Science.gov

Sample records for achieved hbeag seroconversion

  1. HBcrAg Identifies Patients Failing to Achieve HBeAg Seroconversion Treated with Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hui; Yang, Rui-Feng; Li, Xiao-He; Jin, Qian; Wei, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of serum hepatitis B virus core-related antigens (HBcrAg) for predicting hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients treated with conventional interferon (IFN) alfa-2b or pegylated IFN. Methods: Fifty-eight patients were enrolled: 29 for the training group and 29 for the validating group. HBcrAg was measured at baseline, week 12, end of the treatment, and 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Sixteen patients in the training group were enrolled in the long-term follow-up (LTFU), during which time the dynamics of the HBcrAg was monitored. Results: The serum HBcrAg level gradually declined during treatment among the HBeAg seroconversion patients of the training group (from baseline, week 12, end of the treatment, 12-week follow-up to 24-week follow-up were 110,245 kU/ml, 3760 kU/ml, 7410 kU/ml, 715 kU/ml, 200 kU/ml, respectively). HBcrAg <19,565 kU/ml at week 24, HBcrAg <34,225 kU/ml at 12-week follow-up, and HBcrAg decrease ≥0.565 log10 kU/ml from the baseline to the end of treatment (EOT) had negative predictive values (NPVs) of 100% for HBeAg seroconversion at the end of follow-up, whereas the positive predictive values (PPVs) were 30.77%, 26.67%, and 25.00%, respectively. The patients with HBeAg seroconversion at the end of 24-week follow-up remained in seroconversion during the LTFU, during which time their serum HBcrAg levels steadily declined or even became undetectable, ranging from 0 to 2.1 kU/ml. Conclusions: Effective antiviral treatment can decrease HBcrAg levels in the serum. The NPVs of HBcrAg for predicting HBeAg seroconversion at 24-week follow-up was 100%, but the PPVs were not satisfactory (all <31%). The serum HBcrAg levels of the patients with HBeAg seroconversion at the end of the 24-week follow-up steadily declined or even became undetectable during the LTFU. PMID:27625094

  2. Prediction of early HBeAg seroconversion by decreased titers of HBeAg in the serum combined with increased grades of lobular inflammation in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Kwan; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Motoyoshi, Yasuhide; Ozawa, Eisuke; Nagaoka, Shinya; Abiru, Seigo; Komori, Atsumasa; Migita, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Minoru; Ito, Masahiro; Miyakawa, Yuzo; Ishibashi, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is an important hallmark in the natural course of chronic hepatitis B. This study was designed to predict early HBeAg seroconversion within 1 year, by not only biochemical and virological markers, but also pathological parameters in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Material/Methods In a retrospective cohort study, 234 patients with HBeAg were reviewed for demographic, biochemical, virological and pathological data at the time of liver biopsy. Then, the patients who accomplished HBeAg seroconversion within 1 year thereafter were compared with those who did not, for sorting out factors predictive of early HBeAg seroconversion. Results Early HBeAg seroconversion occurred in 58 (24.8%) patients. In univariate analysis, factors predictive of early HBeAg seroconversion were: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p=0.002), IP-10 (p=0.029), HBsAg (p=0.003), HBeAg (p<0.001), HBV DNA (p=0.001), HBcrAg (p=0.001), core-promoter mutations (p=0.040), fibrosis (p=0.033) and lobular inflammation (p=0.002). In multivariate analysis, only serum HBeAg levels <100 Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI) U/ml and grades of lobular inflammation ≥2 were independent factors for early HBeAg seroconversion (odds ratio 8.430 [95% confidence interval 4.173–17.032], p<0.001; and 4.330 [2.009–9.331], p<0.001; respectively). Conclusions HBeAg levels < 100 PEIU/ml combined with grades of lobular inflammation ≥2 are useful for predicting early HBeAg seroconversion. In patients without liver biopsies, high ALT levels (≥200 IU/L) can substitute for lobular inflammation (grades ≥2). PMID:23197230

  3. Manifestations of Perihepatic Lymph Nodes in Acute Flare of Chronic Hepatitis B: Association with HBeAg Status and with HBeAg Seroconversion

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yen-Ling; Sun, Chi-Shu; Chung, Kun-Ming; Lin, Yu-Min; Feng, I-Che; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Koay, Lok-Beng; Lin, Ching-Yih; Ho, Chung-Han; Kuo, Hsing-Tao

    2015-01-01

    It has been observed that enlargement of perihepatic lymph nodes may be seen in patients with chronic hepatitis B, particularly during acute flares of CHB. We hypothesized that there may be a correlation between the nodal change patterns in CHB patients with acute flare and HBeAg status. Perihepatic lymph node sizes of 87 patients with acute flares of CHB were documented, with a median follow up of 43 months. Patients were separated into 3 groups, HBeAg-positive with HBe seroconversion (group 1), HBeAg-positive without HBe seroconversion (group 2), and HBeAg-negative (group 3). Group 1 has the highest incidence of enlarged lymph nodes (92.3%) compared with group 2 (75.8%) and group 3 (46.8%) (p = 0.003). And if nodal width at acute flare was > 8mm and interval change of nodal width was >3mm, the incidence of HBeAg seroconversion will be 75% (p<0.001). Conclusion Larger perihepatic lymph nodes are seen in CHB acute flare patients with positive HBeAg and the magnitude of nodal width change may predict HBeAg seroconversion at recovery. PMID:25689069

  4. High-Throughput Analysis of the T Cell Receptor Beta Chain Repertoire in PBMCs from Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with HBeAg Seroconversion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Liu, Di; Huang, Yinuo; Zhang, Zhiyi

    2016-01-01

    T lymphocytes are the most important immune cells that affect both the development and treatment of hepatitis B. We used high-throughput sequencing to determine the diversity in the V and J regions of the TCRβ chain in 4 chronic hepatitis B patients before and after HBeAg seroconversion. Here, we demonstrate that the 4 patients expressed Vβ12-4 at the highest frequencies of 10.6%, 9.2%, 17.5%, and 7.5%, and Vβ28 was the second most common, with frequencies of 7.8%, 6.7%, 5.3%, and 10.9%, respectively. No significant changes were observed following seroconversion. With regard to the Jβ gene, Jβ2-1 was the most commonly expressed in the 4 patients at frequencies of 5.8%, 6.5%, 11.3%, and 7.3%, respectively. Analysis of the V-J region genes revealed several differences, including significant increases in the expression levels of V7-2-01-J2-1, V12-4-J1-1, and V28-1-J1-5 and a decrease in that of V19-01-J2-3. These results illustrate the presence of biased TCRVβ and Jβ gene expression in the chronic hepatitis B patients. TRBVβ12-4, Vβ28, Jβ2-1, V7-2-01-J2-1, V12-4-J1-1, and V28-1-J1-5 may be associated with the development and treatment of CHB.

  5. Efficacy of PEGylated Interferon in Treatment-Experienced Chinese Patients With HBeAg Positive Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yue-Li; Li, Hu; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Dazhi; Ren, Hong; Hu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background After treatment cessation, a high prevalence of relapse was reported in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in China, especially in nucleot(s)ide analogues (NUCs)-experienced patients. Re-treatment for these patients remains unsolved. Objectives This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of PEGylated interferon in HBeAg positive patients with exposure to antiviral therapy. Patients and Methods A total of 55 treatment-experienced, HBeAg positive Chinese patients were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 33 were NUCs-experienced and 22 were interferon-experienced. PEGylated interferon was administered to 34 patients; and 21 patients were retreated with conventional interferon. Results Of the 34 treatment-experienced patients who received PEGylated interferon, 52.9% achieved virologic response, and 41.2% achieved HBeAg loss and seroconversion. Patients who were treated with PEGylated interferon for 48 weeks achieved higher virologic response (80%); HBeAg loss (60%); HBeAg seroconversion (60%); and HBsAg loss (5%) than patients treated for 24 weeks with PEGylated interferon. Their responses were also higher than those who were treated with conventional interferon. HBeAg seroconversion in treatment-experienced patients was independently associated with 48-week PEGylated interferon therapy duration. Conclusions PEGylated interferon was effective in treatment-experienced patients with HBeAg positive CHB, and showed higher rates of virological response, HBeAg loss, and seroconversion. The results provide important information regarding the role of re-treatment with PEGylated interferon in treatment-experienced HBeAg positive patients. PMID:27257427

  6. UGT2B28 genomic variation is associated with hepatitis B e-antigen seroconversion in response to antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Kung-Hao; Lin, Chih-Lang; Hsu, Chao-Wei; Lai, Ming-Wei; Chien, Rong-Nan; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Seroconversion of hepatitis B virus (HBV) e-antigen (HBeAg) is a critical but often-missed therapeutic goal in standard antiviral treatments. An extreme-phenotype genome-wide association study was performed, comparing untreated spontaneous recoverers (with seroconversion of HBV surface antigen) versus entecavir-treated patients failing to achieve HBeAg seroconversion. A single-nucleotide-polymorphism rs2132039 on the UGT2B28 gene, alongside an adjacent copy number polymorphism (CNP605), manifested the strongest clinical associations (P = 3.4 × 10−8 and 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that rs2132039-TT genotypes, but not CNP605 copy numbers, remained associated to spontaneous recoverers (P = 0.009). The clinical association of rs2132039 was validated successfully in an independent cohort (n = 302; P = 0.002). Longitudinal case-only analyses revealed that the rs2132039-TT genotype predicted shorter time-to-HBeAg-seroconversion in all antiviral-treated patients (n = 380, P = 0.012), as well as the peginterferon-treated subgroup (n = 123; P = 0.024, Hazard ratio [HR] = 2.104, Confidence interval [CI] = 1.105–4.007). In the entecavir-treated subgroup, the predictive effect was restricted by pretreatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, with effective prediction observed in patients with ALT < 200 IU/ml and ALT/AST ratio <2 (n = 132; P = 0.013, HR = 10.538, CI = 1.420–78.196). PMID:27665939

  7. Mutations of pre-core and basal core promoter before and after hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion

    PubMed Central

    Kamijo, Nozomi; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Umemura, Takeji; Shibata, Soichiro; Ichikawa, Yuki; Kimura, Takefumi; Komatsu, Michiharu; Tanaka, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of pre-core and basal core promoter (BCP) mutations before and after hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. METHODS: The proportion of pre-core (G1896A) and basal core promoter (A1762T and G1764A) mutant viruses and serum levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HB core-related antigen were analyzed in chronic hepatitis B patients before and after HBeAg seroconversion (n = 25), in those who were persistently HBeAg positive (n = 18), and in those who were persistently anti-HBe positive (n = 43). All patients were infected with HBV genotype C and were followed for a median of 9 years. RESULTS: Although the pre-core mutant became predominant (24% to 65%, P = 0.022) in the HBeAg seroconversion group during follow-up, the proportion of the basal core promoter mutation did not change. Median HBV viral markers were significantly higher in patients without the mutations in an HBeAg positive status (HBV DNA: P = 0.003; HBsAg: P < 0.001; HB core-related antigen: P = 0.001). In contrast, HBV DNA (P = 0.012) and HBsAg (P = 0.041) levels were significantly higher in patients with the pre-core mutation in an anti-HBe positive status. CONCLUSION: There is an opposite association of the pre-core mutation with viral load before and after HBeAg seroconversion in patients with HBV infection. PMID:25593470

  8. [Clinico-prognostic significance of partial seroconversion in chronic viral hepatitis B follow-up. Wartenbert Study (1974-1994), II].

    PubMed

    Ohlen, I; Liegl, J M; Selmair, H

    1995-12-01

    146 patients (62 female, 84 male) with chronic hepatitis B were regularly examined in 1 to 2 year intervals with an average follow-up period of 12 years (means). Each time patients were evaluated by physical examination, routine laboratory data, immunological and serological testing, ultrasonography, and laparoscopy and/or percutaneous liver biopsy. No patient of the study underwent immunosuppressive or antiviral treatment at any time. The average time data in years and months are given as the median value (mean). Frequency and date of seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBe after the first diagnosis of HBV-infection: in patients with chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH) in 79% of cases after 8 years, in patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) in 72% of cases after 7 years, and in patients with liver cirrhosis in 61% of cases after 9 years. The overall seroconversion rate in all patients with chronic hepatitis B amounted to 68% 8.5 years after the first diagnosis of HBV-infection. Clinical and prognostic significance: The seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBe mostly led to substantial and sustained biochemical and histologic resolution of liver disease activity. In patients with CPH in 100% of cases after 15 months, in patients with CAH in 87% of cases after 17 months, and in patients with liver cirrhosis in 64% of cases after 2.5 years. 80% of these patients with seroconversion and histologic recovery remained HBV-DNA (PCR)-positive.

  9. [Barebacking and the possibility of seroconversion].

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís Augusto Vasconcelos da

    2009-06-01

    This article discusses the production of meanings concerning the possibility of HIV seroconversion in bareback sex practices, as well as the dynamics of bug chasing and its ambiguities in the Brazilian context. The article emphasizes several reasons for engaging in barebacking, generally defined as the intentional nonuse of condoms during anal sex among men who have sex with men. During the course of my research, some Orkut communities and chat forums on barebacking were followed, and open online interviews via MSN Messenger were conducted with barebackers from different States of Brazil, mainly São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Pursuit of seroconversion was also present in the contexts of online interaction in the Brazilian scenario, although there was much more of a multiplicity of interests and barebacking modalities across the various on-line interlocutors. As discussed in this article, rather than acquiring the HIV per se, there is an excessive interest in expanding or intensifying thrill seeking. PMID:19503968

  10. Sustained seroconversion of chronic hepatitis B infection after stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Serap, Aksoylar; Funda, Ozgenc; Bengu, Kadioglu; Mehmet, Kantar; Nazan, Cetingul; Rasit, Yagci; Savas, Kansoy

    2011-08-01

      We present an 18-yr-old adolescent with acute lymphocytic leukemia, who underwent peripheral blood SCT with serologically and histologically documented chronic hepatitis B infection. Prior and during the transplant process, lamivudine was administered orally and he underwent SCT with a twofold decrease in viral load at the time of transplant from his HLA full matched, HBV natural immune (anti-HBs and anti-HBc positive) donor. Successful engraftment was achieved and three months after SCT, HBV seroconversion was documented accompanied with an ALT flare. Chronic graft-versus-host disease coincided after the transplantation, and he has been on immunosuppressive treatment for 25 months with sustained HBV seroconversion. We assume that adoptive immunity transfer combined with antiviral treatment might also constitute sustained seroconversion in chronic HBV, besides the reported risk of reactivation. PMID:20102530

  11. Seroconversion status after single dose and double doses of varicella vaccination in children with leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cakir, F Betul; Timur, Cetin; Yoruk, Asim; Cakir, Erkan; Ayhan, Aylin Canbolat

    2012-03-01

    Although varicella is a benign self-limiting disease in healthy children, it can be fatal when it occurs in immunocompromised hosts. Despite that immunosuppressed children are suggested to require 2 doses of vaccine to achieve seroconversion, conflicting results are reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroconversion status and mean antibody titers at first year after single dose and double doses of varicella vaccination in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Patients with leukemia in remission for at least 1 year who were seronegative for varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) were vaccinated. Titers above the cutoff level (0.65) were accepted as seroconversion. Seventeen patients were vaccinated with single dose whereas 24 patients were vaccinated with double doses. Mean prevaccination antibody titers were 0.56 ± 0.05 in patients with single dose and 0.51 ± 0.08 in patients with double doses (P > .05, Student t test). The mean antibody titers at first year were 0.61 ± 0.05 in patients with single-dose vaccination (P > .05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and 1.48 ± 0.04 in patients with double doses (P < .001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Seroconversion after single-dose vaccination was achieved in 29% of patients (n = 5/17) and in 75% of patients with double doses (n = 18/24) at first year (P = .004, chi-square test). These results suggest that seroconversion after single-dose vaccination might not persist at first year in malignancy patients. Double doses should be applied in order to provide long-term seroconversion.

  12. HIV-1 seroconversion and risk behaviors among young men in the US army. The Seroconversion Risk Factor Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, L I; Peterman, T A; Renzullo, P O; Lasley-Bibbs, V; Shu, X O; Brundage, J F; McNeil, J G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study sought to examine risk factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seroconversion among active-duty men in the US Army. METHODS. One hundred twenty-eight men with documented HIV-1 seroconversion between 1988 and 1991 were matched to control subjects on demographic variables. Risk factor information was collected for the seroconversion period. RESULTS. Forty-nine case subjects and no control subjects reported same-gender sex; this includes 34 case subjects who also reported sex with women. Seventy case and 118 control subjects reported no risk factors other than heterosexual intercourse. Among heterosexuals, excess risk was noted for men who had sex with women in risk categories defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (odds ratio = 10.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.3, 78.1). Significant trends of increasing risk for seroconversion were found with increasing numbers of female partners, nonsteady partners, and partners with whom sex occurred on the first day of acquaintance. CONCLUSIONS. In this population, the major risk factor for HIV-1 seroconversion was same-gender sex. Among heterosexuals, sex with anonymous or causal partners increased this risk. Intervention programs should emphasize the risk of indiscriminate partner selection in addition to "safe sex" practices. PMID:7485661

  13. A typhus-like illness caused by acute HIV seroconversion.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, M. G.; Barnes, A.; Cook, G. C.; Mabey, D. C.

    1991-01-01

    A patient is described in whom an acute human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion illness occurred following a trip to southern Africa. The presentation was strikingly similar to that of African tick typhus and could only be distinguished by serological testing. Images Figure 1 PMID:1905405

  14. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus Virophage Seroconversion in Travelers Returning from Laos

    PubMed Central

    Parola, Philippe; Renvoisé, Aurélie; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth; La Scola, Bernard; Desnues, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    During January 2010, a husband and wife returned from Laos to France with probable parasitic disease. Increased antibodies against an Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus virophage indicated seroconversion. While in Laos, they had eaten raw fish, a potential source of the virophage. This virophage, associated with giant viruses suspected to cause pneumonia, could be an emerging pathogen. PMID:22932431

  15. Guillain-Barré Syndrome with Fatal Outcome during HIV-1-Seroconversion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pontali, Emanuele; Feasi, Marcello; Crisalli, Maria Paola; Cassola, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute or subacute peripheral polyneuropathy characterized by symmetrical muscle weakness. Its occurrence has been reported during acute HIV seroconversion since 1985. Among HIV-infected subjects, GBS has generally a favourable outcome. We report a case of GBS with fatal outcome during HIV seroconversion. PMID:22567484

  16. Histories of substance use and risk behavior: precursors to HIV seroconversion in homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Chesney, M A; Barrett, D C; Stall, R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study compared history of substance use and episodic use in terms of HIV seroconversion. METHODS: A sample of 337 baseline HIV-negative gay men was followed for 6 years. Bivariate and survival analyses were used to compare 39 converters with nonconverters on substance use behaviors. RESULTS: Seroconverters were consistently more likely to report use of marijuana, nitrite inhalants, amphetamines, and cocaine than nonconverters. Consistent use of nitrite inhalants and amphetamines increases the relative risk of seroconversion, while episodic use does not. Both patterns of cocaine use increase seroconversion risk. CONCLUSIONS: There are three potential mechanisms for an increased risk of conversion due to consistent substance use. PMID:9584015

  17. Protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an HSV-2 replication-defective mutant virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Fernando M; Knipe, David M

    2016-01-15

    Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 virus reduced disease, viral shedding, seroconversion, and latent infection by the HSV-2 challenge virus. Therefore, it may be feasible to obtain protection against genital disease, seroconversion and latent infection by immunization, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved.

  18. Risk Factor Associated with Negative Spouse HIV Seroconversion among Sero-Different Couples: A Nested Case-Control Retrospective Survey Study in 30 Counties in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Houlin; Wu, Zunyou; Mao, Yurong; Cepeda, Javier; Morano, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    condoms during intercourse after the index spouse was diagnosed HIV infection. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that the desire to conceive a child (OR = 5.18, 95% CI: 1.19–22.58) significantly increased the odds of HIV seroconversion. Protective factors of spousal HIV seroconversion were currently receiving ART (OR = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.01–0.67) and consistent condom use (OR = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01–0.28). Conclusions Intention to conceive a child is the most important risk factor for HIV seroconversion among sero-different couples. Specific efforts on scientific use of ART to assist sero-different couples to achieve their wish to conceive a healthy child are needed to minimize the risk of HIV transmission. PMID:27741292

  19. Distribution of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and anti-HBe in carriers with different levels of HBsAg.

    PubMed

    Nath, N; Fang, C T; Fields, H A; Doto, I L; Maynard, J E

    1980-01-01

    Blood samples from 154 asymptomatic carriers of HBsAg were studied for the presence of HbeAg and anti-HBe using techniques of rheophoresis and a micro solid phase radioimmunoassay (micro-SPRIA). The level of HBsAg in each sample was determined by titration using reverse passive hemagglutination (RPHA) test. The significance of relationship between the titer of HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe, and anti-HBc were statistically analyzed. Micro-SPRIA detected almost twice as many reactives for HBeAg and anti-HBe as were found by rheophoresis; the difference in sensitivity was significant (P less than 0.001). The mean HBsAg titer of 41 samples reactive for HBeAg was 11,181, while it was 3,032 for 92 samples reactive for anti-HBe. The remaining 23 samples with no detectable HBeAg or anti-HBe had a mean HBsAg titer of 1,018. The differences in the distribution of HBsAg among the three categories is statistically significant (P less than 0.005). HBeAg was most likely to be found in samples with higher concentrations of HBsAg.

  20. Seroconversion for infectious pathogens among UK military personnel deployed to Afghanistan, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Newman, Edmund N C; Johnstone, Penelope; Bridge, Hannah; Wright, Deborah; Jameson, Lisa; Bosworth, Andrew; Hatch, Rebecca; Hayward-Karlsson, Jenny; Osborne, Jane; Bailey, Mark S; Green, Andrew; Ross, David; Brooks, Tim; Hewson, Roger

    2014-12-01

    Military personnel are at high risk of contracting vector-borne and zoonotic infections, particularly during overseas deployments, when they may be exposed to endemic or emerging infections not prevalent in their native countries. We conducted seroprevalence testing of 467 UK military personnel deployed to Helmand Province, Afghanistan, during 2008-2011 and found that up to 3.1% showed seroconversion for infection with Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, sandfly fever virus, or hantavirus; none showed seroconversion for infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Most seroconversions occurred in personnel who did not report illness, except for those with hantavirus (70% symptomatic). These results indicate that many exposures to infectious pathogens, and potentially infections resulting from those exposures, may go unreported. Our findings reinforce the need for continued surveillance of military personnel and for education of health care providers to help recognize and prevent illnesses and transmission of pathogens during and after overseas deployments.

  1. Seroconversion for Infectious Pathogens among UK Military Personnel Deployed to Afghanistan, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Penelope; Bridge, Hannah; Wright, Deborah; Jameson, Lisa; Bosworth, Andrew; Hatch, Rebecca; Hayward-Karlsson, Jenny; Osborne, Jane; Bailey, Mark S.; Green, Andrew; Ross, David; Brooks, Tim; Hewson, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Military personnel are at high risk of contracting vector-borne and zoonotic infections, particularly during overseas deployments, when they may be exposed to endemic or emerging infections not prevalent in their native countries. We conducted seroprevalence testing of 467 UK military personnel deployed to Helmand Province, Afghanistan, during 2008–2011 and found that up to 3.1% showed seroconversion for infection with Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, sandfly fever virus, or hantavirus; none showed seroconversion for infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Most seroconversions occurred in personnel who did not report illness, except for those with hantavirus (70% symptomatic). These results indicate that many exposures to infectious pathogens, and potentially infections resulting from those exposures, may go unreported. Our findings reinforce the need for continued surveillance of military personnel and for education of health care providers to help recognize and prevent illnesses and transmission of pathogens during and after overseas deployments. PMID:25418685

  2. Utility of Immunoblotting for Early Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis Seroconversion in Pregnant Women▿

    PubMed Central

    Jost, C.; Touafek, F.; Fekkar, A.; Courtin, R.; Ribeiro, M.; Mazier, D.; Paris, L.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii occurs mainly when a mother acquires the infection for the first time during pregnancy. It was recently shown that although early treatment of the primary infection during pregnancy has little or no impact on the fetomaternal transmission rate, it does reduce the incidence of sequelae in infected infants. Seroconversion is defined by the appearance of IgG. Commercial reagents continue to vary considerably in detecting low concentrations of antibodies, as during early seroconversion. We compared two routinely used immunoassays (IA) (Platelia and Elecsys Toxo IgG) and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) with a qualitative test based on immunoblot analysis (Toxo II IgG) (IB) to assess their abilities to diagnose seroconversion at its earliest stages. This prospective study was carried out between January and November 2010. It included 39 pregnant women with monthly follow-up who seroconverted during pregnancy. On first sera that were IgM positive but IgG negative (or equivocal) as detected by IA, IB diagnosed seroconversion twice as often as IIF (26/39 [66.7%] versus 13/39 [33.3%]; P < 0.001; χ2 test). Serum samples were retaken 2 to 5 weeks later for the other 13 cases (IgG negative by IB on first serum). Seroconversion was demonstrated as follows: IB for 5 cases where IA remained negative or equivocal, IB and IIF for 5 cases where IA remained negative or equivocal, IA for 2 cases, and no method for 1 case (a third sample was necessary). In summary, IB permitted toxoplasmosis seroconversion diagnosis before other means in 92.3% of cases (36/39) and thus earlier therapeutic intervention. PMID:21880851

  3. HIV disease progression in 854 women and men infected through injecting drug use and heterosexual sex and followed for up to nine years from seroconversion. Italian Seroconversion Study.

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi Lepri, A.; Pezzotti, P.; Dorrucci, M.; Phillips, A. N.; Rezza, G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the progression of HIV-1 infection in men and women followed up for up to nine years after an accurately estimated date of seroconversion. DESIGN--Prospective observational study. SETTING--16 HIV outpatient clinics across Italy. SUBJECTS--321 women and 533 men infected with HIV through injecting drug use or heterosexual sex and with accurately estimated dates of seroconversion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Progression to severe CD4 lymphocytopenia (CD4 lymphocyte count < 200 x 10(6)/l), development of AIDS defining diseases, and death from AIDS. RESULTS--Thirty two women and 67 men developed AIDS at Kaplan-Meier progression rates of 25% (95% confidence interval 13.8% to 35.5%) and 23% (15.6% to 30.4%), respectively, 7 years after seroconversion. In a Cox proportional hazards model the relative hazard was 0.93 (that is, a slightly lower hazard in women) before and 1.10 (0.70 to 1.72) after adjusting for age, HIV exposure group, and year of seroconversion. When CD4 lymphocytopenia and death from AIDS were used as end points the results were similar, with adjusted relative hazards of 0.95 (0.63 to 1.42) and 0.72 (0.48 to 1.79) respectively. In both women and men the risk of developing AIDS before the CD4 lymphocyte count had declined below 200 x 10(6)/l was small (3% in women, 6% in men). The estimated median count at which AIDS developed in women (34 x 10(6)/l; 10 x 10(6) to 44 x 10(6)) was similar to that for men (44 x 10(6)/l; 22 x 10(6) to 60 x 10(6)). CONCLUSION--There seems to be little evidence for appreciable differences in the natural course of HIV infection between men and women followed up from the time of seroconversion. PMID:7819892

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion in women with genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Plourde, P J; Pepin, J; Agoki, E; Ronald, A R; Ombette, J; Tyndall, M; Cheang, M; Ndinya-Achola, J O; D'Costa, L J; Plummer, F A

    1994-08-01

    Genital ulcers are implicated as a risk factor enhancing susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. A prospective study to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with acquisition of HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers was done. HIV-1-seronegative women with genital ulcers attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi were followed to HIV-1 seroconversion over a 6-month period. Of 81 women, 10 seroconverted to HIV-1. The crude 6-month incidence of HIV-1 infection was 12%. Risk factors associated with seroconversion included cervical ectopy (rate ratio [RR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-15.6) and pelvic inflammatory disease (RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-20.4). Thus, cervical ectopy and pelvic inflammatory disease may increase susceptibility to HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers.

