UBA PMT of about 20%, in the energy range of 80-662 keV, with respect to the BA one.

  19. Importance of energy and angular resolutions in top-hat electrostatic analysers for solar wind proton measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, R.; Marcucci, M. F.; Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Lavraud, B.; Louarn, P.; Salatti, M.

    2016-08-01

    We use a numerical code which reproduces the angular/energy response of a typical top-hat electrostatic analyser starting from solar wind proton velocity distribution functions (VDFs) generated by numerical simulations. The simulations are based on the Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell numerical algorithm which integrates the Vlasov equation for the ion distribution function, while the electrons are treated as a fluid. A virtual satellite launched through the simulation box measures the particle VDFs. Such VDFs are moved from the simulation Cartesian grid to energy-angular coordinates to mimic the response of a real sensor in the solar wind. Different energy-angular resolutions of the analyser are investigated in order to understand the influence of the phase-space resolution in existing and upcoming space missions, with regards to determining the key parameters of plasma dynamics.

  20. High-resolution simulations of the thermophysiological effects of human exposure to 100 MHz RF energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, David A.; Curran, Allen R.; Nyberg, Hans A.; Marttila, Eric A.; Mason, Patrick A.; Ziriax, John M.

    2013-03-01

    Human exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic energy is known to result in tissue heating and can raise temperatures substantially in some situations. Standards for safe exposure to RF do not reflect bio-heat transfer considerations however. Thermoregulatory function (vasodilation, sweating) may mitigate RF heating effects in some environments and exposure scenarios. Conversely, a combination of an extreme environment (high temperature, high humidity), high activity levels and thermally insulating garments may exacerbate RF exposure and pose a risk of unsafe temperature elevation, even for power densities which might be acceptable in a normothermic environment. A high-resolution thermophysiological model, incorporating a heterogeneous tissue model of a seated adult has been developed and used to replicate a series of whole-body exposures at a frequency (100 MHz) which approximates that of human whole-body resonance. Exposures were simulated at three power densities (4, 6 and 8 mW cm-2) plus a sham exposure and at three different ambient temperatures (24, 28 and 31 °C). The maximum hypothalamic temperature increase over the course of a 45 min exposure was 0.28 °C and occurred in the most extreme conditions (Tamb = 31 °C, PD = 8 mW cm-2). Skin temperature increases attributable to RF exposure were modest, with the exception of a ‘hot spot’ in the vicinity of the ankle where skin temperatures exceeded 39 °C. Temperature increases in internal organs and tissues were small, except for connective tissue and bone in the lower leg and foot. Temperature elevation also was noted in the spinal cord, consistent with a hot spot previously identified in the literature.

  1. Achieving high-resolution soft-tissue imaging with cone-beam CT: a two-pronged approach for modulation of x-ray fluence and detector gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, S. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Moseley, D. J.; Keller, H.; Shkumat, N. A.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2005-04-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) presents a highly promising and challenging advanced application of flat-panel detectors (FPDs). The great advantage of this adaptable technology is in the potential for sub-mm 3D spatial resolution in combination with soft-tissue detectability. While the former is achieved naturally by CBCT systems incorporating modern FPD designs (e.g., 200 - 400 um pixel pitch), the latter presents a significant challenge due to limitations in FPD dynamic range, large field of view, and elevated levels of x-ray scatter in typical CBCT configurations. We are investigating a two-pronged strategy to maximizing soft-tissue detectability in CBCT: 1) front-end solutions, including novel beam modulation designs (viz., spatially varying compensators) that alleviate detector dynamic range requirements, reduce x-ray scatter, and better distribute imaging dose in a manner suited to soft-tissue visualization throughout the field of view; and 2) back-end solutions, including implementation of an advanced FPD design (Varian PaxScan 4030CB) that features dual-gain and dynamic gain switching that effectively extends detector dynamic range to 18 bits. These strategies are explored quantitatively on CBCT imaging platforms developed in our laboratory, including a dedicated CBCT bench and a mobile isocentric C-arm (Siemens PowerMobil). Pre-clinical evaluation of improved soft-tissue visibility was carried out in phantom and patient imaging with the C-arm device. Incorporation of these strategies begin to reveal the full potential of CBCT for soft-tissue visualization, an essential step in realizing broad utility of this adaptable technology for diagnostic and image-guided procedures.

  2. URBAN EFFICIENT ENERGY EVALUATION IN HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN AREAS BY USING ADAPTED WRF-UCM AND MICROSYS CFD MODELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Gonzalez, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism modeling has advanced substantially during the last years due to the increased detail in mesoscale urban parameterization in meteorological mesoscale models and CFD numerical tools. Recently the implementation of the “urban canopy model” (UCM) into the WRF mesoscale meteorological model has produced a substantial advance on the understanding of the urban atmospheric heat flux exchanges in the urban canopy. The need to optimize the use of heat energy in urban environment has produced a substantial increase in the detailed investigation of the urban heat flux exchanges. In this contribution we will show the performance of using a tool called MICROSYS (MICRO scale CFD modelling SYStem) which is an adaptation of the classical urban canopy model but on a high resolution environment by using a classical CFD approach. The energy balance in the urban system can be determined in a micrometeorologicl sense by considering the energy flows in and out of a control volume. For such a control volume reaching from ground to a certain height above buildings, the energy balance equation includes the net radiation, the anthropogenic heat flux, the turbulent sensible heat flux, the turbulent latent heat flux, the net storage change within the control volume, the net advected flux and other sources and sinks. We have applied the MICROSYS model to an area of 5 km x 5 km with 200 m spatial resolution by using the WRF-UCM (adapted and the MICROSYS CFD model. The anthropogenic heat flux has been estimated by using the Flanner M.G. (2009) database and detailed GIS information (50 m resolution) of Madrid city. The Storage energy has been estimated by calculating the energy balance according to the UCM procedure and implementing it into the MICROSYS tool. Results show that MICROSYS can be used as an energy efficient tool to estimate the energy balance of different urban areas and buildings.

  3. Energy resolution of the CdTe-XPAD detector:calibration and potential for Laue diffractionmeasurements on protein crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Medjoubi K.; Idir M.; Thompson, A.; Berar, J-F.; Clemens, J-C.; Delpierre, P.; Da Silva, P.; Dinkespiler, B.; Itie, J-P.; Legrand, P.; Menneglier, C.; Mercere, P.; Picca, F.; Samama J-P.

    2012-02-02

    The XPAD3S-CdTe, a CdTe photon-counting pixel array detector, has been used to measure the energy and the intensity of the white-beam diffraction from a lysozyme crystal. A method was developed to calibrate the detector in terms of energy, allowing incident photon energy measurement to high resolution (approximately 140 eV), opening up new possibilities in energy-resolved X-ray diffraction. In order to demonstrate this, Laue diffraction experiments were performed on the bending-magnet beamline METROLOGIE at Synchrotron SOLEIL. The X-ray energy spectra of diffracted spots were deduced from the indexed Laue patterns collected with an imaging-plate detector and then measured with both the XPAD3S-CdTe and the XPAD3S-Si, a silicon photon-counting pixel array detector. The predicted and measured energy of selected diffraction spots are in good agreement, demonstrating the reliability of the calibration method. These results open up the way to direct unit-cell parameter determination and the measurement of high-quality Laue data even at low resolution. Based on the success of these measurements, potential applications in X-ray diffraction opened up by this type of technology are discussed.

  4. High Resolution Higher Energy X-ray Microscope for Mesoscopic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.

    2013-10-01

    We developed a novel X-ray microscopy technique to study mesoscopically structured materials, employing compound refractive lenses. The easily seen advantage of lens-based methodology is the possibility to retrieve high resolution diffraction pattern and real-space images in the same experimental setup. Methodologically the proposed approach is similar to the studies of crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The proposed microscope was applied for studying of mesoscopic materials such as natural and synthetic opals, inverted photonic crystals.

  5. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lone V; Nielsen, Mette S; Schmidt, Julie B; Pedersen, Sue D; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd 4·4) kg/m(2)) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan(®), 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7, the majority of patients (77 %) had reached their target weight, and this was achieved after 5·4 (sem 0·3) weeks. Mean weight loss was 9·3 (sem 0·5) % (P < 0·01) and consisted of 41·6 % fat-free mass (FFM) and 58·4 % fat mass. The weight loss was accompanied by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (7·1 (sem 2·3) and 7·3 (sem 1·8) mmHg, respectively, all P < 0·01) as well as an improved metabolic profile (8·2 (sem 1·8) % decrease in fasting glucose (P < 0·01), 28·6 (sem 6·4) % decrease in fasting insulin (P < 0·01), 23·1 (sem 2·2) % decrease in LDL (P < 0·01), and 9·7 (sem 4·7) % decrease in TAG (P < 0·05)). Weight, FFM and fat mass continued to decrease from week 7 to 11 (all P < 0·01), whereas no additional improvements was observed in the metabolic parameters. Severely obese patients can safely achieve preoperative target weight on an LCD within 7 weeks as part of preparation for BS. However, the considerable reduction in FFM in severely obese subjects needs further investigation.

  6. High Resolution Low Energy Electron Diffraction Studies of Thermal Instabilities in Lead Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongning

    1991-02-01

    Thermal instability in a crystal surface is one of the most fascinating phenomena that occur in surfaces. Recent advances in many surface analytical tools allow researchers to examine surface instabilities on the atomic scale. One outstanding example is the observation of surface melting in a Pb(110) surface 100 K below the bulk melting temperature, T_{m} (bulk) = 600.7 K, using medium-energy ion channeling techniques. Using the high-resolution low-energy electron diffraction (HRLEED) technique, we have observed several novel surface instabilities that occur below the Pb(110) surface melting temperature. First of all we found that Pb(110) surface melting is preceded by a surface roughening transition which begins at ~415 K, about 185 K below T_{m}. The value of the roughening temperature agrees very well with the prediction of the molecular dynamic calculation that a (110) surface should start to rough at 0.7 T _{m} (~420 K for Pb). This roughening transition is of the Korsterlitz -Thouless type and is an infinite order transition in which the height-height correlation diverges. We observed a critical line which extends from the roughening temperature to the surface melting temperature. Below the surface roughening temperature (at around 380 K), we have observed an extremely interesting disordered flat (DOF) phase in which positionally disordered steps are confined to two levels and the surface remains flat on the average. This DOF phase (sometimes called the preroughened phase), as predicted by K. Rommelse and M. den Nijs recently, is stabilized by entropy as a result of step interactions beyond the nearest neighbors. The energetics of the DOF phase are intimately related to that of the surface reconstruction. In fact, a reconstruction phase has been considered as a "condensate" of the DOF phase. In contrast, the more tightly packed Pb(100) surface behaves very differently. There is a non-conventional liquid-like disordering which occurs at 570 K. This disordering

  7. Timing and Energy Resolution of new near-UV SiPMs coupled to LaBr3:Ce for TOF-PET

    PubMed Central

    Schmall, Jeffrey P.; Wiener, Rony I.; Surti, Suleman; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Tarolli, Alessandro; Piemonte, Claudio; Karp, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    The high light output and fast decay time of LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors leads to excellent timing performance. To realize the potential of timing resolution with LaBr3:Ce we have investigated the performance with SiPMs, which enable 1-to-1 coupling to individual crystals, and which have been optimized for the near-ultraviolet (NUV) scintillation light emission of LaBr3:Ce. Coincidence timing resolution (CTR) of 100 ps was measured for a 4×4×5 mm3 LaBr3:30%Ce crystal directly coupled to a large-area 4×4 mm2 NUV-SiPM. Results show very little dependence on temperature, in the range of −20° to 20°C, and bias voltage, from 2 V to 5 V over breakdown. Optimal performance was achieved at an over-voltage (OV) range of 3 V – 5 V, at which high gain and high photon detection efficiency are achieved. Though saturation was evident at 511 keV, an energy resolution of 6.8% was measured after correcting for non-linearity. We also measured a CTR of 110 ps for a 4×4×5mm3 LaBr3:5%Ce crystal and 245 ps for a 4×4×30 mm3 LaBr3:5%Ce crystal using the NUV-SIPM. The poorer timing measurement for the 30-mm long crystal is due mainly to a systematic shift in the time pick-off as a function of the depth-of-interaction. The excellent temperature stability, fast rise time, high gain, and low noise of the NUV-SiPM make it a practical and highly appealing photodetector for the readout of a LaBr3:Ce TOF-PET detector. PMID:25530626

  8. Timing and Energy Resolution of new near-UV SiPMs coupled to LaBr3:Ce for TOF-PET.

    PubMed

    Schmall, Jeffrey P; Wiener, Rony I; Surti, Suleman; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Tarolli, Alessandro; Piemonte, Claudio; Karp, Joel S

    2014-10-01

    The high light output and fast decay time of LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors leads to excellent timing performance. To realize the potential of timing resolution with LaBr3:Ce we have investigated the performance with SiPMs, which enable 1-to-1 coupling to individual crystals, and which have been optimized for the near-ultraviolet (NUV) scintillation light emission of LaBr3:Ce. Coincidence timing resolution (CTR) of 100 ps was measured for a 4×4×5 mm(3) LaBr3:30%Ce crystal directly coupled to a large-area 4×4 mm(2) NUV-SiPM. Results show very little dependence on temperature, in the range of -20° to 20°C, and bias voltage, from 2 V to 5 V over breakdown. Optimal performance was achieved at an over-voltage (OV) range of 3 V - 5 V, at which high gain and high photon detection efficiency are achieved. Though saturation was evident at 511 keV, an energy resolution of 6.8% was measured after correcting for non-linearity. We also measured a CTR of 110 ps for a 4×4×5mm(3) LaBr3:5%Ce crystal and 245 ps for a 4×4×30 mm(3) LaBr3:5%Ce crystal using the NUV-SIPM. The poorer timing measurement for the 30-mm long crystal is due mainly to a systematic shift in the time pick-off as a function of the depth-of-interaction. The excellent temperature stability, fast rise time, high gain, and low noise of the NUV-SiPM make it a practical and highly appealing photodetector for the readout of a LaBr3:Ce TOF-PET detector.

  9. Zoomed high-resolution simulations of Multi-coupled Dark Energy: cored galaxy density profiles at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Garaldi, Enrico; Baldi, Marco; Moscardini, Lauro E-mail: marco.baldi5@unibo.it

    2016-01-01

    We perform for the first time high-resolution zoom-in re-simulations of individual halos in the context of the Multi-coupled Dark Energy (McDE) scenario, which is characterised by the existence of two distinct Dark Matter particle species with opposite couplings to a Dark Energy scalar field. We compare the structural properties of the simulated halos to the standard ΛCDM results. The zoomed-in initial conditions are set up using a specifically designed code called ZInCo that we publicly release along with the present paper. Our numerical results allow to investigate in detail and with unprecedented resolution the halo segregation process that characterises McDE cosmologies from its very early stages. In particular, we find that in contrast to what could be inferred from previous numerical analysis at lower resolution, the segregation process is already in place at redshifts as high as z ∼ 7. Most remarkably, we find that the subsequent evolution of the segregation leads to the formation of cored total matter density profiles with a core size that progressively increases in time. The shape of the cored profiles can be accurately predicted as the superposition of two NFW profiles with an increasing offset, thereby confirming the interpretation of the simulations results in terms of the segregation of the two dark matter components of the halo as a consequence of their different coupling to the Dark Energy field.

  10. High energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the SRI-CAT

    SciTech Connect

    Macrander, A.T.

    1996-08-01

    This report is a combination of vugraphs and two papers. The vugraphs give information on the beamline at the APS for IXS and the science addressable by IXS. They also cover the 10 milli-eV resolution spectrometer and the 200 milli-eV resolution spectrometer. The first paper covers the performance of the focusing Ge(444) backscattering analyzers for the inelastic x-ray scattering. The second paper discusses inelastic x-ray scattering from TiC and Ti single crystals.

  11. Time-resolved diffraction and interference: Young's interference with photons of different energy as revealed by time resolution.

    PubMed

    Garcia, N; Saveliev, I G; Sharonov, M

    2002-05-15

    We present time-resolved diffraction and two-slit interference experiments using a streak camera as a detector for femtosecond pulses of photons. These experiments show how the diffraction pattern is built by adding frames of a few photons to each frame. It is estimated that after 300 photons the diffraction pattern emerges. With time resolution we can check the speed of light and put an upper limit of 2 ps at our resolution to the time for wave function collapse in the quantum measurement process. We then produce interference experiments with photons of different energies impinging on the slits, i.e. we know which photon impinges on each slit. We show that for poor time resolution, no interference is observed, but for high time resolution, we have interference that is revealed as beats of 100 GHz frequency. The condition for interference is that the two pulses should overlap spatially at the detector, even if the pulses have different energies but are generated from the same pulse of the laser. The interference seems to be in agreement with classical theory at first sight. However, closer study and analysis of the data show deviations in the visibility of the interference fringes and of their phase. These experiments are discussed in connection with quantum mechanics and it may be concluded that the time resolution provides new data for understanding the longstanding and continuing arguments on wave-particle duality initiated by Newton, Young, Fresnel, Planck and others. A thought experiment is presented in the appendix to try to distinguish the photons at the detector by making it sensitive to colour.

  12. Low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy: An atomic-resolution complement to optical spectroscopies and application to graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Kapetanakis, Myron; Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P.; Lee, Jaekwang; Prange, Micah P.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-09-25

    Photon-based spectroscopies have played a central role in exploring the electronic properties of crystalline solids and thin films. They are a powerful tool for probing the electronic properties of nanostructures, but they are limited by lack of spatial resolution. On the other hand, electron-based spectroscopies, e.g., electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), are now capable of subangstrom spatial resolution. Core-loss EELS, a spatially resolved analog of x-ray absorption, has been used extensively in the study of inhomogeneous complex systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that low-loss EELS in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, which probes low-energy excitations, combined with a theoretical framework for simulating and analyzing the spectra, is a powerful tool to probe low-energy electron excitations with atomic-scale resolution. The theoretical component of the method combines density functional theory–based calculations of the excitations with dynamical scattering theory for the electron beam. We apply the method to monolayer graphene in order to demonstrate that atomic-scale contrast is inherent in low-loss EELS even in a perfectly periodic structure. The method is a complement to optical spectroscopy as it probes transitions entailing momentum transfer. The theoretical analysis identifies the spatial and orbital origins of excitations, holding the promise of ultimately becoming a powerful probe of the structure and electronic properties of individual point and extended defects in both crystals and inhomogeneous complex nanostructures. The method can be extended to probe magnetic and vibrational properties with atomic resolution.

  13. Low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy: An atomic-resolution complement to optical spectroscopies and application to graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Kapetanakis, Myron; Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P.; ...

    2015-09-25

    Photon-based spectroscopies have played a central role in exploring the electronic properties of crystalline solids and thin films. They are a powerful tool for probing the electronic properties of nanostructures, but they are limited by lack of spatial resolution. On the other hand, electron-based spectroscopies, e.g., electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), are now capable of subangstrom spatial resolution. Core-loss EELS, a spatially resolved analog of x-ray absorption, has been used extensively in the study of inhomogeneous complex systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that low-loss EELS in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, which probes low-energy excitations, combined with amore » theoretical framework for simulating and analyzing the spectra, is a powerful tool to probe low-energy electron excitations with atomic-scale resolution. The theoretical component of the method combines density functional theory–based calculations of the excitations with dynamical scattering theory for the electron beam. We apply the method to monolayer graphene in order to demonstrate that atomic-scale contrast is inherent in low-loss EELS even in a perfectly periodic structure. The method is a complement to optical spectroscopy as it probes transitions entailing momentum transfer. The theoretical analysis identifies the spatial and orbital origins of excitations, holding the promise of ultimately becoming a powerful probe of the structure and electronic properties of individual point and extended defects in both crystals and inhomogeneous complex nanostructures. The method can be extended to probe magnetic and vibrational properties with atomic resolution.« less

  14. Characterization of the energy resolution and the tracking capabilities of a hybrid pixel detector with CdTe-sensor layer for a possible use in a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipenko, Mykhaylo; Gleixner, Thomas; Anton, Gisela; Durst, Jürgen; Michel, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    Many different experiments are being developed to explore the existence of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) since it would imply fundamental consequences for particle physics. In this work we present results on the evaluation of Timepix detectors with cadmium-telluride sensor material to search for 0 νββ in 116Cd. This work was carried out with the COBRA collaboration and the Medipix collaboration. Due to the relatively small pixel dimension of 110×110×1000 μm3 the energy deposited by particles typically extends over several detector pixels leading to a track in the pixel matrix. We investigated the separation power regarding different event-types like α-particles, atmospheric muons, single electrons and electron-positron pairs produced at a single vertex. We achieved excellent classification power for α-particles and muons. In addition, we achieved good separation power between single electron and electron-positron pair production events. These separation abilities indicate a very good background reduction for the 0 νββ search. Further, in order to distinguish between 2 νββ and 0 νββ, the energy resolution is of particular importance. We carried out simulations which demonstrate that an energy resolution of 0.43 % is achievable at the Q-value for 0 νββ of 116Cd at 2.814 MeV. We measured an energy resolution of 1.6 % at a nominal energy of 1589 keV for electron-positron tracks which is about two times worse that predicted by our simulations. This deviation is probably due to the problem of detector calibration at energies above 122 keV which is discussed in this paper as well.

  15. Signatures of distinct impurity configurations in atomic-resolution valence electron-energy-loss spectroscopy: Application to graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapetanakis, Myron D.; Oxley, Mark P.; Zhou, Wu; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2016-10-01

    The detection and identification of impurities and other point defects in materials is a challenging task. Signatures for point defects are typically obtained using spectroscopies without spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate the power of valence electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission-electron microscope (STEM) to provide energy-resolved and atomically resolved maps of electronic excitations of individual impurities which, combined with theoretical simulations, yield unique signatures of distinct bonding configurations of impurities. We report VEELS maps for isolated Si impurities in graphene, which are known to exist in two distinct configurations. We also report simulations of the maps, based on density functional theory and dynamical scattering theory, which agree with and provide direct interpretation of observed features. We show that theoretical VEELS maps exhibit distinct and unambiguous signatures for the threefold- and fourfold-coordinated configurations of Si impurities in different energy-loss windows, corresponding to impurity-induced bound states, resonances, and antiresonances. With the advent of new monochromators and detectors with high energy resolution and low signal-to-noise ratio, the present work ushers an atomically resolved STEM-based spectroscopy of individual impurities as an alternative to conventional spectroscopies for probing impurities and defects.

  16. High Resolution Mapping of Soils and Landforms for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    The Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP), a major component of California's renewable energy planning efforts, is intended to provide effective protection and conservation of desert ecosystems, while allowing for the sensible development of renewable energy projects. This NASA mapping report was developed to support the DRECP and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We outline in this document remote sensing image processing methods to deliver new maps of biological soils crusts, sand dune movements, desert pavements, and sub-surface water sources across the DRECP area. We focused data processing first on the largely unmapped areas most likely to be used for energy developments, such as those within Renewable Energy Study Areas (RESA) and Solar Energy Zones (SEZs). We used imagery (multispectral and radar) mainly from the years 2009-2011.

