Science.gov

Sample records for achieved initial criticality

  1. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  2. Strategic defense initiative: critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible which have high economic leverage relative to offensive ballistic missiles; would the defense feasibility and leverage be degraded or enhanced in the technological race between weapons innovation and countermeasures; could stability be achieved during and after the transition to the defense dominated world envisioned by SDI proponents; would the deployment of high leverage defensive weapons increase or decrease the security of NATO Europe, and the probability of major conventional or nuclear wars. The issue of SDI may lead to a paradox that contains the seeds of catastrophe. The author concludes by warning that nuclear disarmament may eliminate the highly successful deterrent mechanism for avoiding another major world war. In a world made safe for major conventional wars by the apparent ''elimination'' of nuclear weapons, the leaders in a conventional World War III - involving unimaginable suffering, hatred, terror, and death - would be strongly motivated to introduce nuclear weapons in the crucial decisive battles. Even if diplomacy could ''eliminate'' nuclear weapons, man's knowledge of nuclear weapons can never be eliminated. The paradox is the attempt to eliminate nuclear weapons may maximize the probability of their use. (DMC)

  3. Initial dosing regimen of vancomycin to achieve early therapeutic plasma concentration in critically ill patients with MRSA infection based on APACHE II score.

    PubMed

    Imaura, Masaharu; Yokoyama, Haruko; Kohata, Yuji; Kanai, Riichiro; Kohyama, Tomoki; Idemitsu, Wataru; Maki, Yuichi; Igarashi, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kanno, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2016-06-01

    It is essential to assure the efficacy of antimicrobials at the initial phase of therapy. However, increasing the volume of distribution (Vd) of hydrophilic antimicrobials in critically ill patients leads to reduced antimicrobial concentration in plasma and tissue, which may adversely affect the efficacy of that therapy. The aim of the present study was to establish a theoretical methodology for setting an appropriate level for initial vancomycin therapy in individual patients based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. We obtained data from patients who received intravenous vancomycin for a suspected or definitively diagnosed Gram-positive bacterial infection within 72 h after admission to the intensive care unit. The Vd and elimination half-life (t 1/2) of vancomycin values were calculated using the Bayesian method, and we investigated the relationship between them and APACHE II score. There were significant correlations between APACHE II scores and Vd/actual body weight (ABW), as well as t 1/2 (r = 0.58, p < 0.05 and r = 0.74, p < 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that the Vd and t 1/2 of vancomycin could be estimated using the following regression equations using APACHE II score.[Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]We found that APACHE II score was a useful index for predicting the Vd and t 1/2 of vancomycin, and used that to establish an initial vancomycin dosing regimen comprised of initial dose and administration interval for individual patients.

  4. Critical Initial Flaw Size Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, David S.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Cheston, Derrick J.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The USS consists of several "tuna can" segments that are approximately 216 inches in diameter, 115 inches tall, and 0.5 inches thick. A 6 inch wide by 1 inch thick flange is welded to the skin and is used to fasten adjacent tuna cans. A schematic of a "tuna can" and the location of the flange-to-skin weld are shown in Figure 1. Gussets (shown in yellow in Figure 1) are welded to the skin and flange every 10 degrees around the circumference of the "tuna can". The flange-to-skin weld is a flux core butt weld with a fillet weld on the inside surface, as illustrated in Figure 2. The welding process may create loss of fusion defects in the weld that could develop into fatigue cracks and jeopardize the structural integrity of the Ares I-X vehicle. The CIFS analysis was conducted to determine the largest crack in the weld region that will not grow to failure within 4 lifetimes, as specified by NASA standard 5001 & 5019 [1].

  5. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  6. Critical pathways: effectiveness in achieving patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ireson, C L

    1997-06-01

    Refining the clinical care process to produce high-quality patient outcomes is becoming increasingly important as health care administrators strive for success in a mature managed care environment. This study examines the effect of structuring interventions and the evaluation of patient response, inherent in the critical pathway process, on clinical, length-of-hospital-stay, and financial patient outcomes. This study differs from previous critical pathway trials in that an objective measure of quality was used and the critical pathways were not introduced concurrently with a case management delivery model. The results show that critical pathways may be a significant determinant of improved quality in a managed care environment. The findings also suggest ways to improve nursing practice, nursing education, and nursing informatics.