  5. Seroprevalence and seroconversion of dengue and implications for clinical diagnosis in amazonian children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Antonio Camargo; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Braña, Athos Muniz; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Filgueira Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; de Araújo, Thiago Santos; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of serum IgG dengue in children in an Amazonian population, to assess the seroconversion rate in 12 months, and to estimate how many seropositive children had a prior clinical diagnosis of dengue. We conducted a population-based study between 2010 and 2011, with children aged 6 months to 12 years that were living in the urban area of a small town in the Brazilian Amazon. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against dengue antigens was determined by indirect ELISA technique, and seronegative children were reexamined after 12 months to determine seroconversion rates. Results showed seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against dengue type of 2.9%, with no significant association between age, race, and sex. In seropositive children, only 8.4% had received a clinical diagnosis of dengue, and the ratio of clinically diagnosed cases and subclinical cases was 1 : 11. The seroconversion rate between 2010 and 2011 was 1.4% (CI 3.8% to 35.1%). The seroprevalence of dengue in this pediatric population was low, and the vast majority of cases were not clinically detected, suggesting a difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis in children and a high frequency of asymptomatic infections. PMID:25548558

  6. Seroprevalence and Seroconversion of Dengue and Implications for Clinical Diagnosis in Amazonian Children

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Antonio Camargo; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Braña, Athos Muniz; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Filgueira Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; de Araújo, Thiago Santos; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of serum IgG dengue in children in an Amazonian population, to assess the seroconversion rate in 12 months, and to estimate how many seropositive children had a prior clinical diagnosis of dengue. We conducted a population-based study between 2010 and 2011, with children aged 6 months to 12 years that were living in the urban area of a small town in the Brazilian Amazon. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against dengue antigens was determined by indirect ELISA technique, and seronegative children were reexamined after 12 months to determine seroconversion rates. Results showed seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against dengue type of 2.9%, with no significant association between age, race, and sex. In seropositive children, only 8.4% had received a clinical diagnosis of dengue, and the ratio of clinically diagnosed cases and subclinical cases was 1 : 11. The seroconversion rate between 2010 and 2011 was 1.4% (CI 3.8% to 35.1%). The seroprevalence of dengue in this pediatric population was low, and the vast majority of cases were not clinically detected, suggesting a difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis in children and a high frequency of asymptomatic infections. PMID:25548558

  7. Retention and HIV seroconversion among drug users on methadone maintenance treatment in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Duo, L.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Achanta, S.; Xue, H-M.; Satyanarayana, S.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Srivastava, S.; Qi, W.; Hu, S-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Thirteen methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics across Yunnan, the province with the highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden in China. Objectives: To determine, among HIV-negative participants on MMT, the proportion lost to follow-up (defined as those who missed the 6-monthly follow-up examination), factors associated with loss to follow-up (LFU), HIV seroconversion rate and factors associated with seroconversion. Design: Prospective cohort study from October 2008 to April 2011. All participants were administered a pre-tested structured questionnaire to capture associated factors and offered HIV testing every 6 months. χ2 test and log-binomial regression were used for data analysis. Results: Of 1146 participants, 541 (47%) were lost to follow-up in 2.5 years. Factors associated with higher LFU proportion include <6 months of previous MMT, inconvenient location of the MMT clinic and average methadone dose ⩽60 mg/day, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) of respectively 1.4 (95%CI 1.2–1.5), 1.2 (95%CI 1.0–1.4) and 1.1 (95%CI 1.0–1.3). The overall HIV seroconversion rate was 6.6 (95%CI 3.7–11.0) per 1000 person-years. Not living with a partner contributed to higher HIV rates, with an adjusted RR of 3.6 (95%CI 1.0–12.8). Conclusion: The retention rate of MMT participants in Yunnan was not satisfactory. Decentralising service delivery in the community and making directly observed treatment more convenient has the potential to improve retention. PMID:26423758

  8. The sero-conversion and evaluation of renal alterations in dogs infected by Leishmania (Infantum) chagasi.

    PubMed

    Alves, Georgia Brenda Barros; Silva, Lucilene dos Santos; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Campos, Angela Piauilino; Prianti, Maria das Graças; Costa, Francisco Assis Lima

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the sero-conversion period in which dogs from endemic areas test positive for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) as well as the early post-infection period in which renal alterations are observed. Dogs that were initially negative for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) were clinically evaluated every three months by serological, parasitological and biochemical tests until sero-conversion was confirmed, and six months later a subsequent evaluation was performed. Samples of kidney tissues were processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Masson's trichrome stain and lesions were classified based on the WHO criteria. Of the 40 dogs that initially tested negative for VL, 25 (62.5%) exhibited positive serological tests during the study period. Of these 25 dogs, 15 (60%) tested positive within three months, five (20%) tested positive within six months and five (20%) tested positive within nine months. The dogs exhibited antibody titers between 1:40 and 1:80 and 72% of the dogs exhibited clinical symptoms. The Leishmania antigen was present in the kidneys of recently infected dogs. We found higher levels of total protein and globulin as well as lower levels of albumin in the infected dogs when compared to the control dogs. Additionally, infected dogs presented levels of urea and creatinine that were higher than those of the uninfected dogs. Glomerulonephritis was detected in some of the dogs examined in this study. These data suggest that in Teresina, the sero-conversion for VL occurs quickly and showed that the infected dogs presented abnormal serum proteins, as well as structural and functional alterations in the kidneys during the early post-infection period.

  9. The frequency and skewed T-cell receptor beta-chain variable patterns of peripheral CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cells are associated with hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion of chronic hepatitis B patients during antiviral treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiezuan; Sheng, Guoping; Xiao, Dangsheng; Shi, Haiyan; Wu, Wei; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Hongcui; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    The frequency and T-cell receptor beta-chain variable (TCRBV) patterns of peripheral CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are ambiguously altered in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients following tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment. Moreover, the clinical significance of these parameters in relation to hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion (SC) is largely unknown. In this study, the circulation of Tregs in HBeAg-positive CHB patients was determined by flow cytometry, and the molecular profiles of frequent TCRBV patterns of Tregs were analyzed using a gene melting spectral pattern. The parameters, such as Treg frequency, the number of skewed TCRBV patterns, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, were analyzed by comparing their associations in seroconverting and non-seroconverting patients following TDF treatment. The Treg frequency was significantly correlated with the ALT level in seroconverting but not in non-seroconverting patients. Similarly, skewed TCRBV patterns were remarkably associated with HBV DNA levels in the SC group. Six TCRBV families (BV3, BV11, BV12, BV14, BV20, and BV24) were more prevalent than other TCRBV members in seroconverting patients pretreated with TDF, while BV12, BV15, and BV22 were predominant in non-seroconverting patients during TDF treatment. Taken together, the preferential TCRBV patterns may be associated with immune responses related to SC. The dynamic frequency and skewed TCRBV patterns of peripheral Tregs could contribute to predicting SC in CHB patients. Moreover, the conserved TCRBV complementarity-determining region (CDR3) motif may be targeted to develop personalized immunotherapy for CHB patients. PMID:26899927

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Nucleic Acid Polymers in Monotherapy and Combined with Immunotherapy in Treatment-Naive Bangladeshi Patients with HBeAg+ Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Bazinet, Michel; Vaillant, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have suggested that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) may reduce circulating levels of HBsAg in the blood by blocking its release from infected hepatocytes and that this effect may have clinical benefit. NAP treatment, was evaluated in two clinical studies in patients with HBeAg positive chronic HBV infection. The REP 101 study examined REP 2055 monotherapy in 8 patients and the REP 102 study examined REP 2139-Ca, in monotherapy in 12 patients, 9 of which transitioned to short term combined treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a or thymosin alpha 1. In both studies NAP monotherapy was accompanied by 2–7 log reductions of serum HBsAg, 3–9 log reductions in serum HBV DNA and the appearance of serum anti-HBsAg antibodies (10–1712 mIU / ml). Eight of the 9 patients transitioning to combined treatment with immunotherapy (pegylated interferon or thymosin alpha 1) in the REP 102 study experienced HBsAg loss and all 9 patients experienced substantial increases in serum anti-HBsAg antibody titers before withdrawal of therapy. For 52 weeks after removal of REP 2055 therapy, rebound of serum viremia (HBV DNA > 1000 copies / ml, HBsAg > 1IU / ml) was not observed in 3 / 8 patients. Suppression of serum virema was further maintained for 290 and 231 weeks in 2 of these patients. After withdrawal of all therapy in the 9 patients that transitioned to combination therapy in the REP 102 study, 8 patients achieved HBV DNA < 116 copies / ml after treatment withdrawal. Viral rebound occurred over a period of 12 to 123 weeks in 7 patients but was still absent in two patients at 135 and 137 weeks of follow-up. Administration tolerability issues observed with REP 2055 were rare with REP 2139-Ca but REP 2139-Ca therapy was accompanied by hair loss, dysphagia and dysgeusia which were considered related to heavy metal exposure endemic at the trial site. These preliminary studies suggest that NAP can elicit important antiviral responses during treatment which

  11. Therapy with natalizumab is associated with high JCV seroconversion and rising JCV index values

    PubMed Central

    Schneider-Hohendorf, Tilman; Pignolet, Béatrice; Breuer, Johanna; Gross, Catharina C.; Göbel, Kerstin; Brassat, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze John Cunningham virus (JCV) serology in natalizumab-treated patients over time and assess whether they are influenced by natalizumab treatment. Methods: German (n = 1,921; 525 longitudinally) and French (n = 1,259; 711 longitudinally) patients were assessed for JCV serology alongside their therapy with natalizumab. Results: JCV serostatus changed in 69 of 525 longitudinally followed German patients (13.1%) over 14.8 months. Seroconversion according to serostatus was seen in 43 of 339 initially JCV− German patients (12.7% in 14.8 months; 10.3% per year) and 41 of 243 initially JCV− French patients (16.9% in 24 months; 8.5% per year). JCV index values could be reproduced (R2 = 0.89) with the caveat of 8 of 50 samples (16%) being set into different risk categories between 2 assessments. Index values of JCV+ patients rose over time (p = 0.009) but not because of aging. Treatment with natalizumab was associated with a 15.9% increase of value in JCV+ patients in 14.8 months (12.9% per year). Conclusions: JCV seroconversion and index values may be influenced by treatment with natalizumab. It is therefore important to monitor patients' JCV serology but also to incorporate additional risk factors into the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk stratification. PMID:26848486

  12. Temporal relations between methamphetamine use and HIV seroconversion in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Halkitis, Perry N; Levy, Michael D; Solomon, Todd M

    2016-01-01

    Data from a cross-sectional study of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men who were active methamphetamine users were analyzed to assess temporal relations between HIV seroconversion and initiation of methamphetamine use. Of the 100 men, 58 reported being HIV-positive. Most HIV-positive participants (65%) initiated methamphetamine use after seroconverting. Among those who initiated use before seroconversion, 8 years elapsed between onset of use and time of infection. Findings suggest the need to develop nuanced and targeted interventions aimed at disentangling the "meth-sex" link in this population. Findings also suggest use of the drug as a coping mechanism for those living with HIV.

  13. Rate of seroconversion in repeat blood donors at the national blood centre, kuala lumpur.

    PubMed

    Nafishah, A; Asiah, M Nor; Syimah, A T Nur; Mohd Zahari, T H; Yasmin, A; Normi, M; Anza, E; Shahnaz, M; Narazah, M Y

    2014-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend that all donated blood are to be screened for at least three viral infections [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV)]. The National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur (NBCKL) aims to reduce transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) as it still remains as one of the major risk for blood transfusion. A cross sectional study was conducted at the National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur from 1st January 2009 to 31st June 2010. Data from 581,020 donors were analyzed from year 2004 to 2008. All data were retrieved from NBCKL Blood Bank Information System (BBIS). A total of 201 repeat donors were included in the study based on the inclusion criteria but only 132 repeat donors agreed to participate. Information on sociodemographic, risk factors, knowledge of donors and high risk behavior were extracted from standardize questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14.0. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of the seropositive infectivity among repeat blood donors at the NBCKL. The results showed Syphilis accounts for the highest and increasing seroconversion rate among other infections from 20.83 % in year 2004 to 44.6 % in year in year 2008. HIV and HCV infection also showed increasing seroconversion rate in 5 years' time from 6.41 % in year 2004 to 17.54 % in year 2008 and 4.8 % in year 2004 to 5.94 % in year 2008 respectively. However, HBV infection alone showed a decreasing seroconversion rate from 20.83 % in year 2004 to 10.4 % in year 2008. Level of donors' awareness regarding high risk factors (activities or behaviour) can lead to higher risk of TTI with significant p value in this predictors model(p < 0.05). Repeat blood donors with high risk activities are more likely to have seropositive results for HBV, HIV and Syphilis. This study found that the frequency of HCV seropositivity is higher among lapsed donor. Socio demographic factors such as male and

  14. Re-Testing and Seroconversion Among HIV Testing and Counseling Clients in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Grabbe, Kristina L; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Baughman, Andrew L; Djomand, Gaston; Pedersen, Brian; Lerotholi, Mankhala; Nkonyana, John; Ramphalla-Phatela, Puleng; Marum, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    HIV testing and counseling (HTC) is an essential component of comprehensive HIV programs. Retrospective HTC program data from 2006 to 2010 were examined to determine patterns of re-testing and seroconversion in Lesotho. Among 104,662 initially negative clients, 6,777 (6.5%) were re-testers. Predictors of re-testing included being male, age ≥ 25 years, divorced/separated, having more than a high school education, being tested as a couple, testing in the year 2006, testing in the capital city, and awareness of partner's recent testing behavior. Among re-testers who seroconverted (N = 259), predictors included being female and having less than a high school education. There is a critical need for more effectively targeting HIV retesting messages to align with WHO (2010) guidelines and identify persons at highest risk for HIV, to increase timely diagnoses and link persons to appropriate HIV prevention, care, and treatment services.

  15. [Evaluation of seroconversion after voluntary vaccination against hepatitis B in students at the University of Lodz].

    PubMed

    Małolepsza, E; Wrodycki, W; Kuydowicz, J; Szaflik, I; Niwicka, A

    1993-01-01

    We have evaluated the results of the first action of voluntary vaccination against hepatitis B in the students of Medical University of Lódź using Energix-B vaccine (20 micrograms) in schedule 0, 1, 6 months. Few students applied for the vaccination: only 48.4% of persons planned for vaccination completed the schedule. Seroconversion rate (anti-HBs > 10u/l) in this group was 93.9%. Three doses of vaccine applied inconsistently with schedule resulted in the immunological response in 3 out of 4 students observed. Two doses of vaccine resulted in the effective response in 13 out of 16 students observed. One doses of vaccine proved to be ineffective. The blood tests performed prior to vaccination showed the presence of the HBV markers in 9.6% of students (HBsAg in 2.1% of persons and anti-HBs in 5.3/of persons). PMID:8234843

  16. Measles vaccine potency and sero-conversion rates among infants receiving measles immunization in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fowotade, A; Okonko, I O; Nwabuisi, C; Bakare, R A; Fadeyi, A; Adu, F D

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the seroconversion rate of measles vaccine among infants receiving measles immunization in Ilorin, Nigeria. The pre- and post-measles vaccination sera of the children were tested using the Haemagglutination Inhibition test. The measles vaccines administered at the immunization centre were also tested for their potency using in-vitro titration method. Only 286 (71.5%) of the vacinees returned to give post-vaccination samples. All the infants screened had low pre-vaccination measles antibody titers. Thirty one (8.0%) of the infants had measles prior to vaccination. The seroconversion pattern showed that 196 (68.6%) of the infants developed protective antibody titers. Low seroconversion rate reported in this study was due to low vaccine potency. The titers of vaccines with low potency ranged between log10(-1.0)-log10(-2.25) TCID/per dose. This was beside other non specific antiviral substances exhibited virus neutralizing activity. Only 3 (50%) of the 6 vaccine vials tested had virus titers of log10(-3.25) to log10(-3.5), which fell above the cut-off point recommended by the World Health Organization for measles vaccines. The sero-conversion rate of 68.6% observed among vaccinees is far lower than the immunity level of 95% required stopping measles transmission in an endemic community. Failure of 31.4% of these infants to sero-convert post vaccination can be attributed partly to administration of sub-potent vaccines. There is need for improvement and maintenance of effective vaccine cold chain system in Nigeria. There is need also for periodic monitoring of post-vaccination antibody titers as well as vaccine potency status in order to ensure development of protective seroconversion rates.

  17. Anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal may be feasible in liver transplant recipients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA are negative.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lei; Lin, Bing-Yi; Shen, Tian; Guo, Hua; Ye, Yu-Fu; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2016-06-01

    Anti-virus prophylactic therapy may be not necessary for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after HBV-related liver transplantation (LT). However, studies on completely stopping the hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUC) after LT are few. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal in liver recipients whose serum hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA are negative. We analyzed 190 patients undergone LT for HBV-related liver disease from 2006 to 2012 and found that 10 patients completely stopped the HBIG and NUC due to poor compliance. These patients were liver biopsied and checked monthly with serum HBV markers, HBV DNA and liver function. Among the 10 patients, 9 did not show the signs of HBV recurrence after a mean follow-up of 51.6 months (range 20-73) after withdrawal of the HBIG and NUC. The average time from LT to the withdrawal of the anti-virus drug was 23.8 (13-42) months; one patient showed hepatitis B surface antigen-positive and detectable HBV DNA after stopping anti-virus drugs and this patient was successfully treated with entecavir. Our data suggested that complete withdrawal of anti-virus prophylaxis was safe and feasible for patients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA were negative at the time of LT.

  18. Hepatitis B: Knowledge, Vaccine Situation and Seroconversion of Dentistry Students of a Public University

    PubMed Central

    Sacchetto, Marina Sena Lopes da Silva; Barros, Simone Souza Lobão Veras; Araripe, Thaís de Alencar; Silva, Aryvelto Miranda; Faustino, Symonara Karina Medeiros; da Silva, José Mário Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis B (VHB) is an occupational risk for dentists. It is necessary that dental students start clinical practice immunized with the vaccine, response monitored and informed about the means of transmission of the disease. Rarely, there are studies, which evaluate concomitantly knowledge of these academics and their vaccine situation. Objectives To evaluate the knowledge about Hepatitis B, the vaccine situation and the immunization status of dental students and to investigate the probable correlation between the status of immunization, vaccination membership and adherence to the test of seroconversion and associated factors. Patients and Methods 189 students from the dentistry course at the Federal University of Piaui (UFPI) who attended from the 3rd to 9th period were invited to participate in the research. Their knowledge about HBV, attitude regarding protection and their vaccine situation were assessed through a self-administered form. Antibodies against surface antigens of Hepatitis B virus (Anti-HBs) and against the antigens of the virus nucleous of Hepatitis B (Anti-HBc total) were measured qualitatively using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Of the 179 students surveyed, 58.1% knew about the degree of virulence of the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). As to the means of transmission, 98.3% considered blood transmission, 82.6% plates and cutlery, 15.6% cough and 12.3% vertical transmission. Most students (87.4%) knew that they should take 3 doses of the vaccine and 62.2% completed the immunization schedule. A minority of students (48.6%) knew the about the Anti-HBs test and 5.6% took the test. Among the students who reported having taken three doses of the vaccine, 12.5% were not seroconverted. There was no significant correlation between the variables. Conclusions Dental academics were unsure about the means of infection and prevention against HBV. Many of them had not completed the immunization scheme and did not have the

  19. Sero-conversion of HCV negative patients: a European study on the epidemiology and management of HCV haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zampieron, A; Jayasekera, H; Elseviers, M; Lindley, E; De Vos, J Y; Harrington, M; Ormandy, P

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports part of the findings from a larger study reported earlier, the European study on epidemiology and the management of HCV in the haemodialysis population (1). Centres recruited to the larger study were monitored for a further one year observation period to measure and generate a deeper understanding of HCV sero-conversion. From 4724 patients who were studied at the baseline, in 68 centres, only 13 patients were found to have sero-converted. These sero-conversions occurred in 7 hospitals within 5 different countries. Possible routes of transmission and risk factors are described with respect to the individual centres and good practice recommendations based on current evidence presented. PMID:16700169

  20. Factors associated with herd-level PRRSV infection and age-time to seroconversion in farrow-to-finish herds.

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Marois-Créhan, C; Grasland, B; Simon, G; Rose, N

    2016-08-30

    Factors associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection were investigated in 109 herds. Serums from four batches of pigs (4, 10, 16 and 22 weeks, 15 pigs/batch) were tested by ELISA for PRRSV antibodies. Infection by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza A viruses (swIAV) and PCV2 were detected by specific serological or PCR tests. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management housing and climatic conditions were collected during a herd visit. Factors associated with the herd's PRRSV seropositive status were identified by logistic regression. Large herd size, the lack of disinsectisation in the gestation facilities, on-farm semen collection, a short time-period for gilt quarantine and a low temperature setpoint for the ventilation controller in the fattening room significantly increased the odds of a herd being seropositive for PRRSV. Infection by Mhp and H1N2 swIAV were associated with a PRRSV seropositive status. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the factors associated with the age-time to seroconversion in infected herds. Joint housing for the gilts and sows when lactating, a large nursery pen, a small number of pens per fattening room and lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening section significantly reduced the age-time to seroconversion. A small range of temperatures controlling ventilation rate in the nursery room was also associated with time to PRRSV seroconversion. Infection by Mhp and a high PCV2 infection pressure were associated with a shorter time to seroconversion. Biosecurity measures minimising the risk of introducing PRRSV into the herd, management practices reducing contacts between animals from different batches and within batches and favourable climatic conditions should be implemented to better control PRRSV infection. PMID:27527759

  1. Incidence of syphilis seroconversion among HIV-infected persons in Asia: results from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jin Young; Boettiger, David; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Huy, Bui Vu; Wong, Wing Wai; Ditangco, Rossana; Lee, Man Po; Oka, Shinichi; Durier, Nicolas; Choi, Jun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Outbreaks of syphilis have been described among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Western communities, whereas reports in Asian countries are limited. We aimed to characterize the incidence and temporal trends of syphilis among HIV-infected MSM compared with HIV-infected non-MSM in Asian countries. Methods Patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database cohort and with a negative non-treponemal test since enrolment were analyzed. Incidence of syphilis seroconversion, defined as a positive non-treponemal test after previously testing negative, was evaluated among patients at sites performing non-treponemal tests at least annually. Factors associated with syphilis seroconversion were investigated at sites doing non-treponemal testing in all new patients and subsequently testing routinely or when patients were suspected of having syphilis. Results We included 1010 patients from five sites that performed non-treponemal tests in all new patients; those included had negative non-treponemal test results during enrolment and subsequent follow-ups. Among them, 657 patients were from three sites conducting regular non-treponemal testing. The incidence of syphilis seroconversion was 5.38/100 person-years (PY). Incidence was higher in MSM than non-MSM (7.64/100 PY vs. 2.44/100 PY, p<0.001). Among MSM, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for every additional year from 2009 was 1.19 (p=0.051). MSM status (IRR 3.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88–6.47), past syphilis diagnosis (IRR 5.15, 95% CI 3.69–7.17) and younger age (IRR 0.84 for every additional 10 years, 95% CI 0.706–0.997) were significantly associated with syphilis seroconversion. Conclusions We observed a higher incidence of syphilis seroconversion among HIV-infected MSM and a trend to increasing annual incidence. Regular screening for syphilis and targeted interventions to limit transmission are needed in this population. PMID:27774955

  2. Patterns of viral load in chronic hepatitis B patients in Brazil and their association with ALT levels and HBeAg status.

    PubMed

    Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Gaburo, Nelson; Cheinquer, Hugo; L'Italien, Gilbert; Affonso de Araujo, Evaldo Stanislau; Mantilla, Patricia; Cure-Bolt, Nancy; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2009-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level is a predictor of the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients. Nevertheless, the distribution of viral load levels in chronic HBV patients in Brazil has yet to be described. This cross-sectional study included 564 participants selected in nine Brazilian cities located in four of the five regions of the country using the database of a medical diagnostics company. Admission criteria included hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity, availability of HBV viral load samples and age >or=18 years. Males comprised 64.5% of the study population. Mean age was 43.7 years. Most individuals (62.1%) were seronegative for the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Median serum ALT level was 34 U/L. In 58.5% of the patients HBV-DNA levels ranged from 300 to 99,999 copies/mL; however, in 21.6% levels were undetectable. Median HBV-DNA level was 2,351 copies/mL. Over 60% of the patients who tested negative for HBeAg and in whom ALT level was less than 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range had HBV-DNA levels > 2,000 IU/mL, which has been considered a cut-off point for indicating a liver biopsy and/or treatment. In conclusion, HBV-DNA level identified a significant proportion of Brazilian individuals with chronic hepatitis B at risk of disease progression. Furthermore, this tool enables those individuals with high HBV-DNA levels who are susceptible to disease progression to be identified among patients with normal or slightly elevated ALT. PMID:20009133

  3. Frequent Transient Hepatitis C viremia without Seroconversion among Healthcare Workers in Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Munier, Aline; Marzouk, Diaa; Abravanel, Florence; El-Daly, Mai; Taylor, Sylvia; Mamdouh, Rasha; Eldin, Waleed Salah; El-Arab, Hanan Ezz; Sos, Dalia Gaber; Momen, Mohamed; Okasha, Omar; Le Fouler, Lenaig; El-Hosini, Mostafa; Izopet, Jacques; Rafik, Mona; Albert, Matthew; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mohamed, Mostafa Kamal; Delarocque-Astagneau, Elisabeth; Fontanet, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds With 10% of the general population aged 15–59 years chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), Egypt is the country with the highest HCV prevalence worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are therefore at particularly high risk of HCV infection. Our aim was to study HCV infection risk after occupational blood exposure among HCWs in Cairo. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in 2008–2010 at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo. HCWs reporting an occupational blood exposure at screening, having neither anti-HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) nor HCV RNA, and exposed to a HCV RNA positive patient, were enrolled in a 6-month prospective cohort with follow-up visits at weeks 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24. During follow-up, anti-HCV, HCV RNA and ALT were tested. Among 597 HCWs who reported a blood exposure, anti-HCV prevalence at screening was 7.2%, not different from that of the general population of Cairo after age-standardization (11.6% and 10.4% respectively, p = 0.62). The proportion of HCV viremia among index patients was 37%. Of 73 HCWs exposed to HCV RNA from index patients, nine (12.3%; 95%CI, 5.8–22.1%) presented transient viremia, the majority of which occurred within the first two weeks after exposure. None of the workers presented seroconversion or elevation of ALT. Conclusions/Significance HCWs of a general University hospital in Cairo were exposed to a highly viremic patient population. They experienced frequent occupational blood exposures, particularly in early stages of training. These exposures resulted in transient viremic episodes without established infection. These findings call for further investigation of potential immune protection against HCV persistence in this high risk group. PMID:23469082

  4. Kaposi Sarcoma Incidence and Survival Among HIV-Infected Homosexual Men After HIV Seroconversion

    PubMed Central

    Guiguet, Marguerite; Costagliola, Dominique; Fisher, Martin; de Luca, Andrea; Porter, Kholoud

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in reducing the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma, HIV-infected individuals who have responded to treatment continue to be diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma. We examine factors associated with the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma among cART-treated HIV-infected homosexual men and changes in their survival after its diagnosis over calendar time. Methods Data were from HIV-infected homosexual men with well-estimated dates of HIV seroconversion (ie, change in status from being HIV negative to having HIV antibodies detected). Incidence of Kaposi sarcoma was calculated. We used Kaplan–Meier methods to determine survival after Kaposi sarcoma diagnosis in three calendar periods: before 1996, 1996–2000, and 2001–2006. Poisson models were used to examine the effect of risk factors such as current and nadir CD4 cell count (ie, the lowest CD4 cell count ever recorded for a person), duration of infection, and age at diagnosis for Kaposi sarcoma incidence in cART-treated men. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among the 9473 men, 555 were diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma in the period 1986–2006, of whom 319 died. The percentage surviving 24 months after Kaposi sarcoma diagnosis rose statistically significantly during the study period from 35% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 29% to 42%) before 1996 to 84% (95% CI = 76% to 90%) in 1996–2000 and to 81% (95% CI = 70% to 88%) in 2001–2006 (P < .001). Seventy men were diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma after starting cART. Current (ie, within 6 months) CD4 cell count was associated with incidence of Kaposi sarcoma among cART-treated men (rate ratios [RRs] = 18.91, 95% CI = 8.50 to 42.09, for CD4 level category <200 cells per cubic millimeter; RR = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.40 to 9.00, for 200–349 cells per cubic millimeter; and RR = 4.11, 95% CI = 1.74 to 9.70, for 350–499 cells per cubic millimeter; all compared with ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter). After

  5. Autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody responses following initial seroconversion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Moog, C; Fleury, H J; Pellegrin, I; Kirn, A; Aubertin, A M

    1997-01-01

    In the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, patients develop a strong and persistent immune response characterized by the production of HIV-specific antibodies. The aim of our study was to analyze the appearance of autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibodies in the sera of HIV-infected individuals. For this purpose, primary strains have been isolated from 18 HIV-1-infected subjects prior to seroconversion (in one case) or within 1 to 8 months after seroconversion. Sera, collected at the same time as the virus was isolated and at various times after isolation, have been analyzed for their ability to neutralize the autologous primary strains isolated early after infection, heterologous primary isolates, and cell-line adapted strains. Our neutralization assay, which combines serial dilutions of virus and serial dilutions of sera, is based on the determination of the serum dilution at which a fixed reduction in virus titer (90%) occurs. We have shown that (i) we could not detect autologous neutralizing antibodies in sera collected at the same time as we isolated viruses; (ii) we detected neutralizing antibodies against the autologous strains about 1 year after seroconversion, occasionally after 8 months, but sera were not always available to exclude the presence of neutralizing antibodies at earlier times; (iii) after 1 year, the neutralization response was highly specific to virus present during the early phase of HIV infection; and (iv) heterologous neutralization of primary isolates was detected later (after about 2 years). These results reveal the enormous diversity of neutralization determinants on primary isolates as well as a temporal evolution of the humoral response generating cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9094648

  6. Seroconversion to bovine viral diarrhoea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in dairy herds of Michoacan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Segura-Correa, José C; Solorio-Rivera, José L; Sánchez-Gil, Laura G

    2010-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) are important viral diseases around the world. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of seroconversion to BVDV and IBRV and to identify associated risk factors in dairy herds of Michoacan, Mexico. The longitudinal study included 62 herds and ran from December 2001 to November 2002. The total number of animals enrolled and completing the study were 392 and 342 animals for BVDV and 925 and 899 animals for IBRV. Animals were tested monthly for 12 months, for the presence of antibodies. Risk factors were: herd size (2-9, 10-25 and 26-55 animals), herd serostatus (seropositive or seronegative, only for IBRV), age group of the animal (6 to 12, 13 to 24, 25 to 48 and > 48 months) and animal origin (born in farm, purchased). The cumulative incidences for BVDV and IBRV were 16.4% and 3.4%, respectively; whereas, the incidence density rates for BVDV and IBRV were 15.9 and 2.9 per 1000 animal-months at risk, respectively. Seroconversion curves were statistically different for age group for BVDV and IBRV and for herd status for IBR. The relatively high incidence of seroconversion for BVDV suggests that a successful control programme should be oriented towards the identification and elimination of the PI animals and towards avoiding the introduction of PI cattle to the farm. The scenario of IBRV is favourable to implement a programme directed to reduce the number of new seropositive herds.