  17. Advances in the Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model using very high resolution remote sensing data in vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto Solana, H.; Kustas, W. P.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; ELarab, M.; Song, L.; Alfieri, J. G.; Prueger, J. H.; McKee, L.; Anderson, M. C.; Alsina, M. M.; Jensen, A.; McKee, M.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal-based Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model partitions the water and energy fluxes from vegetation and soil components providing thus the ability for estimating soil evaporation (E) and canopy transpiration (T) separately. However, it is crucial for ET partitioning to retrieve reliable estimates of canopy and soil temperatures as well as the net radiation partitioning (ΔRn), as the latter determines the available energy for water and heat exchange from soil and canopy sources. These two factors become especially relevant in agricultural areas, with vegetation clumped along rows and hence only partially covering the soil surface for much of the growing season. The effects on radiation and temperature partitioning is extreme for vineyards and orchards, where there is often significant separation between plants, resulting in strongly clumped vegetation with significant fraction of bare soil/substrate. To better understand the effects of strongly clumped vegetation on radiation and Land Surface Temperature (LST) partitioning very high spatial resolution remote sensing data acquired from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) were collected over vineyards in Califronia, as part of the Grape Remote sensing and Atmospheric Profile and Evapotranspiration eXperiment (GRAPEX).The multi-temporal observations from the UAS and very high pixel resolution permitted the estimation of reliable soil and leaf temperatures using a contextual algorithm based on the inverse relationship between LST and a vegetation index. An improvement in the algorithm estimating the effective leaf area index explicitly developed for vine rows and ΔRn using the 4SAIL Radiative Transfer Model is as well developed. The revisions to the TSEB model are evaluated with in situ measurements of energy fluxes and transmitted solar radiation. Results show that the modifications to the TSEB resulted in closer agreement with the flux tower measurements compared to the original TSEB model formulations. The

  18. High energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy study of the dielectric properties of bulk and nanoparticle LaB6 in the near-infrared region.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yohei; Terauchi, Masami; Mukai, Masaki; Kaneyama, Toshikatsu; Adachi, Kenji

    2011-07-01

    The dielectric properties of LaB(6) crystals and the plasmonic behavior of LaB(6) nanoparticles, which have been applied to solar heat-shielding filters, were studied by high energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HR-EELS). An EELS spectrum of a LaB(6) crystal showed a peak at 2.0 eV, which was attributed to volume plasmon excitation of carrier electrons. EELS spectra of single LaB(6) nanoparticles showed peaks at 1.1-1.4 eV depending on the dielectric effect from the substrates. The peaks were assigned to dipole oscillation excitations. These peak energies almost coincided with the peak energy of optical absorption of a heat-shielding filter with LaB(6) nanoparticles. On the other hand, those energies were a smaller than a dipole oscillation energy predicted using the dielectric function of bulk LaB(6) crystal. It is suggested that the lower energy than expected is due to an excitation at 1.2 eV, which was observed for oxidized LaB(6) area.

  19. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of clean and hydrogen covered Si(001) surfaces: first principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, C H

    2012-09-07

    Surface phonons, conductivities, and loss functions are calculated for reconstructed (2×1), p(2×2) and c(4×2) clean Si(001) surfaces, and (2×1) H and D covered Si(001) surfaces. Surface conductivities perpendicular to the surface are significantly smaller than conductivities parallel to the surface. The surface loss function is compared to high resolution electron energy loss measurements. There is good agreement between calculated loss functions and experiment for H and D covered surfaces. However, agreement between experimental data from different groups and between theory and experiment is poor for clean Si(001) surfaces. Formalisms for calculating electron energy loss spectra are reviewed and the mechanism of electron energy losses to surface vibrations is discussed.

  20. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. N.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Lee, J. J.; Romano, E.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V.

    2016-11-01

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40-200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  1. An alternative scheme of angular-dispersion analyzers for high-resolution medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian Rong

    2011-11-01

    The development of medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering optics with meV and sub-meV resolution has attracted considerable efforts in recent years. Meanwhile, there are also concerns or debates about the fundamental and feasibility of the involved schemes. Here the central optical component, the back-reflection angular-dispersion monochromator or analyzer, is analyzed. The results show that the multiple-beam diffraction effect together with transmission-induced absorption can noticeably reduce the diffraction efficiency, although it may not be a fatal threat. In order to improve the efficiency, a simple four-bounce analyzer is proposed that completely avoids these two adverse effects. The new scheme is illustrated to be a feasible alternative approach for developing meV- to sub-meV-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy.

  2. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Landen, O L; Tommasini, R; Holder, J P; Hargrove, D; Bradley, D K; Lumbard, A; Cruz, J G; Piston, K; Lee, J J; Romano, E; Bell, P M; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Felker, B; Rekow, V; Allen, F V

    2016-11-01

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40-200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  3. Composition measurement in substitutionally disordered materials by atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Taplin, D J; Weyland, M; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2016-10-21

    The increasing use of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy invites the question of whether its success in precision composition determination at lower magnifications can be replicated in the atomic resolution regime. In this paper, we explore, through simulation, the prospects for composition measurement via the model system of AlxGa1-xAs, discussing the approximations used in the modelling, the variability in the signal due to changes in configuration at constant composition, and the ability to distinguish between different compositions. Results are presented in such a way that the number of X-ray counts, and thus the expected variation due to counting statistics, can be gauged for a range of operating conditions.

  4. Determination of the Effective Ground State Potential Energy Function of Ozone from High-Resolution Infrared Spectra.

    PubMed

    Tyuterev; Tashkun; Jensen; Barbe; Cours

    1999-11-01

    The effective ground state potential energy function of the ozone molecule near the C(2v) equilibrium configuration was obtained in a least-squares fit to the largest sample of experimental, high-resolution vibration-rotation data used for this purpose so far. The fitting is based on variational calculations carried out with the extended Morse Oscillator Rigid Bender Internal Dynamics model. The potential function is expanded in Morse-type functions of the stretching variables and in cosine of the bending angle. The present calculation produces results in significantly better agreement with experiment than previous determinations of the potential energy surface, and the energies predicted with the new surface are sufficiently accurate to be useful for the assignment of new high-resolution spectra. The rms (root-mean-square) deviation of the fit of rovibrational data up to J = 5 is 0.02 cm(-1). For the set of all 60 band centers of the (16)O(3) molecule included in the Atlas of Ozone Line Parameters, the rms deviation is 0.025 cm(-1), and for all band centers determined so far from high-resolution spectra, including those recently observed and assigned in Reims corresponding to highly excited stretching and bending vibrations (v(1) + v(2) + v(3) = 6), the rms deviation is 0.1 cm(-1). The "dark states" that produce resonance perturbations in the observed bands are described with experimental accuracy up to the (v(1)v(2)v(3)) = (080) state. Extrapolation tests demonstrate the predictive power of the potential function obtained: rotational extrapolation up to J = 10 for the 11 lowest vibrational states results in an rms deviation of 0.06cm(-1). Also, vibrational energies measured by low-resolution Raman spectroscopy (which were not included in the input data for the fit) are calculated within the experimental accuracy (rms = 1.6 cm(-1)) of the experimental values up to the dissociation limit. The statistical analysis suggests that the accuracy of the equilibrium

  5. Depth resolution at organic interfaces sputtered by argon gas cluster ions: the effect of energy, angle and cluster size.

    PubMed

    Seah, M P; Spencer, S J; Havelund, R; Gilmore, I S; Shard, A G

    2015-10-07

    An analysis is presented of the effect of experimental parameters such as energy, angle and cluster size on the depth resolution in depth profiling organic materials using Ar gas cluster ions. The first results are presented of the incident ion angle dependence of the depth resolution, obtained at the Irganox 1010 to silicon interface, from profiles by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). By analysis of all relevant published depth profile data, it is shown that such data, from delta layers in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), correlate with the XPS data from interfaces if it is assumed that the monolayers of the Irganox 1010 adjacent to the wafer substrate surface have an enhanced sputtering rate. SIMS data confirm this enhancement. These results show that the traditional relation for the depth resolution, FWHM = 2.1Y(1/3) or slightly better, FWHM = P(X)Y(1/3)/n(0.2), where n is the argon gas cluster size, and P(X) is a parameter for each material are valid both at the 45° incidence angle of the argon gas cluster sputtering ions used in most studies and at all angles from 0° to 80°. This implies that, for optimal depth profile resolution, 0° or >75° incidence may be significantly better than the 45° traditionally used, especially for the low energy per atom settings required for the best resolved profiles in organic materials. A detailed analysis, however, shows that the FWHM requires a constant contribution added in quadrature to the above such that there are minimal improvements at 0° or greater than 75°. A critical test at 75° confirms the presence of this constant contribution.

  6. Energy resolution and power consumption of Timepix detector for different detector settings and saturation of front-end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, M.; Hoang, S.; Stoffle, N.; Soukup, P.; Jakubek, J.; Pinsky, L. S.

    2014-05-01

    An ongoing research project in the area of radiation monitoring employing the Timepix technology from the CERN-based Medipix2 Collaboration profits greatly from optimizing the precision of the position and energy information obtained for the detected quanta. Wider applications of the Timepix technology as a radiation monitor also puts new demands on the precision and speed of the energy calibration. We compare the analog signal in pixel front-end electronics for different sources used during detector evaluation and energy calibration. We use the direct measurement of the analog signal from the pixel preamplifier and comparator to characterize pulse shape differences for different sources, e.g. internal test pulses, external test pulses, ionizing radiation, etc. and study their interchangeability. Accurate per-pixel energy calibration of the Timepix detector enables the direct measurement of the energy deposited by different types of ionizing radiation. The energy calibration process requires the application of a known charge to front-end electronics of each pixel. The small pixel size limits use of the radioactive sources. The 59.54 keV line from 241Am is commonly used as the highest point in calibration curve. The heavy ion dosimetry as encountered in the space radiation environment requires a considerable extrapolation to the energies in the MeV range. We have observed that for energies around and beyond 1 MeV the response of the Timepix's front-end electronics no longer follows the extrapolated calibration function. We have investigated this non-linearity and identified its source. We also propose both hardware and software solutions to suppress this effect. In this paper we show the impact on pixel calibration and the subsequent energy resolution for different detector settings as well as the resulting power consumptions. We discuss the parameter optimization for several different real-world applications.

  7. A promising tool to achieve chemical accuracy for density functional theory calculations on Y-NO homolysis bond dissociation energies.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong Zhi; Hu, Li Hong; Tao, Wei; Gao, Ting; Li, Hui; Lu, Ying Hua; Su, Zhong Min

    2012-01-01

    A DFT-SOFM-RBFNN method is proposed to improve the accuracy of DFT calculations on Y-NO (Y = C, N, O, S) homolysis bond dissociation energies (BDE) by combining density functional theory (DFT) and artificial intelligence/machine learning methods, which consist of self-organizing feature mapping neural networks (SOFMNN) and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN). A descriptor refinement step including SOFMNN clustering analysis and correlation analysis is implemented. The SOFMNN clustering analysis is applied to classify descriptors, and the representative descriptors in the groups are selected as neural network inputs according to their closeness to the experimental values through correlation analysis. Redundant descriptors and intuitively biased choices of descriptors can be avoided by this newly introduced step. Using RBFNN calculation with the selected descriptors, chemical accuracy (≤1 kcal·mol(-1)) is achieved for all 92 calculated organic Y-NO homolysis BDE calculated by DFT-B3LYP, and the mean absolute deviations (MADs) of the B3LYP/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/STO-3G methods are reduced from 4.45 and 10.53 kcal·mol(-1) to 0.15 and 0.18 kcal·mol(-1), respectively. The improved results for the minimal basis set STO-3G reach the same accuracy as those of 6-31G(d), and thus B3LYP calculation with the minimal basis set is recommended to be used for minimizing the computational cost and to expand the applications to large molecular systems. Further extrapolation tests are performed with six molecules (two containing Si-NO bonds and two containing fluorine), and the accuracy of the tests was within 1 kcal·mol(-1). This study shows that DFT-SOFM-RBFNN is an efficient and highly accurate method for Y-NO homolysis BDE. The method may be used as a tool to design new NO carrier molecules.

  8. Electron Attachment to Oxygen and Nitric-Oxide Clusters with High Energy Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheier, P.; Senn, G.; Stampfli, P.; Mńrk, T. D.; Chu, Y.; Matejcik, S.; Stamatovic, A.; Illenberger, E.

    Highly monochrornatized electrons (with energy distributions of less than 15 meV FWHM) are used in a crossed beams experiment to investigate electron attachment to oxygen clusters (O2)n and nitric-oxide clusters (NO)n at electron energies from approximately zero eV up to several eV. At energies close to zero the attachment cross section for the reaction (X)n + e → X- (for X=O2 and NO, respectively) rises strongly with decreasing electron energy compatible with s-wave electron capture to Xn. Peaks in the oxygen attachment cross sections present at higher energies (80 meV, 193 meV,…) can be ascribed to vibrational levels of the anion. The vibrational spacings observed can be quantitatively accounted for by model calculations. In contrast, peaks at higher energies (220 meV, 440 meV,…) in the dissociative attachment cross sections for NOn are due to direct excitation of the vibrational levels in neutral NO prior to localization of the excess charge in the cluster (vibrational autoscavenging).

  9. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Drury, O; Niedermayr, T; Cunningham, M F; van den Berg, M L; Ullom, J N; Loshak, A; Cramer, S P; Batteux, J D; See, E; Frank, M; Labov, S E

    2000-09-15

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution x-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 24 hours hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance.

  10. Is High Temporal Resolution Achievable for Paediatric Cardiac Acquisitions during Several Heart Beats? Illustration with Cardiac Phase Contrast Cine-MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bonnemains, Laurent; Odille, Freddy; Meyer, Christophe; Hossu, Gabriella; Felblinger, Jacques; Vuissoz, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Background During paediatric cardiac Cine-MRI, data acquired during cycles of different lengths must be combined. Most of the time, Feinstein’s model is used to project multiple cardiac cycles of variable lengths into a mean cycle. Objective To assess the effect of Feinstein projection on temporal resolution of Cine-MRI. Methods 1/The temporal errors during Feinstein’s projection were computed in 306 cardiac cycles fully characterized by tissue Doppler imaging with 6-phase analysis (from a population of 7 children and young adults). 2/The effects of these temporal errors on tissue velocities were assessed by simulating typical tissue phase mapping acquisitions and reconstructions. 3/Myocardial velocities curves, extracted from high-resolution phase-contrast cine images, were compared for the 6 volunteers with lowest and highest heart rate variability, within a population of 36 young adults. Results 1/The mean of temporal misalignments was 30 ms over the cardiac cycle but reached 60 ms during early diastole. 2/During phase contrast MRI simulation, early diastole velocity peaks were diminished by 6.1 cm/s leading to virtual disappearance of isovolumic relaxation peaks. 3/The smoothing and erasing of isovolumic relaxation peaks was confirmed on tissue phase mapping velocity curves, between subjects with low and high heart rate variability (p = 0.05). Conclusions Feinstein cardiac model creates temporal misalignments that impair high temporal resolution phase contrast cine imaging when beat-to-beat heart rate is changing. PMID:26599755

  11. Inferring deep ocean tidal energy dissipation from the global high-resolution data-assimilative HAMTIDE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, E.; Stammer, D.; Zahel, W.

    2014-07-01

    Energy dissipation rates of eight major semidiurnal and diurnal tidal constituents are inferred using a barotropic data assimilative tide model with 7.5' spatial resolution. Dynamical residuals and dynamical residual power, estimated through the assimilation procedure as a correction for model uncertainties, constitute an essential contribution to deep-ocean and shallow-seas dissipation rates. Resulting total dissipation rates amount to 3.54 TW, of which 2.44 TW (69%) are accounted for by the M2 component alone. Concentrating on the deep ocean (> 1000 m water depth), the dissipation by all eight constituents amounts to 1.42 TW, and 0.93 TW just for the M2 component. These results are higher by 19% and 38% than dissipation rates estimated by Egbert and Ray (2003), respectively. Of the globally dissipated 2.44TWM2 energy, 1.24 TW are estimated to arise from bottom drag and eddy turbulence, 1.20 TW from residual power. For just the deep ocean, respective numbers amount to 0.10 TW for bottom drag and eddy turbulence, 1.07 TW for barotropic-to-baroclinic energy conversion due to the internal wave drag. Interpreting negative residual power -0.24 TW as a potential tidal energy source, a net surface-to-internal tide M2 energy conversion would amount to 0.83 TW.

  12. Observing Vibrational Energy Flow in a Protein with the Spatial Resolution of a Single Amino Acid Residue.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoki; Mizuno, Misao; Ishikawa, Haruto; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2014-09-18

    One of the challenges in physical chemistry has been understanding how energy flows in a condensed phase from the microscopic viewpoint. To address this, space-resolved information at the molecular scale is required but has been lacking due to experimental difficulties. We succeeded in the real-time mapping of the vibrational energy flow in a protein with the spatial resolution of a single amino acid residue by combining time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy and site-directed single-Trp mutagenesis. Anti-Stokes Raman intensities of the Trp residues at different sites exhibited different temporal evolutions, reflecting propagation of the energy released by the heme group. A classical heat transport model was not able to reproduce the entire experimental data set, showing that we need a molecular-level description to explain the energy flow in a protein. The systematic application of our general methodology to proteins with different structural motifs may provide a greatly increased understanding of the energy flow in proteins.

  13. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  14. Improving γ-ray energy resolution, non-proportionality, and decay time of NaI:Tl+ with Sr2+ and Ca2+ co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Menge, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Commercially available thallium activated sodium iodide scintillators are typically characterized by a γ-ray energy resolution of 6.5% at 662 keV and a scintillation decay time constant of 230 ns. Energy resolution, non-proportionality, and scintillation decay time are improved when the crystal is co-doped with alkaline earth metals (Sr2+ and Ca2+). The energy resolution of NaI:Tl+ is improved to 5.3%, and the decay time is simultaneously reduced to 170 ns with Sr2+ and Ca2+ co-doping. The improvement in energy resolution, non-proportionality, and decay time are likely due to the suppression of the slow scintillation processes in NaI:Tl+.

  15. Resolution-Enhanced Harmonic and Interharmonic Measurement for Power Quality Analysis in Cyber-Physical Energy System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanchi; Wang, Xue; Liu, Youda; Cui, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    Power quality analysis issues, especially the measurement of harmonic and interharmonic in cyber-physical energy systems, are addressed in this paper. As new situations are introduced to the power system, the impact of electric vehicles, distributed generation and renewable energy has introduced extra demands to distributed sensors, waveform-level information and power quality data analytics. Harmonics and interharmonics, as the most significant disturbances, require carefully designed detection methods for an accurate measurement of electric loads whose information is crucial to subsequent analyzing and control. This paper gives a detailed description of the power quality analysis framework in networked environment and presents a fast and resolution-enhanced method for harmonic and interharmonic measurement. The proposed method first extracts harmonic and interharmonic components efficiently using the single-channel version of Robust Independent Component Analysis (RobustICA), then estimates the high-resolution frequency from three discrete Fourier transform (DFT) samples with little additional computation, and finally computes the amplitudes and phases with the adaptive linear neuron network. The experiments show that the proposed method is time-efficient and leads to a better accuracy of the simulated and experimental signals in the presence of noise and fundamental frequency deviation, thus providing a deeper insight into the (inter)harmonic sources or even the whole system. PMID:27355946

  16. A Study of the Composition of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays Using the High-Resolution Fly's Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Archbold, G.; Atkins, R.; Bellido, J.; Belov, K.; Belz, J. W.; BenZvi, S.; Bergman, D. R.; Boyer, J.; Burt, G. W.; Cao, Z.; Clay, R.; Connolly, B. M.; Dawson, B.; Deng, W.; Fedorova, Y.; Findlay, J.; Finley, C. B.; Hanlon, W. F.; Hughes, G. A.; Huntemeyer, P.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kim, K.; Kirn, M. A.; Knapp, B.; Loh, E. C.; Maetas, M. M.; Martens, K.; Martin, G.; Manago, N.; Mannel, E. J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthews, J. N.; O'Neill, A.; Perera, L.; Reil, K.; Riehle, R.; Roberts, M. D.; Sasaki, M.; Seman, M.; Schnetzer, S. R.; Simpson, K.; Smith, J. D.; Snow, R.; Sokolsky, P.; Song, C.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Thomas, J. R.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiencke, L. R.; Zech, A.; High Resolution Fly's Eye Collaboration

    2005-04-01

    The composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is measured with the High Resolution Fly's Eye cosmic-ray observatory data using the Xmax technique. Data were collected in stereo between 1999 November and 2001 September. The data are reconstructed with well-determined geometry. Measurements of the atmospheric transmission are incorporated in the reconstruction. The detector resolution is found to be 30 g cm-2 in Xmax and 13% in energy. The Xmax elongation rate between 1018.0 and 1019.4 eV is measured to be 54.5+/-6.5(stat)+/-4.5(sys) g cm-2 per decade. This is compared with predictions using the QGSJet01 and SIBYLL 2.1 hadronic interaction models for both protons and iron nuclei. CORSIKA-generated extensive air showers are incorporated directly into a detailed detector Monte Carlo program. The elongation rate and the Xmax distribution widths are consistent with a constant or slowly changing and predominantly light composition. A simple model containing only protons and iron nuclei is compared with QGSJet and SIBYLL. The best agreement between the model and the data is for 80% protons for QGSJet and 60% protons for SIBYLL.

  17. Resolution-Enhanced Harmonic and Interharmonic Measurement for Power Quality Analysis in Cyber-Physical Energy System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchi; Wang, Xue; Liu, Youda; Cui, Sujin

    2016-06-27

    Power quality analysis issues, especially the measurement of harmonic and interharmonic in cyber-physical energy systems, are addressed in this paper. As new situations are introduced to the power system, the impact of electric vehicles, distributed generation and renewable energy has introduced extra demands to distributed sensors, waveform-level information and power quality data analytics. Harmonics and interharmonics, as the most significant disturbances, require carefully designed detection methods for an accurate measurement of electric loads whose information is crucial to subsequent analyzing and control. This paper gives a detailed description of the power quality analysis framework in networked environment and presents a fast and resolution-enhanced method for harmonic and interharmonic measurement. The proposed method first extracts harmonic and interharmonic components efficiently using the single-channel version of Robust Independent Component Analysis (RobustICA), then estimates the high-resolution frequency from three discrete Fourier transform (DFT) samples with little additional computation, and finally computes the amplitudes and phases with the adaptive linear neuron network. The experiments show that the proposed method is time-efficient and leads to a better accuracy of the simulated and experimental signals in the presence of noise and fundamental frequency deviation, thus providing a deeper insight into the (inter)harmonic sources or even the whole system.