  7. Achieving Sustainability in Learning and Teaching Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Angela; Cahir, Jayde

    2014-01-01

    Universities have a long history of change in learning and teaching to suit various government initiatives and institutional priorities. Academic developers now are frequently required to address strategic learning and teaching priorities. This paper asks how, in such a context, academic developers can ensure that work they do in relation to one…

  8. Initial results of SEPAC scientific achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, T.; Kawashima, N.; Sasaki, S.; Yanagisawa, M.; Kuriki, K.; Nagatomo, M.; Ninomiya, K.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Williamson, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Electron beam injection of 5 keV, 300 mA (1.5 kW) and MPD arcjet plasma injection of 2 kJ/shot were successfully performed together with various kinds of diagnostic instruments including a high sensitivity TV camera observation in the Spacelab 1. Major scientific results obtained are studies of: (1) vehicle charge-up due to the electron beam emission and its neutralization by the MPD arcjet plasma; (2) beam-plasma interaction including the plasma wave excitation; (3) beam-atmosphere interaction such as the verification of critical velocity ionization effect; and (4) anomalous enhancement of ionization associated with a neutral gas injection into space.

  9. Initial Physics Achievements of LHD Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motojima, O.

    1998-11-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments have started this year after a successful eight-year construction period. LHD investigates many possibilities of physics studies on heliotron type toroidal plasma confinement, which stimulates efforts to obtain the necessary knowledge and capabilities of currentless and disruption-free steady plasmas under the optimized continuous helical field configuration. LHD is a large heliotron (a major radius of 3.9 m and a minor radius of 0.65 m) with a high potential for steady-state operation by means of superconducting coils to maximize the intrinsic capability of LHD in physics. The plasma performance is expected to be close to the break-even condition. The construction and machine commissioning phases have attained a wide variety of milestones in fusion engineering, which successfully led to the first plasma production on March 31, 1998. We have two physics experimental campaign this year. The initial plasma experiment was conducted with 2nd harmonic 84-GHz ECH of 0.35 MW at the magnetic field of 1.5 T. Magnetic field mapping experiment by an electron beam and fluorescent mesh has demonstrated clearly the nested and healthy structure of magnetic surfaces, which indicates the successful completion of the physical design and the effectiveness of engineering quality control during the fabrication. During the first experimental campaign, a clear indication through the physics results which highlights the viable performance of the LHD plasmas has been already obtained despite the limited resources and exploration. An energy confinement time of 0.25 s has been observed for \\overlinene of 0.6× 10^19m-3 with 70 kW of ECH. The central electron temperature has reached 1.3 keV. The obtained confinement time is not in contradiction to the ISS95 law or better. A clear dependence of confinement on density has not been lost although saturation is expected in the present condition from the experience in tokamaks. Spontaneous toroidal

  10. Investigating Academic Achievements and Critical Thinking Dispositions of Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagöl, Ibrahim; Bekmezci, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to different variables. The population consists of the…

  11. The Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon; Osler, Audrey; Hill, John

    2005-01-01

    This article critically analyses the extent to which the Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant (EMAG) has been successful in meeting its core objective of raising the achievement of minority ethnic groups who are at risk of underachieving. The article provides an historical analysis of the Grant, sets the Grant within the context of the Labour…

  12. Formative Evaluation of the Student Achievement Initiative "Learning Year"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Ellwein, Todd; Boswell, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    In September 2007, the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC) officially launched the Student Achievement Initiative, a system-wide policy to reward colleges for improvements in student achievement. Developed by a task force comprised of State Board members, college trustees, presidents, and faculty representatives,…

  13. Washington State Student Achievement Initiative Policy Study: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Wachen, John; Moore, Colleen; Shulock, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges launched a performance funding policy called the Student Achievement Initiative (SAI) both to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in community colleges and to provide incentives to colleges through financial rewards…

  14. Relationship between intravenous use and achieving initial cocaine abstinence.

    PubMed

    Budney, A J; Higgins, S T; Bickel, W; Kent, L

    1993-04-01

    This study assessed whether route of cocaine administration (intravenous vs. intranasal) influences cocaine abstinence during the first 6 weeks of outpatient treatment. Fifty-nine persons received behavioral treatment or standard drug counselling in an outpatient clinic. Based on information collected at intake, intravenous users had fewer years of education, were employed in less skilled jobs, were less likely to be married, reported more negative consequences from cocaine use, reported using more cocaine per occasion and spent more money on cocaine per week than intranasal users. Intravenous and intranasal users did not differ significantly in the average duration of continuous cocaine abstinence (mean = 2.6 vs. mean = 3.3 weeks achieved during 6 weeks of treatment). The duration of abstinence between intravenous and intranasal users was equal in the behavioral treatment (mean = 4.2). In standard treatment the average duration was less among intravenous than intranasal users (mean = 0.9 vs. mean = 2.4), but that difference did not achieve statistical significance. Hepatitis and employment instability were associated with shorter periods of cocaine abstinence among intravenous users, whereas employment instability, lower job skill level, drug use severity and reports of memory loss were associated with shorter periods of cocaine abstinence among intranasal users. These results indicate that i.v. cocaine users can achieve a period of initial abstinence in an outpatient setting comparable to the duration of typical inpatient hospitalizations, although special types of outpatient treatment may be necessary to obtain a positive outcome.