  7. Extremely prolonged HIV seroconversion associated with an MHC haplotype carrying disease susceptibility genes for antibody deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Padiglione, Alex; Aleksic, Eman; French, Martyn; Arnott, Alicia; Wilson, Kim M; Tippett, Emma; Kaye, Matthew; Gray, Lachlan; Ellett, Anne; Crane, Megan; Leslie, David E; Lewin, Sharon R; Breschkin, Alan; Birch, Chris; Gorry, Paul R; McPhee, Dale A; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2010-11-01

    Severe immunodeficiency during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is unusual. Here, we characterized viral and immunological parameters in a subject presenting with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in the setting of prolonged primary HIV illness and delayed seroconversion. HIV antibody was only detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 12 months after presentation, and Western blot profiles remain indeterminate. Isolated virus was of R5 phenotype, exhibited poor viral fitness, but was otherwise unremarkable. Analysis of HIV antibody isotypes showed failure to mount a detectable HIV IgG response over nearly 2 years of infection, in particular IgG(1)- and IgG(3)-specific responses, despite normal responses to common infections and vaccines. Genetic analysis demonstrated homozygosity for part of an MHC haplotype containing susceptibility genes for common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) syndrome and other antibody deficiency disorders. Thus, a primary disorder of specific antibody production may explain exceptionally slow antibody development in an otherwise severe seroconversion illness. This highlights the need for multiparameter testing, in particular use of a fourth generation HIV test, for confirming HIV infection and underscores the importance of host factors in HIV pathogenesis.

  8. Symptomatic Illness and Low CD4 Cell Count at HIV Seroconversion as Markers of Severe Primary HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, Sara; Fisher, Martin; Phillips, Andrew; De Luca, Andrea; Ghosn, Jade; Malyuta, Ruslan; Zangerle, Robert; Moreno, Santiago; Vanhems, Philippe; Boufassa, Faroudy; Guiguet, Marguerite; Porter, Kholoud

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk/benefit of initiating ART in primary HIV infection (PHI) is unclear. The benefits are more likely to outweigh the risks in patients with severe PHI. An accepted definition of severe PHI is, however, lacking. Methods CASCADE patients with HIV test interval <6 months were classified as severe and non-severe PHI based on whether the following traits were recorded in the first 6 months following seroconversion: severe specific pre-defined symptoms, central nervous system-implicated illness, and ≥1, ≥2 CD4<350 (and <500) cells/mm3. For each definition, we used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox survival models to compare time to AIDS/death, censoring at the earlier of last clinic visit or 1/1/1997, when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) became available. Results Among 1108 included patients mostly males (85%) infected through sex between men (71%), 366 were diagnosed with AIDS/died. The risk of AIDS/death was significantly higher for individuals with severe symptoms, those with ≥1 CD4<350 cells/mm3 or ≥2 CD4 <500 cells/mm3 in the first 6 months [aHR (95% confidence interval) 2.1 (1.4,3.2), 2.0 (1.5,2.7), and 2.3, (1.5–3.5) respectively]. Median [interquantile range] survival for patients with ≥2, ≥1 and no CD4<350 cells/mm3 within 6 months of seroconversion was 3.9 [2.7,6.5], 5.4 [4.5,8.4] and 8.1 [4.3,10.3] years, respectively. The diagnosis of CNS-implicated symptoms was rare and did not appear to be prognostic. Conclusion One CD4 count <350 or two <500 cells/mm3 within 6 months of seroconversion and/or severe illness in PHI may be useful early indicators of individuals at high risk of disease progression. PMID:24244330

  9. The San Francisco Men's Health Study: continued decline in HIV seroconversion rates among homosexual/bisexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Winkelstein, W; Wiley, J A; Padian, N S; Samuel, M; Shiboski, S; Ascher, M S; Levy, J A

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been monitored since 1984 in an area probability sample of homosexual/bisexual men drawn from a six-kilometer square area of San Francisco where the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been most severe. Annualized HIV seroconversion rates in previously uninfected cohort members have declined by 88 per cent from 5.9 per cent during the first six months of 1985 to 0.7 per cent during the last six months of 1987. Concurrent declines of approximately 80 per cent in the prevalence of sexual behaviors associated with HIV transmission were also observed in the sample. PMID:3177723

  10. A strategy to find gene combinations that identify children who progress rapidly to type 1 diabetes after islet autoantibody seroconversion.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Ezio; Krumsiek, Jan; Winkler, Christiane; Theis, Fabian J; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    We recently developed a novel approach capable of identifying gene combinations to obtain maximal disease risk stratification. Type 1 diabetes has a preclinical phase including seroconversion to autoimmunity and subsequent progression to diabetes. Here, we applied our gene combination approach to identify combinations that contribute either to islet autoimmunity or to the progression from islet autoantibodies to diabetes onset. We examined 12 type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes (INS, ERBB3, PTPN2, IFIH1, PTPN22, KIAA0350, CD25, CTLA4, SH2B3, IL2, IL18RAP, IL10) in a cohort of children of parents with type 1 diabetes and prospectively followed from birth. The most predictive combination was subsequently applied to a smaller validation cohort. The combinations of genes only marginally contributed to the risk of developing islet autoimmunity, but could substantially modify risk of progression to diabetes in islet autoantibody-positive children. The greatest discrimination was provided by risk allele scores of five genes, INS, IFIH1, IL18RAP, CD25, and IL2 genes, which could identify 80 % of islet autoantibody-positive children who progressed to diabetes within 6 years of seroconversion and discriminate high risk (63 % within 6 years; 95 % CI 45-81 %) and low risk (11 % within 6 years; 95 % CI 0.1-22 %; p = 4 × 10(-5)) antibody-positive children. Risk stratification by these five genes was confirmed in a second cohort of islet autoantibody children. These findings highlight genes that may affect the rate of the beta-cell destruction process once autoimmunity has initiated and may help to identify islet autoantibody-positive subjects with rapid progression to diabetes.

  11. Toxoplasma Seroconversion with Negative or Transient Immunoglobulin M in Pregnant Women: Myth or Reality? A French Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cimon, B.; Chemla, C.; Darde, M. L.; Delhaes, L.; L'Ollivier, C.; Godineau, N.; Houze, S.; Paris, L.; Quinio, D.; Robert-Gangneux, F.; Villard, O.; Villena, I.; Candolfi, E.; Pelloux, H.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, Toxoplasma infection is associated with high levels of specific IgM antibody and a rise in specific IgG levels 1 to 3 weeks later. Atypical IgG seroconversion, without IgM detection or with transient IgM levels, has been described during serologic follow-up of seronegative pregnant women and raises difficulties in interpreting the results. To evaluate the frequency and the characteristics of these atypical cases of seroconversion, an investigation was conducted within the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, from which 26 cases collected from 12 laboratories belonging to the network were identified. The aim of this work was to retrospectively analyze the results of serologic testing, the treatments administered, and the results of prenatal and postnatal follow-up for these women. In each case, IgG antibodies were detected using both screening and confirmatory tests. IgM antibodies were not detected in 15 cases, and the levels were equivocal or low-positive in 11 cases. The IgG avidity results were low in 16 cases and high in one case. Most of the pregnant women (22/26) were treated with spiramycin from the time that IgG antibodies appeared until delivery. Amniotic fluid was analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii DNA by PCR in 11/26 cases, and the results were negative in all cases. Congenital toxoplasmosis was ruled out in 12/26 newborns. There was no abnormality observed at birth for 10 newborns and no information available for 4 newborns. In conclusion, when the interpretation of serological results is so difficult, it seems cautious to initiate treatment by spiramycin and to follow the pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:23616461

  12. Exposure of cats to low doses of FeLV: seroconversion as the sole parameter of infection.

    PubMed

    Major, Andrea; Cattori, Valentino; Boenzli, Eva; Riond, Barbara; Ossent, Peter; Meli, Marina Luisa; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In felids, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection results in a variety of outcomes that range from abortive (virus readily eliminated and never detectable) to progressive infection (persistent viremia and viral shedding). Recently, a novel outcome was postulated for low FeLV infectious doses. Naïve cats exposed to faeces of persistently infected cats seroconverted, indicating infection, but remained negative for provirus and p27 antigen in blood. FeLV provirus was found in some tissues but not in the bone marrow, infection of which is usually considered a necessary stage for disease progression. To investigate the impact of low FeLV doses on young cats and to test the hypothesis that low dose exposure may lead to an unknown pathogenesis of infection without involvement of the bone marrow, 21 cats were infected oronasally with variable viral doses. Blood p27, proviral and viral loads were followed until week 20 post-infection. Tissue proviral loads were determined as well. The immune response was monitored by measuring FeLV whole virus and p45 antibodies; and feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA) assay. One cat showed regressive infection (transient antigenemia, persistent provirus-positivity, and seroconversion) with provirus only found in some organs at sacrifice. In 7 of the 20 remaining cats FOCMA assay positivity was the only sign of infection, while all other tests were negative. Overall, the results show that FeLV low dose exposure can result in seroconversion during a presumed abortive infection. Therefore, commonly used detection methods do not detect all FeLV-infected animals, possibly leading to an underestimation of the prevalence of infection.

  13. Exposure of cats to low doses of FeLV: seroconversion as the sole parameter of infection

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Cattori, Valentino; Boenzli, Eva; Riond, Barbara; Ossent, Peter; Meli, Marina Luisa; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-01-01

    In felids, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection results in a variety of outcomes that range from abortive (virus readily eliminated and never detectable) to progressive infection (persistent viremia and viral shedding). Recently, a novel outcome was postulated for low FeLV infectious doses. Naïve cats exposed to faeces of persistently infected cats seroconverted, indicating infection, but remained negative for provirus and p27 antigen in blood. FeLV provirus was found in some tissues but not in the bone marrow, infection of which is usually considered a necessary stage for disease progression. To investigate the impact of low FeLV doses on young cats and to test the hypothesis that low dose exposure may lead to an unknown pathogenesis of infection without involvement of the bone marrow, 21 cats were infected oronasally with variable viral doses. Blood p27, proviral and viral loads were followed until week 20 post-infection. Tissue proviral loads were determined as well. The immune response was monitored by measuring FeLV whole virus and p45 antibodies; and feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA) assay. One cat showed regressive infection (transient antigenemia, persistent provirus-positivity, and seroconversion) with provirus only found in some organs at sacrifice. In 7 of the 20 remaining cats FOCMA assay positivity was the only sign of infection, while all other tests were negative. Overall, the results show that FeLV low dose exposure can result in seroconversion during a presumed abortive infection. Therefore, commonly used detection methods do not detect all FeLV-infected animals, possibly leading to an underestimation of the prevalence of infection. PMID:19861115

  14. Influence of HLA Class I Haplotypes on HIV-1 Seroconversion and Disease Progression in Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, Raghavan; Peters, Harold O.; Mendoza, Lillian; Bielawny, Thomas; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Kimani, Joshua; Wachihi, Charles; Plummer, Francis A.; Luo, Ma

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of HLA class I haplotypes on HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in the Pumwani sex worker cohort. This study included 595 HIV-1 positive patients and 176 HIV negative individuals. HLA-A, -B, and -C were typed to 4-digit resolution using sequence-based typing method. HLA class I haplotype frequencies were estimated using PyPop 32-0.6.0. The influence of haplotypes on time to seroconversion and CD4+ T cell decline to <200 cells/mm3 were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis using SPSS 13.0. Before corrections for multiple comparisons, three 2-loci haplotypes were significantly associated with faster seroconversion, including A*23∶01-C*02∶02 (p = 0.014, log rank(LR) = 6.06, false-discovery rate (FDR) = 0.056), B*42∶01-C*17∶01 (p = 0.01, LR = 6.60, FDR = 0.08) and B*07∶02-C*07∶02 (p = 0.013, LR = 6.14, FDR = 0.069). Two A*74∶01 containing haplotypes, A*74∶01-B*15∶03 (p = 0.047, LR = 3.942, FDR = 0.068) and A*74∶01-B*15∶03-C*02∶02 (p = 0.045, LR = 4.01, FDR = 0.072) and B*14∶02-C*08∶02 (p = 0.021, LR = 5.36, FDR = 0.056) were associated with slower disease progression. Five haplotypes, including A*30∶02-B*45∶01 (p = 0.0008, LR = 11.183, FDR = 0.013), A*30∶02-C*16∶01 (p = 0.015, LR = 5.97, FDR = 0.048), B*53∶01-C*04∶01 (p = 0.010, LR = 6.61, FDR = 0.08), B*15∶10-C*03∶04 (p = 0.031, LR = 4.65, FDR = 0.062), and B*58∶01-C*03∶02 (p = 0.037, LR = 4.35, FDR = 0.066) were associated with faster progression to AIDS. After FDR corrections, only the associations of A*30∶02-B*45∶01 and A*30∶02-C*16∶01 with faster disease progression remained significant. Cox regression and deconstructed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the associations of haplotypes of A*23∶01-C*02∶02, B*07∶02-C*07∶02, A*74∶01-B*15∶03, A*74∶01-B*15∶03-C*02∶02, B*14∶02-C

  15. Influence of HLA class I haplotypes on HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in Pumwani sex worker cohort.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Raghavan; Peters, Harold O; Mendoza, Lillian; Bielawny, Thomas; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Kimani, Joshua; Wachihi, Charles; Plummer, Francis A; Luo, Ma

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of HLA class I haplotypes on HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in the Pumwani sex worker cohort. This study included 595 HIV-1 positive patients and 176 HIV negative individuals. HLA-A, -B, and -C were typed to 4-digit resolution using sequence-based typing method. HLA class I haplotype frequencies were estimated using PyPop 32-0.6.0. The influence of haplotypes on time to seroconversion and CD4+ T cell decline to <200 cells/mm3 were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis using SPSS 13.0. Before corrections for multiple comparisons, three 2-loci haplotypes were significantly associated with faster seroconversion, including A*23∶01-C*02∶02 (p = 0.014, log rank(LR) = 6.06, false-discovery rate (FDR) = 0.056), B*42∶01-C*17∶01 (p = 0.01, LR = 6.60, FDR = 0.08) and B*07∶02-C*07∶02 (p = 0.013, LR = 6.14, FDR = 0.069). Two A*74∶01 containing haplotypes, A*74∶01-B*15∶03 (p = 0.047, LR = 3.942, FDR = 0.068) and A*74∶01-B*15∶03-C*02∶02 (p = 0.045, LR = 4.01, FDR = 0.072) and B*14∶02-C*08∶02 (p = 0.021, LR = 5.36, FDR = 0.056) were associated with slower disease progression. Five haplotypes, including A*30∶02-B*45∶01 (p = 0.0008, LR = 11.183, FDR = 0.013), A*30∶02-C*16∶01 (p = 0.015, LR = 5.97, FDR = 0.048), B*53∶01-C*04∶01 (p = 0.010, LR = 6.61, FDR = 0.08), B*15∶10-C*03∶04 (p = 0.031, LR = 4.65, FDR = 0.062), and B*58∶01-C*03∶02 (p = 0.037, LR = 4.35, FDR = 0.066) were associated with faster progression to AIDS. After FDR corrections, only the associations of A*30∶02-B*45∶01 and A*30∶02-C*16∶01 with faster disease progression remained significant. Cox regression and deconstructed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the associations of haplotypes of A*23∶01-C*02∶02, B*07∶02-C*07∶02, A*74∶01-B*15∶03, A*74∶01-B*15∶03-C*02∶02, B*14∶02-C

  16. Influence of HLA class I haplotypes on HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in Pumwani sex worker cohort.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Raghavan; Peters, Harold O; Mendoza, Lillian; Bielawny, Thomas; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Kimani, Joshua; Wachihi, Charles; Plummer, Francis A; Luo, Ma

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of HLA class I haplotypes on HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in the Pumwani sex worker cohort. This study included 595 HIV-1 positive patients and 176 HIV negative individuals. HLA-A, -B, and -C were typed to 4-digit resolution using sequence-based typing method. HLA class I haplotype frequencies were estimated using PyPop 32-0.6.0. The influence of haplotypes on time to seroconversion and CD4+ T cell decline to <200 cells/mm3 were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis using SPSS 13.0. Before corrections for multiple comparisons, three 2-loci haplotypes were significantly associated with faster seroconversion, including A*23∶01-C*02∶02 (p = 0.014, log rank(LR) = 6.06, false-discovery rate (FDR) = 0.056), B*42∶01-C*17∶01 (p = 0.01, LR = 6.60, FDR = 0.08) and B*07∶02-C*07∶02 (p = 0.013, LR = 6.14, FDR = 0.069). Two A*74∶01 containing haplotypes, A*74∶01-B*15∶03 (p = 0.047, LR = 3.942, FDR = 0.068) and A*74∶01-B*15∶03-C*02∶02 (p = 0.045, LR = 4.01, FDR = 0.072) and B*14∶02-C*08∶02 (p = 0.021, LR = 5.36, FDR = 0.056) were associated with slower disease progression. Five haplotypes, including A*30∶02-B*45∶01 (p = 0.0008, LR = 11.183, FDR = 0.013), A*30∶02-C*16∶01 (p = 0.015, LR = 5.97, FDR = 0.048), B*53∶01-C*04∶01 (p = 0.010, LR = 6.61, FDR = 0.08), B*15∶10-C*03∶04 (p = 0.031, LR = 4.65, FDR = 0.062), and B*58∶01-C*03∶02 (p = 0.037, LR = 4.35, FDR = 0.066) were associated with faster progression to AIDS. After FDR corrections, only the associations of A*30∶02-B*45∶01 and A*30∶02-C*16∶01 with faster disease progression remained significant. Cox regression and deconstructed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the associations of haplotypes of A*23∶01-C*02∶02, B*07∶02-C*07∶02, A*74∶01-B*15∶03, A*74∶01-B*15∶03-C*02∶02, B*14∶02-C

  17. Seroconversion of Hepatitis B Vaccine in Young Children in the Kassena Nankana District of Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dassah, Sylvester; Sakyi, Samuel A.; Frempong, Margaret T.; Luuse, Arnold T.; Ephraim, Richard K. D.; Anto, Enoch O.; Oduro, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is an important public health problem that requires high priority efforts towards prevention and control. Active immunization is the single most important and effective preventive measure against HBV infection. As a protective measure, Ghana introduced the mass immunization program against hepatitis B infection in children in 2002 in her Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). This study evaluated seroconversion (the point in time when the amount of antibody in the blood becomes detectable) and seroprotection (the point in time when the amount of antibody in the blood is enough to confer protection from the antigen that induced it production) status of children under this mass immunization program and measured their antibody levels five years after immunization. Materials and Method 200 archived plasma samples of children between the ages of 1–10 years were retrieved from a previous cross-sectional study by researchers from NHRC between 2009 and 2010. Of these, 104 have completed the EPI and were screened for HBsAg. Those found to be HBsAg-seronegative were stratified into three groups according to their age at which the last vaccine was administered. Their anti-HBsAg titer levels were estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results Two (1.9%) samples were HBsAg seropositive and were excluded from further analyses. 10 more samples were excluded from analyses because they were insufficient. The anti-HBs titers recorded ranged from 1.021 IU/L to 751.64 IU/L indicating a 100% seroconversion rate. In group one (0–6 months), 87.9% were seroprotected. Group two (2-3yrs) had 78.3% seroprotection and group three (3-5yrs) had 41.7% seroprotection. There was no significant difference between group 1 and 2. However, there was a significant difference between group 1 and 3 (p = 0.0137) and between group 2 and 3 (p = 0.0390) respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female children

  18. Imputation of the Date of HIV Seroconversion in a Cohort of Seroprevalent Subjects: Implications for Analysis of Late HIV Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Geskus, Ronald; Padilla, Belén; Segura, Ferrán; Rubio, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Santos, Jesus; Moreno, Santiago; del Amo, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Since subjects may have been diagnosed before cohort entry, analysis of late HIV diagnosis (LD) is usually restricted to the newly diagnosed. We estimate the magnitude and risk factors of LD in a cohort of seroprevalent individuals by imputing seroconversion dates. Methods. Multicenter cohort of HIV-positive subjects who were treatment naive at entry, in Spain, 2004–2008. Multiple-imputation techniques were used. Subjects with times to HIV diagnosis longer than 4.19 years were considered LD. Results. Median time to HIV diagnosis was 2.8 years in the whole cohort of 3,667 subjects. Factors significantly associated with LD were: male sex; Sub-Saharan African, Latin-American origin compared to Spaniards; and older age. In 2,928 newly diagnosed subjects, median time to diagnosis was 3.3 years, and LD was more common in injecting drug users. Conclusions. Estimates of the magnitude and risk factors of LD for the whole cohort differ from those obtained for new HIV diagnoses. PMID:22013517

  19. Correlative Gene Expression to Protective Seroconversion in Rift Valley Fever Vaccinates

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Richard C.; Drake, Kenneth L.; Morrill, John C.; Adams, L. Garry

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever Virus (RVFV), a negative-stranded RNA virus, is the etiological agent of the vector-borne zoonotic disease, Rift Valley fever (RVF). In both humans and livestock, protective immunity can be achieved through vaccination. Earlier and more recent vaccine trials in cattle and sheep demonstrated a strong neutralizing antibody and total IgG response induced by the RVF vaccine, authentic recombinant MP-12 (arMP-12). From previous work, protective immunity in sheep and cattle vaccinates normally occurs from 7 to 21 days after inoculation with arMP-12. While the serology and protective response induced by arMP-12 has been studied, little attention has been paid to the underlying molecular and genetic events occurring prior to the serologic immune response. To address this, we isolated RNA from whole blood of vaccinated calves over a time course of 21 days before and after vaccination with arMP-12. The time course RNAs were sequenced by RNASeq and bioinformatically analyzed. Our results revealed time-dependent activation or repression of numerous gene ontologies and pathways related to the vaccine induced immune response and its regulation. Additional bioinformatic analyses identified a correlative relationship between specific host immune response genes and protective immunity prior to the detection of protective serum neutralizing antibody responses. These results contribute an important proof of concept for identifying molecular and genetic components underlying the immune response to RVF vaccination and protection prior to serologic detection. PMID:26783758

  20. Hepatitis C-seroconversion within three to six months after having contracted clinical syphilis and/or lymphogranuloma venereum rectitis in five homosexually active, HIV seropositive men.

    PubMed

    Pelgrom, J M; Vogelaers, D; Colle, I

    2008-01-01

    Five Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seropositive homosexually active men experienced hepatitis C-seroconversion in the period between September 2004 and January 2007 at a single HIV Reference Center (University Hospital Ghent, Belgium). There was no history of intravenous drug use. All had unprotected anal sex with multiple other HIV seropositive men in the recent past. All of them had clinical syphilis and/or lymphogranuloma venereum rectitis within three to six months before the hepatitis C-seroconversion was detected. This confirms the observations in other case reports and studies originating from the Netherlands, France, the United Kingdom and Germany, illustrating sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in this high-risk group. Physicians should be aware of the persistent high-risk behaviour in a subgroup of HIV seropositive homosexually active men and perform intensive sexual counselling and screening for other sexually transmitted diseases, including HCV, during medical follow-up. PMID:19186567

  1. Genomic detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by nucleic acid amplification test in a frequent platelet donor during the pre-seroconversion period.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida

    2011-11-01

    Since serological donor-screening tests for HIV were introduced in 1985, the safety of donated blood components has improved dramatically. However, these tests do not completely prevent the risk of transfusion-associated HIV infection related to the use of blood donated during the pre-seroconversion window period. Testing based on nucleic acid amplification is being implemented to screen for HIV-infected blood donated during this period, which has reduced the probability of transmitting HIV through transfusion by shortening the window period. This article describes a case of acute HIV-1 infection, detected using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) in a repeat blood donor who donated during the pre-seroconversion window period and whose antigen and anti-HIV antibody expression was observed after molecular marker detection. In addition, the possible route of infection is discussed based on the patient's history, and finally, the need for NAT technology for blood donor screening is emphasized.

  2. Effects of 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose from P. emblica on HBsAg and HBeAg secretion in HepG2.2.15 cell culture.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yang-Fei; Ju, Huai-Qiang; Li, Shen; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren; Wang, Yi-Fei

    2010-10-01

    A polyphenolic compound, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (1246TGG), was isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae) and assayed for its potential as an anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) agent. The cytotoxicity of 1246TGG on HepG2.2.15 as well as HepG2 cells was determined by observing cytopathic effects, and the effects of 1246TGG on secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg in HepG2.2.15 cells were assayed by enzyme immunoassay. Results indicates that treatment with 1246TGG (6.25 μg/mL, 3.13 μg/mL), reduced both HBsAg and HBeAg levels in culture supernatant, yet the inhibitory effects tend to decline with the assay time. This study provides a basis for further investigation of the anti-HBV activity and possible mechanism of action of 1246TGG.

  3. HBsAg seroconversion after pegylated interferon alfa 2a rescue in a lamivudine-resistant patient with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B and favourable IL28-B genotype.

    PubMed

    Stanzione, Maria; Stornaiuolo, Gianfranca; Rizzo, Viviana; Pontarelli, Agostina; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion to anti-HBs antibody is the best final objective for all available chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatments. Unfortunately, this goal is rarely achieved with the currently applied therapeutic approaches. Here we describe the case of an anti-HBe-positive CHB patient who was successfully treated with a particular therapeutic schedule. The patient was initially treated with lamivudine (LAM) for nine years. Breakthrough was observed after eight years of LAM therapy. HBV-DNA was 3x10E4 IU/mL and LAM resistance mutations were present. Subcutaneous pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa 2a, 180 mcg/week, was added to LAM and after 4 weeks LAM was discontinued and PEG-IFN alone was continued up to week 52. HBV-DNA became undetectable at week 4 of therapy; serum HBsAg started to decline from week 4 and became undetectable at week 36, with the subsequent appearance of anti-HBs antibodies. IL28-B was genotyped at the polymorphic site rs12979860 and the CC allele was detected. Rescue therapy with Peg-IFN may be an option for selected patients with resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogues. PMID:27367326

  4. D-Dimer Levels before HIV Seroconversion Remain Elevated Even after Viral Suppression and Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-AIDS Events

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Matthew S.; Bebu, Ionut; Tracy, Russell; So-Armah, Kaku; Okulicz, Jason; Ganesan, Anuradha; Armstrong, Adam; O’Bryan, Thomas; Rimland, David; Justice, Amy C.; Agan, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the excess risk of non-AIDS diseases among HIV infected people is unclear. HIV associated inflammation/hypercoagulability likely plays a role. While antiretroviral therapy (ART) may return this process to pre-HIV levels, this has not been directly demonstrated. We analyzed data/specimens on 249 HIV+ participants from the US Military HIV Natural History Study, a prospective, multicenter observational cohort of >5600 active duty military personnel and beneficiaries living with HIV. We used stored blood specimens to measure D-dimer and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) at three time points: pre-HIV seroconversion, ≥6 months post-HIV seroconversion but prior to ART initiation, and ≥6 months post-ART with documented HIV viral suppression on two successive evaluations. We evaluated the changes in biomarker levels between time points, and the association between these biomarker changes and future non-AIDS events. During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, there were 28 incident non-AIDS diseases. At ART initiation, the median CD4 count was 361cells/mm3; median duration of documented HIV infection 392 days; median time on ART was 354 days. Adjusted mean percent increase in D-dimer levels from pre-seroconversion to post-ART was 75.1% (95% confidence interval 24.6–148.0, p = 0.002). This increase in D-dimer was associated with a significant 22% increase risk of future non-AIDS events (p = 0.03). Changes in IL-6 levels across time points were small and not associated with future non-AIDS events. In conclusion, ART initiation and HIV viral suppression does not eliminate HIV associated elevation in D-dimer levels. This residual pathology is associated with an increased risk of future non-AIDS diseases. PMID:27088215

  5. Serum IgG responses and seroconversion patterns to Cryptosporidium gp15 among children in a birth cohort in south India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rajiv; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Ward, Honorine; Naumova, Elena N; Kang, Gagandeep

    2012-06-01

    The correlates of protective immunity to cryptosporidiosis are not well understood. This study was conducted to assess the effect of maternal serum IgG against Cryptosporidium gp15 on responses to this antigen in children with (cases) and without (controls) PCR-confirmed cryptosporidial diarrhea. Maternal sera (n = 129) and sera from cases (n = 39) and controls (n = 90) collected at 3.5, 9, and 24 months of age were tested for serum IgG against Cryptosporidium gp15 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seroconversion patterns were evaluated by estimating probabilities of seroconversion along three time points based on the transition pathways by using a first-order Markov chain process and empirical Bayesian estimates. There was no difference in serum IgG levels or seropositivity rates to gp15 between cases and controls across all time points in children or in IgG levels to this antigen between mothers of cases and controls. The most common transition pathway can be described as a seronegative child at 3.5 months who seroconverts at 9 months and remains seropositive at 24 months. This pattern remained stable irrespective of the serological status of the mother or the case or control status of the child. Children were most likely to be exposed to Cryptosporidium for the first time between the ages of 3 and 9 months, and most of the children seroconverted by 24 months. The high degree of seroconversion among control children is suggestive of high rates of asymptomatic transmission in this region. PMID:22518011

  6. D-Dimer Levels before HIV Seroconversion Remain Elevated Even after Viral Suppression and Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-AIDS Events.