  18. Low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency of government office buildings: A case study in federal territory of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Ibrahim, Amlus

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the findings of a case study to achieve energy-efficient performance of conventional office buildings in Malaysia. Two multi-storey office buildings in Federal Territory of Malaysia have been selected. The aim is to study building energy saving potential then to highlight the appropriate measures that can be implemented. Data was collected using benchmarking method by comparing the measured consumption to other similar office buildings and a series of preliminary audit which involves interviews, a brief review of utility and operating data as well as a walkthrough in the buildings. Additionally, in order to get a better understanding of major energy consumption in the selected buildings, general audit have been conducted to collect more detailed information about building operation. In the end, this study emphasized low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency with significant results in some cases.

  19. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Goodman, Claude A.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels.

  20. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Goodman, C.A.

    1996-08-20

    Apparatus is disclosed for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels. 12 figs.

  1. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of K-shell Praseodymium with a High-Energy Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, D B; Brown, G V; Clementson, J T; Chen, H; Chen, M H; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Kelley, R L

    2007-06-05

    We present a measurement of the K-shell spectrum of He-like through Be-like praseodymium ions trapped in the Livermore SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap using a bismuth absorber pixel on the XRS/EBIT microcalorimeter. This measurement is the first of its kind where the n=2 to n=1 transitions of the various charge states are spectroscopically resolved. The measured transition energies are compared with theoretical calculations from several atomic codes.

  2. DNA Base Pair Resolution Measurements Using Resonance Energy Transfer Efficiency in Lanthanide Doped Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Delplanque, Aleksandra; Wawrzynczyk, Dominika; Jaworski, Pawel; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Buckle, Malcolm; Nyk, Marcin; Nogues, Claude; Samoc, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are of considerable interest for biodetection and bioimaging techniques thanks to their unique chemical and optical properties. As a sensitive luminescence material, they can be used as (bio) probes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) where trivalent lanthanide ions (La3+) act as energy donors. In this paper we present an efficient method to transfer ultrasmall (ca. 8 nm) NaYF4 nanoparticles dispersed in organic solvent to an aqueous solution via oxidation of the oleic acid ligand. Nanoparticles were then functionalized with single strand DNA oligomers (ssDNA) by inducing covalent bonds between surface carboxylic groups and a 5’ amine modified-ssDNA. Hybridization with the 5’ fluorophore (Cy5) modified complementary ssDNA strand demonstrated the specificity of binding and allowed the fine control over the distance between Eu3+ ions doped nanoparticle and the fluorophore by varying the number of the dsDNA base pairs. First, our results confirmed nonradiative resonance energy transfer and demonstrate the dependence of its efficiency on the distance between the donor (Eu3+) and the acceptor (Cy5) with sensitivity at a nanometre scale. PMID:25748446

  3. Heifer body weight gain and reproductive achievement in response to protein and energy supplementation while grazing dormant range forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifers grazing winter range require supplemental nutrients to compliment dormant forage to achieve optimal growth and performance. A study was conducted to evaluate nutritional environment and effect of different supplementation strategies for developing heifers grazing dormant winter range. Eigh...

  4. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  5. Modeling the Nucleus Laminaris of the Barn Owl: Achieving 20 ps Resolution on a 85-MHz-Clocked Digital Device

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Ralf; Heinrich, Enrico; Joost, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus laminaris of the barn owl auditory system is quite impressive, since its underlying time estimation is much better than the processing speed of the involved neurons. Since precise localization is also very important in many technical applications, this paper explores to what extent the main principles of the nucleus laminaris can be implemented in digital hardware. The first prototypical implementation yields a time resolution of about 20 ps, even though the chosen standard, low-cost device is clocked at only 85 MHz, which leads to an internal duty cycle of approximately 12 ns. In addition, this paper also explores the utility of an advanced sampling scheme, known as unfolding-in-time. It turns out that with this sampling method, the prototype can easily process input signals of up to 300 MHz, which is almost four times higher than the sampling rate. PMID:22347179

  6. Momentum and energy dependent resolution function of the ARCS neutron chopper spectrometer at high momentum transfer: Comparing simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, S. O.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Abernathy, D. L.; Azuah, R. T.

    2016-11-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering at high momentum transfers (i.e. Q ≥ 20 A ˚), commonly known as deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS), provides direct observation of the momentum distribution of light atoms, making it a powerful probe for studying single-particle motions in liquids and solids. The quantitative analysis of DINS data requires an accurate knowledge of the instrument resolution function Ri(Q , E) at each momentum Q and energy transfer E, where the label i indicates whether the resolution was experimentally observed i = obs or simulated i=sim. Here, we describe two independent methods for determining the total resolution function Ri(Q , E) of the ARCS neutron instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The first method uses experimental data from an archetypical system (liquid 4He) studied with DINS, which are then numerically deconvoluted using its previously determined intrinsic scattering function to yield Robs(Q , E). The second approach uses accurate Monte Carlo simulations of the ARCS spectrometer, which account for all instrument contributions, coupled to a representative scattering kernel to reproduce the experimentally observed response S(Q , E). Using a delta function as scattering kernel, the simulation yields a resolution function Rsim(Q , E) with comparable lineshape and features as Robs(Q , E), but somewhat narrower due to the ideal nature of the model. Using each of these two Ri(Q , E) separately, we extract characteristic parameters of liquid 4He such as the intrinsic linewidth α2 (which sets the atomic kinetic energy < K > ∼α2) in the normal liquid and the Bose-Einstein condensate parameter n0 in the superfluid phase. The extracted α2 values agree well with previous measurements at saturated vapor pressure (SVP) as well as at elevated pressure (24 bars) within experimental precision, independent of which Ri(Q , y) is used to analyze the data. The actual observed n0 values at each Q vary little

  7. How to achieve the 2020 and 2030 emissions targets of China: Evidence from high, mid and low energy-consumption industrial sub-sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan

    2016-11-01

    Facing the challenge of meeting emissions reduction targets of China, this paper employed the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method to study the changes of energy-related carbon emissions in high energy-consumption sectors (HES), mid energy-consumption sectors (MES) and low energy-consumption sectors (LES) from 1996 to 2012. The decomposition results revealed that the economic growth was the most significant factor to increase carbon emissions of three subgroups while the decrease in energy intensity was the dominant factor to reduce carbon emissions of MES and LES. Considering the important roles economic growth and energy intensity played in carbon emissions, three scenarios were set based on the different growth rates of these two factors to identify whether the emissions reduction targets of 40-45% in 2020 and 60-65% in 2030 can be achieved using the co-integration technique. It was indicated that the emissions targets both in 2020 and 2030 can be achieved by LES in the base scenario. In stark contrast to LES, the carbon intensity of HES reduced only 10.03% in 2020 and 14% in 2030 compared to the 2005 level. Therefore, more attentions should be focused on the economic activity and energy intensity of HES. Finally, according to the results obtained, policy implications were provided to further mitigate the carbon intensity of China's industrial sector.

  8. Strategies for achieving energy neutrality in biological nutrient removal systems - a case study of the Slupsk WWTP (northern Poland).

    PubMed

    Zaborowska, Ewa; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Makinia, Jacek

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents a model-based evaluation of technological upgrades on the energy and cost balance in a large biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Slupsk (northern Poland). The proposed upgrades include chemically enhanced primary sludge removal and reduction of the nitrogen load in the deammonification process employed for reject water treatment. Simulations enabled to estimate the increased biogas generation and decreased energy consumption for aeration. The proposed upgrades may lead the studied WWTP from the energy deficit to energy neutrality and positive cost balance, while still maintaining the required effluent standards for nitrogen. The operating cost balance depends on the type of applied coagulants/flocculants and specific costs of electric energy. The choice of the coagulant/flocculent was found as the main factor determining a positive cost balance.

  9. Analyzing high resolution topography for advancing the understanding of mass and energy transfer through landscapes: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passaiacquaa, Paola; Belmont, Patrick; Staley, Dennis M.; Simley, Jeffery; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Bode, Collin A.; Crosby, Christopher; DeLong, Stephen; Glenn, Nancy; Kelly, Sara; Lague, Dimitri; Sangireddy, Harish; Schaffrath, Keelin; Tarboton, David; Wasklewicz, Thad; Wheaton, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The study of mass and energy transfer across landscapes has recently evolved to comprehensive considerations acknowledging the role of biota and humans as geomorphic agents, as well as the importance of small-scale landscape features. A contributing and supporting factor to this evolution is the emergence over the last two decades of technologies able to acquire high resolution topography (HRT) (meter and sub-meter resolution) data. Landscape features can now be captured at an appropriately fine spatial resolution at which surface processes operate; this has revolutionized the way we study Earth-surface processes. The wealth of information contained in HRT also presents considerable challenges. For example, selection of the most appropriate type of HRT data for a given application is not trivial. No definitive approach exists for identifying and filtering erroneous or unwanted data, yet inappropriate filtering can create artifacts or eliminate/distort critical features. Estimates of errors and uncertainty are often poorly defined and typically fail to represent the spatial heterogeneity of the dataset, which may introduce bias or error for many analyses. For ease of use, gridded products are typically preferred rather than the more information-rich point cloud representations. Thus many users take advantage of only a fraction of the available data, which has furthermore been subjected to a series of operations often not known or investigated by the user. Lastly, standard HRT analysis work-flows are yet to be established for many popular HRT operations, which has contributed to the limited use of point cloud data.In this review, we identify key research questions relevant to the Earth-surface processes community within the theme of mass and energy transfer across landscapes and offer guidance on how to identify the most appropriate topographic data type for the analysis of interest. We describe the operations commonly performed from raw data to raster products and

  10. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  11. Free energy landscape of activation in a signalling protein at atomic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontiggia, F.; Pachov, D. V.; Clarkson, M. W.; Villali, J.; Hagan, M. F.; Pande, V. S.; Kern, D.

    2015-06-01

    The interconversion between inactive and active protein states, traditionally described by two static structures, is at the heart of signalling. However, how folded states interconvert is largely unknown due to the inability to experimentally observe transition pathways. Here we explore the free energy landscape of the bacterial response regulator NtrC by combining computation and nuclear magnetic resonance, and discover unexpected features underlying efficient signalling. We find that functional states are defined purely in kinetic and not structural terms. The need of a well-defined conformer, crucial to the active state, is absent in the inactive state, which comprises a heterogeneous collection of conformers. The transition between active and inactive states occurs through multiple pathways, facilitated by a number of nonnative transient hydrogen bonds, thus lowering the transition barrier through both entropic and enthalpic contributions. These findings may represent general features for functional conformational transitions within the folded state.

  12. High-resolution Rotational Spectrum, Dunham Coefficients, and Potential Energy Function of NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Peña, I.; Agundez, M.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Alonso, J. L.; Requena, A.

    2016-07-01

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 lines of Na35Cl and Na37Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δv = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted.

  13. High-Resolution Rotational Spectrum, Dunham Coefficients, and Potential Energy Function of NaCl.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, C; Cernicharo, J; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Peña, I; Agundez, M; Prieto, L Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A; Zuñiga, J; Bastida, A; Alonso, J L; Requena, A

    2016-07-13

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 lines of Na(35)Cl and Na(37)Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δv = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted.

  14. High-Resolution Rotational Spectrum, Dunham Coefficients, and Potential Energy Function of NaCl

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Peña, I.; Agundez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Alonso, J. L.; Requena, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1–0 and J = 2–1 lines of Na35Cl and Na37Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δv = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted. PMID:27733778

  15. Advanced Materials and Processes for High Energy Resolution Room Temperature Gamma Ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas S. McGregor

    2007-12-12

    A significant amount of progress has been achieved in the development of the novel vacuum distillation method described in the proposal. The process for the purification of Te was fully developed and characterized in a series of trials. The purification effect was confirmed with GDMS sample analysis and indicates the process yields very high purity Te metal. Results of this initial process study have been submitted for publication in the Proceedings of the SPIE and will be presented on August 28, 2007 at the SPIE Optics and Photonics 2007 conference in San Diego, CA. Concurrent to the development of the Te process, processes for the purification of Cd, Zn, and Mn have also progressed. The development of the processes for Cd and Zn are nearly complete, while the development of the process for Mn is still in its infancy. It is expected that a full characterization of the Cd process will be completed within the next quarter, followed by Zn. Parallel to those characterization studies, efforts will be made to further develop the Mn purification process. Zone melting work for Te and Cd has also been efforted as per the project work schedule. Initial trials have been completed and the processes developed. Characterization of the results will be completed within the first fiscal year. Finally, an apparatus for the zone refinement of Cd, Zn, and Mn has been constructed and initial trials are set to begin shortly.

  16. Many small consumers, one growing problem: Achieving energy savings for electronic equipment operating in low power modes

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher T.; Meier, Alan K.

    2004-08-24

    An increasing amount of electricity is used by equipment that is neither fully ''on'' nor fully ''off.'' We call these equipment states low power modes, or ''lopomos.'' ''Standby'' and ''sleep'' are the most familiar lopomos, but some new products already have many modes. Lopomos are becoming common in household appliances, safety equipment, and miscellaneous products. Ross and Meier (2000) reports that several international studies have found standby power to be as much as 10 percent of residential energy consumption. Lopomo energy consumption is likely to continue growing rapidly as products with lopomos that use significant amounts of energy penetrate the market. Other sectors such as commercial buildings and industry also have lopomo energy use, perhaps totaling more in aggregate than that of households, but no comprehensive measurements have been made. In this paper, we propose a research agenda for study of lopomo energy consumption. This agenda has been developed with input from over 200 interested parties. Overall, there is consensus that lopomo energy consumption is an important area for research. Many see this as a critical time for addressing lopomo issues. As equipment designs move from the binary ''on/off'' paradigm to one that encompasses multiple power modes, there is a unique opportunity to address the issue of low power mode energy consumption while technology development paths are still flexible.

  17. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit - In a humid, temperate climate: Lessons from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, Cindy; Robinson, Alastair

    2013-06-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit exiting buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.1 Kuykendall Hall, located on the UHM campus in Honolulu, was the focus of a CBP analysis and design collaboration among the University of Hawai’i, their consultants, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Kuykendall Hall consists of two 1960s-era wings – a four-story wing containing classrooms, and a seven-story tower containing offices – with a total floor area of approximately 76,000 square feet (ft2). The retrofit design, which uses local prevailing winds to aid ventilation and cooling and incorporates envelope and lighting elements that reduce the need for cooling, was initially on track to use about 50% less energy than the current building, exceeding the CBP’s 30% savings goal. With the addition of building-mounted solar electric panels, the retrofitted building is projected to achieve net-zero annual energy use. Achieving net-zero energy addressed an emerging challenge to the university – how to lower energy usage and reduce dependence on imported fossil fuel in the face of already-high energy prices that are forecast to double by 2040. Not only will the retrofit dramatically reduce Kuykendall Hall’s annual energy costs, but the project lays the groundwork for new campus policies and processes and low-energy design approaches and is building a campus knowledge base on low-energy practices. This project is a model of integrated design and building delivery that will be replicated in future projects on the campus.

  18. Atomic-resolution chemical mapping of ordered precipitates in Al alloys using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wenner, Sigurd; Jones, Lewys; Marioara, Calin D; Holmestad, Randi

    2017-05-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is a common technique for chemical mapping in thin samples. Obtaining high-resolution elemental maps in the STEM is jointly dependent on stepping the sharply focused electron probe in a precise raster, on collecting a significant number of characteristic X-rays over time, and on avoiding damage to the sample. In this work, 80kV aberration-corrected STEM-EDS mapping was performed on ordered precipitates in aluminium alloys. Probe and sample instability problems are handled by acquiring series of annular dark-field (ADF) images and simultaneous EDS volumes, which are aligned and non-rigidly registered after acquisition. The summed EDS volumes yield elemental maps of Al, Mg, Si, and Cu, with sufficient resolution and signal-to-noise ratio to determine the elemental species of each atomic column in a periodic structure, and in some cases the species of single atomic columns. Within the uncertainty of the technique, S and β" phases were found to have pure elemental atomic columns with compositions Al2CuMg and Al2Mg5Si4, respectively. The Q' phase showed some variation in chemistry across a single precipitate, although the majority of unit cells had a composition Al6Mg6Si7.2Cu2.

  19. Using ant colony optimization on the quadratic assignment problem to achieve low energy cost in geo-distributed data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei, Richard

    There are many problems associated with operating a data center. Some of these problems include data security, system performance, increasing infrastructure complexity, increasing storage utilization, keeping up with data growth, and increasing energy costs. Energy cost differs by location, and at most locations fluctuates over time. The rising cost of energy makes it harder for data centers to function properly and provide a good quality of service. With reduced energy cost, data centers will have longer lasting servers/equipment, higher availability of resources, better quality of service, a greener environment, and reduced service and software costs for consumers. Some of the ways that data centers have tried to using to reduce energy costs include dynamically switching on and off servers based on the number of users and some predefined conditions, the use of environmental monitoring sensors, and the use of dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), which enables processors to run at different combinations of frequencies with voltages to reduce energy cost. This thesis presents another method by which energy cost at data centers could be reduced. This method involves the use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) on a Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) in assigning user request to servers in geo-distributed data centers. In this paper, an effort to reduce data center energy cost involves the use of front portals, which handle users' requests, were used as ants to find cost effective ways to assign users requests to a server in heterogeneous geo-distributed data centers. The simulation results indicate that the ACO for Optimal Server Activation and Task Placement algorithm reduces energy cost on a small and large number of users' requests in a geo-distributed data center and its performance increases as the input data grows. In a simulation with 3 geo-distributed data centers, and user's resource request ranging from 25,000 to 25,000,000, the ACO algorithm was able

  20. Assessing resolution in super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Demmerle, Justin; Wegel, Eva; Schermelleh, Lothar; Dobbie, Ian M

    2015-10-15

    Resolution is a central concept in all imaging fields, and particularly in optical microscopy, but it can be easily misinterpreted. The mathematical definition of optical resolution was codified by Abbe, and practically defined by the Rayleigh Criterion in the late 19th century. The limit of conventional resolution was also achieved in this period, and it was thought that fundamental constraints of physics prevented further increases in resolution. With the recent development of a range of super-resolution techniques, it is necessary to revisit the concept of optical resolution. Fundamental differences in super-resolution modalities mean that resolution is not a directly transferrable metric between techniques. This article considers the issues in resolution raised by these new technologies, and presents approaches for comparing resolution between different super-resolution methods.

  1. Evaluation of Surface Energy Balance models for mapping evapotranspiration using very high resolution airborne remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, George

    Agriculture is the largest (90%) consumer of all fresh water in the world. The consumptive use of water by vegetation represented by the process evapotranspiration (ET) has a vital role in the dynamics of water, carbon and energy fluxes of the biosphere. Consequently, mapping ET is essential for making water a sustainable resource and also for monitoring ecosystem response to water stress and changing climate. Over the past three decades, numerous thermal remote sensing based ET mapping algorithms were developed and these have brought a significant theoretical and technical advancement in the spatial modeling of ET. Though these algorithms provided a robust, economical, and efficient tool for ET estimations at field and regional scales, yet the uncertainties in flux estimations were large, making evaluation a difficult task. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and improve the performance of widely used remote sensing based energy balance models, namely: the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution and with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS). Data used in this study was collected as part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional field campaign BEAREX (Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment) that was conducted during 2007 and 2008 summer cropping seasons at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) in Bushland, Texas. Seventeen high resolution remote sensing images taken from multispectral sensors onboard aircraft and field measurements of the agro-meteorological variables from the campaign were used for model evaluation and improvement. Overall relative error measured in terms of mean absolute percent difference (MAPD) for instantaneous ET (mm h -1) were 22.7%, 23.2%, and 12.6% for SEBAL, METRIC, and SEBS, respectively. SEBAL and METRIC performances for irrigated fields representing higher ET

  2. Achieving quasi-adiabatic thermal environment to maximize resolution power in very high-pressure liquid chromatography: Theory, models, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Gilar, Martin; Jarrell, Joseph A

    2016-04-29

    A cylindrical vacuum chamber (inner diameter 5 cm) housing a narrow-bore 2.1 mm×100 mm column packed with 1.8 μm HSS-T3 fully porous particles was built in order to isolate thermally the chromatographic column from the external air environment. Consistent with statistical physics and the mean free path of air molecules, the experimental results show that natural air convection and conduction are fully eliminated for housing air pressures smaller than 10(-4) Torr. Heat radiation is minimized by wrapping up the column with low-emissivity aluminum-tape (emissivity coefficient ϵ=0.03 vs. 0.28 for polished stainless steel 316). Overall, the heat flux at the column wall is reduced by 96% with respect to standard still-air ovens. From a practical viewpoint, the efficiency of the column run at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min at a constant 13,000 psi pressure drop (the viscous heat power is around 9 W/m) is improved by up to 35% irrespective of the analyte retention. Models of heat and mass transfer reveal that (1) the amplitude of the radial temperature gradient is significantly reduced from 0.30 to 0.01 K and (2) the observed improvement in resolution power stems from a more uniform distribution of the flow velocity across the column diameter. The eddy dispersion term in the van Deemter equation is reduced by 0.8±0.1 reduced plate height unit, a significant gain in column performance.

  3. 14-pixel, multiplexed array of gamma-ray microcalorimeters with 47 eV energy resolution at 103 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Doriese, W. B.; Ullom, J. N.; Beall, J. A.; Duncan, W. D.; Ferreira, L.; Hilton, G. C.; Horansky, R. D.; Irwin, K. D.; Mates, J. A. B.; Reintsema, C. D.; Vale, L. R.; Xu, Y.; Zink, B. L.; Rabin, M. W.; Hoover, A. S.; Rudy, C. R.; Vo, D. T.

    2007-05-07

    The authors present a prototype for a high-energy-resolution, high-count-rate, gamma-ray spectrometer intended for nuclear forensics and international nuclear safeguards. The prototype spectrometer is an array of 14 transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters with an average energy resolution of 47 eV (full width at half maximum) at 103 keV. The resolution of the best pixel is 25 eV. A cryogenic, time-division multiplexer reads out the array. Several important topics related to microcalorimeter arrays are discussed, including cross-talk, the uniformity of detector bias conditions, fabrication of the arrays, and the multiplexed readout. The measurements and calculations demonstrate that a kilopixel array of high-resolution microcalorimeters is feasible.

  4. Characterization of the submesoscale energy cascade in the Alboran Sea thermocline from spectral analysis of high-resolution MCS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallares, Valenti; Mojica, Jhon F.; Biescas, Berta; Klaeschen, Dirk; Gràcia, Eulàlia

    2016-06-01

    Part of the kinetic energy that maintains ocean circulation cascades down to small scales until it is dissipated through mixing. While most steps of this downward energy cascade are well understood, an observational gap exists at horizontal scales of 103-101 m that prevents characterizing a key step in the chain: the transition from anisotropic internal wave motions to isotropic turbulence. Here we show that this observational gap can be covered using high-resolution multichannel seismic (HR-MCS) data. Spectral analysis of acoustic reflectors imaged in the Alboran Sea thermocline shows that this transition is likely caused by shear instabilities. In particular, we show that the averaged horizontal wave number spectra of the reflectors vertical displacements display three subranges that reproduce theoretical spectral slopes of internal waves (λx > 100 m), Kelvin-Helmholtz-type shear instabilities (100 m > λx > 33 m), and turbulence (λx < 33 m), indicating that the whole chain of events is occurring continuously and simultaneously in the surveyed area.