  15. Relationship between intravenous use and achieving initial cocaine abstinence.

    PubMed

    Budney, A J; Higgins, S T; Bickel, W; Kent, L

    1993-04-01

    This study assessed whether route of cocaine administration (intravenous vs. intranasal) influences cocaine abstinence during the first 6 weeks of outpatient treatment. Fifty-nine persons received behavioral treatment or standard drug counselling in an outpatient clinic. Based on information collected at intake, intravenous users had fewer years of education, were employed in less skilled jobs, were less likely to be married, reported more negative consequences from cocaine use, reported using more cocaine per occasion and spent more money on cocaine per week than intranasal users. Intravenous and intranasal users did not differ significantly in the average duration of continuous cocaine abstinence (mean = 2.6 vs. mean = 3.3 weeks achieved during 6 weeks of treatment). The duration of abstinence between intravenous and intranasal users was equal in the behavioral treatment (mean = 4.2). In standard treatment the average duration was less among intravenous than intranasal users (mean = 0.9 vs. mean = 2.4), but that difference did not achieve statistical significance. Hepatitis and employment instability were associated with shorter periods of cocaine abstinence among intravenous users, whereas employment instability, lower job skill level, drug use severity and reports of memory loss were associated with shorter periods of cocaine abstinence among intranasal users. These results indicate that i.v. cocaine users can achieve a period of initial abstinence in an outpatient setting comparable to the duration of typical inpatient hospitalizations, although special types of outpatient treatment may be necessary to obtain a positive outcome. PMID:8508724

  16. Critical Literacy through Initial Teacher Education in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I seek to ascertain whether critical literacy may have an important and realisable place in current English pedagogy, having first tried to establish what is meant by critical literacy, and what its contexts are for my purposes here, including the nature of initial teacher education (ITE). The paper then reports and reflects on some…

  17. One can achieve anything with a laser: an educational initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ray K.

    2005-06-01

    Laser Photonics has been highlighted by many as THE Technology of the 21st Century. However, there are few obvious opportunities for students to see a Laser in operation in circumstances beyond some simple low power Laser Interferometry demonstrations, or the use of Laser Pointer Pens. As part of an educational initiative, PION LASER SENSORS within the University of Salford has developed a series of laboratory design and construction Projects that involve both the opportunities for, and the innovative creation of, visually attractive operative applications of low power Laser Photonics. These highly functional Laser Photonics Projects range from the transmission of audio signals to a written alphabetical letter recognition and Braille converter sensor for a visually impaired person; from a Laser speckle eye-sight testing system to a prototype mobile robotic guide for a blind person.; from a novel type of Laser seismograph to an equally novel set of Laser measurement callipers; from a Laser activated pair of walking feet to an optical feedback system to maintain a horizontal surface within a vehicle traversing rough terrain. This type of low power Laser Photonics design and construction Project not only provides the opportunity for students to become involved with some highly creative and innovative laboratory opportunities, but the experience clearly enthuses the students towards many aspects of Physics, Medicine, and Engineering through a sense of personal achievement resulting from a realization of their imaginative thinking sills, combined with their acquired manual skills.

  18. Residual Stresses and Critical Initial Flaw Size Analyses of Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brust, Frederick W.; Raju, Ivatury, S.; Dawocke, David S.; Cheston, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). A series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on the fatigue life. The purpose of the weld analyses was to model the weld process using a variety of sequences to determine the 'best' sequence in terms of weld residual stresses and distortions. The many factors examined in this study include weld design (single-V, double-V groove), weld sequence, boundary conditions, and material properties, among others. The results of this weld analysis are included with service loads to perform a fatigue and critical initial flaw size evaluation.

  19. Critical Evidence: How the Arts Benefit Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppert, Sandra S.

    2006-01-01

    Why is it so important to keep the arts strong in schools? How does study of the arts contribute to student achievement and success? This paper is designed to answer these and other questions. It describes in nontechnical terms what the research says about how study of the arts contributes to academic achievement and student success. It offers…

  20. Criticality of timing for anti-HIV therapy initiation.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, Filippo; Paci, Paola

    2010-01-01

    The time of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected patients has a determinant effect on the viral dynamics. The question is, how far can the therapy be delayed? Is sooner always better? We resort to clinical data and to microsimulations to forecast the dynamics of the viral load at therapy interruption after prolonged antiretroviral treatment. A computational model previously evaluated, produces results that are statistically adherent to clinical data. In addition, it allows a finer grain analysis of the impact of the therapy initiation point to the disease course. We find a swift increase of the viral density as a function of the time of initiation of the therapy measured when the therapy is stopped. In particular there is a critical time delay with respect to the infection instant beyond which the therapy does not affect the viral rebound. Initiation of the treatment is beneficial because it can down-regulate the immune activation, hence limiting viral replication and spread.