    PubMed

    Freiberg, Matthew S; Bebu, Ionut; Tracy, Russell; So-Armah, Kaku; Okulicz, Jason; Ganesan, Anuradha; Armstrong, Adam; O'Bryan, Thomas; Rimland, David; Justice, Amy C; Agan, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the excess risk of non-AIDS diseases among HIV infected people is unclear. HIV associated inflammation/hypercoagulability likely plays a role. While antiretroviral therapy (ART) may return this process to pre-HIV levels, this has not been directly demonstrated. We analyzed data/specimens on 249 HIV+ participants from the US Military HIV Natural History Study, a prospective, multicenter observational cohort of >5600 active duty military personnel and beneficiaries living with HIV. We used stored blood specimens to measure D-dimer and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) at three time points: pre-HIV seroconversion, ≥6 months post-HIV seroconversion but prior to ART initiation, and ≥6 months post-ART with documented HIV viral suppression on two successive evaluations. We evaluated the changes in biomarker levels between time points, and the association between these biomarker changes and future non-AIDS events. During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, there were 28 incident non-AIDS diseases. At ART initiation, the median CD4 count was 361cells/mm3; median duration of documented HIV infection 392 days; median time on ART was 354 days. Adjusted mean percent increase in D-dimer levels from pre-seroconversion to post-ART was 75.1% (95% confidence interval 24.6-148.0, p = 0.002). This increase in D-dimer was associated with a significant 22% increase risk of future non-AIDS events (p = 0.03). Changes in IL-6 levels across time points were small and not associated with future non-AIDS events. In conclusion, ART initiation and HIV viral suppression does not eliminate HIV associated elevation in D-dimer levels. This residual pathology is associated with an increased risk of future non-AIDS diseases.

  7. D-Dimer Levels before HIV Seroconversion Remain Elevated Even after Viral Suppression and Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-AIDS Events.

    PubMed

    Freiberg, Matthew S; Bebu, Ionut; Tracy, Russell; So-Armah, Kaku; Okulicz, Jason; Ganesan, Anuradha; Armstrong, Adam; O'Bryan, Thomas; Rimland, David; Justice, Amy C; Agan, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the excess risk of non-AIDS diseases among HIV infected people is unclear. HIV associated inflammation/hypercoagulability likely plays a role. While antiretroviral therapy (ART) may return this process to pre-HIV levels, this has not been directly demonstrated. We analyzed data/specimens on 249 HIV+ participants from the US Military HIV Natural History Study, a prospective, multicenter observational cohort of >5600 active duty military personnel and beneficiaries living with HIV. We used stored blood specimens to measure D-dimer and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) at three time points: pre-HIV seroconversion, ≥6 months post-HIV seroconversion but prior to ART initiation, and ≥6 months post-ART with documented HIV viral suppression on two successive evaluations. We evaluated the changes in biomarker levels between time points, and the association between these biomarker changes and future non-AIDS events. During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, there were 28 incident non-AIDS diseases. At ART initiation, the median CD4 count was 361cells/mm3; median duration of documented HIV infection 392 days; median time on ART was 354 days. Adjusted mean percent increase in D-dimer levels from pre-seroconversion to post-ART was 75.1% (95% confidence interval 24.6-148.0, p = 0.002). This increase in D-dimer was associated with a significant 22% increase risk of future non-AIDS events (p = 0.03). Changes in IL-6 levels across time points were small and not associated with future non-AIDS events. In conclusion, ART initiation and HIV viral suppression does not eliminate HIV associated elevation in D-dimer levels. This residual pathology is associated with an increased risk of future non-AIDS diseases. PMID:27088215

  8. Critical peripheral ischemia precipitated by severe episode of Raynaud's phenomenon in a patient with aPL-positive systemic lupus erythematosus, upon high titer anti-RNP seroconversion.

    PubMed

    Levy, O; Maslakov, I; Vosco, S; Markov, A; Amit-Vazina, M; Tishler, M

    2015-03-01

    A 35-year-old female with long standing aPL-positive lupus without history of thromboembolic events, who has developed critical peripheral ischemia (CPI) is described. An episode of severe Raynaud's phenomenon rapidly progressed to an extensive digit-threatening ischemia, involving bilateral hands and feet. She was successfully treated with corticosteroids, anticoagulation, iloprost, sildenafil, and nifedipine. Her serological studies were remarkable for the emergence of high titer anti-RNP seroconversion and an increase in aPL titer, suggesting that these autoantibodies played a role in the pathogenesis of CPI. It is important to note that such observation should herald this potentially devastating complication of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  9. Hepatitis B Reverse Seroconversion and Transmission in a Hemodialysis Center: A Public Health Investigation and Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Sarah; Moorman, Anne; Pace, Robert; Mobley, Victoria; MacFarquhar, Jennifer; Robinson, Edward; Hayden, Tonya; Thai, Hong; Drobeniuc, Jan; Brooks, John T; Moore, Zack; Patel, Priti R

    2016-08-01

    In March 2013, public health authorities were notified of a new hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a patient receiving hemodialysis. We investigated to identify the source and prevent additional infections. We reviewed medical records, interviewed the index patient regarding hepatitis B risk factors, performed HBV molecular analysis, and observed infection control practices at the outpatient hemodialysis facility where she received care. The index patient's only identified hepatitis B risk factor was hemodialysis treatment. The facility had no other patients with known active HBV infection. One patient had evidence of a resolved HBV infection. Investigation of this individual, who was identified as the source patient, indicated that HBV reverse seroconversion and reactivation had occurred in the setting of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection and a failed kidney transplant. HBV whole genome sequences analysis from the index and source patients indicated 99.9% genetic homology. Facility observations revealed multiple infection control breaches. Inadequate dilution of the source patient's sample during HBV testing might have led to a false-negative result, delaying initiation of hemodialysis in isolation. In conclusion, HBV transmission occurred after an HIV-positive hemodialysis patient with transplant-related immunosuppression experienced HBV reverse seroconversion and reactivation. Providers should be aware of this possibility, especially among severely immunosuppressed patients, and maintain stringent infection control.

  10. Characteristics of seroconversion and implications for diagnosis of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome: acute and convalescent serology among a prospective cohort of early Lyme disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rebman, Alison W; Crowder, Lauren A; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Aucott, John N

    2015-03-01

    Two-tier serology is often used to confirm a diagnosis of Lyme disease. One hundred and four patients with physician diagnosed erythema migrans rashes had blood samples taken before and after 3 weeks of doxycycline treatment for early Lyme disease. Acute and convalescent serologies for Borrelia burgdorferi were interpreted according to the 2-tier antibody testing criteria proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Serostatus was compared across several clinical and demographic variables both pre- and post-treatment. Forty-one patients (39.4%) were seronegative both before and after treatment. The majority of seropositive individuals on both acute and convalescent serology had a positive IgM western blot and a negative IgG western blot. IgG seroconversion on western blot was infrequent. Among the baseline variables included in the analysis, disseminated lesions (p < 0.0001), a longer duration of illness (p < 0.0001), and a higher number of reported symptoms (p = 0.004) were highly significantly associated with positive final serostatus, while male sex (p = 0.05) was borderline significant. This variability, and the lack of seroconversion in a subset of patients, highlights the limitations of using serology alone in identifying early Lyme disease. Furthermore, these findings underline the difficulty for rheumatologists in identifying a prior exposure to Lyme disease in caring for patients with medically unexplained symptoms or fibromyalgia-like syndromes.

  11. Reversal of B-cell hyperactivation and functional impairment is associated with HBsAg seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangsheng; Shang, Qinghua; Chen, Xinyue; Nie, Weimin; Zou, Zhengsheng; Huang, Ang; Meng, Ming; Jin, Lei; Xu, Ruonan; Zhang, Ji-Yuan; Fu, Junliang; Wang, Lifeng; Tang, Zirong; Xie, Yunbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    B cells play an important role in the clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and protection against reinfection. However, the functional characteristics of these cells that are associated with the outcome of chronic HBV infection remain unknown. We comprehensively investigated the frequency, phenotype, and function of peripheral B-cell subsets from CHB patients in different phases: immune tolerance (IT), immune activation (IA), immune clearance (IC), responders with HBsAg seroconversion (resolved patients, RP), and healthy controls (HC). IA patients displayed lower percentages of peripheral blood memory B cells compared with the other groups. Overall polyclonal activation of B cells, indicated by higher levels of activation markers and secretion of IgG and IgM, was observed in IA patients. This B-cell hyperactivation could be induced by increased IFN-α and soluble CD40 ligands in IA patients. Notably, the expression of the co-stimulator molecule CD80 and serum HBsAb and the frequency of HBsAg-specific B cells were significantly decreased in IT, IA, and IC patients compared with HC subjects. More importantly, the B-cell hyperactivation, co-stimulatory molecule downregulation and HBsAg-specific B-cell impairment were reversed in RP patients. The reversal of B-cell hyperactivation and functional impairment is associated with HBsAg seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B patients. PMID:25849120

  12. Seroconversion in captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) following administration of a chicken head bait/SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine combination.

    PubMed

    Knobel, D L; Liebenberg, A; Du Toit, J T

    2003-03-01

    This study determined the proportion of captive juvenile and adult African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) that developed protective titres of rabies neutralising antibodies following ingestion of a chicken head bait/SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine combination. A single chicken head containing 1.8 ml of SAG-2 vaccine (10(8.0) TCID50/ml) in a plastic blister was fed to each of eight adult and three juvenile wild dogs. Bait ingestion resulted in a significant rise in serum neutralising antibody titres. Overall seroconversion rate was eight out of 11 (72.7%), and all the puppies and five out of eight (62.5%) adults showed potentially protective levels of antibodies on day 31. The mean post-vaccination neutralising antibody titre was within the range reported to be protective against challenge with virulent rabies virus in other species. PMID:12825684

  13. Seroconversion in captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) following administration of a chicken head bait/SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine combination.

    PubMed

    Knobel, D L; Liebenberg, A; Du Toit, J T

    2003-03-01

    This study determined the proportion of captive juvenile and adult African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) that developed protective titres of rabies neutralising antibodies following ingestion of a chicken head bait/SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine combination. A single chicken head containing 1.8 ml of SAG-2 vaccine (10(8.0) TCID50/ml) in a plastic blister was fed to each of eight adult and three juvenile wild dogs. Bait ingestion resulted in a significant rise in serum neutralising antibody titres. Overall seroconversion rate was eight out of 11 (72.7%), and all the puppies and five out of eight (62.5%) adults showed potentially protective levels of antibodies on day 31. The mean post-vaccination neutralising antibody titre was within the range reported to be protective against challenge with virulent rabies virus in other species.

  14. A comparison of mouse parvovirus 1 infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice: susceptibility, replication, shedding, and seroconversion.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Kenneth S; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Perkins, Cheryl L; Banu, Laila A; Jennings, Steven M; Francis, Brian C; Shek, William R

    2015-02-01

    This study characterized the effects of challenge with a field isolate of mouse parvovirus 1 (MPV1e) in C57BL/6NCrl (B6) and BALB/cAnNCrl (C) mice. We found that C mice were more susceptible to MPV1e infection than were B6 mice; ID50 were 50 to 100 times higher after gavage and 10-fold higher after intraperitoneal injection in B6 as compared with C mice. To evaluate the host strain effect on the pathogenesis of MPV1e, B6 and C mice were inoculated by gavage. Feces and tissues, including mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), ileum, spleen and blood, were collected for analysis by quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess infection and fecal shedding and by RT-qPCR to evaluate replication. Peak levels of MPV1e shedding, infection, and replication were on average 3.4, 4.3, and 6.2 times higher, respectively, in C than in B6 mice. Peaks occurred between 3 and 10 d after inoculation in C mice but between 5 and 14 d in B6 mice. Multiplexed fluorometric immunoassays detected seroconversion in 2 of 3 C mice at 7 d after inoculation and in all 3 B6 mice at 10 d. By 56 d after inoculation, viral replication was no longer detectable, and fecal shedding was very low; infection persisted in ileum, spleen, and MLN, with levels higher in C than B6 mice and highest in MLN. Therefore, the lower susceptibility of B6 mice, as compared with C mice, to MPV1e infection was associated with lower levels of infection, replication, and shedding and delayed seroconversion.

  15. Hepatitis C Virus-Multispecific T-Cell Responses without Viremia or Seroconversion among Egyptian Health Care Workers at High Risk of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zainab; Sobhy, Maha; Rewisha, Eman; Mahmoud, Mohamed A.; Amer, Mahmoud A.; Del Sorbo, Mariarosaria; Capone, Stefania; Nicosia, Alfredo; Folgori, Antonella; Hashem, Mohamed; El-Kamary, Samer S.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) has been reported among exposed individuals without viremia or seroconversion. Limited data are available regarding CMI among at-risk, seronegative, aviremic Egyptian health care workers (HCW), where HCV genotype 4 predominates. We investigated CMI responses among HCW at the National Liver Institute, where over 85% of the patients are HCV infected. We quantified HCV-specific CMI in 52 seronegative aviremic Egyptian HCW using a gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot assay in response to 7 HCV genotype 4a overlapping 15-mer peptide pools covering most of the viral genome. A positive HCV-specific IFN-γ response was detected in 29 of 52 HCW (55.8%), where 21 (40.4%) had a positive response for two to seven HCV pools and 8 (15.4%) responded to only one pool. The average numbers of IFN-γ total spot-forming cells (SFC) per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) (± standard error of the mean [SEM]) in the 29 responding and 23 nonresponding HCW were 842 ± 141 and 64 ± 15, respectively (P < 0.001). Flow cytometry indicated that both CD4+ and CD4− T cells produced IFN-γ. In summary, more than half of Egyptian HCW demonstrated strong HCV multispecific CMI without viremia or seroconversion, suggesting possible clearance of low HCV exposure(s). These data suggest that detecting anti-HCV and viremia to determine past exposure to HCV can lead to an underestimation of the true disease exposure and that CMI response may contribute to the low degree of chronic HCV infection in these HCW. These findings could have strong implications for planning vaccine studies among populations with a high HCV exposure rate. Further studies are needed to determine whether these responses are protective. PMID:22441392

  16. Hepatitis C virus seroconversion among HIV-positive men who have sex with men with no history of injection drug use: Results from a clinical HIV cohort

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra L; Mazzulli, Tony; Manno, Michael; Raboud, Janet; Allen, Vanessa G; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; McGee, Frank; Millson, Peggy; Remis, Robert S; Wobeser, Wendy; Cooper, Curtis; Rourke, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internationally, there is a growing recognition that hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be sexually transmitted among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). OBJECTIVE: To report the first Canadian estimate of HCV seroincidence in 2000 to 2010 and its risk factors among HIV-positive MSM with no known history of injection drug use. METHODS: Data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study, an ongoing cohort of individuals in HIV care in Ontario, were analyzed. Data were obtained from medical charts, interviews and record linkage with the provincial public health laboratories. The analysis was restricted to 1534 MSM who did not report injection drug use and had undergone ≥2 HCV antibody tests, of which the first was negative (median 6.1 person-years [PY] of follow-up; sum 9987 PY). RESULTS: In 2000 to 2010, 51 HCV seroconversions were observed, an overall incidence of 5.1 per 1000 PY (95% CI 3.9 to 6.7). Annual incidence varied from 1.6 to 8.9 per 1000 PY, with no statistical evidence of a temporal trend. Risk for seroconversion was elevated among men who had ever had syphilis (adjusted HR 2.5 [95% CI 1.1 to 5.5) and men who had acute syphilis infection in the previous 18 months (adjusted HR 2.8 [95% CI 1.0 to 7.9]). Risk was lower for men who had initiated antiretroviral treatment (adjusted HR 0.49 [95% CI 0.25 to 0.95]). There were no statistically significant effects of age, ethnicity, region, CD4 cell count or HIV viral load. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that periodic HCV rescreening may be appropriate in Ontario among HIV-positive MSM. Future research should seek evidence whether syphilis is simply a marker for high-risk sexual behaviour or networks, or whether it potentiates sexual HCV transmission among individuals with HIV. PMID:25798149

  17. Pegylated Interferon α-2a Triggers NK-Cell Functionality and Specific T-Cell Responses in Patients with Chronic HBV Infection without HBsAg Seroconversion.

    PubMed

    Bruder Costa, Juliana; Dufeu-Duchesne, Tania; Leroy, Vincent; Bertucci, Inga; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Pouget, Noelle; Brevot-Lutton, Ophelie; Bourliere, Marc; Zoulim, Fabien; Plumas, Joel; Aspord, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (Peg-IFN-α) represents a therapeutic alternative to the prolonged use of nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. The mechanisms leading to a positive clinical outcome remain unclear. As immune responses are critical for virus control, we investigated the effects of Peg-IFN-α on both innate and adaptive immunity, and related it to the clinical evolution. The phenotypic and functional features of the dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells and HBV-specific CD4/CD8 T cells were analyzed in HBeAg-negative CHB patients treated for 48-weeks with NA alone or together with Peg-IFN-α, before, during and up to 2-years after therapy. Peg-IFN-α induced an early activation of DCs, a potent expansion of the CD56bright NK subset, and enhanced the activation and functionality of the CD56dim NK subset. Peg-IFN-α triggered an increase in the frequencies of Th1- and Th17-oriented HBV-specific CD4/CD8 T cells. Peg-IFN-α reversed the unresponsiveness of patients to a specific stimulation. Most of the parameters returned to baseline after the stop of Peg-IFN-α therapy. Peg-IFN-α impacts both innate and adaptive immunity, overcoming dysfunctional immune responses in CHB patients. These modulations were not associated with seroconversion, which questioned the benefit of the add-on Peg-IFN-α treatment. PMID:27348813

  18. Pegylated Interferon α-2a Triggers NK-Cell Functionality and Specific T-Cell Responses in Patients with Chronic HBV Infection without HBsAg Seroconversion

    PubMed Central

    Bruder Costa, Juliana; Dufeu-Duchesne, Tania; Leroy, Vincent; Bertucci, Inga; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Pouget, Noelle; Brevot-Lutton, Ophelie; Bourliere, Marc; Zoulim, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (Peg-IFN-α) represents a therapeutic alternative to the prolonged use of nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. The mechanisms leading to a positive clinical outcome remain unclear. As immune responses are critical for virus control, we investigated the effects of Peg-IFN-α on both innate and adaptive immunity, and related it to the clinical evolution. The phenotypic and functional features of the dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells and HBV-specific CD4/CD8 T cells were analyzed in HBeAg-negative CHB patients treated for 48-weeks with NA alone or together with Peg-IFN-α, before, during and up to 2-years after therapy. Peg-IFN-α induced an early activation of DCs, a potent expansion of the CD56bright NK subset, and enhanced the activation and functionality of the CD56dim NK subset. Peg-IFN-α triggered an increase in the frequencies of Th1- and Th17-oriented HBV-specific CD4/CD8 T cells. Peg-IFN-α reversed the unresponsiveness of patients to a specific stimulation. Most of the parameters returned to baseline after the stop of Peg-IFN-α therapy. Peg-IFN-α impacts both innate and adaptive immunity, overcoming dysfunctional immune responses in CHB patients. These modulations were not associated with seroconversion, which questioned the benefit of the add-on Peg-IFN-α treatment. PMID:27348813

  19. Impact of a decade of successful antiretroviral therapy initiated at HIV-1 seroconversion on blood and rectal reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Malatinkova, Eva; Spiegelaere, Ward De; Bonczkowski, Pawel; Kiselinova, Maja; Vervisch, Karen; Trypsteen, Wim; Johnson, Margaret; Verhofstede, Chris; de Looze, Danny; Murray, Charles; Loes, Sabine Kinloch-de; Vandekerckhove, Linos

    2015-01-01

    Persistent reservoirs remain the major obstacles to achieve an HIV-1 cure. Prolonged early antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce the extent of reservoirs and allow for virological control after ART discontinuation. We compared HIV-1 reservoirs in a cross-sectional study using polymerase chain reaction-based techniques in blood and tissue of early-treated seroconverters, late-treated patients, ART-naïve seroconverters, and long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) who have spontaneous virological control without treatment. A decade of early ART reduced the total and integrated HIV-1 DNA levels compared with later treatment initiation, but not reaching the low levels found in LTNPs. Total HIV-1 DNA in rectal biopsies did not differ between cohorts. Importantly, lower viral transcription (HIV-1 unspliced RNA) and enhanced immune preservation (CD4/CD8), reminiscent of LTNPs, were found in early compared to late-treated patients. This suggests that early treatment is associated with some immunovirological features of LTNPs that may improve the outcome of future interventions aimed at a functional cure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09115.001 PMID:26439007

  20. Efficacy and safety of continuous 4-year telbivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Thongsawat, S; Gane, E J; Liaw, Y-F; Jia, J; Hou, J; Chan, H L Y; Papatheodoridis, G; Wan, M; Niu, J; Bao, W; Trylesinski, A; Naoumov, N V

    2013-01-01

    In the phase-III GLOBE/015 studies, telbivudine demonstrated superior efficacy vs lamivudine during 2-year treatment in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB). After completion, 847 patients had an option to continue telbivudine treatment for further 2 years. A total of 596 (70%) of telbivudine-treated patients, who were serum HBV DNA positive or negative and without genotypic resistance to telbivudine at the end of the GLOBE/015 trials, were enrolled into a further 2-year extension study. A group of 502 patients completed 4 years of continuous telbivudine treatment and were included in the telbivudine per-protocol population. Amongst 293 HBeAg-positive patients, 76.2% had undetectable serum HBV DNA and 86.0% had normal serum ALT at the end of 4 years. Notably, the cumulative rate of HBeAg seroconversion was 53.2%. Amongst 209 HBeAg-negative patients, 86.4% had undetectable HBV DNA and 89.6% had normal serum ALT. In patients who had discontinued telbivudine treatment due to HBeAg seroconversion, the HBeAg response was durable in 82% of patients (median 111 weeks of off-treatment follow-up). The cumulative 4-year resistance rate was 10.6% for HBeAg-positive and 10.0% for HBeAg-negative patients. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity and transient. Renal function measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) increased by 14.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 (16.6%) from baseline to 4 years (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB patients without resistance after 2 years, two additional years of telbivudine treatment continued to provide effective viral suppression with a favourable safety profile. Moreover, telbivudine achieved 53% of HBeAg seroconversion in HBeAg-positive patients. PMID:23490388

  1. Effect of maternally acquired Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus-specific antibody in pigs on establishment of latency and seroconversion to differential glycoproteins after low dose challenge.

    PubMed

    McCaw, M B; Osorio, F A; Wheeler, J; Xu, J; Erickson, G A

    1997-04-01

    This study investigated whether (1) passively immune pigs could become latently infected after challenge with low doses of wild type pseudorabies virus (PRV) and (2) if seroconversion to PRV could be consistently detected using two commercially available differential diagnostic ELISAs. Three litters of piglets with passively acquired PRV serum neutralizing (SN) antibody (geometric mean titers 47.03 to 95.10) were challenged at 6 to 12 days of age with 236 to 500 TCID50 of Shope strain virus; pigs were vaccinated at 11 weeks of age with a commercially available genetically engineered vaccine (TK- gE- gG- Iowa S62 strain PRV). Vaccination was intended to reduce the risk of reactivation of latent infection resulting in spread of virulent PRV infection to previously uninfected pigs during the experiment. Vaccination at this age also approximated common field practices in infected herds. After 15 weeks, all challenged pigs were seropositive on the PRV glycoprotein (g or gp) E differential ELISA but were seronegative on the gG differential ELISA. All three challenge groups had pigs that were latently infected as evidenced by the detection of PRV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay of their trigeminal ganglia (TG). There was a significant inverse relationship observed for age at challenge and the proportion of PCR positive pigs in the group 15 weeks postchallenge (p = 0.0004). This trend was independent of the passively acquired PRV SN antibody titers at challenge. In this study, passively acquired antibody did not provide protection against establishment of latent infection in piglets after exposure to low doses of virulent PRV. These latent infections were detected serologically by only one of two available differential diagnostic ELISA. PMID:9220600

  2. High rates of viral suppression after long-term entecavir treatment of Asian patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Pan, Calvin Q; Tong, Myron; Kowdley, Kris V; Hu, Ke-Qin; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yoon, Seung Kew; Lee, Samuel S; Cohen, David; Tang, Hong; Tsai, Naoky

    2012-09-01

    There are limited data on the effects of long-term entecavir therapy in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We performed a post hoc analysis of 94 Asian hepatitis B e antigen-positive (HBeAg+), nucleos(t)ide analogue-naive patients who received 5 years of therapy with entecavir (up to 2 years in study ETV-022 and the remainder in study ETV-901). Among patients completing week 240, 95% (63 of 66) had levels of hepatitis B virus DNA <300 copies/mL, and 76% (50 of 66) had normalized levels of alanine aminotransferase. In addition to patients who achieved a serologic response during ETV-022, a further 40% (26 of 65) achieved HBeAg loss, and 18% (12 of 65) underwent HBeAg seroconversion through year 5 of entecavir therapy. No resistance to entecavir was detected, and the safety profile was consistent with previous reports. The long-term efficacy and safety of entecavir are therefore comparable between Asians and the overall population of HBeAg+ patients with CHB.

  3. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  4. Monitoring of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibody Seroconversion in Asymptomatically Infected Blood Donors: Systematic Comparison of Nine Commercial Anti-HEV IgM and IgG Assays.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-08-22

    Diagnosis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is usually determined serologically by detection of the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies or rising anti-HEV IgG titers. However, serological assays have demonstrated a significant variation in their sensitivities and specificities. In this study, we present the systematic comparison of different immunological anti-HEV assays using complete seroconversion panels of 10 virologically confirmed HEV genotype 3 infected individuals. Assay sensitivities were further evaluated by testing serially diluted World Health Organization (WHO) reference reagent for hepatitis E virus antibody and one patient sample infected with HEV genotype 3. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibody presence was determined using the immunological assays Wantai HEV IgM/IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Sanbio, Uden, The Netherlands), recomWell HEV IgM/IgG (Mikrogen, Neuried, Germany), HEV IgM ELISA 3.0, HEV ELISA, HEV ELISA 4.0, Assure HEV IgM Rapid Test (all MP Biomedicals Europe, Illkirch Cedex, France) and Anti-HEV ELISA (IgM/IgG, Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany). The assays showed differences regarding their analytical and diagnostic sensitivities, with anti-HEV IgM assays (n = 5) being more divergent compared to anti-HEV IgG (n = 4) assays in this study. Considerable variations were observed particularly for the detection period of IgM antibodies. This is the first study systematically characterizing serologic assays on the basis of seroconversion panels, providing sample conformity for a conclusive comparison. Future studies should include the assay comparison covering the four different genotypes.