  5. Growth and characterization of potassium strontium iodide: A new high light yield scintillator with 2.4% energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Lindsey, A.; Melcher, C. L.

    2015-04-01

    A new ternary metal halide scintillator, potassium strontium iodide, activated with divalent europium (KSr2I5:Eu) has been discovered. This material has a monoclinic crystal structure with a density of 4.39 g/cm3. Differential scanning calorimetry indicates a congruent melting point of 470 °C and suggests that this compound has no solid-solid phase transitions. As is the case with most metal halides, the material is hygroscopic, and it has some internal radioactivity due to the presence of 40K. Single crystals of KSr2I5 doped with 4% Eu2+ were grown in evacuated quartz ampoules via the Bridgman technique. The X-ray excited emission spectrum consisted of a single peak at ~445 nm due to the 5d-4f transition in Eu2+. The measured light yield is ~94,000 photons/MeV with an energy resolution of 2.4% at 662 keV. The crystal has an excellent proportionality response over a wide range of energies from 14 keV to 1275 keV.

  6. The improvement of the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere using boric acid water solution moderator.

    PubMed

    Ueda, H; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y

    2015-10-01

    Bonner sphere is useful to evaluate the neutron spectrum in detail. We are improving the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere, using boric acid water solution as a moderator. Its response function peak is narrower than that for polyethylene moderator and the improvement of the resolution is expected. The resolutions between polyethylene moderator and boric acid water solution moderator were compared by simulation calculation. Also the influence in the uncertainty of Bonner sphere configuration to spectrum estimation was simulated.

  7. The Impact of Multiple-Site Interactions on the Energy Resolution of a High-Pressure Xenon Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kiff, Scott D.; He, Zhong

    2007-11-30

    High-pressure xenon (HPXe) ionization chambers have generated interest as a radiation detection medium for purposes requiring good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, and uniform response over a broad temperature range, such as homeland security and well logging applications. These chambers generally exhibit a substantial degradation of the measured energy resolution relative to theoretical limits. This investigation studies the impact of the number of interaction sites in an event sequence on the measured energy resolution using a benchmarked simulation package. The prominence of single and multiple-site interactions is investigated in addition to the photopeak broadening due to each event class. A radial position-sensing technique developed for coplanar-anode HPXe chambers is shown to have benefit for only single-site events.

  8. Preliminary test results of a new high-energy-resolution silicon and CdZnTe pixel detectors for application to x-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushkov, V. V.; Hamilton, William J.; Hurley, Kevin; Maeding, Dale G.; Ogelman, Hakki; Paulos, Robert J.; Puetter, Richard C.; Tumer, Tumay O.; Zweerink, Jeffrey

    1999-10-01

    New, high spatial resolution CdZnTe (CZT) and silicon (Si) pixel detectors are highly suitable for x-ray astronomy. These detectors are planned for use in wide field of view, imaging x-ray, and low energy gamma-ray all-sky monitor (AXGAM) in a future space mission. The high stopping power of CZT detectors combined with low-noise front-end readout makes possible an order of magnitude improvement in spatial and energy resolution in x-ray detection. The AXGAM instrument will be built in the form of a fine coded aperture placed over two-dimensional, high spatial resolution and low energy threshold CZT pixel detector array. The preliminary result of CZT and silicon pixel detector test with low-noise readout electronics system are presented. These detectors may also be used with or without modification for medical and industrial imaging.

  9. Evaluation of Dynamical Downscaling Resolution Effect on Wind Energy Forecast Value for a Wind Farm in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosgaard, Martin; Hahmann, Andrea; Skov Nielsen, Torben; Giebel, Gregor; Ejnar Sørensen, Poul; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    For any energy system relying on wind power, accurate forecasts of wind fluctuations are essential for efficient integration into the power grid. Increased forecast precision allows end-users to plan day-ahead operation with reduced risk of penalties which in turn supports the feasibility of wind energy. This study aims to quantify value added to wind energy forecasts in the 12-48 hour leadtime by downscaling global numerical weather prediction (NWP) data using a limited-area NWP model. The accuracy of statistical wind power forecasting tools depends strongly on this NWP input. Typical performance metrics are mean absolute error or root mean square error for predicted- against observed wind power production, and these metrics are closely related to wind speed forecast bias and correlation with observations. Wind speed bias can be handled in the statistical wind power forecasting model, though it is entirely up to it's NWP input to describe the wind speed correlation correctly. The basis of comparison for forecasts is data from the Stor-Rotliden wind farm in central Sweden. The surrounding forest adds to the forecasting challenge, thus motivating the downscaling experiment as the potential for wind power forecast improvement is higher in complex terrain. The 40 Vestas V90 turbines were erected in 2009 and correspond to 78MWe installed electrical capacity. Forecasts from global and limited-area NWP models, together covering five different horizontal computational grid spacings of ~50km down to ~1km, are studied for a yearlong, continuous time period. The preliminary results shown quantify forecast strengths and weaknesses for each NWP model resolution.

  10. Survey of the high resolution frequency structure of the fast magnetosonic mode and proton energy diffusion associated with these waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardsen, S. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.; Santolik, O.; Wygant, J. R.; MacDonald, E.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Kurth, W. S.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2015-12-01

    The fast magnetosonic mode, also referred to as equatorial noise, occurs at frequencies mainly between the proton cyclotron frequency (fcp) and the lower hybrid frequency. The wave properties of this mode are characterized by a strong magnetic compressional component. These waves are observed around the magnetic equator in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. Case studies of the spectra of these waves have found the emissions to be composed of 1) harmonics, usually with spacing near the local fcp, 2) broad band hiss-like structure, or 3) a superposition of the two spectral types. No statistical studies of the frequency structure of these waves have been made. Using ~600,000 burst mode wave captures from the EMFISIS Wave Form Receiver and the EFW instrument on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft this mode will be identified in the high resolution frequency spectra and its frequency structure will be characterized. The variation of the frequency structure will be investigated as a function of normalized frequency, location, and geomagnetic conditions, and with spacecraft separation. The frequency structure will be compared with path integrated gain using proton ring distributions as the wave source. Recently the modulation of the fast magnetosonic mode has been reported, with modulation periods in the range of 30s to 240s. It has been proposed that frequency drift observed during each modulation is due to strong inward diffusion in energy of the proton ring distributions that generate these waves. As the inner edge of the ring distribution diffuses towards lower energies the band of unstable harmonics increases in frequency. If in the source region, for modulations with periods greater than say 100s, the inward energy diffusion should be observable in the HOPE proton data which has a cycle time of 24s.

  11. Comment on "Ribosome utilizes the minimum free energy changes to achieve the highest decoding rate and fidelity"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savir, Yonatan; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2016-05-01

    We examined [Y. Savir and T. Tlusty, Cell 153, 471 (2013), 10.1016/j.cell.2013.03.032] the decoding performance of tRNA by the ribosome. For this purpose, we specified the kinetics of tRNA decoding and the corresponding energy landscape, from which we calculated the steady-state decoding rate RC. Following our work, Xie reexamined [P. Xie, Phys. Rev. E 92, 022716 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.022716] the energy landscape of tRNA decoding. His analysis relies on an alternative expression for RC, while claiming that the expression we use is missing some terms. In this Comment we rederive in detail our expression for the steady-state decoding rate RC, show they hold, explain why the alternative expression for RC is inaccurate, and discuss the underlying intuition.

  12. A photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus for femtosecond time-resolved molecular dynamics with electron time-of-flight resolution of {sigma}=18 ps and energy resolution {delta}E/E=3.5%

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenborg, Arno; Roeterdink, Wim G.; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2008-06-15

    We report on the construction and performance of a novel photoelectron-photoion coincidence machine in our laboratory in Amsterdam to measure the full three-dimensional momentum distribution of correlated electrons and ions in femtosecond time-resolved molecular beam experiments. We implemented sets of open electron and ion lenses to time stretch and velocity map the charged particles. Time switched voltages are operated on the particle lenses to enable optimal electric field strengths for velocity map focusing conditions of electrons and ions separately. The position and time sensitive detectors employ microchannel plates (MCPs) in front of delay line detectors. A special effort was made to obtain the time-of-flight (TOF) of the electrons at high temporal resolution using small pore (5 {mu}m) MCPs and implementing fast timing electronics. We measured the TOF distribution of the electrons under our typical coincidence field strengths with a temporal resolution down to {sigma}=18 ps. We observed that our electron coincidence detector has a timing resolution better than {sigma}=16 ps, which is mainly determined by the residual transit time spread of the MCPs. The typical electron energy resolution appears to be nearly laser bandwidth limited with a relative resolution of {delta}E{sub FWHM}/E=3.5% for electrons with kinetic energy near 2 eV. The mass resolution of the ion detector for ions measured in coincidence with electrons is about {delta}m{sub FWHM}/m=1/4150. The velocity map focusing of our extended source volume of particles, due to the overlap of the molecular beam with the laser beams, results in a parent ion spot on our detector focused down to {sigma}=115 {mu}m.

  13. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy.

  14. High-resolution breast tomography at high energy: a feasibility study of phase contrast imaging on a whole breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztrókay, A.; Diemoz, P. C.; Schlossbauer, T.; Brun, E.; Bamberg, F.; Mayr, D.; Reiser, M. F.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on phase contrast imaging (PCI) mammography have demonstrated an enhancement of breast morphology and cancerous tissue visualization compared to conventional imaging. We show here the first results of the PCI analyser-based imaging (ABI) in computed tomography (CT) mode on whole and large (>12 cm) tumour-bearing breast tissues. We demonstrate in this work the capability of the technique of working at high x-ray energies and producing high-contrast images of large and complex specimens. One entire breast of an 80-year-old woman with invasive ductal cancer was imaged using ABI-CT with monochromatic 70 keV x-rays and an area detector of 92×92 µm2 pixel size. Sagittal slices were reconstructed from the acquired data, and compared to corresponding histological sections. Comparison with conventional absorption-based CT was also performed. Five blinded radiologists quantitatively evaluated the visual aspects of the ABI-CT images with respect to sharpness, soft tissue contrast, tissue boundaries and the discrimination of different structures/tissues. ABI-CT excellently depicted the entire 3D architecture of the breast volume by providing high-resolution and high-contrast images of the normal and cancerous breast tissues. These results are an important step in the evolution of PCI-CT towards its clinical implementation.

  15. Seasonal variability of eddy kinetic energy in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre: A high-resolution ocean model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieck, Jan Klaus; Böning, Claus W.; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Scheinert, Markus

    2016-04-01

    A global ocean model with 1/12° horizontal resolution is used to assess the seasonal cycle of surface eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the North Atlantic. The model reproduces the salient features of the observed mean surface EKE, including amplitude and phase of its seasonal cycle in most parts of the basin. In the interior North Atlantic subtropical gyre, EKE peaks in summer down to a depth of ˜200 m, below which the seasonal cycle is weak. Investigation of the possible driving mechanisms reveals the seasonal changes in the thermal interactions with the atmosphere to be the most likely cause of the summer maximum of EKE. The development of the seasonal thermocline in spring and summer is accompanied by stronger mesoscale variations in the horizontal temperature gradients near the surface which corresponds, by thermal wind balance, to an intensification of mesoscale velocity anomalies toward the surface. An extension of the analysis leads to similar results in the South Atlantic, North Pacific and South Pacific subtropical gyres.

  16. Surface structure and dipole moments of RbI(001) determined by high-resolution medium-energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazawa, T.; Hoshino, Y.; Nishimura, T.; Kido, Y.

    2001-11-01

    The surface structure of RbI(001) was determined directly by means of medium-energy ion scattering (MEIS) with a monolayer depth resolution. The rumpled surface structure determined here was compared with semi-classical shell-model calculations. On the basis of a simple model regarding the lattice site ion as a point charge accompanied by a dipole moment, we evaluated the dipole moments of the top- and second-layer I- and Rb+ ions self-consistently from the relaxed lattice positions determined by means of MEIS and from the polarizabilities estimated systematically from experimental refraction data. The balance between a short-range force and a long-range coulombic one determined the equilibrium positions of the top- and second-layer ions; these are consistent with those derived by means of MEIS within the experimental uncertainties of 0.02 Å. This indicates that the polarizablities derived from the refraction data and the interatomic (short-range) potentials of the Born-Mayer type are applicable.

  17. Array-compatible transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter {gamma}-ray detector with 42 eV energy resolution at 103 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, B. L.; Ullom, J. N.; Beall, J. A.; Irwin, K. D.; Doriese, W. B.; Duncan, W. D.; Ferreira, L.; Hilton, G. C.; Horansky, R. D.; Reintsema, C. D.; Vale, L. R.

    2006-09-18

    The authors describe a microcalorimeter {gamma}-ray detector with measured energy resolution of 42 eV full width at half maximum for 103 keV photons. This detector consists of a thermally isolated superconducting transition-edge thermometer and a superconducting bulk tin photon absorber. The absorber is attached with a technique compatible with producing arrays of high-resolution {gamma}-ray detectors. The results of a detailed characterization of the detector, which includes measurements of the complex impedance, detector noise, and time-domain pulse response, suggest that a deeper understanding and optimization of the thermal transport between the absorber and thermometer could significantly improve the energy resolution of future detectors.

  18. Shallow Geothermal Admissibility Maps: a Methodology to Achieve a Sustainable Development of Shallow Geothermal Energy with Regards to Groundwater Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréthaut, D.; Parriaux, A.; Tacher, L.

    2009-04-01

    Implantation and use of shallow geothermal systems may have environmental impacts. Traditionally, risks are divided into 2 categories: direct and indirect. Direct risks are linked with the leakage of the circulating fluid (usually water with anti-freeze) of ground source heat pumps into the underground which may be a source of contamination. Indirect risks are linked with the borehole itself and the operation of the systems which can modify the groundwater flow, change groundwater temperature and chemistry, create bypasses from the surfaces to the aquifers or between two aquifers. Groundwater source heat pumps (GWSHP) may provoke indirect risks, while ground source heat pumps (GSHP) may provoke both direct and indirect risks. To minimize those environmental risks, the implantation of shallow geothermal systems must be regulated. In 2007, more than 7000 GSHP have been installed in Switzerland, which represents 1.5 Mio drilled meters. In the canton of Vaud, each shallow geothermal project has to be approved by the Department of the Environment. Approximately 1500 demands have been treated during 2007, about 15 times more than in 1990. Mapping shallow geothermal systems implantation restrictions due to environmental constrains permits: 1) to optimize the management and planning of the systems, 2) to minimize their impact on groundwater resources and 3) to facilitate administrative procedures for treating implantation demands. Such maps are called admissibility maps. Here, a methodology to elaborate them is presented and tested. Interactions between shallow geothermal energy and groundwater resources have been investigated. Admissibility criteria are proposed and structured into a flow chart which provides a decision making tool for shallow geothermal systems implantation. This approach has been applied to three areas of West Switzerland ranging from 2 to 6 km2. For each area, a geological investigation has been realized and complementary territorial information (e

  19. The environmental and public health benefits of achieving high penetrations of solar energy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Millstein, Dev; Mai, Trieu; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-10-01

    We estimate the environmental and public health benefits that may be realized if solar energy cost reductions continue until solar power is competitive across the U.S. without subsidies. Specifically, we model, from 2015 to 2050, solar power-induced reductions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions, and water usage. To find the incremental benefits of new solar deployment, we compare the difference between two scenarios, one where solar costs have fallen such that solar supplies 14% of the nation's electricity by 2030 and 27% by 2050, and a baseline scenario in which no solar is added after 2014. We monetize benefits, where credible methods exist to do so. We find that under these scenarios, solar power reduces GHG and air pollutants by ~10%, from 2015 to 2050, providing a discounted present value of $56-$789 billion (central value of ~$250 billion, equivalent to ~2 cents/kWh-solar) in climate benefits and $77-$298 billion (central value of $167 billion, or ~1.4 cents/kWh-solar) in air quality and public health benefits. The ranges reflect uncertainty within the literature about the marginal impact of emissions of GHG and air pollutants. Solar power is also found to reduce water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%, respectively, including in many drought-prone states.

  20. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  1. Orbital Measurement of Bulk Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Sulfur of Carbonaceous Asteroids via High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Starr, Richard D.; Evans, Larry G.; Parsons, Ann M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Boynton, William V.; Thomas, Cristina A.

    2014-11-01

    Various populations of low-albedo asteroids (C-complex, D, and P spectral types) dominate the outer Main Asteroid Belt, Hildas, and Trojan clouds and are thought to be related to carbonaceous meteorites. However, carbonaceous meteorites are themselves a diverse group and it remains unclear which types represent which asteroids or asteroid populations. A high-energy-resolution (HPGe) gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS) experiment on an asteroid orbiter would be sensitive to many of the elements that differentiate carbonaceous chondrite subclasses from each other and from the ureilites, including H, C, O, and S, in the outer ~20-50 cm of the asteroid surface. We have therefore conducted new simulations of the performance of a GRS experiment in orbit around asteroids with carbonaceous chondriticcompositions at levels of hydration ranging from CI-like 17 wt% structural water) to CO-like (<2 wt% structural water). Cosmic-ray interactions with the asteroid surfaces were modeled using the MCNPX Monte-Carlo radiation transport code. A spacecraft background (based on a Dawn-like spacecraft model) was also modeled using MCNPX: this included background due to direct GCR/spacecraft interactions as well as background due to asteroidal neutron flux on the spacecraft. A Dawn-like mission scenario was modeled withthe altitude equal to the asteroid radius for a 4.5-month low-orbit phase. The detector model was based on Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (MOGRS), the largest and most sensitive HPGe GRS flown to date. The spectra from the MCNPX output were broadened to a resolution based on the in-flight performance of MOGRS, FWHM = 4.1 keV at 1332 keV. Doppler broadening was also modeled where applicable. Line fluxes were then extracted from the combined background + asteroid spectrum and statistical uncertainties evaluated.We find that within 4.5 months the GRS can measure H/Si, O/Si, C/Si, and S/Si with sufficient precision to distinguish OH-rich CI and CM chondrites from drier CO

  2. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of manganese oxides: Application to Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Laffont, L.; Gibot, P.

    2010-11-15

    Manganese oxides particularly Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} Hausmannite are currently used in many industrial applications such as catalysis, magnetism, electrochemistry or air contamination. The downsizing of the particle size of such material permits an improvement of its intrinsic properties and a consequent increase in its performances compared to a classical micron-sized material. Here, we report a novel synthesis of hydrophilic nano-sized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, a bivalent oxide, for which a precise characterization is necessary and for which the determination of the valency proves to be essential. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and particularly High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) allow us to perform these measurements on the nanometer scale. Well crystallized 10-20 nm sized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles with sphere-shaped morphology were thus successfully synthesized. Meticulous EELS investigations allowed the determination of a Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+} ratio of 1.5, i.e. slightly lower than the theoretical value of 2 for the bulk Hausmannite manganese oxide. This result emphasizes the presence of vacancies on the tetrahedral sites in the structure of the as-synthesized nanomaterial. - Research Highlights: {yields}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} bulk and nano were studied by XRD, TEM and EELS. {yields}XRD and TEM determine the degree of crystallinity and the narrow grain size. {yields}HREELS gave access to the Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+} ratio. {yields}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano have vacancies on the tetrahedral sites.

  3. Fast Atomic-Scale Elemental Mapping of Crystalline Materials by STEM Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy Achieved with Thin Specimens.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Yuan, Renliang; Zuo, Jian Min

    2017-02-01

    Elemental mapping at the atomic-scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) provides a powerful real-space approach to chemical characterization of crystal structures. However, applications of this powerful technique have been limited by inefficient X-ray emission and collection, which require long acquisition times. Recently, using a lattice-vector translation method, we have shown that rapid atomic-scale elemental mapping using STEM-EDS can be achieved. This method provides atomic-scale elemental maps averaged over crystal areas of ~few 10 nm2 with the acquisition time of ~2 s or less. Here we report the details of this method, and, in particular, investigate the experimental conditions necessary for achieving it. It shows, that in addition to usual conditions required for atomic-scale imaging, a thin specimen is essential for the technique to be successful. Phenomenological modeling shows that the localization of X-ray signals to atomic columns is a key reason. The effect of specimen thickness on the signal delocalization is studied by multislice image simulations. The results show that the X-ray localization can be achieved by choosing a thin specimen, and the thickness of less than about 22 nm is preferred for SrTiO3 in [001] projection for 200 keV electrons.

  4. Oligomycin A-induced inhibition of mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity suppresses boar sperm motility and in vitro capacitation achievement without modifying overall sperm energy levels.

    PubMed

    Ramió-Lluch, Laura; Yeste, Marc; Fernández-Novell, Josep M; Estrada, Efrén; Rocha, Luiz; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Concha, Ilona I; Ramírez, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    Incubation of boar spermatozoa in a capacitation medium with oligomycin A, a specific inhibitor of the F0 component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, induced an immediate and almost complete immobilisation of cells. Oligomycin A also inhibited the ability of spermatozoa to achieve feasible in vitro capacitation (IVC), as measured through IVC-compatible changes in motility patterns, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the acrosomal p32 protein, membrane fluidity and the ability of spermatozoa to achieve subsequent, progesterone-induced in vitro acrosome exocytosis (IVAE). Both inhibitory effects were caused without changes in the rhythm of O2 consumption, intracellular ATP levels or mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). IVAE was accompanied by a fast and intense peak in O2 consumption and ATP levels in control spermatozoa. Oligomycin A also inhibited progesterone-induced IVAE as well as the concomitant peaks of O2 consumption and ATP levels. The effect of oligomycin on IVAE was also accompanied by concomitant alterations in the IVAE-induced changes on intracellular Ca(2+) levels and MMP. Our results suggest that the oligomycin A-sensitive mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity is instrumental in the achievement of an adequate boar sperm motion pattern, IVC and IVAE. However, this effect seems not to be linked to changes in the overall maintenance of adequate energy levels in stages other than IVAE.

  5. Spectral restoration in high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy based on iterative semi-blind Lucy-Richardson algorithm applied to rutile surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzari, Rémi Li, Jingfeng Jupille, Jacques

    2015-01-15

    A new spectral restoration algorithm of reflection electron energy loss spectra is proposed. It is based on the maximum likelihood principle as implemented in the iterative Lucy-Richardson approach. Resolution is enhanced and point spread function recovered in a semi-blind way by forcing cyclically the zero loss to converge towards a Dirac peak. Synthetic phonon spectra of TiO{sub 2} are used as a test bed to discuss resolution enhancement, convergence benefit, stability towards noise, and apparatus function recovery. Attention is focused on the interplay between spectral restoration and quasi-elastic broadening due to free carriers. A resolution enhancement by a factor up to 6 on the elastic peak width can be obtained on experimental spectra of TiO{sub 2}(110) and helps revealing mixed phonon/plasmon excitations.