  1. Professional Learning Communities That Initiate Improvement in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Suzanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Quality teaching requires a strong practice of collaboration, an essential building block for educators to improve student achievement. Researchers have theorized that the implementation of a professional learning community (PLC) with resultant collaborative practices among teachers sustains academic improvement. The problem addressed specifically…

  2. INITIAL WASTE PACKAGE PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: UNCANISTERED FUEL (TBV)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Massari

    1995-10-06

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide an assessment of the present waste package design from a criticality risk standpoint, The specific objectives of this initial analysis are to: (1) Establish a process for determining the probability of waste package criticality as a function of time (in terms of a cumulative distribution function, probability distribution function, or expected number of criticalities in a specified time interval) for various waste package concepts; (2) Demonstrate the established process by estimating the probability of criticality as a function of time since emplacement for an intact uncanistered fuel waste package (UCF-WP) configuration; and (3) Identify the dominant sequences leading to waste package criticality for subsequent detailed analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to document and demonstrate the developed process as it has been applied to the UCF-WP. This revision is performed to correct deficiencies in the previous revision and provide further detail on the calculations performed. Due to the current lack of knowledge in a number of areas, every attempt has been made to ensure that the all calculations and assumptions were conservative. This analysis is preliminary in nature, and is intended to be superseded by at least two more versions prior to license application. The information and assumptions used to generate this analysis are unverified and have been globally assigned TBV identifier TBV-059-WPD. Future versions of this analysis will update these results, possibly replacing the global TBV with a small number of TBV's on individual items, with the goal of removing all TBV designations by license application submittal. The final output of this document, the probability of UCF-WP criticality as a function of time, is therefore, also TBV. This document is intended to deal only with the risk of internal criticality with unaltered fuel

  3. Critical discharge of initially subcooled water through slits. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Amos, C N; Schrock, V E

    1983-09-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation into the critical flow of initially subcooled water through rectangular slits. The study of such flows is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from cracks in piping, or pressure vessels, which contain sufficient enthalpy that vaporization will occur if they are allowed to expand to the ambient pressure. Two new analytical models, which allow for the generation of a metastable liquid phase, are developed. Experimental results are compared with the predictions of both these new models and with a Fanno Homogeneous Equilibrium Model.

  4. Special Panel Session: Driving Critical Initiatives in Motor Speech

    PubMed Central

    Weismer, Gary; Barlow, Steven; Smith, Anne; Caviness, John

    2008-01-01

    The following report is a summary of the Special Panel Session, entitled, “Driving Critical Initiatives in Motor Speech,” that was conducted at the Conference on Motor Speech, March 2008, in Monterey California. Don Finan (Program Chair for Speech Motor Control) and Julie Liss (Program Chair for Motor Speech Disorders) invited four distinguished scientists (Drs. Gary Weismer, Steven Barlow, Anne Smith, and John Caviness) to share, briefly, their opinions and views on selected topics. This was followed by an hour-long general discussion session with conference attendees. This report contains an introductory statement followed by the panel members' own summaries of the opinions and ideas expressed in their talks. We then summarize the major topics that were considered during the discussion session. This summary reflects the biases and opinions of the participants, and is meant to serve as a thought-piece for the readership of JMSLP, rather than as a scientific report. PMID:19421339

  5. Building Capability, Empowering Students, and Achieving Success: The Financial Empowerment for Student Success Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broun, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The Financial Empowerment for Student Success (FESS) Initiative was a two-year initiative focused on increasing student success through the provision of financial services. Achieving the Dream, Inc. and MDC, Inc. joined together, with funding from the Bank of America Charitable Foundation, to support three Achieving the Dream Leader Colleges to…

  6. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume IV. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  7. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume V. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  8. Engaging Faculty in the Achieving the Dream Initiative. Principles and Practices of Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnback, Lara; Friedman, Will

    2009-01-01

    Stakeholder engagement is critical to the success of Achieving the Dream. Broad-based support for the college's student success agenda and institutional change efforts requires engaging faculty, staff, students, community members, and others in the change process. These stakeholders can bring to light critical obstacles to student success and help…

  9. Instrumental Motivation, Critical Thinking, Autonomy and Academic Achievement of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshar, Hassan Soodmand; Rahimi, Ali; Rahimi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Among the factors influencing learners' learning, instrumental motivation, critical thinking and autonomy are thought to be of crucial importance. The present study, thus, set out to investigate relationships between instrumental motivation, critical thinking, autonomy and academic achievement of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 100 Iranian…

  10. The Predictive Validity of Critical Thinking Disposition on Middle-Grades Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVenia, Mark; Pineau, Kristina N.; Lang, Laura B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive validity of students' levels of critical thinking disposition, as measured by the California Measure of Mental Motivation (CM3; Giancarlo, Blohm, & Urdan, 2004) for students' math achievement, as measured by the Mathematics assessment included in the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). The CM3 is a…