  5. Monitoring of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibody Seroconversion in Asymptomatically Infected Blood Donors: Systematic Comparison of Nine Commercial Anti-HEV IgM and IgG Assays

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is usually determined serologically by detection of the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies or rising anti-HEV IgG titers. However, serological assays have demonstrated a significant variation in their sensitivities and specificities. In this study, we present the systematic comparison of different immunological anti-HEV assays using complete seroconversion panels of 10 virologically confirmed HEV genotype 3 infected individuals. Assay sensitivities were further evaluated by testing serially diluted World Health Organization (WHO) reference reagent for hepatitis E virus antibody and one patient sample infected with HEV genotype 3. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibody presence was determined using the immunological assays Wantai HEV IgM/IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Sanbio, Uden, The Netherlands), recomWell HEV IgM/IgG (Mikrogen, Neuried, Germany), HEV IgM ELISA 3.0, HEV ELISA, HEV ELISA 4.0, Assure HEV IgM Rapid Test (all MP Biomedicals Europe, Illkirch Cedex, France) and Anti-HEV ELISA (IgM/IgG, Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany). The assays showed differences regarding their analytical and diagnostic sensitivities, with anti-HEV IgM assays (n = 5) being more divergent compared to anti-HEV IgG (n = 4) assays in this study. Considerable variations were observed particularly for the detection period of IgM antibodies. This is the first study systematically characterizing serologic assays on the basis of seroconversion panels, providing sample conformity for a conclusive comparison. Future studies should include the assay comparison covering the four different genotypes. PMID:27556482

  6. Monitoring of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibody Seroconversion in Asymptomatically Infected Blood Donors: Systematic Comparison of Nine Commercial Anti-HEV IgM and IgG Assays.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is usually determined serologically by detection of the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies or rising anti-HEV IgG titers. However, serological assays have demonstrated a significant variation in their sensitivities and specificities. In this study, we present the systematic comparison of different immunological anti-HEV assays using complete seroconversion panels of 10 virologically confirmed HEV genotype 3 infected individuals. Assay sensitivities were further evaluated by testing serially diluted World Health Organization (WHO) reference reagent for hepatitis E virus antibody and one patient sample infected with HEV genotype 3. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibody presence was determined using the immunological assays Wantai HEV IgM/IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Sanbio, Uden, The Netherlands), recomWell HEV IgM/IgG (Mikrogen, Neuried, Germany), HEV IgM ELISA 3.0, HEV ELISA, HEV ELISA 4.0, Assure HEV IgM Rapid Test (all MP Biomedicals Europe, Illkirch Cedex, France) and Anti-HEV ELISA (IgM/IgG, Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany). The assays showed differences regarding their analytical and diagnostic sensitivities, with anti-HEV IgM assays (n = 5) being more divergent compared to anti-HEV IgG (n = 4) assays in this study. Considerable variations were observed particularly for the detection period of IgM antibodies. This is the first study systematically characterizing serologic assays on the basis of seroconversion panels, providing sample conformity for a conclusive comparison. Future studies should include the assay comparison covering the four different genotypes. PMID:27556482

  7. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  8. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  7. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  8. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  9. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  10. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  11. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  12. Continuous up to 4 Years Entecavir Treatment of HBV-Infected Adolescents – A Longitudinal Study in Real Life

    PubMed Central

    Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Smok, Beata; Rajewski, Paweł; Wietlicka-Piszcz, Magdalena; Halota, Waldemar; Tretyn, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term (up to 4 years) efficacy and safety of entecavir ETV treatment and analysed the significance of baseline and on-treatment factors in long-term ETV outcomes in adolescents with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We determined the cumulative virological and serological outcomes of 44 adolescents with CHB receiving ETV for up to 4 years. To investigate the dynamics of HBV DNA, ALT activity and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion over time and their associations with the considered factors, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used. The cumulative rates of undetectable HBV DNA (<20 IU/ml) and HBeAg seroconversion after 4 years were 89.7% and 55.4%, respectively. In the study group, we showed that having undetectable HBV DNA at the 6th or 12th month of therapy predicted the achievement of a sustained response rate (SRR, defined as the loss of HBV DNA, loss of HBeAg and ALT normalization) at year 3 of ETV therapy (P = 0.048, OR = 5.83; P = 0.012; OR = 14.57, respectively). The GEE analysis indicated that of the different factors, the duration of ETV therapy had a strong impact on the achievement of virological suppression, HBeAg seroconversion and SRR in adolescents. Each month after the initiation of therapy, the odds of loss of HBV DNA increased by approximately 5% (OR = 1.05, P<0.0001), on average. Additionally, the GEE analysis revealed that adolescents with an age at infection of ≥10 years had 3 times higher odds of achieving undetectable HBV DNA than patients with a younger infection age (OR = 3.67, P = 0.028). None of the ETV-treated patients reported significant adverse effects. ETV is an effective and safe treatment option for adolescents with CHB. Undetectable HBV DNA in the 6th and/or 12th month of ETV treatment and older age at infection could predict maintained virological suppression. PMID:27685782

  13. Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in a Multicenter Cohort of HIV-Positive Patients in Spain 2004–2011: Increasing Rates of HCV Diagnosis but Not of HCV Seroconversions

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Monge Corella, Susana; Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Félix; Blanco, José Ramón; Santos, Ignacio; del Romero, Jorge; Segura, Ferrán; Portilla, Joaquín; Guillén, Santiago Moreno; del Amo, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We aim to describe rates and risk factors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) diagnoses, follow-up HCV testing and HCV seroconversion from 2004–2011 in a cohort of HIV-positive persons in Spain. Methods CoRIS is a multicentre, open and prospective cohort recruiting adult HIV-positive patients naïve to antiretroviral therapy. We analysed patients with at least one negative and one follow-up HCV serology. Incidence Rates (IR) were calculated and multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted Rates Ratios (aIRR). Results Of 2112 subjects, 53 HCV diagnoses were observed, IR = 0.93/100py (95%CI: 0.7–1.2). IR increased from 0.88 in 2004–05 to 1.36 in 2010–11 (aIRR = 1.55; 95%CI: 0.37–6.55). In men who have sex with men (MSM) from 0.76 to 1.10 (aIRR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.31–6.82); in heterosexual (HTX) subjects from 1.19 to 1.28 (aIRR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.11–10.24). HCV seroconversion rates decreased from 1.77 to 0.65 (aIRR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.12–1.11); in MSM from 1.06 to 0.49 (aIRR = 0.46; 95%CI: 0.09–2.31); in HTX from 2.55 to 0.59 (aIRR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.06–0.98). HCV infection risk was higher for injecting drug users (IDU) compared to HTX (aIRR = 9.63;95%CI: 2.9–32.2); among MSM, for subjects aged 40–50 compared to 30 or less (IRR = 3.21; 95%CI: 1.7–6.2); and among HTX, for female sex (aIRR = 2.35; 95%CI: 1.03–5.34) and <200 CD4-count (aIRR = 2.39; 95%CI: 0.83–6.89). Conclusion We report increases in HCV diagnoses rates which seem secondary to intensification of HCV follow-up testing but not to rises in HCV infection rates. HCV IR is higher in IDU. In MSM, HCV IR increases with age. Among HTX, HCV IR is higher in women and in subjects with impaired immunological situation. PMID:25549224

  14. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  15. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget).

  16. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget). PMID:25457752

  17. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  18. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  19. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  20. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  1. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  2. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  3. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  4. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  5. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  6. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  7. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  8. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  9. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  10. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  11. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  12. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  13. CONSORT: Effects of adding adefovirdipivoxil to peginterferon alfa-2a at different time points on HBeAg-positivepatients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ka; Cao, Hong; Liang, Jiayi; Shu, Xin; Sun, Haixia; Li, Gang; Xu, Qihuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of the addition of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (started at different time points) to pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-INF-α2a) and PEG-INF-α2a monotherapy. This prospective, randomized study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of PEG-INF-α2a and ADV at different time points.120 patients were randomized into groups that received PEG-INF-α2a as monotherapy (group A) or in combination with ADV started at week 0 (group B), 12 (group C), or 24 (group D). All patients were followed for 48 weeks. Efficacy and safety analyses were performed. Methods: Patients in group a received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a by subcutaneous injection once weekly for 48 weeks. Patients in the ADV add-on group received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a subcutaneously once weekly and received 10 mg of ADV administered once daily for 48 weeks. HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg, and hepatitis B e antibody levels were determined. Responses were determined at week 12 (ADV add-on), the end of treatment for PEG-INF-α2a (48weeks) and ADV (EOT) and at the end of 96 weeks of follow-up (EOF). Results: The rate of HBV DNA loss were higher in the combination groups than group A at the week 12, week 48, the EOT and EOF (P < 0.05). The rates of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss were similar among the treatment groups (P>0.05). The alanineaminotransferase (ALT) normalization rate was higher in the combination group than group A only at the EOT (P = 0.007). By the EOF, the patients with ADV added at week 12 achieved higher rates of HBV DNA loss (71.9%), HBeAg seroconversion (50.0%), HBsAg loss (15.6%), and ALT normalization (78.1%). Conclusions: PEG-INF-α2a plus ADV combination therapy is safe and superior to PEG-INF-α2amonotherapyfor decreasing serum HBV DNA and normalizing the ALT level but has no significant impact on the rate of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss. Adding ADV at week 12 may be an

  14. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  15. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  16. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  17. HIV-seroconversion following sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2005-10-01

    Transkei is a poverty stricken former black homeland, now a part of the Eastern Cape Province. Unemployment and the incidental violence are very high. Women are mainly responsible for bringing up their children. Single parenting is also common in this community. Sexual abuse of children is selected to be under-reported. This reports the case of a 13-year-old girl who was raped twice within three months and brought to the Sinawe Centre of the Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. Failure to adhere to post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has undermined the implementation of antiretroviral roll out programme by the government. The history, physical examination and laboratory investigations of this case are given. Preventive steps are suggested. PMID:16198970

  18. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  19. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  20. Vitamin E treatment for children with chronic hepatitis B: A randomized placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gerner, Patrick; Posselt, Hans-Georg; Krahl, Andreas; Ballauff, Antje; Innerhofer, Albina; Binder, Christa; Wenzl, Tobias G; Zense, Matthias; Hector, Ariadne; Dockter, Gerhard; Adam, Rüdiger; Neubert, Jenny; Claßen, Martin; van Gemmern, Robert; Wirth, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of vitamin E in children with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with chronic hepatitis B, positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), to receive either vitamin E or placebo once daily for 6 mo in a 3:1 ratio and double-blind manner. The primary end point was HBeAg seroconversion, defined as the loss of HBeAg, undetectable levels of serum hepatitis B virus DNA, and the appearance of antibodies against HBeAg 12 mo after therapy. RESULTS: At baseline visit, 49 patients had normal and 43 had increased serum aminotransferase levels. Twenty-nine patients did not respond to previous treatment with interferon-α or lamivudine. Seventy-six children completed the study; 16 were non-compliant (n = 7), lost to follow-up (n = 7), or started another antiviral treatment (n = 3). Intention-to-treat analysis showed HBeAg seroconversion in 16 children (23.2%) treated with vitamin E and two (8.7%) in the placebo group (P = 0.13). Vitamin E was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: There is only a tendency that vitamin E may promote HBeAg seroconversion. Therefore larger studies are needed to clarify the role of antioxidants in the therapy of chronic hepatitis B. PMID:19084935

  1. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  2. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  3. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  4. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  5. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  6. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  7. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  8. An Observational, Multicenter, Cohort Study Evaluating the Antiviral Efficacy and Safety in Korean Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Receiving Pegylated Interferon-alpha 2a (Pegasys)

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Young Eun; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, In Hee; Bae, Si Hyun; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Heo, Jeong; Jang, Jeong Won; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Kang Mo; Chung, Woo Jin; Choi, Moon Seok; Jang, Jae Young; Yim, Hyung Joon; Tak, Won Young; Yoon, Ki Tae; Park, Jun Yong; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Suk, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Woong; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, limited data are available regarding the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-IFN α-2a) in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), in whom hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is the most common type. We collected data from 439 patients (HBeAg positive, n = 349; HBeAg negative, n = 90) with CHB who were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a as a first-line therapy from 18 institutions. Treatment responses at the end of treatment (ET) and at 6 months posttreatment (PT6) were compared between the patients who were treated for 24 weeks versus 48 weeks, and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. In HBeAg-positive patients, those who received PEG-IFN α-2a for 48 weeks showed significantly higher HBV DNA suppression (HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL) than those who were treated for 24 weeks (48 weeks vs 24 weeks; at ET, 44.4% vs 36.7%, P = 0.035; at PT6, 35.9% vs 13.3%, P = 0.035). The HBeAg seroconversion rate at ET was 18.1% in 48-week treatment group, which is significantly higher than the 2.2% (P < 0.001) that was seen in 24-week treatment group. This finding also continued at PT6 (29.0% vs 10.0%, P < 0.001). Following 48 weeks of treatment in HBeAg-negative patients, HBV DNA suppression at ET was higher than in HBeAg-positive patients (87.8% vs 44.4%). AEs were typical of those associated with PEG-IFN α-2a. In naïve Korean HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with PEG-IFN α-2a, higher rates of HBV DNA suppression and HBeAg seroconversion were achieved in the 48-week treatment group than in the 24-week treatment group without additional risk of AEs. PMID:27057828

  9. An Observational, Multicenter, Cohort Study Evaluating the Antiviral Efficacy and Safety in Korean Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Receiving Pegylated Interferon-alpha 2a (Pegasys): TRACES Study.

    PubMed

    Chon, Young Eun; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, In Hee; Bae, Si Hyun; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Heo, Jeong; Jang, Jeong Won; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Kang Mo; Chung, Woo Jin; Choi, Moon Seok; Jang, Jae Young; Yim, Hyung Joon; Tak, Won Young; Yoon, Ki Tae; Park, Jun Yong; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Suk, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Woong; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Currently, limited data are available regarding the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-IFN α-2a) in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), in whom hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is the most common type.We collected data from 439 patients (HBeAg positive, n = 349; HBeAg negative, n = 90) with CHB who were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a as a first-line therapy from 18 institutions. Treatment responses at the end of treatment (ET) and at 6 months posttreatment (PT6) were compared between the patients who were treated for 24 weeks versus 48 weeks, and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated.In HBeAg-positive patients, those who received PEG-IFN α-2a for 48 weeks showed significantly higher HBV DNA suppression (HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL) than those who were treated for 24 weeks (48 weeks vs 24 weeks; at ET, 44.4% vs 36.7%, P = 0.035; at PT6, 35.9% vs 13.3%, P = 0.035). The HBeAg seroconversion rate at ET was 18.1% in 48-week treatment group, which is significantly higher than the 2.2% (P < 0.001) that was seen in 24-week treatment group. This finding also continued at PT6 (29.0% vs 10.0%, P < 0.001). Following 48 weeks of treatment in HBeAg-negative patients, HBV DNA suppression at ET was higher than in HBeAg-positive patients (87.8% vs 44.4%). AEs were typical of those associated with PEG-IFN α-2a.In naïve Korean HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with PEG-IFN α-2a, higher rates of HBV DNA suppression and HBeAg seroconversion were achieved in the 48-week treatment group than in the 24-week treatment group without additional risk of AEs.

  10. An Observational, Multicenter, Cohort Study Evaluating the Antiviral Efficacy and Safety in Korean Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Receiving Pegylated Interferon-alpha 2a (Pegasys): TRACES Study.

    PubMed

    Chon, Young Eun; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, In Hee; Bae, Si Hyun; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Heo, Jeong; Jang, Jeong Won; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Kang Mo; Chung, Woo Jin; Choi, Moon Seok; Jang, Jae Young; Yim, Hyung Joon; Tak, Won Young; Yoon, Ki Tae; Park, Jun Yong; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Suk, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Woong; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Currently, limited data are available regarding the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-IFN α-2a) in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), in whom hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is the most common type.We collected data from 439 patients (HBeAg positive, n = 349; HBeAg negative, n = 90) with CHB who were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a as a first-line therapy from 18 institutions. Treatment responses at the end of treatment (ET) and at 6 months posttreatment (PT6) were compared between the patients who were treated for 24 weeks versus 48 weeks, and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated.In HBeAg-positive patients, those who received PEG-IFN α-2a for 48 weeks showed significantly higher HBV DNA suppression (HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL) than those who were treated for 24 weeks (48 weeks vs 24 weeks; at ET, 44.4% vs 36.7%, P = 0.035; at PT6, 35.9% vs 13.3%, P = 0.035). The HBeAg seroconversion rate at ET was 18.1% in 48-week treatment group, which is significantly higher than the 2.2% (P < 0.001) that was seen in 24-week treatment group. This finding also continued at PT6 (29.0% vs 10.0%, P < 0.001). Following 48 weeks of treatment in HBeAg-negative patients, HBV DNA suppression at ET was higher than in HBeAg-positive patients (87.8% vs 44.4%). AEs were typical of those associated with PEG-IFN α-2a.In naïve Korean HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with PEG-IFN α-2a, higher rates of HBV DNA suppression and HBeAg seroconversion were achieved in the 48-week treatment group than in the 24-week treatment group without additional risk of AEs. PMID:27057828

  11. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  12. The Efficacy and Safety of Entecavir and Interferon Combination Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qiao-Ling; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Ling-Hong; Fu, Lin-Lin; Xiang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of entecavir (ETV) and interferon (IFN) combination therapy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) mono-infection via a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). All eligible RCTs evaluating combination therapy for treating CHB were identified from nine electronic databases. A meta-analysis was performed in accordance with the Cochrane Systemic Review handbook. Eleven trials encompassing 1010 participants were included in this meta-analysis. It showed that at 12 and ≥ 96 weeks of therapy, the combination of ETV and IFN was not better than ETV in improving the undetectable HBV DNA (12 weeks: RR=1.12, 95% CI=0.88-1.42; ≥ 96 weeks: RR = 0.64, 95% CI=0.21-1.98, respectively) and HBeAg seroconversion rates (12 weeks: RR=1.35, 95% CI=0.60-3.04; ≥ 96 weeks: RR=1.36, 95% CI=0.75-2.64, respectively). But at 48 weeks of therapy and approximately 2 years of follow up, combination therapy was superior to ETV in improving the undetectable HBV DNA (48 weeks: RR=1.46, 95% CI=1.13-1.90; follow up: RR=2.20, 95% CI=1.26-3.81, respectively) and HBeAg seroconversion rates (48 weeks: RR=1.82, 95% CI=1.44-2.30; follow up: RR=1.92, 95% CI=1.19-3.11, respectively). When compared to IFN group, at 24 and 48 weeks of therapy, combination group showed a greater undetectable HBV DNA (24 weeks: RR=2.14, 95% CI=1.59-2.89; 48 weeks: RR=2.28, 95% CI=1.54-3.37, respectively) and ALT normalization rate (24 weeks: RR=1.56, 95% CI= 1.24-1.96; 48 weeks: RR=1.55, 95% CI = 1.16-2.07, respectively). At 48 weeks of therapy, combination group achieved a greater HBeAg seroconversion rate than IFN (48 weeks: RR=1.58, 95% CI=1.24-2.00). No significant differences were observed in the side effects of the three therapies. So we can conclude that ETV and IFN combination therapy is more effective than ETV or IFN mono-therapy in CHB treatment. ETV, IFN, and the combination of the two are safe in CHB treatment. PMID

  13. Association of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase with treatment outcome in chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rui; Yang, Chen-Chen; Liu, Yong; Xia, Juan; Su, Ran; Xiong, Ya-Li; Wang, Gui-Yang; Sun, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Xiao-Min; Lu, Shan; Wu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels with chronic hepatitis B infection and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on clinical data collected from patients who had been positive for hepatitis B surface antigen for > 6 mo and who were antiviral-treatment naïve (n = 215) attending the Hepatitis Clinic at Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital between August 2010 and December 2013. Healthy individuals without liver disease (n = 83) were included as controls. Patients were categorized into four groups based on disease status as recommended by the European Association for the Study of the Liver: immune tolerance (IT; n = 47), HBeAg-positive hepatitis (EPH; n = 93), HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH; n = 20), and inactive carrier (IC; n = 55). Prediction of complete response (CR) based on serum GGT was also examined in EPH patients (n = 33) treated for 48 wk with nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy, including lamivudine plus adefovir combination therapy (n = 20) or entecavir monotherapy (n = 13). CR was defined as a serum hepatitis B virus DNA level < 500 copies/mL and HBeAg seroconversion by 48 wk of treatment. RESULTS: Serum GGT levels were significantly increased in EPH and ENH patients relative to the IT, IC, and healthy control groups (P < 0.01 for all). However, no significant difference in serum GGT levels was found between the EPH and ENH groups. Baseline serum GGT levels were significantly higher in patients who achieved CR (7/33; 21.2%) compared to patients in the non-CR group (26/33; 78.8%; P = 0.011). In addition, the decline in serum GGT was greater in CR patients compared to non-CR patients after 24 wk and 48 wk of treatment (P = 0.012 and P = 0.008, respectively). The receiver operating characteristic curve yielded a sensitivity of 85.71% and a specificity of 61.54% at a threshold value of 0.89 times the upper limit of normal for baseline serum GGT in the prediction of CR

  14. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  15. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  16. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  17. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  18. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  19. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  20. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  2. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  3. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. Classroom Composition and Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    Third-grade students in high ability groups in mathematics achieved greater gains than students in low ability groups. The opposite results occurred in reading achievement. Possible reasons for this difference include different instructional techniques for reading and math and the effect of home environment on learning. (IS)

  5. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  6. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  7. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  8. Fluorescence based Aptasensors for the determination of hepatitis B virus e antigen.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongrong; Xi, Zhijiang; Deng, Yan; He, Nongyue

    2016-01-01

    This research is aimed at selecting specific aptamer of hepatitis B e antigen by SELEX and its applications. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is used as an indicator of virological response when treating patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B. HBeAg also indicates a high viremia and high infectivity in untreated patients. With HBeAg modified magnetic beads as targets, three groups of aptamers are successfully selected. These are the first reported DNA aptamers that can specifically bind to HBeAg. Based on the property that the conformation changes upon binding to its target, aptamer has emerged as ideal candidate in a variety of sensing applications. In this study, we present a simple strategy for aptamer-based fluorescence biosensors for the quantitative detection of HBeAg, in which a fluorescence labeled HBeAg aptamer serves as the molecular recognition element and a short DNA molecule that is complementary to the aptamer serves as the competitor. The LOD for HBeAg is 609 ng/mL. Later, the fluorescence system is deployed in HBeAg positive and negative blood serum (p < 0.05). The total detection assay could be completed in 2 min. These newly isolated aptamers could assist the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B. PMID:27499342

  9. Fluorescence based Aptasensors for the determination of hepatitis B virus e antigen

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rongrong; Xi, Zhijiang; Deng, Yan; He, Nongyue

    2016-01-01

    This research is aimed at selecting specific aptamer of hepatitis B e antigen by SELEX and its applications. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is used as an indicator of virological response when treating patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B. HBeAg also indicates a high viremia and high infectivity in untreated patients. With HBeAg modified magnetic beads as targets, three groups of aptamers are successfully selected. These are the first reported DNA aptamers that can specifically bind to HBeAg. Based on the property that the conformation changes upon binding to its target, aptamer has emerged as ideal candidate in a variety of sensing applications. In this study, we present a simple strategy for aptamer-based fluorescence biosensors for the quantitative detection of HBeAg, in which a fluorescence labeled HBeAg aptamer serves as the molecular recognition element and a short DNA molecule that is complementary to the aptamer serves as the competitor. The LOD for HBeAg is 609 ng/mL. Later, the fluorescence system is deployed in HBeAg positive and negative blood serum (p < 0.05). The total detection assay could be completed in 2 min. These newly isolated aptamers could assist the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B. PMID:27499342

  10. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.

  11. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  12. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  13. Mastery Achievement of Intellectual Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, Richard J.; White, Richard T.

    1979-01-01

    Mastery learning techniques were improved through mathematics instruction based on a validated learning hierarchy, presenting tasks in a sequence consistent with the requirements of the hierarchy, and requiring learners to demonstrate achievement before being allowed to proceed. (Author/GDC)

  14. Achieving Standards through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Most states do not have the time or resources to develop environmental education standards from scratch. Highlights the role that environmental education and its interdisciplinary nature can play in helping students achieve. (DDR)

  15. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  16. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  17. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  18. Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

  19. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  20. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  1. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  2. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  3. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  4. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  5. Achieving Results in MBA Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Rice University's Jones Graduate School of Management achieves their mission for the communication program. Discusses three keys to the success of the program: individual coaching, integrated team instruction, and constant assessment of the students and the program. Presents an overview of the program. (SG)

  6. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  7. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  8. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  9. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  10. Achievement in Two School Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borth, Audrey M.

    The purpose of the study was to assess non-intellective correlates of achievement in a lower-class, all black, urban elementary school. These students were compared with a University school population which was different in many dimensions. There were residual similarities relative to the general role of the elementary school student. In neither…

  11. Literacy Achievement in Nongraded Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreide, Anita Therese

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal quantitative study compared literacy achievement of students from second through sixth grade based on two organizational systems: graded (traditional) and nongraded (multiage) classrooms. The California Standards Test (CST) scaled and proficiency scores for English-Language Arts (ELA) were used as the study's independent variable…

  12. PREDICTING ACHIEVEMENT FOR DEAF CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BONHAM, S.J., JR.

    THIS STUDY WAS DONE TO DETERMINE THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACHIEVEMENT TESTS WHEN USED TO EVALUATE DEAF CHILDREN. THE 36 CHILDREN SELECTED FOR THIS STUDY WERE IN GRADES 2, 4, AND 6 IN THE KENNEDY SCHOOL IN DAYTON, OHIO. ALL HAD SEVERE AUDITORY HANDICAPS AND WERE 10 TO 16 YEARS OLD. FOUR PSYCHOLOGISTS ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING…

  13. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  14. Perlman receives Sustained Achievement Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Charles; Perlman, David

    David Perlman was awarded the Sustained Achievement Award at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 10, 1997, in San Francisco, California. The award recognizes a journalist who has made significant, lasting, and consistent contributions to accurate reporting or writing on the geophysical sciences for the general public.

  15. Great achievements by dedicated nurses.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Alison

    2016-04-27

    Like many nurses, those featured here are motivated by a desire to do everything they can to give high quality care to their patients. Nurses are often reluctant to seek recognition for their achievements, but by talking publicly about the difference they have made, Gillian Elwood, Anja Templin and Sandra Wood are helping to share good practice. PMID:27191295

  16. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  17. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  18. Helping Rural Schools Achieve Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Senator Collins of Maine plans to fight for proper federal funding of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that allows rural schools to combine federal funding sources. Collins, and Senator Dianne Feinstein, will soon introduce legislation that will eliminate inequities in the current Social Security law that penalize teachers and other…

  19. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  20. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  1. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  2. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  3. Improved Efficacy of a pegylated interferon-α-2a stepwise optimization treatment strategy in the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pu; Yang, Feifei; Wang, Jinyu; Mao, Richeng; Qi, Xun; Huang, Yuxian; Zhang, Jiming

    2015-05-01

    Current pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN) treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients are suboptimal, and effective ways of improving PEG-IFN treatment efficacy are needed.This retrospective cohort study compared the efficacy of a PEG-IFN stepwise optimization treatment (PEG-IFN SOT) strategy with that of a 48-week PEG-IFN standard therapy (PEG-IFN ST) in HBeAg-positive CHB patients.A total of 110 patients were included in our study. Of these, 70 received the PEG-IFN SOT and 40 received the PEG-IFN ST (control group). We based the decision whether to add adefovir and/or extend the PEG-IFN-based treatment to 96 weeks on the patients' 12-week or 24-week early virological response (12W EVR, at least a 2 log10 reduction in HBV DNA copies/mL at week 12; 24W EVR, at least 1 log10 reduction in HBsAg IU/mL or HBsAg <1500 IU/mL at week 24) and their 48-week partial response (48W PR, 1.0 ≤HBeAg ≤10.0 S/CO or HBeAg >10.0 S/CO but HBsAg <1000 IU/mL).The HBeAg seroconversion rate 24 weeks post-PEG-IFN treatment was significantly higher in the PEG-IFN SOT than the PEG-IFN ST group (50% vs 22.5%, P = 0.005). The HBsAg clearance rates in the PEG-IFN SOT and ST groups were 10% and 0% (P = 0.04), respectively. Receiving PEG-IFN SOT (OR = 0.26, P = 0.01), ALT × ULN at baseline (OR = 0.74, P = 0.003), and achieving 12 and 24W EVR (OR = 0.29, P = 0.03) were independent factors associated with HBeAg seroconversion.PEG-IFN SOT is a promising strategy for achieving high rates of serological response in HBeAg-positive CHB patients.

  4. Achieving urinary continence in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsi-Yang

    2010-07-01

    Achievement of urinary continence is an important developmental step that most children attain with the assistance of their parents and caregivers. Debate continues as to the best time to toilet train; in some Asian and African cultures children are trained as infants, while training at age 2-3 years is more typical in Western cultures. Infant voiding is not merely a spinal reflex, as the sensation of bladder filling is relayed to the brain. However, the ability of the brain to inhibit bladder contractions, and to achieve coordinated bladder contraction with sphincter relaxation, matures over time. While there is a concern that later toilet training may be responsible for an increase in urinary incontinence in children, no controlled studies on early versus late toilet training exist to evaluate this hypothesis. A number of medical conditions such as spina bifida, posterior urethral valves, cerebral palsy and autism can cause incontinence and difficulties in toilet training. The decision to start toilet training a child should take into account both the parents' expectation of how independent the child will be in terms of toileting, and the child's developmental readiness, so that a realistic time course for toilet training can be implemented.

  5. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency.

  6. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  7. Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District (AISD) office of Research and Evaluation presents Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82 (BSA). The BSA answers the following questions: (1) How does AISD student achievement compare to student achievement nationwide? (2) How does AISD's 1981-82 student achievement compare to the achievement of students in past…

  8. Music training and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Cheek, J M; Smith, L R

    1999-01-01

    Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) mathematics scores of eighth graders who had received music instruction were compared according to whether the students were given private lessons. Comparisons also were made between students whose lessons were on the keyboard versus other music lessons. Analyses indicated that students who had private lessons for two or more years performed significantly better on the composite mathematics portion of the ITBS than did students who did not have private lessons. In addition, students who received lessons on the keyboard had significantly higher ITBS mathematics scores than did students whose lessons did not involve the keyboard. These results are discussed in relation to previous research on music training and mathematics achievement.

  9. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  10. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  11. Competency-Based Achievement System

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Shelley; Poth, Cheryl N.; Donoff, Michel; Humphries, Paul; Steiner, Ivan; Schipper, Shirley; Janke, Fred; Nichols, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residency programs require innovative means to assess residents’ competence in “soft” skills (eg, patient-centred care, communication, and professionalism) and to identify residents who are having difficulty early enough in their residency to provide remedial training. Objective of program To develop a method to assess residents’ competence in various skills and to identify residents who are having difficulty. Program description The Competency-Based Achievement System (CBAS) was designed to measure competence using 3 main principles: formative feedback, guided self-assessment, and regular face-to-face meetings. The CBAS is resident driven and provides a framework for meaningful interactions between residents and advisors. Residents use the CBAS to organize and review their feedback, to guide their own assessment of their progress, and to discern their future learning needs. Advisors use the CBAS to monitor, guide, and verify residents’ knowledge of and competence in important skills. Conclusion By focusing on specific skills and behaviour, the CBAS enables residents and advisors to make formative assessments and to communicate their findings. Feedback indicates that the CBAS is a user-friendly and helpful system to assess competence. PMID:21918129

  12. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks.

  13. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  14. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Vermont, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Vermont for 2010. Vermont's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white, low-income,…

  18. Reducing Measurement Error in Student Achievement Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero; Gori, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The achievement level is a variable measured with error, that can be estimated by means of the Rasch model. Teacher grades also measure the achievement level but they are expressed on a different scale. This paper proposes a method for combining these two scores to obtain a synthetic measure of the achievement level based on the theory developed…

  19. The Influence of Poverty on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt, poverty has a negative influence on student achievement, especially when achievement is measured by state-mandated standardized tests. However, some bureaucrats, such as state commissioners of education and even state governors, continue to downplay the influence of poverty on student achievement. New Jersey's Governor Chris…

  20. Self-Beliefs and Student Goal Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caroline J.; Derrer-Rendall, Nicola M.

    2011-01-01

    Two preliminary studies are presented investigating the self-beliefs that may affect goal achievement in a student population. In Study 1, goal achievement on an abstract task, where goals are externally set by others, is considered in relation to students' levels of optimism. In Study 2, goal achievement on academic performance, where goals are…

  1. The Intersection of Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbull, Elise; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background. The…

  2. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  3. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  4. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  5. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2012-12-01

    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

  6. Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Caprara, G V; Barbaranelli, C; Pastorelli, C; Bandura, A; Zimbardo, P G

    2000-07-01

    The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.