  6. Resolution of sleepiness and fatigue: a comparison of bupropion and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in subjects with major depressive disorder achieving remission at doses approved in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Cooper, James A; Tucker, Vivian L; Papakostas, George I

    2014-02-01

    Unlike selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), bupropion may be classified as a dual noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, a difference with potential implications for the treatment of residual sleepiness and fatigue in major depressive disorder (MDD). Post-hoc analysis of subjects with remitted MDD was performed on data pooled from six double-blind, randomized trials comparing the European Union (EU)-approved dose of ≤300 mg/day bupropion with SSRIs (sertraline, paroxetine or escitalopram) for the resolution of sleepiness and fatigue. Hypersomnia score was defined as the sum of scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) items 22, 23, and 24; fatigue score as HDRS item 13 score; and remission as HDRS-17≤7. Similar proportions of bupropion- and SSRI-treated subjects achieved remission at study endpoint (169/343, 49.3% vs 324/656, 49.4%; last observation carried forward (LOCF), p=0.45). Fewer bupropion-treated remitters had residual symptoms of sleepiness (32/169, 18.9% vs 104/324, 32.1%; p<0.01) and fatigue (33/169, 19.5% vs 98/324, 30.2%; p<0.05). Bupropion-treated remitters also showed greater improvement (mean change from baseline) in sleepiness (p<0.05) and fatigue scores (p<0.01) at endpoint: benefits were evident from week 2 for sleepiness (p<0.01) and week 4 for fatigue (p<0.01). Bupropion treatment at the EU-approved dose of ≤300 mg/day may offer advantages over SSRIs in the resolution of sleepiness and fatigue in remitted MDD patients.

  7. High energy-resolution x-ray spectroscopy at ultra-high dilution with spherically bent crystal analyzers of 0.5 m radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovezzi, Mauro; Lapras, Christophe; Manceau, Alain; Glatzel, Pieter; Verbeni, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    We present the development, manufacturing, and performance of spherically bent crystal analyzers (SBCAs) of 100 mm diameter and 0.5 m bending radius. The elastic strain in the crystal wafer is partially released by a "strip-bent" method where the crystal wafer is cut into strips prior to the bending and the anodic bonding process. Compared to standard 1 m SBCAs, a gain in intensity is obtained without loss of energy resolution. The gain ranges between 2.5 and 4.5, depending on the experimental conditions and the width of the emission line measured. This reduces the acquisition times required to perform high energy-resolution x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy on ultra-dilute species, accessing concentrations of the element of interest down to, or below, the ppm (ng/mg) level.

  8. High energy-resolution x-ray spectroscopy at ultra-high dilution with spherically bent crystal analyzers of 0.5 m radius.

    PubMed

    Rovezzi, Mauro; Lapras, Christophe; Manceau, Alain; Glatzel, Pieter; Verbeni, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    We present the development, manufacturing, and performance of spherically bent crystal analyzers (SBCAs) of 100 mm diameter and 0.5 m bending radius. The elastic strain in the crystal wafer is partially released by a "strip-bent" method where the crystal wafer is cut into strips prior to the bending and the anodic bonding process. Compared to standard 1 m SBCAs, a gain in intensity is obtained without loss of energy resolution. The gain ranges between 2.5 and 4.5, depending on the experimental conditions and the width of the emission line measured. This reduces the acquisition times required to perform high energy-resolution x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy on ultra-dilute species, accessing concentrations of the element of interest down to, or below, the ppm (ng/mg) level.

  9. High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Studies of Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrous Oxide Adsorption on Germanium Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entringer, Anthony G.

    The first high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) studies of the oxidation and nitridation of germanium surfaces are reported. Both single crystal Ge(111) and disordered surfaces were studied. Surfaces were exposed to H, O_2, NO, N _2O, and N, after cleaning in ultra-high vacuum. The Ge surfaces were found to be non-reactive to molecular hydrogen (H_2) at room temperature. Exposure to atomic hydrogen (H) resulted hydrogen adsorption as demonstrated by the presence of Ge-H vibrational modes. The HREEL spectrum of the native oxide of Ge characteristic of nu -GeO_2 was obtained by heating the oxide to 200^circC. Three peaks were observed at 33, 62, and 106 meV for molecular oxygen (O_2) adsorbed on clean Ge(111) at room temperature. These peaks are indicative of dissociative bonding and a dominant Ge-O-Ge bridge structure. Subsequent hydrogen exposure resulted in a shift of the Ge-H stretch from its isolated value of 247 meV to 267 meV, indicative of a dominant +3 oxidation state. A high density of dangling bonds and defects and deeper oxygen penetration at the amorphous Ge surface result in a dilute bridge structure with a predominant +1 oxidation state for similar exposures. Molecules of N_2O decompose at the surfaces to desorbed N_2 molecules and chemisorbed oxygen atoms. In contrast, both oxygen and nitrogen are detected at the surfaces following exposure to NO molecules. Both NO and N_2O appear to dissociate and bond at the top surface layer. Molecular nitrogen (N_2) does not react with the Ge surfaces, however, a precursor Ge nitride is observed at room temperature following exposure to nitrogen atoms and ions. Removal of oxygen by heating of the NO-exposed surface to 550^circC enabled the identification of the Ge-N vibrational modes. These modes show a structure similar to that of germanium nitride. This spectrum is also identical to that of the N-exposed surface heated to 550^circC. Surface phonon modes of the narrow-gap semiconducting

  10. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; and others

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  11. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, F; Lange, E; Limão-Vieira, P; Jones, N C; Hoffmann, S V; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J; Brunger, M J; Neves, R F C; Lopes, M C A; de Oliveira, E M; da Costa, R F; Varella, M T do N; Bettega, M H F; Blanco, F; García, G; Lima, M A P; Jones, D B

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  12. Energy savings and higher volumetric loading rate achieved in the conventional anoxic-oxic process for sewage treatment by enhancing biomass retention in the secondary clarifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyu; Liu, Fengyuan; Zheng, Shaokui

    2017-06-01

    This is the first study to achieve a short HRT (∼2h for the A/O reactor), high MLSS (∼10gL(-1)), and high volumetric loading (∼3.7kg CODm(-3)d(-1) and ∼0.6kg NH4-Nm(-3)d(-1)) in the A/O process for sewage treatment by enhancing biomass retention in the secondary clarifier (∼4h settling time), which we refer to as the high-performance A/O process (HP-A/O) in this paper. Over 258days of continuous operation, with a decrease in HRT from 12 to 2h, remarkable COD (95±3%), NH4(+)-N (98±2%), TN (79±5%), and TP (74±10%) removals were stably achieved, while the air requirement significantly decreased by 22%. The HP-A/O process offers advantages over the conventional A/O process (6-8h for A/O reactor, 3-5gL(-1)MLSS, and ∼1.0kg CODm(-3)d(-1)) for sewage treatment in terms of its lower energy consumption, smaller footprint and reactor requirements.

  13. EPA Honors 2016 Energy Star Partners of the Year for Outstanding Achievements in Energy Efficiency/In 2014 alone, all Energy Star partners prevented 283 million metric tons of GHG emissions, providing $31.5 billion in economic benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON-- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are honoring 149 businesses and organizations in 35 states for their commitment to saving energy and protecting the environment through superior energ

  14. Modeling high resolution space-time variations in energy demand/CO2 emissions of human inhabited landscapes in the United States under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, A. V.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    With urban and exurban areas now accounting for more than 50% of the world's population, projected to increase 20% by 2050 (UN World Urbanization Prospects, 2009), urban-climate interactions are of renewed interest to the climate change scientific community (Karl et. al, 1988; Kalnay and Cai, 2003; Seto and Shepherd, 2009). Until recently, climate modeling efforts treated urban-human systems as independent of the earth system. With studies pointing to the disproportionately large influence of urban areas on their surrounding environment (Small et. al, 2010), modeling efforts have begun to explicitly account for urban processes in land models, like the CLM 4.0 urban layer, for example (Oleson.et. al, 2008, 2010). A significant portion of the urban energy demand comes from the space heating and cooling requirement of the residential and commercial sectors - as much as 51% (DOE, RECS 2005) and 11% (Belzer, D. 2006) respectively, in the United States. Thus, these sectors are both responsible for a significant fraction of fossil fuel CO2 emissions and will be influenced by a changing climate through changes in energy use and energy supply planning. This points to the possibility of interactive processes and feedbacks with the climate system. Space conditioning energy demand is strongly driven by external air temperature (Ruth, M. et.al, 2006) in addition to other socio-economic variables such as building characteristics (age of structure, activity cycle, weekend/weekday usage profile), occupant characteristics (age of householder, household income) and energy prices (Huang, 2006; Santin et. al, 2009; Isaac and van Vuuren, 2009). All of these variables vary both in space and time. Projections of climate change have begun to simulate changes in temperature at much higher resolution than in the past (Diffenbaugh et. al, 2005). Hence, in order to understand how climate change and variability will potentially impact energy use/emissions and energy planning, these two

  15. High resolution structural and compositional mapping of the SrTiO3/LaFeO3 interface using chromatic aberration corrected energy filtered imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabius, Bernd; Houben, Lothar; Dwyer, Christian; Colby, Robert; Chambers, Scott A.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal

    2014-03-01

    Interfaces between insulating polar perovskites have demonstrated a wealth of electronic and magnetic properties. Understanding and predicting the properties of a specific interface requires atomic level knowledge of interface structure and chemistry. Electron microscopy is capable of this task, and has been frequently applied to oxide interfaces using a combination of high-angle angular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) captures a full image for a given energy losses, allowing a larger field of view than typical for STEM-EELS in far less time. However, EFTEM has not, to date, demonstrated the spatial resolution of STEM-EELS due to the limits set by chromatic aberration Cc. This study of LaFeO3/SrTiO3 demonstrates that Cc correction enhances the resolution of EFTEM for elemental mapping, allowing a unit cell-by-unit cell analysis of the concentration gradients across the SrTiO3/LaFeO3 interface. The charge distribution at the interface will be discussed. The research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  16. OZSPEC-2: An improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Anderson, S. G.; Booth, R.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; Fulkerson, S.; McCarville, T.; Norman, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2008-10-15

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 {mu}m resolution over a 1500 {mu}m field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/{delta}E>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  17. Advances in the Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model using very high resolution remote sensing data in vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thermal-based Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model partitions the water and energy fluxes from vegetation and soil components providing thus the ability for estimating soil evaporation (E) and canopy transpiration (T) separately. However, it is crucial for ET partitioning to retrieve reliable ...

  18. Real-time monitoring of changes in plasma membrane potential via imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer at individual cell resolution in suspension.

    PubMed

    Sabati, Tzachi; Galmidi, Bat-Sheva; Korngreen, Alon; Zurgil, Naomi; Deutsch, Mordechai

    2013-12-01

    A method for monitoring heterogeneity in changes of plasma membrane potential (PMP) at an individual cell resolution while in suspension, utilizing a simple and low-cost wide-field illumination arrangement, is presented. The method is modeled via HEK-293 cell line in suspension, double stained with coumarin and oxonol (donor and acceptor), which were loaded into an array of nanoliter wells, each designed to preserve the individuality of the nontethered cell it holds during vigorous biomanipulation. Depolarization of PMP was induced by high K(+) solution, reducing the proximity between the membrane fluorophores and subsequently reducing the efficiency (E%) of resonance energy transfer between them. Spatial plots of E% were produced from both images of fluorescence intensity and polarization. The spatial resolution of E% plots seem to be higher, and their contrast greater, when calculated from the polarization, rather than from the intensity of the fluorescence.

  19. EPA Honors 2016 Energy Star Partners of the Year for Outstanding Achievements in Energy Efficiency In 2014 alone, all Energy Star partners prevented 283 million metric tons of GHG emissions, providing $31.5 billion in economic benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (03/29/2016 - ATLANTA) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is honoring Kenton County School District in Ft. Wright, Kentucky for their commitment to saving energy and protecting the environment th

  20. Exploiting Kalman Filtering Non-linear Exponential Fitting to Promote the Energy Resolution of 137Cs and 60Co Gamma Ray Spectra.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiping; Tian, Chenyang; Xue, Hongbin; Lv, Ning; Wei, Yingguang; Fu, Guangzhi; Lv, Wenhui; Zhao, Kuo; Hou, Yijie

    2017-03-01

    For Cs and Co gamma ray spectra, gamma ray energy is proportional to the amplitude of the pulse signal, and energy resolution can be improved by pulse signal processing with mathematical algorithms. Influenced by system measurement noise and baseline fluctuation, the pulse amplitude is difficult to calculate accurately. A method that combines the Kalman filter baseline estimation with the non-linear exponential fitting has been used. By this method, the pulse signal is divided into two parts: one is the raising edge before the pulse peak, and another is after the pulse peak. The pulse amplitude equals the difference between the pulse starting height and the pulse peak height. The pulse starting height is obtained by Kalman filter baseline estimation on the rising edge of the pulse starting point. The pulse peak height is calculated by nonlinear exponential fitting on the falling edge of the pulse highest point. When the sampling rate is 100 MHz, the pulse signals obtained from a Cd(Zn)Te detector are analyzed by this method. Results have shown that the processed pulses have a more distinguishable amplitude distribution; energy resolution for the Cs spectrum is approximately 2.97% at 662 keV (~19.66 keV FWHM), and for the Co spectrum it is 2.61% at 1,332 keV (~34.76 keV FWHM).

  1. Towards a high resolution, integrated hydrology model of North America: Diagnosis of feedbacks between groundwater and land energy fluxes at continental scales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Reed; Condon, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate feedbacks between groundwater dynamics, overland flow, land surface and vegetation processes, and atmospheric boundary layer development that significantly affect local and regional climate across a range of climatic conditions. Furthermore, the type and distribution of vegetation cover alters land-atmosphere water and energy fluxes, as well as runoff generation and overland flow processes. These interactions can result in significant feedbacks on local and regional climate. In mountainous regions, recent research has shown that spatial and temporal variability in annual evapotranspiration, and thus water budgets, is strongly dependent on lateral groundwater flow; however, the full effects of these feedbacks across varied terrain (e.g. from plains to mountains) are not well understood. Here, we present a high-resolution, integrated hydrology model that covers much of continental North America and encompasses the Mississippi and Colorado watersheds. The model is run in a fully-transient manner at hourly temporal resolution incorporating fully-coupled land energy states and fluxes with integrated surface and subsurface hydrology. Connections are seen between hydrologic variables (such as water table depth) and land energy fluxes (such as latent heat) and spatial and temporal scaling is shown to span many orders of magnitude. Model results suggest that partitioning of plant transpiration to bare soil evaporation is a function of water table depth and later groundwater flow. Using these transient simulations as a proof of concept, we present a vision for future integrated simulation capabilities.

  2. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    PubMed

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century.

  3. A Conflict Resolution Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, John; Wood, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The Conflict Resolution Model was formulated by a group of Australian psychologists who set about integrating the literature on achieving mutually beneficial outcomes in a conflict situation in order to create a best-practice prescriptive process for conflict resolution. A number of experimental studies conducted at the University of Tasmania with…

  4. Testing of two source energy balance model under irrigated and dryland conditions using high resolution airborne imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Source Model (TSM) calculates the heat and water exchange and interaction between soil-atmosphere and vegetation-atmosphere separately. This is achieved through decomposition of radiometric surface temperature to soil and vegetation component temperatures either from multi-angular remotely sense...

  5. The use of high resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy for refining the infrared optical constants of GaS, GaSe, and InSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li-Ming; Thiry, P. A.; Degiovanni, A.; Conard, Th.; Leclerc, G.; Caudano, R.; Lambin, Ph.; Debever, J.-M.

    1994-06-01

    Cleaved surfaces of III-VI lamellar semiconducting compounds GaS, GaSe, and InSe have been studied by high resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The infrared optical constants of the materials were retrieved by using the dielectric theory taking account of the resonance frequencies published from infrared reflectivity (IRS) data. The limitations of the HREELS and IRS measurements in the case of these materials are discussed in detail. However, it is shown that, by combining the informations from both spectroscopies, it is possible to refine some of the oscillator strengths of these materials.

  6. High-Energy-Resolution Inelastic Electron and Proton Scattering and the Multiphonon Nature of Mixed-Symmetry 2{sup +} States in {sup 94}Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Burda, O.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Botha, N.; Fearick, R. W.; Carter, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Foertsch, S. V.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Fransen, C.; Fujita, H.; Holt, J. D.; Pietralla, N.; Scholten, O.

    2007-08-31

    High-energy-resolution inelastic electron scattering (at the S-DALINAC) and proton scattering (at iThemba LABS) experiments permit a thorough test of the nature of proposed one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} states of the nucleus {sup 94}Mo. The combined analysis reveals the one-phonon content of the mixed-symmetry state and its isovector character suggested by microscopic nuclear model calculations. The purity of two-phonon 2{sup +} states is extracted.

  7. Distributed memory parallel implementation of energies and gradients for second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with the resolution-of-the-identity approximation.

    PubMed

    Hättig, Christof; Hellweg, Arnim; Köhn, Andreas

    2006-03-14

    We present a parallel implementation of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with the resolution-of-the-identity approximation (RI-MP2). The implementation is based on a recent improved sequential implementation of RI-MP2 within the Turbomole program package and employs the message passing interface (MPI) standard for communication between distributed memory nodes. The parallel implementation extends the applicability of canonical MP2 to considerably larger systems. Examples are presented for full geometry optimizations with up to 60 atoms and 3300 basis functions and MP2 energy calculations with more than 200 atoms and 7000 basis functions.

  8. High resolution IR diode laser study of collisional energy transfer between highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene and CO2: the effect of donor fluorination on strong collision energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kilyoung; Johnson, Alan M; Powell, Amber L; Mitchell, Deborah G; Sevy, Eric T

    2014-12-21

    Collisional energy transfer between vibrational ground state CO2 and highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene (MFB) was studied using narrow bandwidth (0.0003 cm(-1)) IR diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Highly vibrationally excited MFB with E' = ∼41,000 cm(-1) was prepared by 248 nm UV excitation followed by rapid radiationless internal conversion to the electronic ground state (S1→S0*). The amount of vibrational energy transferred from hot MFB into rotations and translations of CO2 via collisions was measured by probing the scattered CO2 using the IR diode laser. The absolute state specific energy transfer rate constants and scattering probabilities for single collisions between hot MFB and CO2 were measured and used to determine the energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E'), in the large ΔE region. P(E,E') was then fit to a bi-exponential function and extrapolated to the low ΔE region. P(E,E') and the biexponential fit data were used to determine the partitioning between weak and strong collisions as well as investigate molecular properties responsible for large collisional energy transfer events. Fermi's Golden rule was used to model the shape of P(E,E') and identify which donor vibrational motions are primarily responsible for energy transfer. In general, the results suggest that low-frequency MFB vibrational modes are primarily responsible for strong collisions, and govern the shape and magnitude of P(E,E'). Where deviations from this general trend occur, vibrational modes with large negative anharmonicity constants are more efficient energy gateways than modes with similar frequency, while vibrational modes with large positive anharmonicity constants are less efficient at energy transfer than modes of similar frequency.

  9. Adding high time resolution to charge-state-specific ion energy measurements for pulsed copper vacuum arc plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Koichi; Han, Liang; Zhou, Xue; Anders, André

    2015-08-01

    Charge-state-resolved ion energy-time distributions of pulsed Cu arc plasma were obtained by using direct (time-dependent) acquisition of the ion detection signal from a commercial ion mass-per-charge and energy-per-charge analyzer. We find a shift of energies of Cu2+, Cu3+ and Cu4+ ions to lower values during the first few hundred microseconds after arc ignition, which is evidence for particle collisions in the plasma. The generation of Cu+ ions in the later part of the pulse, measured by the increase of Cu+ signal intensity and an associated slight reduction of the mean charge state, points to charge exchange reactions between ions and neutrals. At the very beginning of the pulse, when the plasma expands into vacuum and the plasma potential strongly fluctuates, ions with much higher energy (over 200 eV) are observed. Early in the pulse, the ion energies observed are approximately proportional to the ion charge state, and we conclude that the acceleration mechanism is primarily based on acceleration in an electric field. This field is directed away from the cathode, indicative of a potential hump. Measurements by a floating probe suggest that potential structures travel, and ions moving in the traveling field can gain high energies up to a few hundred electron-volts. Later in the pulse, the approximate proportionality is lost, which is related to increased smearing out of different energies due to collisions with neutrals, and/or to a change of the acceleration character from electrostatic to ‘gas-dynamic’, i.e. dominated by pressure gradient.

  10. R-Matrix Analysis of 238U High Resolution Neutron Transmissions and Capture Cross Sections in the Energy Range 0 keV to 20 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, Herve; Leal, Luiz C; Larson, Nancy M

    2009-01-01

    The neutron resonance parameters of 238U were obtained from a SAMMY analysis of high-resolution neutron transmission measurements and high-resolution capture cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in the years 1970-1990 and from more recent transmission and capture cross section measurements performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA). Compared with previous evaluations, the energy range for this resonance analysis was extended from 10 to 20 keV, taking advantage of the high resolution of the most recent ORELA transmission measurements. The experimental database and the method of analysis are described in this report. The neutron transmissions and the capture cross sections calculated with the resonance parameters are compared with the experimental data. A description is given of the statistical properties of the resonance parameters and of the recommended values of the average parameters. The new evaluation results in a slight decrease of the effective capture resonance integral and improves the prediction of integral thermal benchmarks by 70 to 200 pcm.

  11. Search on extraterrestrial gamma-ray lines from Southern Hemisphere sources with high energy resolution gamma-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacosta, J. M.; Jardim, J. O. D.; Gonzalez-Blanco, F.; Nordemann, D. J. R.; Martin, I. M.; Dutra, S. L. G.; Albernhe, F.; Vedrenne, G.; Boclet, D.; Durouchoux, P.

    1981-07-01

    The scope of the GEL 1 and 2 balloon-borne gamma ray telescope experiments is described. The gamma ray spectrometer to be used on GEL 1 is described. It is designed to study the nature of the Galactic center positron annihilation 511 KeV line. The telescope effect is achieved through the aperture angle formed by the gamma ray spectrometer anticoincidence crystals. The balloon gondola and onboard instrumentation of the balloon are described.

  12. Gamma camera energy windows for Tc-99m bone scintigraphy: effect of asymmetry on contrast resolution. Work in progress.

    PubMed

    Collier, B D; Palmer, D W; Knobel, J; Isitman, A T; Hellman, R S; Zielonka, J S

    1984-05-01

    By raising the lower threshold of the Tc-99m energy window, rejection of scattered photons can be made more efficient. Unfortunately, with most gamma cameras significant nonuniformities are produced when the window is changed to an asymmetric setting. Recently introduced designs with gain stabilization of the photomultiplier tubes and improved energy correction maintain field uniformity even for an asymmetric window. To assess the impact of an asymmetric energy window on clinical images, 33 Tc-99m-MDP scintigrams of the lumbar spine were taken with symmetrical (126-154 keV) and asymmetric windows (135-154 keV). Bone:soft tissue ratios improved with the asymmetric window, and the resulting images were preferred by the physicians questioned.