  11. Faculty Perceptions of High-Achieving Male Collegians: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    Critical race theory was employed as an interpretive framework to explore faculty perceptions of the academic accomplishments of high-achieving Black and White male collegians. Using photo elicitation methodology, faculty participants responded to a randomly assigned photograph of and vignette about either a Black or White male student. While most…

  12. Does Sensitivity to Criticism Mediate the Relationship between Theory of Mind and Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecce, Serena; Caputi, Marcella; Hughes, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This study adds to the growing research on school outcomes associated with individual differences in preschoolers' theory of mind skills by considering whether "costs" of theory of mind (e.g., sensitivity to criticism) actually help to foster children's academic achievement. A group of 60 Italian children was tested during the last year of…

  13. Low-Achieving Readers, High Expectations: Image Theatre Encourages Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozansky, Carol Lloyd; Aagesen, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Students in an eighth-grade, urban, low-achieving reading class were introduced to critical literacy through engagement in Image Theatre. Developed by liberatory dramatist Augusto Boal, Image Theatre gives participants the opportunity to examine texts in the triple role of interpreter, artist, and sculptor (i.e., image creator). The researchers…

  14. The initiation of subduction: criticality by addition of water?

    PubMed

    Regenauer-Lieb, K; Yuen, D A; Branlund, J

    2001-10-19

    Subduction is a major process of plate tectonics; however, its initiation is not understood. We used high-resolution (less than 1 kilometer) finite-element models based on rheological data of the lithosphere to investigate the role played by water on initiating subduction. A solid-fluid thermomechanical instability is needed to drive a cold, stiff, and negatively buoyant lithosphere into the mantle. This instability can be triggered slowly by sedimentary loading over a time span of 100 million years. Our results indicate that subduction can proceed by a double feedback mechanism (thermoelastic and thermal-rheological) promoted by lubrication due to water.

  15. Critical Risk Results – An Update on International Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Ajzner, E.; Campbell, C.A.; Young, A.

    2016-01-01

    Direct communication of significant (often life-threatening) results is a universally acknowledged role of the pathology laboratory, and an important contributor to patient safety. Amongst the findings of a recent survey of 871 laboratories from 30 countries by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM), only 3 tests were noted to be common to 90% of alert lists, and only 48% of laboratories consulted clinicians in developing these alert lists despite ISO15189 recommendations to do so. These findings are similar to previous national surveys demonstrating significant variation worldwide in how critical risk results are managed and also in how these protocols are developed. In order to promote “best practice” and harmonization of critical risk results management, guidelines and recommendations have been published, most recently by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB). These statements in particular have placed strong emphasis on patient risk and risk assessment in the management of critical risk results. This focus has resulted in recommendations to adopt new terminology, the consideration of risk assessment when compiling alert tables, consultative involvement of laboratory users in setting up protocols, and the need for outcome-based evidence to support our practices. With time it is expected that emerging evidence and technological improvements will facilitate the advancement of laboratories down this path to harmonization, best practice, and improve patient safety.

  16. Critical Risk Results - An Update on International Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Lam, Q; Ajzner, E; Campbell, C A; Young, A

    2016-02-01

    Direct communication of significant (often life-threatening) results is a universally acknowledged role of the pathology laboratory, and an important contributor to patient safety. Amongst the findings of a recent survey of 871 laboratories from 30 countries by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM), only 3 tests were noted to be common to 90% of alert lists, and only 48% of laboratories consulted clinicians in developing these alert lists despite ISO15189 recommendations to do so. These findings are similar to previous national surveys demonstrating significant variation worldwide in how critical risk results are managed and also in how these protocols are developed. In order to promote "best practice" and harmonization of critical risk results management, guidelines and recommendations have been published, most recently by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB). These statements in particular have placed strong emphasis on patient risk and risk assessment in the management of critical risk results. This focus has resulted in recommendations to adopt new terminology, the consideration of risk assessment when compiling alert tables, consultative involvement of laboratory users in setting up protocols, and the need for outcome-based evidence to support our practices. With time it is expected that emerging evidence and technological improvements will facilitate the advancement of laboratories down this path to harmonization, best practice, and improve patient safety.