  7. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  8. Attitudes and Achievement of Bruneian Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. Results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. (Contains 46 references.)…

  9. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  10. Self Regulated Learning of High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathod, Ami

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on high achievers of Senior Secondary school. Main objectives were to identify the self regulated learners among the high achievers, to find out dominant components and characteristics operative in self regulated learners and to compare self regulated learning of learners with respect to their subject (science and non…

  11. The Literacy Achievement of Norwegian Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Rita; Roe, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the literacy achievement of Norwegian minority students, their reading habits, and their enjoyment of reading based on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 study. Aspects of their family background and attitudes towards school are related to literacy achievement results. A comparison between Denmark,…

  12. Academic Achievement Survey and Educational Assessment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The recent "Nationwide academic achievement and study situation survey" was clearly influenced by the idea of "authentic assessment", an educational assessment perspective focused on "quality" and "engagement". However, when "performance assessment", the assessment method corresponding to this focus, is adopted in academic achievement surveys, it…

  13. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Rhode Island showed gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for most racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and boys and girls. Achievement gaps between students narrowed in most cases at grades 4 and 8.…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Minnesota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Minnesota for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Minnesota showed mostly gains in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math,…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nebraska made gains across the board at the proficient-and-above level for all major racial/ethnic subgroups and low-income students in reading and math. Achievement gaps also narrowed across the board for all subgroups analyzed at grades 4, 8, and 11.…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Montana, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Montana for 2010. In grade 8 reading (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Montana showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic subgroups and…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Iowa, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Iowa for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Iowa had data for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls at the proficient and advanced levels. Trends at the proficient and advanced levels were…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maryland, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Maryland for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maryland had data for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls at the proficient and advanced levels. The percentage of students reaching the…

  20. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Virginia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Virginia for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Virginia showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the proficient-and-above and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Tennessee, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Tennessee for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Tennessee showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Massachusetts, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Massachusetts for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Massachusetts showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wisconsin, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wisconsin for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Wisconsin showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Missouri showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Utah, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Utah for 2010. Utah implemented new standards and cut scores in math so trend data that include 2009 are not available. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Utah showed across-the-board gains in reading at the basic,…

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps between…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kentucky, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kentucky for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kentucky showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls.…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New York showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major subgroups with just a few exceptions. Achievement gaps in reading and math also narrowed at grades 4 and 8 for most…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oregon for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Oregon showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Washington, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Washington for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Washington showed across-the-board gains in math--improvements at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Idaho, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Idaho for 2010. Idaho showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Latino and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. The state has also made progress in narrowing achievement gaps between Latino and white…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Texas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Texas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Texas showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Ohio, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Ohio for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Ohio showed a clear trend of gains for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels, with one exception. In grade 8 reading,…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps between…

  19. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication for parents and community leaders from the Office of Communications and Outreach, U.S. Department of Education. This issue contains the following articles: (1) President Seeks to Build on Law's Results; (2) Bridging the Gap: Ohio Charter School Surmounts Age, Achievement Barriers; (3) Spellings'…

  20. Vicarious and Direct Achievement Patterns in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman-Blumen, Jean; Leavitt, Harold J.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a typology of direct and vicarious achievement orientations relevant to adult problems. Direct and vicarious achievement patterns are related to sex role socialization and sex-linked occupational choice. Recommendations are developed for reevaluating and redesigning adult occupational and interpersonal roles which would take…

  1. Maryland's Achievements in Public Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents Maryland's achievements in public education for 2011. Maryland's achievements include: (1) Maryland's public schools again ranked #1 in the nation in Education Week's 2011 Quality Counts annual report; (2) Maryland ranked 1st nationwide for a 3rd year in a row in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on…

  2. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the…

  3. Student Achievement and National Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Luo, Xiaowei; Schofer, Evan; Meyer, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Educational policy around the world has increasingly focused on improving aggregate student achievement as a means to increase economic growth. In the last two decades, attention has focused especially on the importance of achievement in science and mathematics. Yet, the policy commitments involved have not been based on research evidence. The…

  4. Education Watch: Achievement Gap Summary Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    These summary tables focus on the state-by-state academic achievement of African American, Hispanic American, American Indian, Asian American, and white students. Data are presented on achievement gains by state (4th grade reading scale scores, 1992-1998; 8th grade science and scale scores, 1996-2000; 4th grade math scale scores, 1992-2000; and…

  5. Using Records of Achievement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison, Ed.; Shaw, Eileen, Ed.

    This collection of 22 essays examines the use of records of achievement (student profiles or portfolios) in higher and vocational education in the United Kingdom. They include: (1) "Records of Achievement: Background, Definitions, and Uses" (Alison Assiter and Eileen Shaw); (2) "Profiling in Higher Education" (Alison Assiter and Angela Fenwick);…

  6. Raising Minority Achievement in Science and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrabowski, Freeman A., III

    2003-01-01

    Describes the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students in science and mathematics. Provides advice to parents, educators, and students on how to raise minority-group achievement. Describes the Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, which recruits and supports minority students who excel in…

  7. Teaching for Successful Intelligence Raises School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Torff, Bruce; Grigorenko, Elena

    1998-01-01

    A "successful intelligence" intervention improved school achievement for a group of 225 ethnically diverse third-graders, both on performance assessments measuring analytical, creative, and practical achievements and on conventional multiple-choice memory assessments. Teaching for triarchic thinking facilitates factual recall, because learning…

  8. Physical Environment and Middle Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    This study measured the influence of air conditioning, carpeting, fluorescent lighting, and interior pastel coloring on the academic achievement of eighth grade Georgia pupils in 1975-76 when the variance due to socioeconomic status was statistically controlled. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the achievement scores of students on the…

  9. Sex Differences in Adults' Motivation to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA) for ordered categorical data was used…

  10. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  11. Debating Values: Race, Class and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The relationships among race, class and academic achievement are complex, yet have been well documented in Canada for the last thirty years. Generations of students have experienced them--lowered expectations for achievement, gross generalizations about parents' backgrounds and aspirations, negative stereotypes of communities, and curricula that…

  12. Reading Achievement in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Kathleen W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in elementary reading comprehension achievement existed as a result of statewide implementation of the Alabama Reading Initiative post No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Research supports the premise that targeted instruction in reading comprehension yields increases in reading achievement for…

  13. Computer Use, Parental Expectations, & Latino Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taningco, Maria Teresa V.; Pachon, Harry P.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, traditionally underrepresented minority children have lower levels of academic achievement than their white counterparts. In the broadest perspective, this quantitative study seeks to help stakeholders and policymakers understand the factors responsible for Hispanic or Latino student achievement relative to that of comparison…

  14. Health and Nutrition: Preconditions for Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    This paper discusses the importance of maternal and infant health for children's educational achievement. Education, health, and nutrition are so closely related that changes in one causes changes in the others. Improvement of maternal and preschooler health and nutrition is a precondition for improved educational achievement. Although parental…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), California students made gains across the board in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math, there were some declines at the basic achievement level. In terms of…

  16. The Effects of Ethnicity Upon School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, James G.

    The study examined the effects of ethnicity, family income, adult education level, and unemployment rates on school achievement. Data were obtained from 85 public school districts in New Mexico which enrolled primarily Spanish-surnamed pupils. The composite achievement scores from the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) for grades 5 and 8…

  17. A Better Way to Motivate Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Many low income, minority schools in California are within 100 points of closing the achievement gap, a prize worth working for no matter how inconvenient, uncomfortable, or risky. In this article, the author describes a better way to motivate educators to try new things that will accelerate student learning and close the achievement gap. The…

  18. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood

    2015-01-01

    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  19. RESOURCE LETTER AT-1 ON ACHIEVEMENT TESTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRUGLAK, HAYM

    SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE MEASUREMENT OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN COLLEGE PHYSICS ARE PRESENTED. DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARIES INCLUDE COMPLETE CITATIONS OF PERTINENT DOCUMENTS PUBLISHED PRIOR TO 1965 AND ARE GROUPED IN CATEGORIES WHICH INCLUDE (1) BACKGROUND REFERENCES, (2) THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY IN TEST CONSTRUCTION, (3) ACHIEVEMENT TESTING, (4)…

  20. Handbook for Achieving Sex Equity through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan S., Ed.

    This handbook of collected papers is intended to aid in the achievement of sex equity in education, and in society through education. It is divided into six parts, each with a separate editor (or editors) and contains the following chapters: (1) Examining the Achievement of Sex Equity in and through Education (S. S. Klein, and others); (2)…

  1. Gifted Student Academic Achievement and Program Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Katrina Ann Woolsey

    2010-01-01

    Gifted academic achievement has been identified as a major area of interest for educational researchers. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there was a relation between the quality of gifted programs as perceived by teachers, coordinators and supervisors of the gifted and the achievement of the same gifted students in 6th and 7th…

  2. Multimedia Technology and Students' Achievement in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edmar Bernardes; Kvasnak, Robb Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this study done at a community college in South Florida, the achievements of students who spoke English as their second language who had attended their K-12 education outside the United States in their home countries, in a U.S. college course on world geography are compared with the achievements of students in the same classes who spoke English…

  3. A Multivariate Model of Achievement in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, MarLynn; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that several key variables influence student achievement in geometry, but no research has been conducted to determine how these variables interact. A model of achievement in geometry was tested on a sample of 102 high school students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among…

  4. Achieving scale strategies for sustained competitive performance.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mark E; Gish, Ryan S; Tkach, Sasha N

    2008-05-01

    Growth to achieve scale requires the following strategic initiatives: Having a clear understanding of what the organization is and what it wants to become. Ensuring a structured and rigorous growth process. Leveraging size to achieve benefits of scale. Recognizing the importance of physicians, ambulatory care, and primary care. Establishing and maintaining accountability as growth occurs.

  5. Professional Learning Communities Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jan L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the Professional Learning Community model on student achievement in the state of California. Specifically, the study compared student achievement between two school types: Professional Learning Community schools and Non Professional Learning schools. The research utilized existing API scores for California schools…

  6. Type A Performance Standards and Goal Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Clay H.

    Achievement striving is a central dimension of the Type A behavior pattern. To investigate the relationship between Type A behavior pattern, personal performance goals, and goal achievement on two general information tests, 126 undergraduates participated in a two-phase study. First, behavior patterns were assessed using the Framingham Type A…

  7. Reducing the White-Nonwhite Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Madelaine

    It is well documented that there continues to be a gap between white and nonwhite student achievement. A study develops and tests a measure of white-nonwhite achievement gap reduction. The ultimate purpose is to use the measure as the dependent variable in a qualitative study of what works in reducing the gap. The strategy used in addressing this…

  8. Mathematics Achievement in Rural Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    This digest examines the best evidence available on mathematics achievement in rural schools and offers recommendations for further research. Findings on the mathematics achievement of secondary students are presented, based on analyses of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1996 and 2000, the Longitudinal Study of American…

  9. School Choice and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility is examined that school choice programs could be a means to reducing the achievement gap. Data based on meta-analytic research and the examination of nationwide data sets suggest that school choice programs that include private schools could reduce the achievement gap by 25%. The propounding of this possibility is based on research…

  10. Crime and Selected Measures of Education Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechman, Dennis Jay

    1978-01-01

    Examining education achievement and its relationship to crime, this study develops predictive models for the total crime, violent crime, and property crime indexes. Seven indicies of crime were used: murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft. Additionally, crime and its relationship to education achievement on a regional…

  11. Youth Perspectives of Achievement: Is Money Everything?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matope, Jasmine; Badroodien, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    This article draws from a qualitative research project completed at Victoria High School (pseudonym) in Cape Town in 2012 which explored 13 learners' perspectives of achievement and its influence on their lives and thinking. The piece problematises and analyses taken-for-granted connections between money, achievement, youth aspirations and views…

  12. High Prevalence and High Incidence of Coinfection with Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Syphilis and Low Rate of Effective Vaccination against Hepatitis B in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men with Known Date of HIV Seroconversion in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Klaus; Thamm, Michael; Bock, Claus-Thomas; Scheufele, Ramona; Kücherer, Claudia; Muenstermann, Dieter; Hagedorn, Hans-Jochen; Jessen, Heiko; Dupke, Stephan; Hamouda, Osamah; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Meixenberger, Karolin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at higher risk for coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis than the general population. HIV infection and these coinfections accelerate disease progression reciprocally. This study evaluated the prevalence and incidence of these coinfections in HIV1-positive MSM in Germany. Materials and Methods As part of a nationwide, multicenter, prospective cohort study of HIV-infected MSM, plasma samples collected yearly were screened for HBsAg and antibodies to HBc, HBs, HCV, and syphilis. Samples with indications of active HBV or HCV infection were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and incidence of each infection and incidence rates per study participant were calculated, and incidences over 4-year time intervals compared. Results This study screened 5,445 samples from 1,843 MSM. Median age at HIV seroconversion was 33 years. Prevalences of active, cleared, and occult HBV, and of active/cleared HCV were 1.7%, 27.1%, 0.2%, and 8.2%, respectively, and 47.5% had been effectively vaccinated against HBV. Prevalence of antibodies to Treponema pallidum and of triple or quadruple sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were 39.6% and 18.9%, respectively. Prevalence of STI, cleared HBV, HBV vaccination, and history of syphilis differed significantly among age groups. Incidences of HBV, HCV, and syphilis were 2.51, 1.54, and 4.06 per 100 person-years, respectively. Incidences of HCV and syphilis increased over time. HCV incidence was significantly higher in MSM coinfected with syphilis and living in Berlin, and syphilis incidence was significantly higher for MSM living in Berlin. Discussion Despite extensive HBV vaccination campaigns, fewer than 50% of screened MSM were effectively vaccinated, with a high proportion of HIV-positive MSM coinfected with HBV. High rates of STI coinfections in HIV-positive MSM and increasing incidences emphasize the need for better tailored campaigns for

  13. Association between clinical features and YMDD mutations in patients with chronic hepatitis B following lamivudine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Yuan, Yujun; Ma, Xianglin; Tang, Boru; Hu, Ximei; Feng, Juan; Tian, Li; Ji, Yaohua; Dou, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between feature and genotype with regard to the tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) mutation in chronic hepatitis B patients after lamivudine (LAM) therapy. A total of 30 patients with chronic hepatitis B were recruited, who underwent one year of LAM therapy. The patients' alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion were evaluated, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was genotyped using a new genotyping method and YMDD mutations were analyzed prior to treatment and at 6 and 12 months after LAM treatment. Furthermore, the secondary protein structure of the HBV DNA polymerase gene (P gene) was analyzed. Following treatment, the results suggested that LAM therapy improved ALT normalization. There was no correlation between clinical effects and ALT level before treatment. After 12 months treatment, the rate of HBeAg loss increased and the rate of HBeAg seroconversion decreased linearly with the rise of baseline ALT level. While ALT normalization and HBeAg seroconversion were highest in patients with HBV genotype B, HBeAg loss and HBVDNA loss were highest in those with genotype C. The effect was predominant in genotype D. No YMDD mutations were identified prior to 6 months of LAM therapy. The rate of YMDD mutations after 12 months LAM therapy was 12.12%. Two patients with rtM204V + rtL180M belonged to genotype C and another patient with rtL180M alone belonged to genotype D. The turn of secondary protein structure of P gene changed to β sheet when a rtM204V mutation occurred, and no change of secondary protein structure was associated with the rtL180M mutation. Thus, the present results indicate that one year of LAM therapy is able to improve ALT normalization. Long-term LAM therapy may induce YMDD mutation and drug resistance. PMID:27446286

  14. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  15. Academic Achievement and Minimal Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. Philip; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The investigation provided no evidence that a diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction based on a pediatric neurological evaluation and/or visual-motor impairment as measured by the Bender-Gestalt, is a useful predictor of academic achievement. (Author)

  16. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  17. Indochinese Refugee Families and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Nathan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The children of the Southeast Asian boat people excel in the U.S. school system. A review of the factors underlying this achievement suggests that the U.S. educational crisis is more social than academic. (KR)

  18. The integrated curriculum: experiences, achievements and problems.

    PubMed

    Gale, J

    1984-01-01

    In this article the aims, experiences and achievements of vertical and horizontal integration in undergraduate medical education are considered and reviewed, and some problems are identified. It is concluded that a clearer definition of integration would now be helpful.

  19. Teacher Perception of Creativity, Intelligence and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the study involving 573 third graders was to explicate the relationships between student test performance on standardized intelligence, achievement, and creativity tests and teacher perceptions of these abilities. (Author)

  20. Reward employees, achieve goals with incentive compensation.

    PubMed

    Vergara, G H; Bourke, J

    1985-08-01

    Incentive compensation, rewarding employees financially for extraordinary performance, can be a motivational tool for healthcare organizations. This method of compensation uses a financial reward as an incentive for executives to achieve certain predetermined, agreed-upon goals. Incentive compensation provides two advantages for the healthcare organization--it provides a mechanism to maximize organizational productivity and it gives executives a means to achieve greater compensation.

  1. Attitudes and achievement of Bruneian science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. The results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. These differences were at moderate level. In single-sex schools, the girls achieved moderately better in science than the boys despite their attitudes were only marginally better than the boys. However, there were no gender differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of students in coeducational schools. The attitudes towards and achievement in science of girls in single-sex schools were moderately better than those of girls in coeducational schools. Whereas the attitudes towards and achievement in science of boys in single-sex schools were only marginally better than the boys in coeducational schools. However, further research to investigate (a) if these differences are repeated at other levels as well as in other subjects, and (b) the extent to which school type contributed towards these differences is recommended.

  2. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Achievement: Effects of Demandingness, Responsiveness, and Commitment to Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Slavin, Lesley A.

    This study examined the influences of three parenting variables on children's school achievement: commitment to children's school achievement, demandingness, and responsiveness. The study also examined the influence of maternal employment and satisfaction with employment on the three parenting variables and on children's achievement.…

  3. Social Perceptions of Achieving Students and Achievement Goals of Students in Malaysia and the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.; Ismail, Rosnah

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the hypothesis that country differences in achievement goals of students are associated with differences in how students with different achievement goals are perceived by students in different cultures. University students from Malaysia and the Philippine were asked to complete questionnaires on their achievement goals and…

  4. The Longitudinal Effects of Achievement Goals and Perceived Control on University Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Newall, Nancy E. G.; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2014-01-01

    In the area of achievement motivation, students' beliefs pertaining to achievement goals and perceived control have separately guided a large amount theoretical and empirical research. However, limited research has considered the simultaneous effects of goals and control on achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine primary and…

  5. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  6. Trajectories of Achievement within Race/Ethnicity: "Catching Up" in Achievement across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Jager, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap has long been the focus of educational research, policy, and intervention. The authors took a new approach to examining the achievement gap by examining achievement trajectories within each racial group. To identify these trajectories they used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, which is a nationally…

  7. Can the Academic Achievement of Korean Students Be Portrayed as a Product of "Shadow Achievement"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunjin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of private tutoring expenditure on two types of Korean students' academic achievements as measured by standardized test achievement and by school performance achievement, applying 5-year data from Korean Educational Longitudinal Study (KELS). It was found that private tutoring…

  8. A Mediation Analysis of Achievement Motives, Goals, Learning Strategies, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. Aims: To investigate the relationship between achievement motives,…

  9. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  10. Motivation and academic achievement in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Yousefy, Alireza; Ghassemi, Gholamreza; Firouznia, Samaneh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite their ascribed intellectual ability and achieved academic pursuits, medical students’ academic achievement is influenced by motivation. This study is an endeavor to examine the role of motivation in the academic achievement of medical students. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional correlational study, out of the total 422 medical students, from 4th to final year during the academic year 2007–2008, at School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 344 participated in completion of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM), comprising 43 items and measuring eight aspects of motivation. The gold standard for academic achievement was their average academic marks at pre-clinical and clinical levels. Data were computer analyzed by running a couple of descriptive and analytical tests including Pearson Correlation and Student's t-student. Results: Higher motivation scores in areas of competition, effort, social concern, and task were accompanied by higher average marks at pre-clinical as well as clinical levels. However, the latter ones showed greater motivation for social power as compared to the former group. Task and competition motivation for boys was higher than for girls. Conclusion: In view of our observations, students’ academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation. PMID:23555107

  11. Five years of achievement in ISCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Derose, James V.

    Achievement associated with a school district committed to the implementation of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) materials and instructional strategy is the focus of this report. While ISCS is a three level, activity oriented, junior high program, the research was limited to the first year or Level I. Data were gathered from Level I students (mostly seventh graders) during a five year period. Analyses were per- formed to help answer questions such as: Are IQ and reading scores the highest correlates of achievement? Do IQ and reading correlates hold for both quantitative and qualitative indices of achievement? Do ISCS learning relationships hold over time? Are students able to evaluate how well they understand the concepts covered?Received: 21 June 1979; Revised: 11 March 1981;

  12. Family and personal correlates of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    García Bacete, F J; Rosel Remírez, J

    2001-04-01

    Researchers and educators raise the question of whether pupils' academic performance can be improved through parental involvement in academic activities. The main objective of the following study is to verify whether parental involvement in school activities and family socioeconomic status are associated with children's academic achievement. 150 Spanish seventh grade pupils completed intelligence tests, and their teachers assessed parents' involvement in the school and estimated parents' cultural levels. To measure academic achievement the pupil's overall grade was taken from the Pupils' Final Evaluation Registers. The education and professional level of the mother and father and home size were obtained from the Pupil Personal Register; these variables define the family socioeconomic status. The data, analyzed through application of structural equations, suggest that academic achievement is directly influenced by the cultural level of the family and the child's intelligence but is indirectly influenced by parental involvement in school activities and the socioeconomic status of the child's family.

  13. Predicting genetics achievement in nonmajors college biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Angela; Lawson, Anton E.

    Students enrolled in a non-majors college biology course were pretested to determine their level of intellectual development, degree of field independence, mental capacity, amount of prior genetics knowledge, and amount of fluid intelligence. They were then taught a unit on Mendelian genetics. The only student variables found to not account for a significant amount of variance on a test of reading comprehension and/or a test of genetics achievement was amount of prior genetics knowledge. Developmental level was found to be the most consistent predictor of performance, suggesting that a lack of general hypothetico-deductive reasoning ability is a major factor limiting achievement among these students.

  14. Leadership Strategies: Achieving Personal and Professional Success.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Physicians and allied health staff in healthcare are finding themselves in situations characterized by uncertainty, chaos, and ambiguity, with high levels of burnout. A major influence is an aging U.S. population, resulting in increasing cost and reimbursement pressures. Medical group practices need leaders who have the capability to thrive in this environment. This article presents an integrated leadership model offering strategies and insights gained from keeping a journal for 40 years. Strategies to be shared include leading self through learning, leading others by developing relationships, leading organizations by achieving excellence, and achieving work-life integration and synergy. PMID:27443052

  15. The Affective Side: Parenting for Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strop, Jean

    2003-01-01

    This article describes key steps parents can take to develop an achievement orientation in gifted children: heal the gifted child within the parent; give consistent messages; develop early independence; utilize encouragement; develop multiple self-definitions; set challenging but realistic goals; and model persistence. (Author/CR)

  16. Academic Achievement of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Kathy A.; Hickey, Ann

    2014-01-01

    A study of 215 athletes at a small private liberal arts Division III college revealed that athletes (a) begin their college experience with SATs no different from non-athletes; (b) attain GPAs that do not significantly differ from those of nonathletes; (c) achieve GPAs that do not significantly differ between their "in-season" semester…

  17. Only Children, Achievement, and Interpersonal Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    Many psychological theories point to the importance of siblings in individual personality development. The impact of sibling status on interpersonal and achievement orientation was examined with undergraduates (N=1782) who completed a series of objective personality measures and a background questionnaire. Sibling status was defined in terms of…

  18. Psychological Barriers to Achievement in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lois S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among birth order, number of course credits achieved, and personality integration for 56 women graduate students. No evidence of significant stress was found as these women approached career choice points, nor was there a significant effect from birth order. (Author/RD)

  19. Sickle Cell Trait and Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Yvonne; Ayrer, James

    1974-01-01

    In a preliminary study, no significant interaction effects were found between scholastic achievement and sickle cell trait in black children currently in eight and ninth grades, as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills over a consecutive period of four years, 1968 through 1971, grades four through seven. (EH)

  20. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Achievement Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…

  1. Reading Achievement in California: Miracle or Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruddell, Robert B.; Williams, Arthur

    Reading achievement of elementary school children in California has been measured by several separate studies, not all of which appear to present compatible results. This study of three assessments contained in the Miller-Unruh Report analyzes their purposes, methods, results, and recommendations in an effort to produce some way to arrive at an…

  2. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  3. Home Media and Children's Achievement and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White…

  4. The Relationship between Resources and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.

    This paper evaluates whether or not there is a direct academic-achievement benefit from additional expenditures on education in the United States. Numerous critics have said that education is already overfunded and that it can never be funded enough to make any appreciable difference. Berliner's study of 900 school districts in Texas in the 1993…

  5. Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, The, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This Wallace Perspective paper summarizes key findings of a newly-published book, "Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals: The Secondary Principal's Guide," that argues that school counselors could be much more active players in improving student learning. The book, which bases its conclusions heavily on Wallace's Transforming School…

  6. Improving Student Achievement Using Expert Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ronny; Smith, Bob; Leech, Don

    2004-01-01

    Both educators and the public are demanding improvements in student achievement and school performance. However, students meeting the highest college admission standards are increasingly selecting fields of study other than teaching. How can we increase teacher competence when many of our brightest teacher prospects are going into other fields?…

  7. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    "The Achiever" is a monthly newsletter designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) Proposed Budget Invests More Into NCLB, Neediest Students; (2) Making History: L.A. County School With Disadvantaged Ethnic…

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Asian and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Gains in math tended to be larger than in reading. Trends in closing achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were available from 2007 through 2009. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Colorado students showed gains in reading at the proficient level for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were slight declines or flat trends for almost all subgroups at the advanced level in reading. In math, gains were…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Georgia has made some changes in its testing program in recent years. As a result, trend data were only available for reading in grades 4 and 8 from 2006 through 2009, and only at the proficient and advanced levels. In math, data were only available for the high school level from 2004 through 2009. Achievement data for low income students were…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Connecticut students showed gains across the board in math--at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In reading, there were gains at the basic and proficient levels, but a slight…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on…

  13. Cultural Influences on Gifted Gender Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Joan

    2004-01-01

    In Britain, and reflected in other countries, the academic achievements of gifted girls in school are surpassing those of gifted boys in almost all areas of study and at all ages. This is not true in every country. The British evidence suggests two major reasons for this surge by the gifted girls. Emotionally, British girls are now showing greater…

  14. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  15. Eye Movement Models of Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ronna F.

    Current pscyhometric assessments, which are based on test score predictors providing information only on products of performance, fail to account for satisfactory amounts of variance in academic achievement or other criterion measures of interest. To corroborate and extend previous work on information processing measures, by examining the…

  16. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly newsletter designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about and from public and private organizations about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) New Online Tool Simplifies Financial Aid Process; (2) Rigor in K-6:…

  17. Designing the Board's New Literature Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    1968-01-01

    This article describes the problems that the College Entrance Examination Board's Committee of Review for the Examinations in English encountered in creating a fair, objective, hour-long literature achievement test which would meet four objectives--to measure the breadth of a student's reading, his understanding of that reading, his response to…

  18. The Achiever. Volume 3, Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Education Secretary Rod Paige presented awards to three education professionals credited for improving academic achievement among English language learners (ELLs) at the U.S. Department of Education's third annual conference on improving opportunities for ELL students, Oct. 7, 2004. The "Excellence in Teaching English Language Learners" award was…

  19. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  20. Positive Functions of Emotions in Achievement Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Nuria; Vilanova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of two research projects on the emotions of men engaged in achievement outdoor sports. The conditions were analyzed under which emotions carry out positive functions. The question strikes us as a fundamental one, because it is of crucial importance when it comes to increasing sportspeople's success. The…

  1. Achieving Proficiencies in Economics Capstone Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeborg, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that capstone courses in economics should be integrative experiences that require students to demonstrate six core proficiencies. The capstone economics senior seminar at Illinois Wesleyan University is used as an example of how a capstone course that requires completion of an original research paper might achieve these…

  2. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  3. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  4. Charter School Authorizers and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Deven; Lavery, Lesley; Witte, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the relationship between charter school authorizers and student achievement. We perform this analysis using a 10-year panel dataset from Minnesota, a state that permits four distinct types of authorizers--local school boards, postsecondary institutions, nonprofit organizations, and the Minnesota Department of Education.…

  5. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  6. How To Achieve Good Library Acoustics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to create a good acoustical environment for college libraries, focusing on requirements related to the HVAC system and lighting, and noting the importance of good maintenance. A sidebar looks at how to design and achieve the most appropriate HVAC and lighting systems for optimum library acoustics. (SM)

  7. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  8. Parental Influence and Involvement on Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebor, Jon N.