  13. High-resolution, far-ultraviolet study of Beta Draconis (G2 Ib-II) - Transition region structure and energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A.; Jordan, C.; Stencel, R. E.; Linsky, J. L.; Ayres, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    High-resolution far ultraviolet spectra of the star Beta Draconis have been obtained with the IUE satellite. The observations and emission line data from the spectra are presented, the interpretation of the emission line widths and shifts is discussed, and the implications are given in terms of atmospheric properties. The emission measure distribution is derived, and density diagnostics involving both line ratios and line opacity arguments is investigated. The methods for calculating spherically symmetric models of the atmospheric structure are outlined, and several such models are presented. The extension of these models to log T(e) greater than 5.3 using the observed X-ray flux is addressed, the energy balance of an 'optimum' model is investigated, and possible models of energy transport and deposition are discussed.

  14. Study the effect of beam energy spread and detector resolution on the search for Higgs boson decays to invisible particles at a future e^+e^- circular collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, Olmo; de Gruttola, Michele; Pierini, Maurizio; Podo, Alessandro; Rolandi, Gigi

    2017-02-01

    We study the expected sensitivity to measure the branching ratio of Higgs boson decays to invisible particles at a future circular e^+e^-collider (FCC-ee) in the process e^+e^-→ HZ with Z→ ℓ ^+ℓ ^- (ℓ =e or μ ) using an integrated luminosity of 3.5 ab^{-1} at a center-of-mass energy √{s}=240 GeV. The impact of the energy spread of the FCC-ee beam and of the resolution in the reconstruction of the leptons is discussed. The minimum branching ratio for a 5σ observation after 3.5 ab^{-1} of data taking is 1.7± 0.1%(stat+syst) . The branching ratio exclusion limit at 95% CL is 0.63 ± 0.22%((stat+syst)).

  15. On the Path to SunShot - The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Mai, Trieu; Millstein, Dev; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-05-01

    Monetizing the environmental health benefits of solar could add ~3.5¢/kWh to the value of solar energy (see Wiser et al. 2016). The monetary impacts due to environmental degradation and public health impacts seem far removed from the apparent “sticker price” of electricity. Yet quantifying these impacts is essential to understanding the true costs and benefits of solar and conventional generating technologies. Compared with fossil fuel generators, PV and CSP produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Achieving the SunShot-level solar deployment targets—14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050—could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238–$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0–2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (¢/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4¢/kWh-solar—while also preventing 25,000–59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, the estimated 3.5¢/kWh-solar in benefits due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional LCOE reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, water savings from achieving the SunShot goals, could result in the 2015–2050 cumulative savings of 4% of total power-sector withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector consumption—a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. Improving public health and the environment is but one aspect of solar’s many costs and benefits. Clearly, however

  16. Oxygen sensors and energy sensors act synergistically to achieve a graded alteration in gene expression: consequences for assessing the level of neuroprotection in response to stressors.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Gillian M C; Warburton, Joshua; Girjes, Adeeb

    2004-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are associated with switching to an autoprotected phenotype in response to environmental and physiological stress. Ubiquitous molecular chaperones from the heat shock protein (HSP) superfamily confer neuronal protection that can be blocked by antibodies. Recent research has focused on the interactions between the molecular sensors that affect the increased expression of neuroprotective HSPs above constitutive levels. An examination of the conditions under which the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was up regulated in a hypoxia and anoxia tolerant tropical species, the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum), revealed that up-regulation was dependent on exceeding a stimulus threshold for an oxidative stressor. While hypoxic-preconditioning confers neuroprotective changes, there was no increase in the level of Hsp70 indicating that its increased expression was not associated with achieving a neuroprotected state in response to hypoxia in the epaulette shark. Conversely, there was a significant increase in Hsp70 in response to anoxic-preconditioning, highlighting the presence of a stimulus threshold barrier and raising the possibility that, in this species, Hsp70 contributes to the neuroprotective response to extreme crises, such as oxidative stress. Interestingly, there was a synergistic effect of coincident stressors on Hsp70 expression, which was revealed when metabolic stress was superimposed upon oxidative stress. Brain energy charge was significantly lower when adenosine receptor blockade, provided by treatment with aminophylline, was present prior to the final anoxic episode, under these circumstances, the level of Hsp70 induced was significantly higher than in the pair-matched saline treated controls. An understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis for neuroprotective switches, which result in an up-regulation of neuroprotective Hsp70 expression in the brain, is needed so that intervention strategies can be devised

  17. Global analysis of steady-state energy transfer measurements in membranes: resolution of structural and binding parameters.

    PubMed

    Domanov, Yegor A; Gorbenko, Galina P; Molotkovsky, Julian G

    2004-01-01

    A method has been developed allowing structural and binding parameters to be recovered by global analysis of two-dimensional array of steady-state RET data in the special case where energy acceptors distribute between aqueous and lipid phases while donors are embedded in the membrane at a known depth. To test the validity of this approach, correlation and error analyses have been performed using simulated data. To exemplify the method application to the membrane studies, energy transfer from anthrylvinyl-labeled phosphatidylcholine incorporated into mixed phosphatidylcholine/cardiolipin unilamellar vesicles to heme group of cytochrome c is analyzed.

  18. Mathematical methods of spectrometer resolution improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Chepurnov, A.S.; Efimkin, N.G.; Rodionov, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    The highly desired property of the nuclear spectrometer is the monochromativity. This property is very often restricted by the line width achievable for the detector and by the competing effects such as radiation rescattering. These restrictions make the data interpretation difficult. The idea of spectrum reconstruction from instrumentally obtained data by means of mathematical procedures is not new. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the method for the energy resolution improvement of a germanium-lithium gamma spectrometer.

  19. Direct observation of low energy nuclear spin excitations in HoCrO3 by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, T; Jalarvo, N; Kumar, C M N; Xiao, Y; Brückel, Th

    2013-07-17

    We have investigated low energy nuclear spin excitations in the strongly correlated electron compound HoCrO3. We observe clear inelastic peaks at E = 22.18 ± 0.04 μeV in both energy loss and gain sides. The energy of the inelastic peaks remains constant in the temperature range 1.5-40 K at which they are observed. The intensity of the inelastic peak increases at first with increasing temperature and then decreases at higher temperatures. The temperature dependence of the energy and intensity of the inelastic peaks is very unusual compared to that observed in other Nd, Co, V and also simple Ho compounds. Huge quasielastic scattering appears at higher temperatures presumably due to the fluctuating electronic moments of the Ho ions that get increasingly disordered at higher temperatures. The strong quasielastic scattering may also originate in the first Ho crystal-field excitations at about 1.5 meV.

  20. Method for resolution of closely situated resonance peaks for the yield of negative ions based on the energy

    SciTech Connect

    Mazunov, V.A.; Khvostenko, V.I.; Fal'ko, V.S.; Chanbarisov, V.Sh.

    1982-04-20

    A method was proposed for isolating and resolving on the basis of the energy the closely situated resonance peaks for the yield of negative ions when the mass spectrometry method is used to study the capture of electrons by molecules. In essence, the method for isolating and resolving on the basis of the energy the closely situated resonance peaks of the EYC (effective yield curves) of negative ions consists in obtaining and subsequently comparing the total current of the particles (ions plus neutrals) with a definite m/z ratio and the current of the neutral particles that are formed during ejection of the electrons. The EYC of the (M - H)/sup -/ ions from 2-propylthiophene, where two peaks with maxima at 5.1 and 8.7 +/- 0.1 eV were observed. The accuracy, with which the position of the maximum of the isolated resonance peak can be indicated, depends on tau/sub a/ as a function of the energy of the electrons. For many molecular ions and fragment ions, tau/sub a/ decreases with increase in the energy in the resonance region, while an analysis of the experimental data indicates that the observed decrease in tau/sub a/ with increase in the energy is usually less than 0.0001 sec per 1 eV. With such a change in the lifetime the shift in the maximum of the EYC of the neutral component of the stream of particles toward higher electron energies relative to the maximum of the ion current corresponds to approx. 0.2 eV. Taking this into account and a systematic error of 0.1 eV in the nonlinearity of the energy scale of the electrons, and also the accuracy of determining the position of the maximum of the EYC (0.1 eV), it can be said that the closely situated states of negative ions can be isolated with a accuracy of +/- 0.2 eV.

  1. C-phycocyanin hydration water dynamics in the presence of trehalose: an incoherent elastic neutron scattering study at different energy resolutions.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Frank; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2007-06-01

    We present a study of C-phycocyanin hydration water dynamics in the presence of trehalose by incoherent elastic neutron scattering. By combining data from two backscattering spectrometers with a 10-fold difference in energy resolution we extract a scattering law S(Q,omega) from the Q-dependence of the elastic intensities without sampling the quasielastic range. The hydration water is described by two dynamically different populations--one diffusing inside a sphere and the other diffusing quasifreely--with a population ratio that depends on temperature. The scattering law derived describes the experimental data from both instruments excellently over a large temperature range (235-320 K). The effective diffusion coefficient extracted is reduced by a factor of 10-15 with respect to bulk water at corresponding temperatures. Our approach demonstrates the benefits and the efficiency of using different energy resolutions in incoherent elastic neutron scattering over a large angular range for the study of biological macromolecules and hydration water.

  2. Detection of high energy muons with sub-20 ps timing resolution using L(Y)SO crystals and SiPM readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaglia, A.; Gundacker, S.; Lecoq, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Para, A.; Pauwels, K.; Auffray, E.

    2016-09-01

    Precise timing capability will be a key aspect of particle detectors at future high energy colliders, as the time information can help in the reconstruction of physics events at the high collision rate expected there. Other than being used in detectors for PET, fast scintillating crystals coupled to compact Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) constitute a versatile system that can be exploited to realize an ad-hoc timing device to be hosted in a larger high energy physics detector. In this paper, we present the timing performance of LYSO:Ce and LSO:Ce codoped 0.4% Ca crystals coupled to SiPMs, as measured with 150 GeV muons at the CERN SPS H2 extraction line. Small crystals, with lengths ranging from 5 mm up to 30 mm and transverse size of 2 × 2mm2 or 3 × 3mm2 , were exposed to a 150 GeV muon beam. SiPMs from two different companies (Hamamatsu and FBK) were used to detect the light produced in the crystals. The best coincidence time resolution value of (14.5 ± 0.5) ps , corresponding to a single-detector time resolution of about 10 ps, is demonstrated for 5 mm long LSO:Ce,Ca crystals coupled to FBK SiPMs, when time walk corrections are applied.

  3. The resolution of the tof-backscattering spectrometer OSIRIS: Monte Carlo simulations and analytical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmel, F.; Pokhilchuk, K.

    2014-12-01

    The energy resolution of an indirect time of flight (tof) spectrometer is determined mainly by the pulse shape of the incoming pulse and the contribution of the crystal analyser. We performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations for the indirect near-backscattering spectrometer OSIRIS utilising the McStas neutron ray-traycing package. The simulations are accompanied by analytical calculations for the energy resolution. From simulation and calculation an excellent description for the width of the line is achieved for the PG002 and PG004 energy setting. The simulations and calculations reveal that the secondary spectrometer and hence the analyser geometry is the dominating term for the energy resolution at zero energy transfer. The remaining differences in the lineshape can be traced to a not perfectly modeled hydrogen moderator. The simulations and calculations predict a superb energy resolution of less than 100 μeV at an energy transfer of 15 meV.

  4. Estimation of water and energy fluxes over complex landscapes. Two Source Energy Balance modelling using very high resolution thermal and optical imagery in vineyards and wooded rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modelling the water and energy balance at the land surface is a crucial task for many applications related to crop production, water resources management, climate change studies, weather forecasting, and natural hazards assessment. To improve the modelling of evapotranspiration (ET) over structurall...

  5. A balloon-borne instrument for high-resolution astrophysical spectroscopy in the 20-8000 keV energy range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, W. S.; Baker, R.; Boclet, D.; Brown, S.; Cline, T.; Costlow, H.; Durouchoux, P.; Ehrmann, C.; Gehrels, N.; Hameury, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The Low Energy Gamma ray Spectrometer (LEGS) is designed to perform fine energy resolution measurements of astrophysical sources. The instrument is configured for a particular balloon flight with either of two sets of high purity germanium detectors. In one configuration, the instrument uses an array of three coaxial detectors (effective volume equal to or approximately 230 cubic cm) inside an NaI (T1) shield and collimator (field of view equal to or approximately 16 deg FWHM) and operates in the 80 to 8000 keV energy range. In the other configuration, three planar detectors (effective area equal to or approximately square cm) surrounded by a combination of passive Fe and active NaI for shielding and collimation (field of view equal to or approximately 5 deg x 10 deg FWHM) are optimized for the 20 to 200 keV energy range. In a typical one day balloon flight, LEGS sensitivity limit (3 sigma) for narrow line features is less than or approximately .0008 ph/cm/s square (coaxial array: 80 to 2000 keV) and less than or approximately .0003 ph/square cm/s (planar array: 50 to 150 keV).

  6. A balloon-borne instrument for high-resolution astrophysical spectroscopy in the 20-8000 keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciesas, W. S.; Baker, R.; Boclet, D.; Brown, S.; Cline, T.; Costlow, H.; Durouchoux, P.; Ehrmann, C.; Gehrels, N.; Hameury, J. M.

    1983-04-01

    The Low Energy Gamma ray Spectrometer (LEGS) is designed to perform fine energy resolution measurements of astrophysical sources. The instrument is configured for a particular balloon flight with either of two sets of high purity germanium detectors. In one configuration, the instrument uses an array of three coaxial detectors (effective volume equal to or approximately 230 cubic cm) inside an NaI (T1) shield and collimator (field of view equal to or approximately 16 deg FWHM) and operates in the 80 to 8000 keV energy range. In the other configuration, three planar detectors (effective area equal to or approximately square cm) surrounded by a combination of passive Fe and active NaI for shielding and collimation (field of view equal to or approximately 5 deg x 10 deg FWHM) are optimized for the 20 to 200 keV energy range. In a typical one day balloon flight, LEGS sensitivity limit (3 sigma) for narrow line features is less than or approximately .0008 ph/cm/s square (coaxial array: 80 to 2000 keV) and less than or approximately .0003 ph/square cm/s (planar array: 50 to 150 keV).

  7. USGS aerial resolution targets.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salamonowicz, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is necessary to measure the achievable resolution of any airborne sensor that is to be used for metric purposes. Laboratory calibration facilities may be inadequate or inappropriate for determining the resolution of non-photographic sensors such as optical-mechanical scanners, television imaging tubes, and linear arrays. However, large target arrays imaged in the field can be used in testing such systems. The USGS has constructed an array of resolution targets in order to permit field testing of a variety of airborne sensing systems. The target array permits any interested organization with an airborne sensing system to accurately determine the operational resolution of its system. -from Author

  8. Resolution of the vibrational energy distribution function using a direct simulation Monte Carlo-master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar

    2016-01-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the primary numerical technique for analysis of rarefied gas flows. While recent progress in computational chemistry is beginning to provide vibrationally resolved transition and reaction cross sections that can be employed in DSMC calculations, the particle nature of the standard DSMC method makes it difficult to use this information in a statistically significant way. The current study introduces a new technique that makes it possible to resolve all of the vibrational energy levels by using a master equation approach along with temperature-dependent transition rates. The new method is compared to the standard DSMC technique for several heat bath and shock wave conditions and demonstrates the ability to resolve the full vibrational manifold at the expected overall rates of relaxation. The ability of the new master equation approach to the DSMC method for resolving, in particular, the high-energy states addresses a well-known, longstanding deficiency of the standard DSMC method.

  9. Resolution of the vibrational energy distribution function using a direct simulation Monte Carlo-master equation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar

    2016-01-15

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the primary numerical technique for analysis of rarefied gas flows. While recent progress in computational chemistry is beginning to provide vibrationally resolved transition and reaction cross sections that can be employed in DSMC calculations, the particle nature of the standard DSMC method makes it difficult to use this information in a statistically significant way. The current study introduces a new technique that makes it possible to resolve all of the vibrational energy levels by using a master equation approach along with temperature-dependent transition rates. The new method is compared to the standard DSMC technique for several heat bath and shock wave conditions and demonstrates the ability to resolve the full vibrational manifold at the expected overall rates of relaxation. The ability of the new master equation approach to the DSMC method for resolving, in particular, the high-energy states addresses a well-known, longstanding deficiency of the standard DSMC method.

  10. A New High Resolution Wave Modeling System for Renewable Energy Applications in California and the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanis, G. N.; Kafatos, M.; Chu, P. C.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Emmanouil, G.; Kallos, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The use of integrated high accuracy wave systems is of critical importance today for applications on renewable energy assessment and monitoring, especially over offshore areas where the availability of credible, quality controlled corresponding observations is limited. In this work a new wave modeling system developed by the Hellenic Naval Academy and the University of Athens, Greece, the Center of Excellence in Earth Systems Modeling & Observations of Schmid College of Science in Chapman University, USA and the Naval Ocean and Analysis Laboratory of the US-Naval Postgraduate School, is presented. The new wave system has been based on WAM (ECMWF parallel version) model and focuses on parameters that directly or not affect the estimation of wave power potential in offshore and near shore areas. The results obtained are utilized for monitoring the wave energy potential over the California and Eastern Mediterranean coastline. A detailed statistical analysis based on classical and non-conventional measures provides a solid framework for the quantification of the results. Extreme values-cases posing potential threats for renewable energy parks and platforms are particularly analyzed.

  11. The weakly bound He-HCCCN complex: High-resolution microwave spectra and intermolecular potential-energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topic, Wendy C.; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    Rotational spectra of the weakly bound He-HCCCN and He-DCCCN van der Waals complexes were observed using a pulsed-nozzle Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer in the 7-26-GHz frequency region. Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structures due to the N14 and D nuclei (both with nuclear-spin quantum number I =1) were resolved and assigned. Both strong a and weaker b-type transitions were observed and the assigned transitions were used to fit the parameters of a distortable asymmetric rotor model. The dimers are floppy, near T-shaped complexes. Three intermolecular potential-energy surfaces were calculated using the coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations and noniterative inclusion of triple excitations. Bound-state rotational energy levels supported by these surfaces were determined. The quality of the potential-energy surfaces was assessed by comparing the experimental and calculated transition frequencies and also the corresponding spectroscopic parameters. Simple scaling of the surfaces improved both the transition frequencies and spectroscopic constants. Five other recently reported surfaces [O. Akin-Ojo, R. Bukowski, and K. Szalewicz, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8379 (2003)], calculated using a variety of methods, and their agreement with spectroscopic properties of He-HCCCN are discussed.

  12. Resolution in Electromagnetic Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Schramm, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) signals are commonly used in geophysical exploration of the shallow subsurface. Sensitivity to conductivity implies they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of porous media. However, low-frequency EM wavefields are diffusive, and have significantly larger wavelengths compared to seismic signals of equal frequency. The wavelength of a 30 Hz sinusoid propagating with seismic velocity 3000 m/s is 100 m, whereas an analogous EM signal diffusing through a conductive body of 0.1 S/m (clayey shale) has wavelength 1825 m. The larger wavelength has implications for resolution of the EM prospecting method. We are investigating resolving power of the EM method via theoretical and numerical experiments. Normal incidence plane wave reflection/transmission by a thin geologic bed is amenable to analytic solution. Responses are calculated for beds that are conductive or resistive relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate the classic seismic resolution/detection limit of bed thickness ~1/8 wavelength is not achieved. EM responses for point or line current sources recorded by general acquisition geometries are calculated with a 3D finite-difference algorithm. These exhibit greater variability which may allow inference of bed thickness. We also examine composite responses of two point scatterers with separation when illuminated by an incident EM field. This is analogous to the Rayleigh resolution problem of estimating angular separation between two light sources. The First Born Approximation implies that perturbations in permittivity, permeability, and conductivity have different scattering patterns, which may be indicators of EM medium properties. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Identification of local phase of nanoscale BaTiO₃ powders by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sun-Min; Wang, Xiaohui; Cho, Nam-Hee

    2013-08-01

    The electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) technique was applied to investigate the local variation in the phase of barium titanate (BaTiO₃) ceramics. It was found that the fine structure of the titanium L₂,₃ edge and their satellite peaks were sensitively varied with the tetragonal-cubic phase transition. The peak splitting of Ti-L₃ edge of tetragonal-phased BaTiO₃ ceramics was widened because of the increased crystal field effect compared with that of cubic-phased BaTiO₃. In case of nanoscale BaTiO₃ powders, the L₃ edge splitting of the core region was found to be smaller than that of the shell region. The energy gap between peaks t₂g and eg varied from 2.36 to 1.94 eV with changing the probe position from 1 to 20 nm from the surface. These results suggest that the EELS technique can be used to identify the local phase of sintered BaTiO₃ ceramics.

  14. Actual evapotranspiration (water use) assessment of the Colorado River Basin at the Landsat resolution using the operational simplified surface energy balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Russell L, Scott; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Accurately estimating consumptive water use in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) is important for assessing and managing limited water resources in the basin. Increasing water demand from various sectors may threaten long-term sustainability of the water supply in the arid southwestern United States. We have developed a first-ever basin-wide actual evapotranspiration (ETa) map of the CRB at the Landsat scale for water use assessment at the field level. We used the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for estimating ETa using 328 cloud-free Landsat images acquired during 2010. Our results show that cropland had the highest ETa among all land cover classes except for water. Validation using eddy covariance measured ETa showed that the SSEBop model nicely captured the variability in annual ETa with an overall R2 of 0.78 and a mean bias error of about 10%. Comparison with water balance-based ETa showed good agreement (R2 = 0.85) at the sub-basin level. Though there was good correlation (R2 = 0.79) between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based ETa (1 km spatial resolution) and Landsat-based ETa (30 m spatial resolution), the spatial distribution of MODIS-based ETa was not suitable for water use assessment at the field level. In contrast, Landsat-based ETa has good potential to be used at the field level for water management. With further validation using multiple years and sites, our methodology can be applied for regular production of ETa maps of larger areas such as the conterminous United States.