  17. Critical Risk Results - An Update on International Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Lam, Q; Ajzner, E; Campbell, C A; Young, A

    2016-02-01

    Direct communication of significant (often life-threatening) results is a universally acknowledged role of the pathology laboratory, and an important contributor to patient safety. Amongst the findings of a recent survey of 871 laboratories from 30 countries by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM), only 3 tests were noted to be common to 90% of alert lists, and only 48% of laboratories consulted clinicians in developing these alert lists despite ISO15189 recommendations to do so. These findings are similar to previous national surveys demonstrating significant variation worldwide in how critical risk results are managed and also in how these protocols are developed. In order to promote "best practice" and harmonization of critical risk results management, guidelines and recommendations have been published, most recently by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB). These statements in particular have placed strong emphasis on patient risk and risk assessment in the management of critical risk results. This focus has resulted in recommendations to adopt new terminology, the consideration of risk assessment when compiling alert tables, consultative involvement of laboratory users in setting up protocols, and the need for outcome-based evidence to support our practices. With time it is expected that emerging evidence and technological improvements will facilitate the advancement of laboratories down this path to harmonization, best practice, and improve patient safety. PMID:27683507

  18. Experiential Education in Kindergarten: Associations with School Adjustment and the Moderating Role of Initial Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bilde, Jerissa; Boonen, Tinneke; Speybroeck, Sara; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; Goos, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Experiential education is a child-centered educational framework that is popular in Flemish kindergartens. In this study, the impact of five experiential practices (autonomy support, stimulation, emotional support, time for choice activities, and interest-based activities) and the moderating influence of initial achievement (language and…

  19. Student Perceptions and Achievement in a University Blended Learning Strategic Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owston, Ron; York, Dennis; Murtha, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Examined in this study is the relationship between student perceptions in blended learning courses and their in-course achievement. The research was conducted at a large urban university that embarked on a major initiative to scale-up blended learning across its campus. Student perceptions (N = 577) were assessed in four areas deemed important to…

  20. Can a man-made universe be achieved by quantum tunneling without an initial singularity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guth, Alan H.; Haller, K. (Editor); Caldi, D. B. (Editor); Islam, M. M. (Editor); Mallett, R. L. (Editor); Mannheim, P. D. (Editor); Swanson, M. S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Essentially all modern particle theories suggest the possible existence of a false vacuum state; a metastable state with an energy density that cannot be lowered except by means of a very slow phase transition. Inflationary cosmology makes use of such a state to drive the expansion of the big bang, allowing the entire observed universe to evolve from a very small initial mass. A sphere of false vacuum in the present universe, if larger than a certain critical mass, could inflate to form a new universe which would rapidly detach from its parent. A false vacuum bubble of this size, however, cannot be produced classically unless an initial singularity is present from the outset. The possibility is explored that a bubble of subcritical size, which classically would evolve to a maximum size and collapse, might instead tunnel through a barrier to produce a new universe. The tunneling rate using semiclassical quantum gravity is estimated, and some interesting ambiguities in the formulas are discovered.

  1. A Look at Student Achievement from the School Dimension: Demythologizing Standardized Tests. Critical Issues in Student Achievement. Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Dee

    Issues emerging from a look at student achievement, which is defined in its usual school context as achievement on standardized tests, are addressed. A mythology about standardized testing has developed, in part because the metaphoric languages of medicine and business have been applied to education, defining it in terms of cure, efficiency, and…

  2. Critical energy for direct initiation of detonation induced by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, S.; Suzuki, K.; Inoue, H.; Ishii, K.; Kataoka, H.

    2016-09-01

    This study describes experimental work examining the critical energy for direct initiation of detonation by laser ablation in a stoichiometric acetylene-oxygen mixture. The amount of input energy, the target material, and the surface roughness of the target were varied to study their effects on shock wave generation. Aluminum and stainless steel were used as target materials. The propagating shock wave induced by laser ablation was observed using high-speed shadow imaging. The critical energy for direct initiation of detonation was calculated using the strong blast wave theory. The critical input energy for aluminum was found to be lower than that for stainless steel. Because the thermodynamic critical temperature of aluminum is lower than that of stainless steel, aluminum caused a phase explosion more easily than stainless steel, thus resulting in direct initiation of detonation with a lower amount of input energy. The effects of surface roughness on critical input energy and shock wave generation were negligibly small. The critical initiation energy was estimated to be 10.3 ± 0.2 mJ, which is in agreement with the experimental data obtained in previous work. The estimated critical initiation energy was independent of the target material. However, other predictions of the critical initiation energy by using the cell size overestimated this value because of the scatter in cell size data of an unstable cellular structure. Furthermore, interaction between plasma plumes formed by laser ablation and those formed by breakdown near the target surface might have contributed to requiring a lower amount of energy for initiating detonation.