    A review of the research on the effects of parental influence and parental involvement on children's reading achievement indicates that when parents take an active and positive part in their child's education the results often turn out well for the student. Parental influence is defined as any opinion, attitude, or action (other than direct…

  9. New Achievements in Technology Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Safeeullah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Since many decades Education Science and Technology has an achieved tremendous recognition and has been applied to variety of disciplines, mainly Curriculum development, methodology to develop e-learning systems and education management. Many efforts have been taken to improve knowledge of students, researchers, educationists in the field of…

  10. Achieving Excellence in Preschool Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M., Ed.; Vukelich, Carol, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    High-quality preschool programs are essential to improving children's outcomes in reading achievement and leveling language and literacy disparities among students from diverse backgrounds. Grounded in state-of-the-art research evidence, this practice-oriented book demonstrates how preschool professionals can create, evaluate, and sustain…

  11. A 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, a 3 x 2 model of achievement goals is proposed and tested. The model is rooted in the definition and valence components of competence, and encompasses 6 goal constructs: task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, and other-avoidance. The results from 2 studies provided strong support for…

  12. Do Charter Schools Improve Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Melissa A.; Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Silverberg, Marsha K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a lottery-based study of the impacts of a broad set of 33 charter middle schools across 13 states on student achievement. To estimate charter school impacts, we compare test score outcomes of students admitted to these schools through the randomized admissions lotteries with outcomes of applicants who were not…

  13. Achieving Fluency: Special Education and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Francis

    2011-01-01

    "Achieving Fluency" presents the understandings that all teachers need to play a role in the education of students who struggle: those with disabilities and those who simply lack essential foundational knowledge. This book serves teachers and supervisors by sharing increasingly intensive instructional interventions for struggling students on…

  14. Goal Orientations and Adolescent Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Tran Dang

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a fundamental educational challenge for adolescents in the United States, and particularly for immigrant youth. The motivation to achieve, especially in mathematics, declines during adolescence. Most of what is known about motivation is based on studies of predominately middle-class White students; yet the influx of immigrants over…

  15. NONINTELLECTIVE FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TERRELL, GLENN; WYER, ROBERT S., JR.

    NONINTELLECTIVE FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN COLLEGE WERE INVESTIGATED IN THREE PHASES OF RESEARCH--(1) PERSONALITY AND MOTIVATIONAL CORRELATES OF ACADEMIC APTITUDE AND PERFORMANCE AMONG STUDENTS WHO HAD COMPLETED AT LEAST 1 YEAR OF COLLEGE WERE EXAMINED, (2) DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM FRESHMAN STUDENTS BEFORE THEY ENTERED…

  16. CLIL Learning: Achievement Levels and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…

  17. The Achiever. Volume 5, Number 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    ""The Achiever" is a monthly newsletter designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) $17 Million Awarded in Advanced Placement Grants; (2) After the Storm: New Orleans School Maintains High Standard in the…

  18. Athletics, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…

  19. Implementing Strategies to Achieve Successful Student Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of eight newsletters highlighting best practices presented at the 2009 HSTW Staff Development Conference in Atlanta. These newsletters contain information about successful actions schools across the nation are taking to join hands-on and heads-on learning in ways that increase student motivation and achievement. This…

  20. High Ability Readers and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Parke, Cynthia J.; Bramble, Joan G.

    2004-01-01

    To close the achievement gap, the "No Child Left Behind" law calls for all students to make appropriate yearly progress. This presumably means that progress is being made by capable readers at the same time progress is being made by struggling readers. However, there appear to be unintended effects of "No Child Left Behind" that may impede the…

  1. "Masculinity, Femininity, Achievement Conflicts and Health."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Debra Eaton

    The objective of this study is to measure achievement motivation in terms of psychological masculinity and femininity rather than in terms of biological gender. The terms, psychological masculinity and femininity, refer to sets of characteristics desirable for both sexes. Masculine characteristics include independence, self-confidence,…

  2. Increasing Math Achievement through Use of Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant-Jones, Marian; Shimmins, Kymberley J.; Vega, Jill D.

    This report describes a program for increasing math achievement through the use of musical interventions including repeated exposure to Mozart classical music and School House Rock, and introduction to teacher-made songs that introduce mathematical concepts in the music classroom. The students of the targeted second and fourth grade classes…

  3. Poor, Rural Neighborhoods and Early School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Smith, Cynthia; Eagle, Teresa Hardman

    A study sought to identify the existence of neighborhood effects on school achievement that are independent of social class and family background among students from poor, rural neighborhoods. Ethnographic material yielded a concept of rural West Virginia neighborhoods in which residents expect their encounters to be friendly, informal, almost…

  4. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

  5. 28 CFR 545.28 - Achievement awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Achievement awards. 545.28 Section 545.28 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND... related trades classroom work that is part of a certified apprenticeship program may be granted...

  6. 28 CFR 545.28 - Achievement awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Achievement awards. 545.28 Section 545.28 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND... related trades classroom work that is part of a certified apprenticeship program may be granted...

  7. 28 CFR 545.28 - Achievement awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Achievement awards. 545.28 Section 545.28 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND... related trades classroom work that is part of a certified apprenticeship program may be granted...

  8. 28 CFR 545.28 - Achievement awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Achievement awards. 545.28 Section 545.28 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND... related trades classroom work that is part of a certified apprenticeship program may be granted...

  9. 28 CFR 545.28 - Achievement awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Achievement awards. 545.28 Section 545.28 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND... related trades classroom work that is part of a certified apprenticeship program may be granted...

  10. Achieving Diversity in Academia: A Dream Deferred?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jacqueline; Horvat, Erin McNamara; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    Attempts to achieve diversity in the faculty in institutions of higher education have increased in recent years. Despite these attempts, faculty of color and women are still underrepresented in the higher ranks. This paper presents autobiographies focusing on the career trajectories of three junior faculty members at one institution: a divorced…

  11. Immigration and Student Achievement: Evidence from Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically whether immigrant students in Switzerland perform poorly compared to their native counterparts and provides some explanations. Using a national sample of the 2000 PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) database, we first analyze the impact of immigrant status on pupils' achievement. We find a…

  12. Improving Achievement through Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effect of problem-based learning on students' academic achievement and performance skills in a unit on the human excretory system was investigated. Sixty-one 10th grade students, from two full classes instructed by the same biology teacher, were involved in the study. Classes were randomly assigned as either the experimental or…

  13. Effects of Individualized Assignments on Biology Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    Compared detailed (favoring field dependence and induction) and nondetailed (favoring field dependence and deduction) assignments on biology achievement of grade 10 male students (N=95) over a seven-month period. Detailed assignments, employing pictorial and verbal block diagrams and high structure, significantly enhanced learning among some…

  14. Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…

  15. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  16. Higher Education Is Key To Achieving MDGs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Imagine trying to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) without higher education. As key institutions of civil society, universities are uniquely positioned between the communities they serve and the governments they advise. Through the CIDA-funded University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program, Canadian universities have…

  17. The Transfer Achievement Program (TAP): Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segura, Armando; Noseworthy, Victoria

    Santa Barbara City College (California) created the Transfer Achievement Program (TAP) to deliver an integrated and cohesive set of services to underrepresented students to help increase their transfer rate to four-year institutions. TAP provides students with a developmental map of transfer-related activities through the use of the Transfer Task…

  18. Mathematics Achievement of Vietnamese Grade 5 Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of a national survey of mathematics achievement at the end of primary school in Vietnam. A sample of more than 72000 students were assessed from 61 provinces. The items were matched to the Vietnam Mathematics curriculum for Year 5 students. Using a skills audit of the items, a variable of Vietnamese mathematics…

  19. Interactions Between Teaching Performance and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yi-Ming; White, William F.

    There are two purposes for this study: first, to examine the relationship between college students' achievement and their ratings of instructors; second, to validate the two selected evaluation instruments that were designed specially for assessing teaching performance at the higher education level. Two evaluation inventories were selected for…

  20. Academic Achievement, Technology and Race: Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairlie, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Although a large literature explores the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students, very little is known about whether disparities in access to technology are partly responsible. Data from the first-ever field experiment involving the random provision of free computers to low-income community college students for home use are used…

  1. Leadership, Self-Efficacy, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the "Leadership Behavior Description Question" (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969),…

  2. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  3. Piagetian Tasks, Traditional Intelligence and Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, J.; Koops, W.

    1983-01-01

    Reports study which compared the value of Piagetian tasks--seriation, conservation and multiple classification--to that of traditional intelligence tests--Cattell and PMA 5 to 7 subtests--as predictors of number language, simple computation, and verbal arithmetic achievement in 312 children from kindergarten to grade 4. Fifty references are…

  4. Preparing Educational Leaders to Close Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joseph F., Jr.; Uline, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    For more than 25 years, researchers have described the critical roles leaders play in creating effective schools and school districts. If U.S. schools are to close achievement gaps, their leaders must possess the appropriate knowledge, dispositions, and skills to assume these critical roles. The Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium…

  5. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gill, Brian; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Teh, Bing-ru

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is an influential and rapidly growing nationwide network of charter schools serving primarily disadvantaged minority students. Prominent elements of KIPP's educational model include high expectations for student achievement and behavior, and a substantial increase in time in school. KIPP is being watched…

  6. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

  7. Libraries, the MAP, and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cherri; Singer, Marietta; Miller, David W.; Makemson, Carroll; Elliott, Kara; Litsch, Diana; Irwin, Barbara; Hoemann, Cheryl; Elmore, Jennifer; Roe, Patty; Gregg, Diane; Needham, Joyce; Stanley, Jerri; Reinert, John; Holtz, Judy; Jenkins, Sandra; Giles, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Includes 17 articles that discuss the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) and the role of school library media centers. Highlights include improving student achievement; improving student scores on the MAP; graphic organizers; programs for volunteer student library workers; research process; research skills; reading initiatives; collaborative…

  8. Assets and Educational Achievement: Theory and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William; Sherraden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Economics of Education Review explores the role of savings and asset holding in post-secondary educational achievement. Most college success research has focused on income rather than assets as a predictor, and most college financing policy has focused on tuition support and educational debt, rather than asset accumulation.…

  9. Science Achievement of Secondary Agricultural Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sara Vicky

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this quantitative descriptive and correlational study were to describe the science achievements of secondary agricultural education students and determine if the number of agricultural education courses passed, FFA involvement, and SAE participation would statistically significantly improve students' performance on science…

  10. Parental Effort, School Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtenville, Andrew J.; Conway, Karen Smith

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates an important factor in student achievement--parental involvement. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), we estimate a value-added education production function that includes parental effort as an input. Parental effort equations are also estimated as a function of child, parent, household, and…

  11. Accelerating Mathematics Achievement Using Heterogeneous Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Carol Corbett; Heubert, Jay P.; Levin, Henry M.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effects of providing an accelerated mathematics curriculum in heterogeneously grouped middle school classes in a diverse suburban school district. A quasi-experimental cohort design was used to evaluate subsequent completion of advanced high school math courses as well as academic achievement. Results showed…

  12. Effects of Ability Grouping on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, James A.; Kulik, Chen-Lin C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the effect of within-class and between-class ability groupings on the academic achievement of gifted elementary and secondary level students. Results showed that gifted students gained more academically than they would have if they had been taught in heterogeneous classes. (PS)

  13. Student Academic Achievement: Report to the Provost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leas, David E.

    In fall 1991, the faculty and staff of New Mexico State University-Alamogordo (NMSU-A) designed and implemented a strategic planning process which incorporates a comprehensive annual review of various aspects of student academic achievement (SAA). The faculty-based SAA assessment process includes activities focused on classroom instruction,…

  14. Review of "Our Immense Achievement Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This report misrepresents and then criticizes recommendations from the Minnesota Department of Education, a think tank and two independent study groups, each of which recently encouraged particular voluntary efforts to reduce concentrated poverty and achieve racial and socioeconomic integration in schools and housing in Minnesota. In building its…

  15. The Achiever. Volume 5, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication for parents and community leaders from the Office of Communications and Outreach, U.S. Department of Education (ED). Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) Budget Proposal Advances NCLB, Introduces Competitiveness…

  16. A. A. Michelson: life and achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej; Sypek, Maciej

    1990-04-01

    The paper is intendent to give a brief review of Michelson's scientific achievements on the background of his life. The contribution of Albert Abraham Michelson to the development of optics and optical measurements as well as the importance of Michelson's work for modern physics are especially pointed out.

  17. Closing the Achievement Gap on ACT & SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David

    2010-01-01

    Research has focused on four groups of factors and the achievement gap: (1) student characteristics (high school GPA, attendance patterns, courses taken in high school, participation in extra-curricular activities, etc.); (2) family characteristics (family structure, in home, parents' level of education, mobility, etc.); (3) school-based…

  18. Addressing Achievement Gaps with Psychological Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David; Walton, Gregory; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Student psychology--how the classroom looks and feels from the perspective of the student--can powerfully affect motivation and learning, and experiments are increasingly showing that even brief interventions to change psychology can boost achievement over months or years. When paired with other structural reforms, social-psychological…

  19. Does Peer Ability Affect Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Kain, John F.; Markman, Jacob M.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    Empirical analysis of peer effects on student achievement has been open to question because of the difficulties of separating peer effects from other confounding influences. While most econometric attention has been directed at issues of simultaneous determination of peer interactions, this paper argues that issues of omitted and mismeasured…

  20. Raising Academic Achievement through Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackfelner, Carol; Ranallo, Barbara

    Research has demonstrated that parent involvement has many beneficial effects for students. This action research project designed and implemented a program to raise the academic achievement of second-grade students by increasing parent involvement. The students attended two second-grade classrooms in a west-central Illinois school. The problem of…

  1. Developing a Motivational Model of College Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Abry, Dennis

    This study involves developing a motivational model of college achievement. The predictor variables, which were procrastination tendency, self-efficacy, self-regulation, intrinsic value, outcome value, cognitive strategy, test anxiety, students grade goals, parent grade goals, and grade point average, as well as the criterion variable exam…

  2. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  3. Impact of School Technology on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Larry Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the impact of school technology on elementary students in grades three through five attending public schools in Indiana. The investigation focused on the impact of various technologies on student achievement as measured on Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus (ISTEP+). Various comparisons were…

  4. Moral Realism Revisited: On Achievable Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ternasky, P. Lance

    1992-01-01

    The article discusses moral education in public schools. It proposes a realist model of moral realism derived from the work of Richard Boyd and Peter Railton, arguing that it offers relief from skepticism faced by moral educators and a foundation for teachable, achievable morality. (SM)

  5. How External Exit Exams Spur Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Compared with minimum competency tests, curriculum-based external exit exams provide better measures of students' achievement levels. Analysis of Third Mathematics and Science Study data shows that 13 year-olds from exit-exam countries are ahead of nonparticipating countries. Effects on college enrollment, job success, and test scores are…

  6. Closing the Achievement Gap: Four States' Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixom, Micah Ann

    2015-01-01

    The achievement gap separating economically disadvantaged students from their more advantaged peers disproportionately affects students of color and has been the focus of discussion, research and controversy for more than 40 years. While the gap between black and white students narrowed considerably from the 1950s to the 1980s, that gap has…

  7. Decomposing Achievement Gaps among OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Lee, Kristen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use decomposition methods on PISA 2006 data to compare student academic performance across OECD countries. We first establish an empirical model to explain the variation in academic performance across individuals, and then use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method to decompose the achievement gap between each of the OECD…

  8. Educational Opportunity Is Achievable and Affordable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.; Wolff, Jessica R.

    2012-01-01

    Raising academic standards while eliminating achievement gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged students are among America's primary national educational goals. According to a growing body of research, America will attain its goals of equity and preparing students to function effectively as citizens and productive workers only through a…

  9. Modeling Achievement by Measuring the Enacted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkup, John R.; Jones, Ben S.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a mathematical algorithm that relates student achievement with directly observable, quantifiable teacher and student behaviors, producing a modified form of the Walberg model. The algorithm (1) expands the measurable factors that comprise the quality of instruction in a linear basis of research-based teaching components and…

  10. Attitude, Gender and Achievement in Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…

  11. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  12. The Blackout of Native American Cultural Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that American Indian achievements are overlooked and even specifically denied in the face of overwhelming evidence of their reality. Examines the denials of Indian originality in three specific matters that have been controversial in recent decades: medicine, the manufacture of maple syrup, and the use of fertilizer. (JHZ)

  13. Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…

  14. Redesigning Urban Classrooms to Impact Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guice, Andrea D.

    2009-01-01

    Because of the No Child Left Behind school reform policies, public schools are gravely scrutinized. This analysis focuses on how to redesign the urban classroom in order to impact student achievement with the intent of being an impetus for better overall school performance ratings. All public school leaders are expected to adhere to the same…

  15. Achievement Components of Stanford-Binet Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Ernest D.; And Others

    A curriculum was devised by working backward from Stanford-Binet items to specification of a universe of content for which the Stanford-Binet could serve as a content-valid achievement test. It was reasoned that this curriculum should home. This curriculum was tested on 20 4-year-old disadvantaged children in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. The…

  16. The Methodological Nettle: ICT and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandra, Vinesh; Lloyd, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge for researchers and educators has been to discern the effect of ICT use on student learning outcomes. This paper maps the achievements in Year 10 Science of two cohorts of students over two years where students in the first year studied in a traditional environment while students in the second took part in a blended or e-learning…

  17. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  18. Age and Outstanding Occupational Achievement: Lehman Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the findings of Lehman's study of age and outstanding occupational achievement along with the explanations of why major contributions most likely occur in young adulthood. Proposes an alternative explanation based on the central developmental tasks facing individuals in young adulthood and middle age. (JAC)

  19. Exploratory Studies of Bias in Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross; Draper, John F.

    This paper considers the question of bias in group administered academic achievement tests, bias which is inherent in the instruments themselves. A body of data on the test of performance of three disadvantaged minority groups--northern, urban black; southern, rural black; and, southwestern, Mexican-Americans--as tryout samples in contrast to…

  20. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  1. Relationship of Study Habits with Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odiri, Onoshakpokaiye E.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship of study habits of students and their achievement in mathematics. The method used for the study was correlation design. A sample of 500 students were randomly selected from 25 public secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were drawn to gather data on…

  2. Interplanetary monitoring platform engineering history and achievements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    In the fall of 1979, last of ten Interplanetary Monitoring Platform Satellite (IMP) missions ended a ten year series of flights dedicated to obtaining new knowledge of the radiation effects in outer space and of solar phenomena during a period of maximum solar flare activity. The technological achievements and scientific accomplishments from the IMP program are described.

  3. Academic Freedom, Achievement Standards and Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2011-01-01

    The tension between the freedom of academics to grade the achievements of their students without interference or coercion and the prerogative of higher education institutions to control grading standards is often deliberated by weighing up the authority and rights of the two parties. An alternative approach is to start with an analysis of the…

  4. Designing of Student Learning Achievement Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to solve the following problematic issue: how the most essential elements of student learning achievement evaluation should be properly designed? The answers are pursued by the validation of identification of evaluation types, formulation of evaluation criteria and choice of assessment methods. Designing of the most essential…

  5. Visual Factors Which Affect Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Nathan

    The relationship between vision and reading achievement is complex. In this paper, a number of terms relating to vision are defined and some of the limitations of specific measures of vision are discussed. In order to relate vision to reading, it is necessary to segment arbitrarily the continuous process of vision into a series of subsystems, or…

  6. The Growth Patterns of General Medical Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    This longitudinal study investigates the growth of medical achievement as a multilevel process and emphasizes the structure of the growth. Subjects were students in all 15 U.S. osteopathic medical schools, a total of 1,060 (78 percent of the 1987 osteopathic cohort). Students took appropriate portions of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical…

  7. Building Fires: Raising Achievement through Class Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    According to a growing body of research, discussion-based instruction, in the context of high academic demands, significantly enhances student achievement in reading. The effects apply to below- as well as above-average-ability students. These findings confirm what secondary English teachers have believed all along about the value of discussion.…

  8. Achieving ideal breast aesthetics with autologous reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Achieving ideal breast aesthetic has become a top priority for women considering breast reconstruction following mastectomy. The use of autologous tissue is generally regarded as providing the most natural results because donor tissues quality and consistency is similar to that of the native breast. There are several donor sites that are particularly useful for autologous reconstruction that include the abdomen, gluteal region, posterior thorax, and the thigh. Traditional and microsurgical techniques can be used. Shaping is a critical component and involves a basic understanding of the footprint, conus, and skin envelope. This manuscript will review many aspects of breast shaping in-order to achieve aesthetically pleasing results in a predictable manner. PMID:26005645

  9. Academic achievement of children of divorced parents.

    PubMed

    Cherian, V I

    1989-04-01

    This study investigated the academic achievement of 242 pupils whose parents were divorced and 713 pupils whose parents were neither divorced nor separated. The subjects were in the age range of 13 to 17 yr., with a mean age of 15.6 yr. and they were chosen at random from the total Standard 7 population of Transkei, South Africa. A questionnaire was administered to 1,021 pupils to identify the children of parents divorced or separated and neither divorced nor separated. Analysis of variance indicated that the academic achievement of children whose parents were divorced or separated was significantly lower than that of the children whose parents were neither divorced nor separated.

  10. TRANSLATIONAL PAIN RESEARCH: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jianren

    2009-01-01

    The achievements in both preclinical and clinical pain research over the past four decades have led to significant progresses in clinical pain management. However, pain research still faces enormous challenges and there remain many obstacles in the treatment of clinical pain, particularly chronic pain. Translational pain research needs to involve a number of important areas including a) bridging the gap between pain research and clinical pain management, b) developing objective pain assessment tools, c) analyzing current theories of pain mechanisms and their relevance to clinical pain, d) exploring new tools for both preclinical and clinical pain research, and e) coordinating research efforts among basic scientists, clinical investigators, and pain medicine practitioners. These issues are discussed in this article in light of the achievements and challenges of translational pain research. PMID:19628433

  11. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu

    2012-07-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  12. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included…

  13. High Achievers: 23rd Annual Survey. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This report presents data from an annual survey of high school student leaders and high achievers. It is noted that of the nearly 700,000 high achievers featured in this edition, 5,000 students were sent the survey and 2,092 questionnaires were completed. Subjects were high school juniors and seniors selected for recognition by their principals or…

  14. Teacher Goal Endorsement, Student Achievement Goals and Student Achievement in Mathematics: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deevers, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among teacher practices, student motivation and student achievement on standardized mathematics assessments using an Achievement Goal Theory framework. From 2006 through 2009, 800 public school students participated in mathematics assessments and completed surveys measuring perceptions of teacher practices and…

  15. Using the 2 x 2 Framework of Achievement Goals to Predict Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has established how achievement emotions are related to the trichotomous model of achievement goals, and how they predict academic performance. In our study we examine relations using an additional, mastery-avoidance goal, and whether outcome-focused emotions are predicted by mastery as well as performance goals. Results showed that…

  16. Assessing Achievement of Primary Grader Students and Factors Affecting Achievement in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Muhammad; Gondal, Muhammad Bashir; Bushra

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on achievement level of primary grade students in different subjects taught at primary level and the factors affecting the student achievement in this regard. Design/methodology/approach: The study was carried out on a sample of 1,080 students of grade 3 and 5 drawn from randomly selected 36 primary/elementary…

  17. Achievement Gaps: An Examination of Differences in Student Achievement and Growth. The Full Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Martha S.; Hauser, Carl; Cronin, John; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Houser, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The difference between the academic performance of poor students and wealthier students and between minority students and their non-minority peers is commonly known as the achievement gap. The current study examines the achievement gap using a large sample of students from a wide variety of school districts across the United States. It examines…

  18. The Role of Achievement Motivations and Achievement Goals in Taiwanese College Students' Cognitive and Psychological Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen; Lu, Luo

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how motivational factors are associated with Taiwanese college students' cognitive, personal, and social development by incorporating both relatively global, static self-attributes, such as social-oriented achievement motivation and individual-oriented achievement motivation, which are considered to be culturally balanced…

  19. Predicting Mathematics Achievement by Motivation and Self-Efficacy across Gender and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…

  20. The Link between Musical Achievement and Academic Achievement of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    During the twentieth century it has been theorized that there is a link between musical achievement and academic achievement of young children. In support of this controversial view, many educators and music specialists promote the relationship between, parent, teacher, and child. The theory is: with cooperative learning experiences in the study…

  1. Extending the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework: Development of a Measure of Scientific Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Eric D.; Carter, Alice P.; Lobrano, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The current research sought to extend the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework by developing and testing the Achievement Goals for Research Scale (AGRS). Participants (N = 317) consisted of graduate students in the life, physical, and behavioral sciences. A principal components analysis (PCA) extracted five components accounting for 72.59% of the…

  2. Role of Resilient Personality on Lower Achieving First Grade Students' Current and Future Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Oi-man; Hughes, Jan N.; Luo, Wen

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated a measurement model of personality resilience and the contribution of personality resilience to lower achieving first grade students' academic achievement. Participants were 445 ethnically diverse children who at entrance to first grade scored below their school district median on a test of literacy. Participants were…

  3. Two Models of Learning and Achievement: An Explanation for the Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Despite decades of research, the persistence of the gap in student achievement between disadvantaged minority students and their middle-class peers remains unexplained. Purpose/Objective: The purpose of the current article is to propose a new model of the achievement gap. Research Design: Data were analyzed from three…

  4. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: Testing a Model of Their Joint Relations with Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were…

  5. Achieving strategic cost reduction in the OR.

    PubMed

    Buchler, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Hospitals should be proactive insearching for ways to control operating room supply chain costs. A hospital can identify an overall supply cost savings goal by analyzing patient-encounter data for its 15 most costly procedures and identifying the dollar figure under which 25 percent of cases fall for each procedure. After establishing savings targets, the hospital can achieve its goals through a range of approaches. PMID:25647904

  6. Parental Economic Hardship and Children's Achievement Orientations*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Frank Lei; Hussemann, Jeanette; Wu, Chen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    While children’s orientations to achievement are strong predictors of attainments, little is known about how parental economic hardship during recessionary times influences children’s orientations to their futures. The Youth Development Study has followed a community sample of young people in St Paul, Minnesota from mid-adolescence through their mid-thirties with near-annual surveys, and has recently begun surveying the children of this cohort. Using linked parent and child data, the present study examines the relationship between parental economic hardship and children's achievement orientations in the aftermath of the recent “Great Recession.” Initial OLS analyses draw on 345 parent-child pairs, with data collected from parents during their adolescence, during the decade prior to the recession, and in 2011, and from their children (age 11 and older) in 2011. Then, first difference models are estimated, based on a smaller sample (N=186) of parents and children who completed surveys in both 2009 and 2011. Our findings indicate that when families are more vulnerable, as a result of low parental education and prior parental unemployment experience, children’s achievement orientations are more strongly threatened by the family’s economic circumstances. For example, as parental financial problems increased, economic expectations declined only among children of the least well-educated parents. Low household incomes diminished educational aspirations only when parents experienced unemployment during the ten years prior to the recent recession. Parental achievement orientations, as adolescents, were also found to moderate the impacts of shifts in the family’s economic circumstances. Finally, boys reacted more strongly to their parents’ hardship than girls. PMID:25774223

  7. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  8. Parenting styles and adolescents' achievement strategies.

    PubMed

    Aunola, K; Stattin, H; Nurmi, J E

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Three hundred and fifty-four 14-year-old adolescents completed a Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire and a family parenting style inventory. Analogous questionnaires were also completed by the adolescents' parents. Based on adolescents' report of the parenting styles, four types of families were identified: those with Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, and Neglectful parenting styles. The results further showed that adolescents from authoritative families applied most adaptive achievement strategies characterized by low levels of failure expectations, task-irrelevant behaviour and passivity, and the use of self-enhancing attributions. Adolescents from neglectful families, in turn, applied maladaptive strategies characterized by high levels of task-irrelevant behaviour, passivity and a lack of self-enhancing attributions. The results provide a basis for understanding some of the processes by which parenting styles may influence adolescents' academic achievement and performance.

  9. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  10. DPAL: historical perspective and summary of achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Knize, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Alkali vapor lasers are under extensive research and development during the past decade because of their potential for scaling to high powers while maintaining a good beam quality. Also, a possibility of using efficient diode lasers for pumping alkali vapor promises high total wall plug efficiency for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL). Since the first DPAL demonstration with output power of 130 mW in 20051, a significant progress in this field was achieved. The output power of about 1 kW in continuous wave (CW) operation with optical efficiency close to 50% was recently demonstrated for a Cs DPAL2. Also, the DPALs based on other alkali metals (Rubidium and Potassium) were demonstrated3,4 . In spite of these significant achievements, there are still several problems in DPAL power scaling exist that must be addressed. Among them are the thermal5 and photoionization6 issues that become important even at power level about several tens of watts. In this paper we present a historical review of the alkali laser research and development, discuss the most important achievements and future perspectives in this field of research.

  11. [Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation of female students].

    PubMed

    Doi, K

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the two dimensional theory of achievement motivation (Doi, 1982) in female students. Doi's motivation scale were administered to 81 female university students, 58 female students of school of nursing and 77 female students of school of English Language, and the Yatabe-Guilford personality inventory was also administered to the first and the second groups. Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation were extracted by principal component analyses and canonical correlation analyses. Non-affiliative achievement motivation was found to be related to personality type: emotional instability and introversion. These findings differ from achievement motivation concepts (Murray, 1938; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953), that include emotional stability and extraversion.

  12. Longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on adolescents' academic achievements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih

    2009-01-01

    This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.