  15. The structure of SrTiO3(001)-2 × 1 surface analyzed by high-resolution medium energy ion scattering coupled with ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Taishi; Yoshida, Yuki; Mitsuhara, Kei; Kido, Yoshiaki

    2013-06-01

    High-resolution medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) spectrometry coupled with photoelectron spectroscopy revealed unambiguously that the initial SrTiO3(001) surface chemically etched in a buffered NH4F-HF solution was perfectly terminated with a single-layer (SL) of TiO2(001) and annealing the surface at 600-800 °C in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) led to a (2 × 1)-reconstructed surface terminated with a double-layer (DL) of TiO2(001). After annealing in UHV, rock-salt SrO(001) clusters with two atomic layer height grew epitaxially on the DL-TiO2(001)-2 × 1 surface with a coverage of 20%-30%. High-resolution MEIS in connection with ab initio calculations demonstrated the structure of the DL-TiO2(001)-2 × 1 surface close to that proposed by Erdman et al. [Nature (London) 419, 55 (2002)], 10.1038/nature01010 rather than that predicted by Herger et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 076102 (2007)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.076102. Based on the MEIS analysis combined with the ab initio calculations, we propose the most probable (2 × 1) surface structure.

  16. High resolution respirometry analysis of polyethylenimine-mediated mitochondrial energy crisis and cellular stress: Mitochondrial proton leak and inhibition of the electron transport system.

    PubMed

    Hall, Arnaldur; Larsen, Anna K; Parhamifar, Ladan; Meyle, Kathrine D; Wu, Lin-Ping; Moghimi, S Moein

    2013-10-01

    Polyethylenimines (PEIs) are highly efficient non-viral transfectants, but can induce cell death through poorly understood necrotic and apoptotic processes as well as autophagy. Through high resolution respirometry studies in H1299 cells we demonstrate that the 25kDa branched polyethylenimine (25k-PEI-B), in a concentration and time-dependent manner, facilitates mitochondrial proton leak and inhibits the electron transport system. These events were associated with gradual reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. The intracellular ATP levels further declined as a consequence of PEI-mediated plasma membrane damage and subsequent ATP leakage to the extracellular medium. Studies with freshly isolated mouse liver mitochondria corroborated with bioenergetic findings and demonstrated parallel polycation concentration- and time-dependent changes in state 2 and state 4o oxygen flux as well as lowered ADP phosphorylation (state 3) and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Polycation-mediated reduction of electron transport system activity was further demonstrated in 'broken mitochondria' (freeze-thawed mitochondrial preparations). Moreover, by using both high-resolution respirometry and spectrophotometry analysis of cytochrome c oxidase activity we were able to identify complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) as a likely specific site of PEI mediated inhibition within the electron transport system. Unraveling the mechanisms of PEI-mediated mitochondrial energy crisis is central for combinatorial design of safer polymeric non-viral gene delivery systems.

  17. Two bonding configurations of acetylene on Si(001)-(2 x 1): a combined high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy and density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Mineva, T; Nathaniel, R; Kostov, K L; Widdra, W

    2006-11-21

    Two coexisting adsorption states of molecularly adsorbed acetylene on the Si(001)-(2 x 1) surface have been identified by a combined study based on the high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy and density functional computations. Seven possible adsorbate-substrate structures are considered theoretically including their full vibrational analysis. Based on a significantly enhanced experimental resolution, the assignment of 15 C2H2- and C2D2-derived vibrational modes identifies a dominant di-sigma bonded molecule adsorbed on top of a single Si-Si dimer. Additionally there is clear evidence for a second minority species which is di-sigma bonded between two Si-Si dimers within the same dimer row (end-bridge geometry). The possible symmetries of the adsorbate complexes are discussed based on the specular and off-specular vibrational measurements. They suggest lower than ideal C(2v) and C(s) symmetries for on-top and end-bridge species, respectively. At low coverages the symmetry reductions might be lifted.

  18. Estimation of surface energy balance from radiant surface temperature and NOAA AVHRR sensor reflectances over agricultural and native vegetation. [AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer)

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Xinmei; Lyons, T.J. ); Smith, R.C.G. ); Hacker, J.M.; Schwerdtfeger, P. )

    1993-08-01

    A model is developed to evaluate surface heat flux densities using the radiant surface temperature and red and near-infrared reflectances from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor. Net radiation is calculated from an empirical formulation and albedo estimated from satellite observations. Infrared surface temperature is corrected to aerodynamic surface temperature in estimating the sensible heat flux and the latent flux is evaluated as the residual of the surface energy balance. When applied to relatively homogeneous agricultural and native vegetation, the model yields realistic estimates of sensible and latent heat flux density in the surface layer for cases where either the sensible or latent flux dominates. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. High-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy and photoelectron-diffraction studies of the geometric structure of adsorbates on single-crystal metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1982-11-01

    Two techniques which have made important contributions to the understanding of surface phenomena are high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and photoelectron diffraction (PD). EELS is capable of directly measuring the vibrational modes of clean and adsorbate covered metal surfaces. In this work, the design, construction, and performance of a new EELS spectrometer are described. These results are discussed in terms of possible structures of the O-Cu(001) system. Recommendations for improvements in this EELS spectrometer and guidelines for future spectrometers are given. PD experiments provide accurate quantitative information about the geometry of atoms and molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. The technique has advantages when used to study disordered overlayers, molecular overlayers, multiple site systems, and adsorbates which are weak electron scatterers. Four experiments were carried out which exploit these advantages.

  20. The role of symmetry in the theory of inelastic high-energy electron scattering and its application to atomic-resolution core-loss imaging.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, C

    2015-04-01

    The inelastic scattering of a high-energy electron in a solid constitutes a bipartite quantum system with an intrinsically large number of excitations, posing a considerable challenge for theorists. It is demonstrated how and why the utilization of symmetries, or approximate symmetries, can lead to significant improvements in both the description of the scattering physics and the efficiency of numerical computations. These ideas are explored thoroughly for the case of core-loss excitations, where it is shown that the coupled angular momentum basis leads to dramatic improvements over the bases employed in previous work. The resulting gains in efficiency are demonstrated explicitly for K-, L- and M-shell excitations, including such excitations in the context of atomic-resolution imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope. The utilization of other symmetries is also discussed.

  1. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  2. Metaldyne. Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Effciency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Sigificant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  3. High-resolution mapping of the energy conversion efficiency of solar cells and silicon photodiodes in photovoltaic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cemine, Vernon Julius; Sarmiento, Raymund; Blanca, Carlo Mar

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate an optical technique to derive the two-dimensional energy conversion efficiency ( ηCE), fill factor (FF) and external quantum efficiency ( ηQE) distributions across the surface of photovoltaic devices. A compact, inexpensive optical-feedback laser diode microscope is constructed to acquire the confocal reflectance and efficiency maps enabling the observation of the local parametric behavior in silicon photodiodes in photovoltaic mode and single-junction solar cells. The ηCE and ηQE distributions are greatly influenced by local parasitic resistances that depend on laser irradiance. These parasitic resistances decrease the ηCE and ηQE values with distance from the contact electrode at high laser irradiance. The optical technique enables microscopic comparison of ηCE and ηQE within the pn-overlay region of the photodiode sample, revealing its optimization for photodetection rather than power generation. The technique also elucidates the decreasing local ηCE of the solar cell under intense irradiation.

  4. Spin-Orbit Coupling and Potential Energy Functions of Ar2(+) and Kr2(+) by High-Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy and ab Initio Quantum Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mastalerz, R; Zehnder, O; Reiher, M; Merkt, F

    2012-10-09

    The dependence of the spin-orbit-coupling constant of the six low-lying electronic states of Ar2(+) and Kr2(+) on the internuclear distance R has been calculated ab initio. The spin-orbit-coupling constant varies by about 10% over the range of internuclear distances relevant for the interpretation of the high-resolution photoelectron spectra of Ar2 and Kr2 and can be accurately represented by a Morse-type function for the states of ungerade electronic symmetry and by an exponentially decreasing function for the states of gerade symmetry. The spin-orbit-coupling constant is larger than the asymptotic value (at R → ∞) for the gerade states and smaller for the ungerade states. The calculated R-dependent spin-orbit-coupling constants were used to derive a new set of potential energy functions for the low-lying electronic states of Ar2(+) and Kr2(+) and to quantify the errors resulting from the widely used approach consisting of approximating the spin-orbit-coupling constant by its asymptotic value. The effects of the R dependence on the potential energy functions of the six low-lying electronic states of the homonuclear rare-gas dimer ions are found to be very small for Ar2(+) (and by inference also for Ne2(+)) but significant for Kr2(+). The shifts arising in calculations of the potential energy functions from a neglect of the R dependence of the spin-orbit-coupling constant are the result of the interplay between the differences between the binding energies of the relevant (2)Π and (2)Σ(+) states, the magnitude of the spin-orbit-coupling constant, and the magnitude and sign of the deviations between the R-dependent spin-orbit-coupling constant and its asymptotic value at large internuclear distances.

  5. Building Eco-Informatics: Examining the Dynamics of Eco-Feedback Design and Peer Networks to Achieve Sustainable Reductions in Energy Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Rishee K.

    2013-01-01

    The built environment accounts for a substantial portion of energy consumption in the United States and in many parts of the world. Due to concerns over rising energy costs and climate change, researchers and practitioners have started exploring the area of eco-informatics to link information from the human, natural and built environments.…

  6. High spatial resolution, high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction characterization of residual strains and stresses in laser shock peened Inconel 718SPF alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Amrinder S.; Zhou, Zhong; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jonathan; Lahrman, David F.; Mannava, S. R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Laser shock peening (LSP) is an advanced surface enhancement technique used to enhance the fatigue strength of metal parts by imparting deep compressive residual stresses. In the present study, LSP was performed on IN718 SPF alloy, a fine grained nickel-based superalloy, with three different power densities and depth resolved residual strain and stress characterization was conducted using high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction in beam line 1-ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source at the Argonne National laboratory. A fine probe size and conical slits were used to non-destructively obtain data from specific gauge volumes in the samples, allowing for high-resolution strain measurements. The results show that LSP introduces deep compressive residual stresses and the magnitude and depth of these stresses depend on the energy density of the laser. The LSP induced residual stresses were also simulated using three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis, with employment of the Johnson-Cook model for describing the nonlinear materials constitutive behavior. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated data was obtained. These various results are presented and discussed.

  7. Lipidomics profiling by high-resolution LC-MS and high-energy collisional dissociation fragmentation: focus on characterization of mitochondrial cardiolipins and monolysocardiolipins.

    PubMed

    Bird, Susan S; Marur, Vasant R; Sniatynski, Matthew J; Greenberg, Heather K; Kristal, Bruce S

    2011-02-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was used for separation of lipid classes as well as both qualitative and semiquantitative detection of individual lipids in biological samples. Data were acquired using high-resolution full-scan MS and high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) all ion fragmentation. The method was evaluated for efficient separation and detection in both positive and negative ionization mode using standards spanning six lipid classes. Platform linearity and robustness, related to the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin (CL), were assessed using extracted ion chromatograms with mass tolerance windows of 5 ppm or less from full scan exact mass measurements. The platform CL limit of detection was determined to be 5 pmol (0.9 μM) on the column, with mass accuracy <1.5 ppm, retention time coefficients of variation (CV) < 0.5%, and area CV < 13%. This mass accuracy was critical to the identification of unknown CL species in mitochondria samples, through the elimination of false positives. In addition to detection and relative quantitation of CL species in mitochondria, CL structures were characterized through the use of alternating HCD scans at different energies to produce diagnostic fragmentations on all ions in the analysis. The developed lipid profiling method was applied to mitochondrial samples from an animal study related to the linkages between diet, mitochondrial function, and disease. The analysis identified 28 unique CL species and two monolysocardiolipin species that are often associated with mitochondrial stress and dysfunction.

  8. Enhancement of energy spectra through constant fraction timing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermis, Elif Ebru; Celiktas, Cuneyt

    2017-02-01

    The energy spectra of 137Cs, 60Co and 14C were achieved by using the spectrometers composed of different types of detectors. In this work, constant fraction timing method was used to enhance their energy spectra. Energy resolution values of 137Cs and 60Co gamma energy spectra were improved through this timing method. In addition, electronic noise appeared in the energy spectrum of 14C was discriminated through the timing method, leading to clear beta energy spectrum.

  9. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  10. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  11. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products, and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.

  12. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; ...

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products,more » and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.« less

  13. Monomeric C-phycocyanin at room temperature and 77 K. Resolution of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the individual chromophores and the energy-transfer rate constants

    SciTech Connect

    Debreczeny, M.P.; Sauer, K. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA ); Zhou, J.; Bryant, D.A. )

    1993-09-23

    At both room temperature (RT) and 77 K, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the three individual chromophore types ([alpha][sub 84], [beta][sub 84], and [beta][sub 155]) found in monomeric C-phycocyanin ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]), isolated from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, were resolved along with the rates of energy transfer between the chromophores. The cpcB/C155S mutant, whose PC is missing the [beta][sub 155] chromophore, was useful in effecting this resolution. At RT, the single broad peak in the visible region of the absorption spectrum of ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]) was resolved into its three-component spectra by comparing the steady-state absorption spectra of the isolated wild-type [alpha] subunit of PC ([alpha][sup PC]) (containing only the [alpha][sub 84] chromophore) with those of the monomeric PCs isolated from the mutant strain ([alpha][sup PC][beta]*) and the wild-type strain ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]). At 77 K, the visible region of the absorption spectrum of ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]) splits into two peaks. This partial resolution at 77 K of the chromophore spectra of ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]) when compared with the 77 K absorption spectra of [alpha][sup PC], [beta][sup PC], and ([alpha][sup PC][beta]*) provided a confirmation of our RT assignments of the chromophore absorption spectra. 38 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. High-resolution calcium mapping of the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi-exocytic membrane system. Electron energy loss imaging analysis of quick frozen-freeze dried PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Pezzati, R; Bossi, M; Podini, P; Meldolesi, J; Grohovaz, F

    1997-08-01

    The calcium pools segregated within the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, exocytic, and other organelles are believed to participate in the regulation of a variety of cell functions. Until now, however, the precise intracellular distribution of the element had not been established. Here, we report about the first high-resolution calcium mapping obtained in neurosecretory PC12 cells by the imaging mode of the electron energy loss spectroscopy technique. The preparation procedure used included quick freezing of cell monolayers, followed by freeze-drying, fixation with OSO4 vapors, resin embedding, and cutting of very thin sections. Conventional electron microscopy and high-resolution immunocytochemistry revealed a high degree of structural preservation, a condition in which inorganic elements are expected to maintain their native distribution. Within these cells, calcium signals of nucleus, cytosol, and most mitochondria remained below detection, whereas in other organelles specific patterns were identified. In the endoplasmic reticulum, the distribution was heterogeneous with strongly positive cisternae (more often the nuclear envelope and stacks of parallel elements that are frequent in quick frozen preparations) lying in the proximity of or even in direct continuity with other, apparently negative cisternae. The Golgi complexes were labeled strongly and uniformly in all cisternae and part of their vesicles, with no appreciable differences along the cis-trans axis. Weaker or negative signals were recorded from the trans-Golgi network elements and from scattered vesicles, whereas in contrast secretion granules were strongly positive for calcium. These results are discussed in relation to the existing knowledge about the mechanisms of calcium transport in the variations organelles, and about the processes and functions regulated by organelle lumenal calcium in eukaryotic cells.

  15. Validating the WRF-Chem model for wind energy applications using High Resolution Doppler Lidar data from a Utah 2012 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, M. J.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Models are important tools for assessing potential of wind energy sites, but the accuracy of these projections has not been properly validated. In this study, High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) data obtained with high temporal and spatial resolution at heights of modern turbine rotors were compared to output from the WRF-chem model in order to help improve the performance of the model in producing accurate wind forecasts for the industry. HRDL data were collected from January 23-March 1, 2012 during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) field campaign. A model validation method was based on the qualitative comparison of the wind field images, time-series analysis and statistical analysis of the observed and modeled wind speed and direction, both for case studies and for the whole experiment. To compare the WRF-chem model output to the HRDL observations, the model heights and forecast times were interpolated to match the observed times and heights. Then, time-height cross-sections of the HRDL and WRF-Chem wind speed and directions were plotted to select case studies. Cross-sections of the differences between the observed and forecasted wind speed and directions were also plotted to visually analyze the model performance in different wind flow conditions. A statistical analysis includes the calculation of vertical profiles and time series of bias, correlation coefficient, root mean squared error, and coefficient of determination between two datasets. The results from this analysis reveals where and when the model typically struggles in forecasting winds at heights of modern turbine rotors so that in the future the model can be improved for the industry.

  16. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate. Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  17. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit – in a humid, temperate climate – lessons from the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, Cindy; Harding, Ari; Robinson, Alastair

    2015-07-01

    The University of Hawai’i at Mānoa (UHM) partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Hawai`i Clean Energy Initiative to develop and implement solutions to retrofit exiting buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program1. Kuykendall Hall, located on the UHM campus in Honolulu, was the focus of a CBP analysis and design collaboration among the University of Hawai’i, their consultants, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Kuykendall Hall consists of two 1960s-era wings – a four-story wing containing classrooms, and a seven-story tower containing offices – with a total floor area of approximately 76,000 square feet (ft²).

  18. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate: Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.; Sherwin, J.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  19. Study of M1 and E1 excitations by high-resolution proton inelastic scattering measurement at forward angles

    SciTech Connect

    Tamii, A.; Adachi, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kaneda, T.; Matsubara, H.; Okamura, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Carter, J.; Dozono, M.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Itoh, M.; Kawabata, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Sasamoto, Y.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von

    2007-06-13

    Experimental technique for measuring proton inelastic scattering with high-resolution at 295 MeV and at forward angles including zero degrees is described. The method is useful for extracting spin part of the M1 strength via nuclear excitation as well as E1 strength via Coulomb excitation. An excitation energy resolution of 20 keV, good scattering angle resolution, and low background condition have been achieved. The experimental technique was applied for several sd and pf shell nuclei.

  20. A Flexible and Wearable Lithium-Oxygen Battery with Record Energy Density achieved by the Interlaced Architecture inspired by Bamboo Slips.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Chao; Liu, Tong; Liu, Da-Peng; Li, Zhong-Jun; Zhang, Xin-Bo; Zhang, Yu

    2016-10-01

    A flexible and wearable lithium-oxygen (air) battery inspired by Chinese bamboo slips is constructed. In this novel battery, cathodes and anodes are woven without an air diffusion layer and any outer packaging; besides, the woven structure allows oxygen to access the cathodes from both sides freely, endowing the battery with a record energy density of over 523 W h kg(-1) .

  1. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  2. High-resolution beamline 9.3.2 in the energy range 30-1500 eV at the advanced light source: Design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Z.; Heimann, P.A.; McKinney, W.

    1995-12-01

    Bending magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) was designed for high resolution spectroscopy with capability for delivering circularly polarized light in the soft X-ray energy region using three gratings. The monochromator is a fixed included angle spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and was originally used at SSRL as a prototype for later insertion device based monochromators for the ALS, For operation at the ALS, the toroidal pre-mirror used at SSRL was replaced by a horizontally focusing and a vertically focusing mirrors in the Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration. Circularly polarized radiation is obtained by inserting a water-cooled movable aperture in front of the vertically focusing mirror to allow selecting the beam either above or below the horizontal plane. To maintain a stable beam intensity through the entrance slit, the photocurrent signals from the upper and lower jaws of the entrance slit are utilized to set a feedback loop with the vertically deflecting mirror piezoelectric drive. The beamline end station has a movable platform that accommodates two experimental chambers enabling the synchrotron radiation to be directed to either one of the two experimental chambers without breaking the vacuum.

  3. The chemical sensitivity of X-ray spectroscopy: high energy resolution XANES versus X-ray emission spectroscopy of substituted ferrocenes.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Andrew J; Bauer, Matthias; Jacob, Christoph R

    2013-06-07

    X-ray spectroscopy at the metal K-edge is an important tool for understanding catalytic processes and provides insight into the geometric and electronic structures of transition metal complexes. In particular, X-ray emission-based methods such as high-energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD), X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (V2C-XES) hold the promise of providing increased chemical sensitivity compared to conventional X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Here, we explore the ability of HERFD-XANES and V2C-XES spectroscopy to distinguish substitutions beyond the directly coordinated atoms for the example of ferrocene and selected ferrocene derivatives. The experimental spectra are assigned and interpreted through the use of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that while the pre-edge peaks in the HERFD-XANES spectra are affected by substituents at the cyclopentadienyl ring containing π-bonds [A. J. Atkins, Ch. R. Jacob and M. Bauer, Chem.-Eur. J., 2012, 18, 7021], the V2C-XES spectra are virtually unchanged. The pre-edge in HERFD-XANES probes the weak transition to unoccupied metal d-orbitals, while the V2C-XES spectra are determined by dipole-allowed transitions from occupied ligand orbitals to the 1s core hole. The latter turn out to be less sensitive to changes beyond the first coordination shell.

  4. Hydrogen bonding configuration and thermal stability of ambient exposed and in situ hydrogenated polycrystalline diamond surfaces studied by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Sh; Akhvlediani, R; Hoffman, A

    2011-06-28

    In this work we report on an investigation of hydrogen bonding and thermal stability on the surface of poly-crystalline diamond by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HR-EELS). Diamond films were grown on silicon substrates from CH(4)/H(2) as well as from CD(4)/D(2) gas mixtures by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD). The impact of ex situ ambient exposure on hydrogen bonding and its thermal stability was examined for: (i) as deposited films from a CH(4)/H(2) gas mixture; (ii) the same sample treated ex situ in micro-wave activated hydrogen plasma; and (iii) as deposited films from a CD(4)/D(2) gas mixture. In order to clarify the changes in the hydrogen bonding configuration detected on the different surfaces as a function of thermal annealing in situ hydrogenation by thermally activated atomic hydrogen was performed and examined. This study provides direct evidence that the exposure to ambient conditions and low temperature vacuum annealing have a pronounced effect on the hydrogen-carbon bonding configuration onto the poly-crystalline diamond surfaces.

  5. High energy-resolution measurement of the 82Se(3He,t )82Br reaction for double-β decay and for solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frekers, D.; Alanssari, M.; Adachi, T.; Cleveland, B. T.; Dozono, M.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Holl, M.; Ishikawa, D.; Matsubara, H.; Okamura, H.; Puppe, P.; Suda, K.; Tamii, A.; Thies, J.; Yoshida, H. P.

    2016-07-01

    A high-resolution (3He,t ) charge-exchange experiment at an incident energy of 420 MeV has been performed on the double beta (β β ) decay nucleus 82Se. A detailed Gamow-Teller (GT-) strength distribution in 82Br has been extracted, which provides information to the β β -decay nuclear matrix elements. Three strong and isolated transitions, which are to the 75, 1484 and the 2087 keV states in 82Br, are found to dominate the low-excitation region below ≈2.1 MeV. Above 2.1 MeV a sudden onset of a strong GT fragmentation is observed. The degree of fragmentation resembles a situation found in the neighboring A =76 system 76Ge, whereas the observed concentration of strength in the three low-lying states is reminiscent of the heavier neighbors 96Zr and 100Mo. The strong GT transition to the 75 keV ( 1+) state makes 82Se interesting for solar neutrino detection. The 82Se(νe,e-)82Br solar neutrino capture rate in a nonoscillation scenario is therefore evaluated to 668 ±12 (stat)±60 (sys) SNU, and some of the advantages of using selenium for solar neutrino studies are discussed.