  3. Critical energy for direct initiation of detonation induced by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, S.; Suzuki, K.; Inoue, H.; Ishii, K.; Kataoka, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes experimental work examining the critical energy for direct initiation of detonation by laser ablation in a stoichiometric acetylene-oxygen mixture. The amount of input energy, the target material, and the surface roughness of the target were varied to study their effects on shock wave generation. Aluminum and stainless steel were used as target materials. The propagating shock wave induced by laser ablation was observed using high-speed shadow imaging. The critical energy for direct initiation of detonation was calculated using the strong blast wave theory. The critical input energy for aluminum was found to be lower than that for stainless steel. Because the thermodynamic critical temperature of aluminum is lower than that of stainless steel, aluminum caused a phase explosion more easily than stainless steel, thus resulting in direct initiation of detonation with a lower amount of input energy. The effects of surface roughness on critical input energy and shock wave generation were negligibly small. The critical initiation energy was estimated to be 10.3 ± 0.2 mJ, which is in agreement with the experimental data obtained in previous work. The estimated critical initiation energy was independent of the target material. However, other predictions of the critical initiation energy by using the cell size overestimated this value because of the scatter in cell size data of an unstable cellular structure. Furthermore, interaction between plasma plumes formed by laser ablation and those formed by breakdown near the target surface might have contributed to requiring a lower amount of energy for initiating detonation.

  4. Paving the critical path: how can clinical pharmacology help achieve the vision?

    PubMed

    Lesko, L J

    2007-02-01

    It has been almost 3 years since the launch of the FDA critical path initiative following the publication of the paper "Innovation or Stagnation: Challenges and Opportunities on the Critical Path of New Medical Product Development." The initiative was intended to create an urgency with the drug development enterprise to address the so-called "productivity problem" in modern drug development. Clinical pharmacologists are strategically aligned with solutions designed to reduce late phase clinical trial failures to show adequate efficacy and/or safety. This article reviews some of the ways that clinical pharmacologists can lead and implement change in the drug development process. It includes a discussion of model-based, semi-mechanistic drug development, drug/disease models that facilitate informed clinical trial designs and optimal dosing, the qualification process and criteria for new biomarkers and surrogate endpoints, approaches to streamlining clinical trials and new types of interaction between industry and FDA such as the end-of-phase 2A and voluntary genomic data submission meetings respectively. PMID:17259944

  5. The Initial Education of High School Teachers: A Critical Review of Major Issues and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on major research findings in international literature in order to provide a critical review of a number of key issues and trends in the initial education of high school teachers. Firstly, this paper contextualizes the prevalent discourse surrounding the field of initial teacher education (ITE) and explores the effect that this…

  6. Initiative Games in Physical Education: A Practical Approach for Teaching Critical Thinking Skills--Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Hunt, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    As teachers prepare children for the future, the need for developing critical thinking skills in students becomes clearly evident. One way to promote this process is through initiative games. Initiative games are clearly defined problems that a group must find a solution to through cooperation, physical effort and cognitive functioning. The…

  7. On the critical flame radius and minimum ignition energy for spherical flame initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zheng; Burke, M. P.; Ju, Yiguang

    2011-01-01

    Spherical flame initiation from an ignition kernel is studied theoretically and numerically using different fuel/oxygen/helium/argon mixtures (fuel: hydrogen, methane, and propane). The emphasis is placed on investigating the critical flame radius controlling spherical flame initiation and its correlation with the minimum ignition energy. It is found that the critical flame radius is different from the flame thickness and the flame ball radius and that their relationship depends strongly on the Lewis number. Three different flame regimes in terms of the Lewis number are observed and a new criterion for the critical flame radius is introduced. For mixtures with Lewis number larger than a critical Lewis number above unity, the critical flame radius is smaller than the flame ball radius but larger than the flame thickness. As a result, the minimum ignition energy can be substantially over-predicted (under-predicted) based on the flame ball radius (the flame thickness). The results also show that the minimum ignition energy for successful spherical flame initiation is proportional to the cube of the critical flame radius. Furthermore, preferential diffusion of heat and mass (i.e. the Lewis number effect) is found to play an important role in both spherical flame initiation and flame kernel evolution after ignition. It is shown that the critical flame radius and the minimum ignition energy increase significantly with the Lewis number. Therefore, for transportation fuels with large Lewis numbers, blending of small molecule fuels or thermal and catalytic cracking will significantly reduce the minimum ignition energy.

  8. College crisis intervention: an initiative to develop regional campus Critical Incident Stress Management teams.

    PubMed

    Wiesen, F Elizabeth; Lischer, David K

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a statewide initiative that was undertaken to develop regional Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) teams among colleges and universities within a northeastern state. In light of the unique needs and culture of institutions of higher education, this initiative was intended to improve each member college or university's capacity to respond comprehensively and effectively to critical incidents that affect its community. A step-by-step description of the implementation of the initiative is presented as well as discussion of what was learned through the process and future directions. PMID:16944791

  9. Improving Achievement for the Growing Latino Population Is Critical to the Nation's Future. Student Achievement Policy Brief #3: Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    More than one-fifth of the nation's public school students are Latino. By 2025, the share of Latino children is projected to increase to nearly 3 in 10 school-age children (Fry & Passel, 2009). The fast-growing Latino student population will shape the nation's future, so it is critical that these students are well-prepared for college, careers,…

  10. Kibble-Zurek mechanism beyond adiabaticity: Finite-time scaling with critical initial slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yingyi; Yin, Shuai; Hu, Qijun; Zhong, Fan