  13. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  14. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  15. Inequality aversion, health inequalities and health achievement.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-07-01

    This paper addresses two issues. The first is how health inequalities can be measured in such a way as to take into account policymakers' attitudes towards inequality. The Gini coefficient and the related concentration index embody one particular set of value judgements. By generalising these indices, alternative sets of value judgements can be reflected. The other issue addressed is how information on health inequality can be used together with information on the mean of the relevant distribution to obtain an overall measure of health "achievement". PMID:12146594

  16. Achievement strategies at school: types and correlates.

    PubMed

    Määttä, Sami; Stattin, Häkan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2002-02-01

    In this study we made an effort to identify the kinds of strategies adolescents deploy in achievement context in an unselected sample of Swedish adolescents. The participants were 880 14-15-year-old comprehensive school students (399 boys and 481 girls) from a middle-sized town in central Sweden. Six groups of adolescents were identified according to the strategies they deployed. Four of them, i.e. optimistic, defensive pessimistic, self-handicapping and learned helplessness strategies, were similar to those described previously in the literature. The results showed that membership in the functional strategy groups, such as in mastery-oriented and defensive pessimist groups, was associated with well-being, school adjustment and achievement, and low levels of norm-breaking behaviour. By contrast, membership in the dysfunctional, for example self-handicapping and learned helplessness strategy groups, was associated with low levels of well-being, and of school adjustment, and a higher level of norm-breaking behaviour. PMID:12009748

  17. Dogs' Body Language Relevant to Learning Achievement.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masashi; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2014-01-01

    The facial expressions and body postures of dogs can give helpful information about their moods and emotional states. People can more effectively obedience train their dogs if we can identify the mannerisms associated with learning in dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the dog's body language during operant conditioning to predict achievement in the test that followed by measuring the duration of behaviors. Forty-six untrained dogs (17 males and 26 females) of various breeds were used. Each session consisted of 5 minutes of training with a treat reward followed by 3 minutes of rest and finally an operant conditioning test that consisted of 20 "hand motion" cues. The operant tests were conducted a total of nine times over three consecutive days, and the success numbers were counted. The duration of the dog's behavior, focusing on the dog's eyes, mouth, ears, tail and tail-wagging, was recorded during the operant conditioning sessions before the test. Particular behaviors, including wide-eyes, closed mouth, erect ears, and forward and high tail carriage, without wagging or with short and quick wagging, related to high achievement results. It is concluded that dogs' body language during operant conditioning was related to their success rate.

  18. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  19. The Effects of Learning Strategy Instruction on Achievement, Attitude, and Achievement Motivation in a Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin Selçuk, Gamze; Sahin, Mehmet; Açıkgöz, Kamile Ün

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers ( n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics course participated in the study. In the experimental group, questioning, summarizing, and graphic organizers were taught. The control group did not receive any presentation on strategy learning. Data were collected via the pre- and post-administration of the Physics Course Achievement Test, the Scale of Attitudes towards Physics, and the Achievement Motivation Scale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance on the data revealed no significant differences in the attitude and achievement motivation between the strategy and control groups. However, the strategy group students were observed to have a tendency of more positive attitude and motivation than the control group students. Results also showed that explicit learning strategy instruction was more effective than traditional instruction in improving physics achievement of the participating students. The implications of these results for physics education are discussed.

  20. The Predictive Validity of the Stanford Early School Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Steven G.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A sample of first grade children were pretested with the Stanford Early School Achievement Test and posttested with the Stanford Achievement Test. Results demonstrated moderate validity of theformer for predicting first grade achievement. Prediction was better in verbal achievement than in mathematics achievement. (Author/JKS)

  1. Achieving the Benefits of Safeguards by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard; Robert Bean; David Hebditch; Jim Morgan; Bruce Meppen; Scott DeMuth; Michael Ehinger; John Hockert

    2008-07-01

    The overarching driver for developing a formalized process to achieve safeguards by design is to support the global growth of nuclear power while reducing ‘nuclear security’ risks. This paper discusses an institutional approach to the design process for a nuclear facility, for designing proliferation resistance, international safeguards and U.S. national safeguards and security into new nuclear facilities. In the United States, the need exists to develop a simple, concise, formalized, and integrated approach for incorporating international safeguards and other non-proliferation considerations into the facility design process. An effective and efficient design process is one which clearly defines the functional requirements at the beginning of the project and provides for the execution of the project to achieve a reasonable balance among competing objectives in a cost effective manner. Safeguards by Design is defined as “the integration of international and national safeguards, physical security and non-proliferation features as full and equal partners in the design process of a nuclear energy system or facility,” with the objective to achieve facilities that are intrinsically more robust while being less expensive to safeguard and protect. This Safeguards by Design process has been developed such that it: • Provides improved safeguards, security, and stronger proliferation barriers, while reducing the life cycle costs to the operator and regulatory agencies, • Can be translated to any international context as a model for nuclear facility design, • Fosters a culture change to ensure the treatment of ‘nuclear security’ considerations as “full and equal” partners in the design process, • Provides a useful tool for the project manager responsible for the design, construction, and start-up of nuclear facilities, and • Addresses the key integration activities necessary to efficiently incorporate International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards into

  2. Hands-on science and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Allen Michael

    From the late 1950s through today, hands-on science has been promoted as a method of science instruction. Currently, recent national science reform efforts seek to temper its role. However, no consensus has been reached on the relationship of hands-on science to student achievement though this topic has been researched since the turn of the 20th century using various methods. To improve upon the literature, this work addresses three major limitations of past research---the lack of data on performance assessments of student achievement, the need to control for factors affecting both hands-on science and test scores, and the potential for a differential relationship by student ability. This work focuses on three research questions: (1) whether hands-on science is positively related to student achievement as measured by standardized test scores using both multiple choice and performance tests, (2) whether this relationship is stronger when using performance tests, and (3) whether this relationship differs by student ability. We apply regression analysis to two data sources. The primary data set is the 1994 RAND Survey of 1400 8th grade students and their teachers in Southern California which includes multiple choice and performance test scores. A second data source is the nationally representative NELS:88 with a focus on the 8th grade student sample. The initial findings vary by source of report, student or teacher, on the level of hands-on science. When accounting for the quality of the reports, the results show an association between the level of handson science and student test scores for both multiple choice and performance tests. The results find little difference for this relationship by type of test. Nor do they show strong evidence for a differential relationship due to student ability. These findings support the promotion of hands-on science at the middle school/junior high level while raising a concern about current science reform attempts to reduce and

  3. Technologies for Achieving Field Ubiquitous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Akira

    Although the term “ubiquitous” may sound like jargon used in information appliances, ubiquitous computing is an emerging concept in industrial automation. This paper presents the author's visions of field ubiquitous computing, which is based on the novel Internet Protocol IPv6. IPv6-based instrumentation will realize the next generation manufacturing excellence. This paper focuses on the following five key issues: 1. IPv6 standardization; 2. IPv6 interfaces embedded in field devices; 3. Compatibility with FOUNDATION fieldbus; 4. Network securities for field applications; and 5. Wireless technologies to complement IP instrumentation. Furthermore, the principles of digital plant operations and ubiquitous production to support the above key technologies to achieve field ubiquitous systems are discussed.

  4. Achieving food security in times of crisis.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S

    2010-11-30

    In spite of several World Food Summits during the past decade, the number of people going to bed hungry is increasing and now exceeds one billion. Food security strategies should therefore be revisited. Food security systems should begin with local communities who can develop and manage community gene, seed, grain and water banks. At the national level, access to balanced diet and clean drinking water should become a basic human right. Implementation of the right to food will involve concurrent attention to production, procurement, preservation and public distribution. Higher production in perpetuity should be achieved through an ever-green revolution based on the principles of conservation and climate-resilient farming. This will call for a blend of traditional ecological prudence with frontier technologies, particularly biotechnology and information communication technologies.

  5. Achieving Global Ocean Color Climate Data Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Ocean color, or the spectral distribution of visible light upwelling from beneath the ocean surface, carries information on the composition and concentration of biological constituents within the water column. The CZCS mission in 1978 demonstrated that quantitative ocean color measurements could be. made from spaceborne sensors, given sufficient corrections for atmospheric effects and a rigorous calibration and validation program. The launch of SeaWiFS in 1997 represents the beginning of NASA's ongoing efforts to develop a continuous ocean color data record with sufficient coverage and fidelity for global change research. Achievements in establishing and maintaining the consistency of the time-series through multiple missions and varying instrument designs will be highlighted in this talk, including measurements from NASA'S MODIS instruments currently flying on the Terra and Aqua platforms, as well as the MERIS sensor flown by ESA and the OCM-2 sensor recently launched by ISRO.

  6. Electrodialysis simulation to achieve optimum current density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Cal C.

    1993-01-01

    Electrodialysis is used to remove salts from waste or other water streams, to yield a concentrated brine and a substatially deionized product water. During the electrodialysis process, the boundary layer adjacent to the ion selective membrane can become depleted of ions, resulting in severe pH changes sometimes accompanied by precipitation, and power losses, by a process known as water splitting. In order to optimize the applied electric current density, to achieve maximum deionization without exceeding the limiting current at any point along the path, a simulation program has been created to plot ion concentrations and fluxes, and cell current densities and voltages along the electrodialysis path. A means for tapering the current density along the path is recommended.

  7. Environmental contributors to the achievement gap☆

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Kim, Dohyeong; Reiter, Jerome; Galeano, M. Alicia Overstreet; Maxson, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Extensive research shows that blacks, those of low socioeconomic status, and other disadvantaged groups continue to exhibit poorer school performance compared with middle and upper-class whites in the United States’ educational system. Environmental exposures may contribute to the observed achievement gap. In particular, childhood lead exposure has been linked to a number of adverse cognitive outcomes. In previous work, we demonstrated a relationship between early childhood lead exposure and end-of-grade (EOG) test scores on a limited dataset. In this analysis, data from the North Carolina Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program surveillance registry were linked to educational outcomes available through the North Carolina Education Research Data Center for all 100 counties in NC. Our objectives were to confirm the earlier study results in a larger population-level database, determine whether there are differences in the impact of lead across the EOG distribution, and elucidate the impact of cumulative childhood social and environmental stress on educational outcomes. Multivariate and quantile regression techniques were employed. We find that early childhood lead exposure is associated with lower performance on reading EOG test scores in a clear dose-response pattern, with the effects increasingly more pronounced in moving from the high end to the low end of the test score distribution. Parental educational attainment and family poverty status also affect EOG test scores, in a similar dose-response fashion, with the effects again most pronounced at the low end of the EOG test score distribution. The effects of environmental and social stressors (especially as they stretch out the lower tail of the EOG distribution) demonstrate the particular vulnerabilities of socioeconomically and environmentally disadvantaged children. Given the higher average lead exposure experienced by African American children in the United States, lead does in fact explain part of the

  8. Exemplar pediatric collaborative improvement networks: achieving results.

    PubMed

    Billett, Amy L; Colletti, Richard B; Mandel, Keith E; Miller, Marlene; Muething, Stephen E; Sharek, Paul J; Lannon, Carole M

    2013-06-01

    A number of pediatric collaborative improvement networks have demonstrated improved care and outcomes for children. Regionally, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Physician Hospital Organization has sustained key asthma processes, substantially increased the percentage of their asthma population receiving "perfect care," and implemented an innovative pay-for-performance program with a large commercial payor based on asthma performance measures. The California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative uses its outcomes database to improve care for infants in California NICUs. It has achieved reductions in central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), increased breast-milk feeding rates at hospital discharge, and is now working to improve delivery room management. Solutions for Patient Safety (SPS) has achieved significant improvements in adverse drug events and surgical site infections across all 8 Ohio children's hospitals, with 7700 fewer children harmed and >$11.8 million in avoided costs. SPS is now expanding nationally, aiming to eliminate all events of serious harm at children's hospitals. National collaborative networks include ImproveCareNow, which aims to improve care and outcomes for children with inflammatory bowel disease. Reliable adherence to Model Care Guidelines has produced improved remission rates without using new medications and a significant increase in the proportion of Crohn disease patients not taking prednisone. Data-driven collaboratives of the Children's Hospital Association Quality Transformation Network initially focused on CLABSI in PICUs. By September 2011, they had prevented an estimated 2964 CLABSI, saving 355 lives and $103,722,423. Subsequent improvement efforts include CLABSI reductions in additional settings and populations.

  9. Achieving success: moving beyond the comfort level.

    PubMed

    Manji, I

    1993-11-01

    Understanding the stages of growth, saturation and transition is the first step to setting meaningful career goals. While this concept is fairly new in dentistry, it is not new in other commercial enterprises. Business managers and owners have known for decades that growth stagnates after a period of time. At that point, a new infusion of energy and a reformation of the business's objectives and methods are needed to launch forward into the next phase of growth. Transition management in dentistry represents periods of growth that are followed by saturation and a comparatively rapid changeover to a new practice form. Saturation occurs when the clinical capacity of a practice is exceeded by the needs of a growing patient base. The key transitions in the career of a dentist are those from school to practising, and practising to retirement. A great number of dentists (due to low motivation, the comfort level or poor management skills) never reach the saturation point during their practising career. For these dentists, starting out and retirement are the only transitions that will ever apply to them. Dentists evaluating transition options must first identify which career stage they belong to since their objectives will be different at each stage. Dentists in the growth phase should focus on practice management and achieving saturation before attempting a transition. Since transitions like start-up, retirement, partnerships, associateships and buy-ins have pivotal roles in the life cycle of a practice, transitions must be managed carefully to achieve successful results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Year of Exceptional Achievements FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    devore, L; Chrzanowski, P

    2008-11-06

    2008 highlights: (1) Stockpile Stewardship and Complex Transformation - LLNL achieved scientific breakthroughs that explain some of the key 'unknowns' in nuclear weapons performance and are critical to developing the predictive science needed to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. In addition, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) passed 99 percent completion, an LLNL supercomputer simulation won the 2007 Gordon Bell Prize, and a significant fraction of our inventory of special nuclear material was shipped to other sites in support of complex transformation. (2) National and Global Security - Laboratory researchers delivered insights, technologies, and operational capabilities that are helping to ensure national security and global stability. Of particular note, they developed advanced detection instruments that provide increased speed, accuracy, specificity, and resolution for identifying and characterizing biological, chemical, nuclear, and high-explosive threats. (3) Exceptional Science and Technology - The Laboratory continued its tradition of scientific excellence and technical innovation. LLNL scientists made significant contributions to Nobel Prize-winning work on climate change. LLNL also received three R&D 100 awards and six Nanotech 50 awards, and dozens of Laboratory scientists and engineers were recognized with professional awards. These honors provide valuable confirmation that peers and outside experts recognize the quality of our staff and our work. (4) Enhanced Business and Operations - A major thrust under LLNS is to make the Laboratory more efficient and cost competitive. We achieved roughly $75 million in cost savings for support activities through organizational changes, consolidation of services, improved governance structures and work processes, technology upgrades, and systems shared with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We realized nonlabor cost savings of $23 million. Severe

  12. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22753040

  13. ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY - FINAL STEPS IN A DYNAMIC DANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Achieving sustainability relies upon adequate metrics to evaluate the environment and guide decisions. Although adequate assessment is important to prescribing remedies, achieving a sustainable environment cannot be delayed. It must be achieved today as well as tomorrow so that t...

  14. Teacher perception, lesson study and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Whitney E.

    The purpose of this research was to explore group differences between teachers participating in North Cascades Olympic Science Partnership (NCOSP) activities and a matched group of non-NCOSP teachers. Specifically, the study explored potential differences between groups on: (a) science achievement as measured by the science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), (b) teacher perception of knowledge, experience and confidence with lesson study, a collaborative professional development model, (c) teacher perception of knowledge with curriculum, and (d) teacher perception of knowledge and experience with pedagogy. Further, in order todemonstrate group similarities, demographic data for each group were described and considered in the areas of teacher gender, school grade span, school enrollment, percent of students receiving free and reduced meal benefits, percent of female students, percent of students who are an ethnic minority, and percent of students who are identified as special education. A total of 206 science teachers were randomly selected for this population. The experimental (NCOSP science teachers) and comparison (non-NCOSP science teachers) groups were both initially comprised of 103 participants. Data collected from 55 NCOSP teachers and 32 non-NCOSP teachers were valid and used in the statistical analyses. Descriptive and inferential analyses were completed. To ensure the NCOSP and matched groups were statistically similar, chi-square tests for independence were computed. A one-way Hotelling's T2, the equivalent of a MANOVA for two groups, was computed using the SPSS general linear model. The procedure simultaneously compared the independent variable (Group: NCOSP teachers and non-NCOSP teachers) across the seven dependent variables, student science achievement as measured by science WASL, curriculum knowledge, pedagogy knowledge, pedagogy confidence, lesson study knowledge, lesson study experience, and lesson study confidence. Results for the

  15. Achievement motivation and competition: perceptions and responses.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, T K; Ragan, J T

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of achievement motivation (Nach) on how individuals perceive an evaluative competition situation, whether they prefer to perform in this type of setting, and whether they seek the inherent appraisal information regarding their motoric competence. Specifically, perceived threat to self esteem was examined as indicated by state anxiety responses and measured by the Competitive Short Form of the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. State anxiety was assessed at rest, while performing a motor task alone in a nonevaluative setting, and during competition against an equal ability opponent. Situation perference and information seeking behavior were assessed at the conclusion of the closely paced competition. Subjects were asked whether they had perferred performing in the noncompetition or competition situation and were given the opportunity to select the relative ability level of a future opponent. As predicted, the major findings indicated that high Nach males experienced less threat during competition than low Nach males. Further, more high than low Nach individuals perferred the competition situation to the noncompetition situation and sought the evaluative ability information to a greater extent by choosing opponents of equal or greater relative ability for a future hypothetical competition.

  16. Toward integrated strategies for achieving environmental quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kuusinen, T.; Lesperance, A.; Bilyard, G. )

    1994-03-01

    In the United States, environmentalists are constantly jumping from one environmental crisis of the day'' to another without any sense of what is important and what is trivial. Moreover, when designing fixes to the environmental problems one tries to resolve, one often comes up short. This country urgently needs a national environmental strategy that will approach environmental issues proactively and logically. Without such a strategy, the authors believe that long-term, sustainable economic growth cannot be achieved in the United States. This paper outlines a participatory process by which the framework for a national environmental strategy might be developed. It also proposes that such a strategy will likely include two fundamental components: (1) consensus principles for conducting risk assessments to decide what environmental problems are most important, and (2) a generalized, market-oriented model for resolving these problems. A viable national consensus will be required for such a strategy to succeed and will need to include industry, labor, legislators, regulators, national environmental advocacy groups, local grass roots organizations, and other interested parties.

  17. [Qinghai achieves good results in planned parenthood].

    PubMed

    1979-05-11

    After 8 days in session the Qinghai provincial meeting of representatives of advanced collectives and individuals in planned parenthood and maternal and child health work concluded in Xining on May 6. The meeting discussed and studied the population plan for our province and the specific policies and stipulations on planned parenthood, summed up and exchanged experiences and appraised and awarded 62 advanced collectives and 32 advanced individuals. Ma Wanli, vice chairman of the provincial revolutionary committee, and responsible comrades of the provincial culture and education office, public health units, trade union organizations, women's federations, commercial organizations, party schools, and other departments concerned were present at the closing ceremony. The advanced collectives and individuals were given awards at the ceremony and Comrade Ma Wanli spoke. Representatives attending the meeting said: Over the past several years, Qinghai's planned parenthood and maternal and child health work have been extensively developed in the cities and rural areas under the leadership of party committees at all levels. Great results have been achieved. The rate of Qinghai's population increase was reduced from 1971's 32.4/1000 persons to 1978's 19.4/1000 persons, hitting the target set by the state for our province. The natural rate of increase in some communes was reduced to less than 12/1000 persons.

  18. Medical biotechnology trends and achievements in iran.

    PubMed

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-10-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers' role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology.

  19. Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood.

    PubMed

    Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base.

  20. Achievements and challenges of EUV mask imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, Natalia; van Setten, Eelco; de Kruif, Robert; Connolly, Brid; Fukugami, Norihito; Kodera, Yutaka; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Sakata, Yo; Kotani, Jun; Kondo, Shinpei; Imoto, Tomohiro; Rolff, Haiko; Ullrich, Albrecht; Lammers, Ad; Schiffelers, Guido; van Dijk, Joep

    2014-07-01

    The impact of various mask parameters on CDU combined in a total mask budget is presented, for 22 nm lines, for reticles used for NXE:3300 qualification. Apart from the standard mask CD measurements, actinic spectrometry of multilayer is used to qualify reflectance uniformity over the image field; advanced 3D metrology is applied for absorber profile characterization including absorber height and side wall angle. The predicted mask impact on CDU is verified using actual exposure data collected on multiple NXE:3300 scanners. Mask 3D effects are addressed, manifesting themselves in best focus shifts for different structures exposed with off-axis illumination. Experimental NXE:3300 results for 16 nm dense lines and 20 nm (semi-)isolated spaces are shown: best focus range reaches 24 nm. A mitigation strategy by absorber height optimization is proposed based on experimental results of a special mask with varying absorber heights. Further development of a black image border for EUV mask is considered. The image border is a pattern free area surrounding image field preventing exposure the image field neighborhood on wafer. Normal EUV absorber is not suitable for this purpose as it has 1-3% EUV reflectance. A current solution is etching of ML down to substrate reducing EUV reflectance to <0.05%. A next step in the development of the black border is the reduction of DUV Out-of-Band reflectance (<1.5%) in order to cope with DUV light present in EUV scanners. Promising results achieved in this direction are shown.

  1. Achieving low particulate emissions with electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Mastropietro, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    A great deal of literature has been published in recent years maligning electrostatic precipitators (ESP) as not being effective in achieving low emissions, or as being less effective than fabric filters in collecting fine particulate. This observation is not valid, provided the ESP is properly sized. The misconception comes from comparing modern high efficiency fabric filters, with 1950-1970`s vintage ESP`s. ESP`s were sized much smaller in that era, basically just for {open_quotes}good-neighbor{close_quotes} policies. Figure 1 shows the historical sizing practices for coal-fired utility boilers. From this, it can be seen that ESP`s from the 50`s through the early 1970`s were only about one-fourth to one-half the size of modern ESP`s. These undersized ESP`s, often in the presence of a coal switch to low sulfur coal, sometimes perform poorly. When replaced with a fabric filter, the claim is made that the ESP did not work and that a fabric filter does work properly. Had the ESP been increased in size to modern standards, it too would work properly.

  2. Academic Achievement of University Students with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Åke; Taube, Karin; Ahl, Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Broadened recruitment to higher education is on the agenda in many countries, and it is also widely recognized that the number of dyslexic students entering higher education is increasing. In Sweden, as in many other European countries, higher education institutions are required to accommodate students with dyslexia. The present study focuses on the study outcome for 50 students with diagnosed dyslexia, mainly in teacher education and nurses' training, at three universities in Northern Sweden. The students trusted their own ability to find information on the Internet but mistrusted their own abilities in reading course books and articles in English and in taking notes. The mean rate of study was 23.5 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits per semester, which is slightly below the national baseline of 26.7. The results show that more than half of the students are examined at a normal rate of study but that about one fifth have a very low rate of study. Messages Most students with dyslexia can compensate for their reading problems. Taking notes during lessons and reading in foreign language may be especially difficult for students with dyslexia. Diagnoses should distinguish between reading comprehension and word decoding. More than half of the students with dyslexia can achieve at a normal rate of study. One-fifth of the students with dyslexia may need a longer period of study than other students.

  3. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral.

  4. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  5. Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-01-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  6. Visually guided collision avoidance and collision achievement.

    PubMed

    Regan; Gray

    2000-03-01

    To survive on today's highways, a driver must have highly developed skills in visually guided collision avoidance. To play such games as cricket, tennis or baseball demands accurate, precise and reliable collision achievement. This review discusses evidence that some of these tasks are performed by predicting where an object will be at some sharply defined instant, several hundred milliseconds in the future, while other tasks are performed by utilizing the fact that some of our motor actions change what we see in ways that obey lawful relationships, and can therefore be learned. Several monocular and binocular visual correlates of the direction of an object's motion relative to the observer's head have been derived theoretically, along with visual correlates of the time to collision with an approaching object. Although laboratory psychophysics can identify putative neural mechanisms by showing which of the known correlates are processed by the human visual system independently of other visual information, it is only field research on, for example, driving, aviation and sport that can show which visual cues are actually used in these activities. This article reviews this research and describes a general psychophysically based rational approach to the design of such field studies.

  7. Achieving energy efficiency during collective communications

    SciTech Connect

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav; Sosonkina, Masha; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-09-13

    Energy consumption has become a major design constraint in modern computing systems. With the advent of petaflops architectures, power-efficient software stacks have become imperative for scalability. Techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (called DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (called throttling) are often used to reduce the power consumption of the compute nodes. To avoid significant performance losses, these techniques should be used judiciously during parallel application execution. For example, its communication phases may be good candidates to apply the DVFS and CPU throttling without incurring a considerable performance loss. They are often considered as indivisible operations although little attention is being devoted to the energy saving potential of their algorithmic steps. In this work, two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather, are investigated as to their augmentation with energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. The experiments prove the viability of such a fine-grain approach. They also validate a theoretical power consumption estimate for multicore nodes proposed here. While keeping the performance loss low, the obtained energy savings were always significantly higher than those achieved when DVFS or throttling were switched on across the entire application run

  8. Efficacy of nanoparticles in achieving hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Carrie Catherine

    Uncontrollable hemorrhage is significant cause of preventable death in the military and civilian setting. Hemostatic wound dressings have been created in an attempt to rectify this problem, but none currently on the market are highly effective at controlling hemorrhage resulting in a need for an effective hemostatic wound dressing. This study investigated the effects of gold, silver, and silica nanoparticles on blood coagulation time in order to determine if nanoparticle incorporation into a hemostatic wound dressing would effectively achieve hemostasis. Gold, silver, and silica nanoparticles were experimented with two different ex vivo studies to determine their effects on coagulation. A modified Lee White Method and a rotational viscometer were utilized to assess the nanoparticles ability to clot blood. Results obtained from the modified Lee White Method proved inconsistent and inconclusive demonstrating a need for improved testing methods. Results acquired from viscometer testing demonstrated that silica was effective in decreasing coagulation time indicating its potential use as a hemostatic agent and its prospective incorporation into a hemostatic wound dressing.

  9. Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood.

    PubMed

    Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base. PMID:23664815

  10. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  11. Plasma Medicine: Current Achievements and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, Mounir

    2012-10-01

    Research on the biomedical applications of low temperature plasmas started with small scale experiments that were simply aimed at discovering what happens to biological cells when exposed to the chemically rich environment of plasma. These early experiments took place in the mid to late 1990s. As interest in this multidisciplinary field dramatically rose, various engineering and physics groups collaborated with biologists and medical experts to investigate the use of plasma technology as a basis for innovative medical approaches to cure various diseases. However, many questions concerning the fundamental mechanisms involved in cell-plasma interaction remained unanswered. As a result various workshops were organized to gather the diverse research community in the field of plasma medicine in order to have a fruitful exchange of ideas regarding the scientific challenges that needed to be surmounted to advance and expand the field's knowledge base. The present GEC workshop continues this important tradition of scientific cooperation since there is still a significant lack of understanding of many of the biochemical and molecular pathways that come into play when biological cells are exposed to plasmas. In this talk, first background information on the various plasma devices developed in our institute will be presented. This will be followed by a summary of our work on the effects of plasmas on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The talk will be concluded by presenting our vision of the future of the field and an outline of the main challenges that need to be overcome if practical medical applications are to be achieved.

  12. Worksheet Usage, Reading Achievement, Classes' Lack of Readiness, and Science Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Che-Di

    2014-01-01

    Instructional written materials play important roles as teachers' agents in effective teaching practices. Worksheets are one of the most frequently used materials. In this exploratory study, the relationships between worksheet usage and science achievement in 32 countries were examined through the use of TIMSS and PIRLS data and multiple…

  13. The Achievement Gap: Factors That Influenced the Achievement of Successful Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Kwame R., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The academic underperformance of Black students when compared to their White peers has confounded educators nationwide. This discrepancy in academic performance commonly referred to as the achievement gap has become a national crisis which has led to one of the most significant educational reforms undertaken in the United States of America in the…

  14. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 26th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    A national survey of 3,351 high achieving high school students (junior and senior level) was conducted. All students had A or B averages. Topics covered include lifestyles, political beliefs, violence and entertainment, education, cheating, school violence, sexual violence and date rape, peer pressure, popularity, suicide, drugs and alcohol,…

  15. The Underdevelopment of Educational Achievement: Mathematics Achievement in the Dominican Republic Eighth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Eduardo; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes results from the study Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in the Dominican Republic (TLMDR) which evaluated eighth grade students' mathematics achievement during 1982-83. States students are not guaranteed an adequate level of mathematics instruction. Contends the Dominican Republic school system enhances and deepens social…

  16. Reading Achievement, Attitude toward Reading, and Reading Self-Esteem of Historically Low Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaniuka, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of schools is to improve the academic performance of all students and more recently with special regard to those that have historically struggled to meet state achievement goals. In an effort to attain these goals, educators have utilized many approaches including enhancing student self-esteem as a precursor to improving the…

  17. Improving Student Achievement in Science. Based on the "Handbook of Research on Improving Student Achievement."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    This booklet summarizes the science chapter from the "Handbook of Research on Improving Student Achievement," a report sponsored by the Alliance for Curriculum Reform and also published by the Educational Research Service. The handbook is based on the idea that efforts to improve instruction must focus on the existing knowledge base on effective…

  18. Adolescents' Perceptions of Teachers' Caring and Achievement Press Related to Sex, Track, Program, and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, David S.

    A group of 3,000 7th through 12th graders were surveyed to investigate their perceptions of how much teachers cared about them and the degree to which they felt teachers urged them to achieve. Of the adolescents surveyed, 39% felt that teachers never or rarely seem to care about them. This is a crucial dimension, since teacher warmth has been…

  19. Parental Involvement in Homework: Relations with Parent and Student Achievement-Related Motivational Beliefs and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonida, Eleftheria N.; Cortina, Kai S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental involvement in homework is a home-based type of involvement in children's education. Research and theory suggest that it is beneficial for learning and achievement under certain conditions and for particular groups of individuals. Aims: The study examined whether different types of parents' involvement in homework…

  20. From the Achievement Gap to the Education Debt: Understanding Achievement in U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    The "achievement gap" is one of the most talked-about issues in U.S. education. The term refers to the disparities in standardized test scores between Black and White, Latina/o and White, and recent immigrant and White students. This article argues that a focus on the gap is misplaced. Instead, we need to look at the "education debt" that has…