  6. Direct band gap measurement of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films using high-resolution reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Sung; Lee, Hyung-Ik; Park, Jong-Bong; Ko, Dong-Su; Chung, JaeGwan; Kim, KiHong; Kim, Seong Heon; Yun, Dong-Jin; Ham, YongNam; Park, Gyeong Su; Song, Taewon; Lee, Dongho Nam, Junggyu; Kang, Hee Jae; Choi, Pyung-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Deog

    2015-06-29

    To investigate the band gap profile of Cu(In{sub 1−x},Ga{sub x})(Se{sub 1−y}S{sub y}){sub 2} of various compositions, we measured the band gap profile directly as a function of in-depth using high-resolution reflection energy loss spectroscopy (HR-REELS), which was compared with the band gap profile calculated based on the auger depth profile. The band gap profile is a double-graded band gap as a function of in-depth. The calculated band gap obtained from the auger depth profile seems to be larger than that by HR-REELS. Calculated band gaps are to measure the average band gap of the spatially different varying compositions with respect to considering its void fraction. But, the results obtained using HR-REELS are to be affected by the low band gap (i.e., out of void) rather than large one (i.e., near void). Our findings suggest an analytical method to directly determine the band gap profile as function of in-depth.

  7. Probing optical band gaps at the nanoscale in NiFe₂O₄ and CoFe₂O₄ epitaxial films by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dileep, K.; Loukya, B.; Datta, R.; Pachauri, N.; Gupta, A.

    2014-09-14

    Nanoscale optical band gap variations in epitaxial thin films of two different spinel ferrites, i.e., NiFe₂O₄ (NFO) and CoFe₂O₄ (CFO), have been investigated by spatially resolved high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Experimentally, both NFO and CFO show indirect/direct band gaps around 1.52 eV/2.74 and 2.3 eV, and 1.3 eV/2.31 eV, respectively, for the ideal inverse spinel configuration with considerable standard deviation in the band gap values for CFO due to various levels of deviation from the ideal inverse spinel structure. Direct probing of the regions in both the systems with tetrahedral A site cation vacancy, which is distinct from the ideal inverse spinel configuration, shows significantly smaller band gap values. The experimental results are supported by the density functional theory based modified Becke-Johnson exchange correlation potential calculated band gap values for the different cation configurations.

  8. High resolution drift chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 ..mu..m resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. High-performance n-type organic semiconductors: incorporating specific electron-withdrawing motifs to achieve tight molecular stacking and optimized energy levels.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun Woo; Kim, Jong H; Shin, Seunghoon; Yang, Hoichang; An, Byeong-Kwan; Yang, Lin; Park, Soo Young

    2012-02-14

    Novel π–conjugated cyanostilbene-based semiconductors (Hex-3,5-TFPTA and Hex-4-TFPTA) with tight molecular stacking and optimized energy levels are synthesized. Hex-4-TFPTA exhibits high-performance n-type organic field-effect transistor (OFET) properties with electron mobilities as high as 2.14 cm2 V−1s−1 and on-off current ratios

  10. The Dynamic Range of Ultra-High Resolution Cryogenic Gamma-ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S; Terracol, S F; Drury, O B; Friedrich, S

    2005-08-10

    We are developing high-resolution cryogenic gamma-ray spectrometers for nuclear science and non-proliferation applications. The gamma-ray detectors are composed of a bulk superconducting Sn foil absorber attached to multilayer Mo/Cu transition-edge sensors (TES). The energy resolution achieved with a 1 x 1 x 0.25 mm{sup 3} Sn absorber is 50 -90eV for {gamma}-rays up to 100 keV and it decreases for large absorber sizes. We discuss the trade-offs between energy resolution and dynamic range, as well as development of TES arrays for higher count rates and better sensitivity.

  11. Development of multilayer laminar-type diffraction gratings to achieve high diffraction efficiencies in the 1-8 keV energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishino, Masahiko; Heimann, Philip A.; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Hatayama, Masatoshi; Takenaka, Hisataka; Sano, Kazuo; Gullikson, Eric M.; Koike, Masato

    2006-09-01

    W/C and Co/SiO2 multilayer gratings have been fabricated by depositing a multilayer coating on the surface of laminar-type holographic master gratings. The diffraction efficiency was measured by reflectometers in the energy region of 0.6-8.0 keV at synchrotron radiation facilities as well as with an x-ray diffractometer at 8.05 keV. The Co/SiO2 and W/C multilayer gratings showed peak diffraction efficiencies of 0.47 and 0.38 at 6.0 and 8.0 keV, respectively. To our knowledge, the peak efficiency of the W/C multilayer grating is the highest measured with hard x rays. The diffraction efficiency of the Co/SiO2 multilayer gratings was higher than that of the W/C multilayer grating in the energy range of 2.5-6.0 keV. However, it decreased significantly in the energy above the K absorption edge of Co (7.71 keV). For the Co/SiO2 multilayer grating, the measured diffraction efficiencies agreed with the calculated curves assuming a rms roughness of ˜1 nm.

  12. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-03-06

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.

  13. Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...procurement or storage of standard, common use fuels. NATURAL GAS Natural gas, abundant globally and domestically, offers energy versatility among

  14. High-energy resolution X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy reveals insight into unique selectivity of La-based nanoparticles for CO2

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Ofer; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Luo, Li; Süess, Martin J.; Glatzel, Pieter; Koziej, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The lanthanum-based materials, due to their layered structure and f-electron configuration, are relevant for electrochemical application. Particularly, La2O2CO3 shows a prominent chemoresistive response to CO2. However, surprisingly less is known about its atomic and electronic structure and electrochemically significant sites and therefore, its structure–functions relationships have yet to be established. Here we determine the position of the different constituents within the unit cell of monoclinic La2O2CO3 and use this information to interpret in situ high-energy resolution fluorescence-detected (HERFD) X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (vtc XES). Compared with La(OH)3 or previously known hexagonal La2O2CO3 structures, La in the monoclinic unit cell has a much lower number of neighboring oxygen atoms, which is manifested in the whiteline broadening in XANES spectra. Such a superior sensitivity to subtle changes is given by HERFD method, which is essential for in situ studying of the interaction with CO2. Here, we study La2O2CO3-based sensors in real operando conditions at 250 °C in the presence of oxygen and water vapors. We identify that the distribution of unoccupied La d-states and occupied O p- and La d-states changes during CO2 chemoresistive sensing of La2O2CO3. The correlation between these spectroscopic findings with electrical resistance measurements leads to a more comprehensive understanding of the selective adsorption at La site and may enable the design of new materials for CO2 electrochemical applications. PMID:26668362

  15. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  16. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  17. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 A ring TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron registered accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  18. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL) resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern. PMID:21749679

  19. Strontium complexation in aqueous solutions and silicate glasses: Insights from high energy-resolution fluorescence detection X-ray spectroscopy and ab-initio modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, Manuela; Wilke, Max; Schmidt, Christian; Kvashnina, Kristina; Jahn, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    Although fluid-melt partitioning of trace elements like Sr, Ba, La, and Y is known to be strongly influenced by the fluid and melt chemical composition, their speciation in silicate-saturated fluids is studied insufficiently at high temperatures and pressures. Here, high energy-resolution fluorescence detection-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (HERFD-XAS) has been applied to investigate the local environment of strontium in crystalline model compounds, silicate glasses, and aqueous solutions. Acquisition of Sr K-edge HERFD-XAS spectra of aqueous solutions of SrCl2 and Sr(OH)2, and three aqueous fluids with dissolved silicate components was done in situ at temperatures to 780 °C and pressures to ∼800 MPa using hydrothermal diamond-anvil cells. Experiments were complemented by theoretical spectroscopy calculations using the finite difference method near edge structure (FDMNES) code. This approach was validated for a number of crystalline model compounds. For the silicate glasses and aqueous solutions (SrCl2 and Sr(OH)2), small clusters were examined. Either symmetric or distorted SrO6 clusters were found to describe Sr complexation in peraluminous or peralkaline glasses. However, small ‘static’ clusters seem not to be fully suited to account for the dynamically changing atomic arrangements in aqueous solutions at high temperature. Therefore, ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed and used as input for modeling of X-ray absorption spectra. Analyses of these simulations indicated [SrCl(H2O)6]+ and Sr(OH)2(H2O)4 as the most likely complexes in the chloride and hydroxide solutions, respectively. Analysis of the spectra of the silicate-rich fluids shows that both melt and fluid composition strongly influence Sr complexation. For the silicate-rich fluids, formation of Sr-Cl complexes occurs at low (Na + K)/Cl and (Si + Al)/(Na + K) ratios in the fluid, whereas Sr hydroxide and possibly silicate complexes (similar to those in the silicate glass) are

  20. Development of a high resolution alpha spectrometer using a magnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, W. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, S. R.; Kim, G. B.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, J. H.; So, J. H.; Kim, Y. H.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a high resolution alpha spectrometer with a magnetic calorimeter. The operating principle of the detector is the calorimetric measurement of the temperature increase from particle absorption in a gold foil absorber at milli-Kelvin temperatures. A magnetic calorimeter made of gold doped with erbium on a superconducting meander pickup coil was used to accurately measure the temperature change, thereby acting as an ultra-sensitive thermometer. The detector demonstrated 1.2 keV FWHM equivalent resolution in alpha particle detection with an 241Am source. Many peaks were observed in the low-energy region from the absorption of low-energy X-rays, gamma rays, and conversion electrons. An energy resolution of 400 eV FWHM was achieved for 60 keV gamma rays that were measured with the alpha particles. Possible applications of such high resolution detectors are discussed.

  1. Evidence for anisotropic dielectric properties of monoclinic hafnia using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedj, C.; Hung, L.; Zobelli, A.; Blaise, P.; Sottile, F.; Olevano, V.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of nanocrystal orientation on the energy loss spectra of monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO2) is measured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and valence energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) on high quality samples. For the same momentum-transfer directions, the dielectric properties are also calculated ab initio by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). Experiments and simulations evidence anisotropy in the dielectric properties of m-HfO2, most notably with the direction-dependent oscillator strength of the main bulk plasmon. The anisotropic nature of m-HfO2 may contribute to the differences among VEELS spectra reported in literature. The good agreement between the complex dielectric permittivity extracted from VEELS with nanometer spatial resolution, TDDFT modeling, and past literature demonstrates that the present HRTEM-VEELS device-oriented methodology is a possible solution to the difficult nanocharacterization challenges given in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.

  2. Conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2006-03-01

    The sooner conflict is identified and confronted, the more quickly it can be resolved (and the sooner, the better). When this is accomplished calmly and objectively, many areas of conflict will be eliminated. Addressing conflict as it arises also sends a clear message to the team that the practice seeks resolution, not punishment or negative consequences. In addition, the dentist and the office manager need to lead by example by avoiding gossip and encouraging open communication. The goal is to go from a parent-child relationship with the dental team to an adult-adult relationship using this series of managerial conflict resolution steps.

  3. Local structure and lattice dynamics study of low dimensional materials using atomic pair distribution function and high energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chenyang

    Structure and dynamics lie at the heart of the materials science. A detailed knowledge of both subjects would be foundational in understanding the materials' properties and predicting their potential applications. However, the task becomes increasingly dicult as the particle size is reduced to the nanometer scale. For nanostructured materials their laboratory x-ray scattering patterns are overlapped and broadened, making structure determination impossible. Atomic pair distribution function technique based on either synchrotron x-ray or neutron scattering data is known as the tool of choice for probing local structures. However, to solve the "structure problem" in low-dimensional materials with PDF is still challenging. For example for 2D materials of interest in this thesis the crystallographic modeling approach often yields unphysical thermal factors along stacking direction where new chemical intuitions about their actual structures and new modeling methodology/program are needed. Beyond this, lattice dynamical investigations on nanosized particles are extremely dicult. Laboratory tools such as Raman and infra-red only probe phonons at Brillouin zone center. Although in literature there are a great number of theoretical studies of their vibrational properties based on either empirical force elds or density functional theory, various approximations made in theories make the theoretical predictions less reliable. Also, there lacks the direct experiment result to validate the theory against. In this thesis, we studied the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of technologically relevant low-dimensional materials through synchrotron based x-ray PDF and high energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HERIX) techniques. By collecting PDF data and employing advanced modeling program such as DiPy-CMI, we successfully determined the atomic structures of (i) emerging Ti3C2, Nb4C3 MXenes (transition metal carbides and/or nitrides) that are promising for energy storage

  4. NCAI Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal of the Institute for the Development of Indian Law, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Five Major Policy Resolutions were adopted, without objection, at the 33rd Annual Convention of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) held in Salt Lake City, Utah, in October 1976. The issues involved were: Treaties and Trust Responsibilities, Tribal Government, Jurisdiction, Federal Administration and Structure of Indian Affairs, and…

  5. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  6. Application of an Integrated Assessment Model with state-level resolution for examining strategies for addressing air, climate and energy goals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Climate Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used for exploring future scenarios and examining strategies that address air pollution, climate change, and energy goals. GCAM includes technology-rich representations of the energy, transportati...

  7. Optimizing the Timing Resolution for the NEXT Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, A.; Shadrick, S.; Rajabali, M.; Schmitt, K.; Grzywacz, R.

    2016-09-01

    In nuclear physics studies there are very few detectors capable of measuring neutron energies in the 0.1-10 MeV energy range with a reasonable resolution. The VANDLE array is the premier detector array for these measurements, yet VANDLE is limited by the its thickness (2.9 cm minimum).The Neutron dEtector with Tracking (NEXT) array would be capable of surpassing the limitations caused by the large size of VANDLE bars. A proposed configuration of each neutron detector consists of ten 3-mm thick plastic scintillators with two or more silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) attached at each end. To achieve the desired energy resolution for neutron energy measurements through time of flight, the timing resolution between these SiPMs needs to be below 200 ps. A SiPM was placed on each end of a plastic scintillator inside a light-tight electrical box along with a 137Cs source. An analog circuit was designed in order to measure the timing difference between the two SiPMs. Different configurations of SiPM sizes, scintillator sizes, and wrappings were tested in order to determine the configuration that yields the best timing resolution. Details of the testing procedures and results will be presented. Research Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  8. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, any worker who is adversely affected by...

  9. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, any worker who is adversely affected by...

  10. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, any worker who is adversely affected by...

  11. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, any worker who is adversely affected by...

  12. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, any worker who is adversely affected by...

  13. A resolution honoring the achievements of E. Thom Rumberger.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2011-08-01

    08/01/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5196) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. A resolution honoring the lifetime achievements of E. Thom Rumberger.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2011-09-13

    09/13/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S5584-5585; text as passed Senate: CR S5585; text of measure as introduced: CR S5583) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  16. Resolution in Photovoltaic Potential Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Coors, V.; Zlatanova, S.; Oosterom, P. J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an analysis of the effect of the various types of resolution involved in photovoltaic potential computation is presented. To calculate solar energy incident on a surface, shadow from surrounding buildings has been considered. The incident energy on a surface has been calculated taking the orientation, tilt and position into consideration. Different sky visibility map has been created for direct and diffuse radiation and only the effect of resolution of the factors has been explored here. The following four resolutions are considered: 1. temporal resolution (1, 10, 60 minutes time interval for calculating visibility of sun), 2. object surface resolution (0.01, 0.1, 0.375, 0.75, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 m2 as maximum triangle size of a surface to be considered), 3. blocking obstacle resolution (number of triangles from LoD1, LoD2, or LoD3 CityGML building models), and 4. sky resolution (ranging from 150 to 600 sky-patches used to divide the sky-dome). Higher resolutions result in general in more precise estimation of the photovoltaic potential, but also the computation time is increasing, especially as realizes that this computation has to be done for every building with its object surface (both roofs and façades). This paper is the first in depth analysis ever of the effect of resolution and will help to configure the proper settings for effective photovoltaic potential computations.

  17. Comparison of luminescence, energy resolution and light loss coefficient of Gd1.53La0.47Si2O7:Ce and Lu1.9Y0.1SiO5:Ce scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yawai, Nattasuda; Wantong, Kriangkrai; Chewpraditkul, Weerapong; Murakami, Rikito; Horiai, Takahiko; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yoshikawa, Akira; Nikl, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The luminescence and scintillation properties of Gd1.53La0.47Si2O7:Ce (GPSLa23.5%:Ce) scintillators were investigated and compared to those of Lu1.9Y0.1SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce) scintillators. At 662 keV γ-rays, the light yield of 33,500±3300 ph/MeV obtained for GPSLa23.5%:Ce is higher than that of 28,100±2800 ph/MeV obtained for LYSO:Ce. The energy resolution of 4.8±0.2% obtained for GPSLa23.5%:Ce is much better than that of 8.2±0.3% obtained for LYSO:Ce due to its better intrinsic resolution and proportionality of light yield. The light yield and energy resolution for α- rays, as well as a light yield ratio under excitation with α - and γ - rays (α/γ ratio) were also determined. The intrinsic light yield and light loss coefficient under excitation with 662 keV γ-rays were evaluated. The total attenuation coefficient at 60 keV and 662 keV γ - rays was also determined and compared with the theoretical one calculated using the WinXCom program.

  18. Exploring the limiting timing resolution for large volume CZT detectors with waveform analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, L.J.; He, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study for exploring the limiting timing resolution that can be achieved with a large volume 3-D position sensitive CZT detector. The interaction timing information was obtained by fitting the measured cathode waveforms to pre-defined waveform models. We compared the results from using several different waveform models. Timing resolutions, of ~9.5 ns for 511 keV full-energy events and ~11.6 ns for all detected events with energy deposition above 250 keV, were achieved with a detailed modeling of the cathode waveform as a function of interaction location and energy deposition. This detailed modeling also allowed us to derive a theoretical lower bound for the error on estimated interaction timing. Both experimental results and theoretical predications matched well, which indicated that the best timing resolution achievable in the 1 cm3 CZT detector tested is ~10 ns. It is also showed that the correlation between sampled amplitudes in cathode waveforms is an important limiting factor for the achievable timing resolution. PMID:28260808

  19. Visualizing the local optical response to extreme-ultraviolet radiation with a resolution of λ/380

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamasaku, Kenji; Sawada, Kei; Nishibori, Eiji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2011-09-01

    Scientists have continually tried to improve the spatial resolution of imaging ever since the invention of the optical microscope in around 1610 by Galileo. Recently, a spatial resolution near λ/10 was achieved in a near-field scheme by using surface plasmon polaritons. However, further improvement in this direction is hindered by the size of metallic nanostructures. Here we show that atom-scale resolution is achievable in the extreme-ultraviolet region by using X-ray parametric down-conversion, which detaches the achievable resolution from the wavelength of the probe light. We visualize three-dimensionally the local optical response of diamond at wavelengths between 103 and 206Å with a resolution as fine as 0.54Å. This corresponds to a resolution from λ/190 to λ/380, an order of magnitude better than ever achieved. Although the present study focuses on the relatively high-energy optical regions, our method could be extended into the visible region using advanced X-ray sources, and would open a new window into the optical properties of solids.

  20. High-resolution instrumentation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dydbal, Robert B.; Hurlbut, Keith H.; Mori, Tsutomu T.

    1987-03-01

    An instrumentation radar that uses a chirp waveform to achieve high-range resolution is described. High-range-resolution instrumentation radars evaluate the target response to operational waveforms used in high-performance radars and/or obtain a display of the individual target scattering mechanisms to better understand the scattering process. This particular radar was efficiently constructed from a combination of commercially available components and in-house fabricated circuitry. This instrumentation radar operates at X-band and achieves a 4.9-in-range resolution. A key feature of the radar is the combination of amplitude weighting with a high degree of waveform fidelity to achieve a very good range sidelobe performance. This range sidelobe performance is important to avoid masking lower level target returns in the range sidelobes of higher target returns.

  1. High-resolution pulsed-field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy using multi-bunch synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.; Evans, M.; Ng, C.Y.; Heimann, P.

    1997-04-01

    BL9.0.2.2 is the newly constructed experimental End Station 2 at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS). It is dedicated to the high resolution photoionization study of molecules of interest to atmospheric and combustion chemistry. This End Station is equipped with a high resolution scanning monochromator, which has been demonstrated to have a world record resolution of E/{delta}E=70,000. Taking the advantage of the high resolution ALS light, the authors have improved the energy resolution in threshold photoelectron spectroscopy (TPES) to 0.8 meV. The TPES is a popular technique for photoionization experiments at all synchrotron radiation facilities due to its high energy resolution as compared to that of traditional photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). TPES achieves higher energy resolution by preferentially detecting near zero kinetic energy photoelectrons resulting from threshold photoionization. However, the spectra obtained from the TPES technique generally are complicated by the simultaneous detection of electrons with nonzero kinetic energy, which are not fully discriminated against. On the other hand, the spectra obtained from pulsed field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy (PFI-PES) are completely free of the contamination from kinetic electrons. The PFI-PE technique basically involves the detection of the photoelectrons from field ionization of the very high-n Rydberg states, a few cm{sup {minus}1} below the ionization energy (IE), by applying a delayed pulsed electric field. Within a delay of a few microseconds, all the prompt electrons formed from direct ionization will escape from the photoionization region and will not be collected. The authors have recently overcome problems with energy resolution of an electron time-of-flight technique, and incorporated the PFI-PE technique with multi-bunch VUV synchrotron radiation.

  2. Tunneling splittings in vibronic energy levels of CD3F+ (X∼2 E) studied by high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zuyang; Sun, Wei; Wang, Jia; Mo, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    The energy levels of CD3F+ (X∼2 E) have been measured up to 1400 cm-1 above the ground vibrational state using the one-photon zero-kinetic energy photoelectron (ZEKE) spectroscopic method. The spin-vibronic energy levels have also been calculated using an ab initio diabatic model. The potential energy surfaces of CD3F+ were calculated from those of CH3F+ using a transformation of the normal coordinates. The calculations show that tunneling splittings of vibrational energy levels exist due to the three equivalent wells caused by the linear-plus-strong quadratic Jahn-Teller coupling. The splittings are smaller than those in CH3F+. The experimental spectrum was assigned based on the fundamental vibrational modes calculated at the energy minimum. The calculated spin-vibronic energy levels are in good agreement with the experimental data. The tunneling splitting pairs for the fundamental vibrations related to the CD3 rock were observed. The first adiabatic ionization energy was determined as 101 534 ± 3 cm-1 or 12.5886 ± 0.0004 eV.

  3. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  4. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  5. Impacts of High Resolution Extreme Events on U.S. Energy Demand and CO{sub 2} Emissions in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2013-06-21

    Progress is reported in these areas: Validation of temperature and precipitation extremes; Time of emergence of severe heat stress in the United States; Quantifying the effects of temperature extremes on energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions.

  6. A Spitzer IRS Low-Resolution Spectroscopic Search for Buried AGNs in Nearby Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: A Constraint on Geometry Between Energy Sources and Dust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    luminosity function (Soifer et al. 1987 ). The impor- tance of the ULIRG population i.e., the comoving infra