    2016-01-01

    The Kibble-Zurek mechanism demands an initial adiabatic stage before an impulse stage to have a frozen correlation length that generates topological defects in a cooling phase transition. Here we study such a driven critical dynamics but with an initial condition that is near the critical point and that is far away from equilibrium. In this case, there is no initial adiabatic stage at all and thus adiabaticity is broken. However, we show that there again exists a finite length scale arising from the driving that divides the evolution into three stages. A relaxation-finite-time-scaling-adiabatic scenario is then proposed in place of the adiabatic-impulse-adiabatic scenario of the original Kibble-Zurek mechanism. A unified scaling theory, which combines finite-time scaling with critical initial slip, is developed to describe the universal behavior and is confirmed with numerical simulations of a two-dimensional classical Ising model.

  11. Chronic malnutrition favours smaller critical size for metamorphosis initiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vijendravarma, R K; Narasimha, S; Kawecki, T J

    2012-02-01

    Critical size at which metamorphosis is initiated represents an important checkpoint in insect development. Here, we use experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster to test the long-standing hypothesis that larval malnutrition should favour a smaller critical size. We report that six fly populations subject to 112 generations of laboratory natural selection on an extremely poor larval food evolved an 18% smaller critical size (compared to six unselected control populations). Thus, even though critical size is not plastic with respect to nutrition, smaller critical size can evolve as an adaptation to nutritional stress. We also demonstrate that this reduction in critical size (rather than differences in growth rate) mediates a trade-off in body weight that the selected populations experience on standard food, on which they show a 15-17% smaller adult body weight. This illustrates how developmental mechanisms that control life history may shape constraints and trade-offs in life history evolution.

  12. Research on the critical parameters initialization of optical PMD compensator in high bit-rate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenyu; Zhang, Haiyi; Ji, Yuefeng; Xu, Daxiong

    2004-05-01

    Based on the proposed polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation simulation model and statistical analysis method (Monte-Carlo), the critical parameters initialization of two typical optical domain PMD compensators, which include optical PMD method with fixed compensation differential group delay (DGD) and that with variable compensation DGD, are detailedly investigated by numerical method. In the simulation, the line PMD values are chosen as 3ps, 4ps and 5ps and run samples are set to 1000 in order to achieve statistical evaluation for PMD compensated systems, respectively. The simulation results show that for the PMD value pre-known systems, the value of the fixed DGD compensator should be set to 1.5~1.6 times of line PMD value in order to reach the optimum performance, but for the second kind of PMD compensator, the DGD range of lower limit should be 1.5~1.6 times of line PMD provided that of upper limit is set to 3 times of line PMD, if no effective ways are chosen to resolve the problem of local minimum in optimum process. Another conclusion can be drawn from the simulation is that, although the second PMD compensator holds higher PMD compensation performance, it will spend more feedback loops to look up the optimum DGD value in the real PMD compensation realization, and this will bring more requirements on adjustable DGD device, not only wider adjustable range, but rapid adjusting speed for real time PMD equalization.

  13. Strengthening the partnership between routine immunization and the global polio eradication initiative to achieve eradication and assure sustainability.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Dietz, Vance; Eggers, Rudolf; Maher, Christopher; Olaniran, Marianne; Sandhu, Hardeep; Vandelaer, Jos

    2014-11-01

    Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, the number of polio endemic countries has declined from 125 to 3 in 2013. Despite this remarkable achievement, ongoing circulation of wild poliovirus in polio-endemic countries and the increase in the number of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases, especially those caused by type 2, is a cause for concern. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP) was developed and includes 4 objectives: detection and interruption of poliovirus transmission, containment and certification, legacy planning, and a renewed emphasis on strengthening routine immunization (RI) programs. This is critical for the phased withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccine, beginning with the type 2 component, and the introduction of a single dose of inactivated polio vaccine into RI programs. This objective has inspired renewed consideration of how the GPEI and RI programs can mutually benefit one another, how the infrastructure from the GPEI can be used to strengthen RI, and how a strengthened RI can facilitate polio eradication. The PEESP is the first GPEI strategic plan that places strong and clear emphasis on the necessity of improving RI to achieve and sustain global polio eradication.

  14. A Critical Role for Neurofascin in Regulating Action Potential Initiation through Maintenance of the Axon Initial Segment

    PubMed Central

    Zonta, Barbara; Desmazieres, Anne; Rinaldi, Arianna; Tait, Steven; Sherman, Diane L.; Nolan, Matthew F.; Brophy, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The axon initial segment (AIS) is critical for the initiation and propagation of action potentials. Assembly of the AIS requires interactions between scaffolding molecules and voltage-gated sodium channels, but the molecular mechanisms that stabilize the AIS are poorly understood. The neuronal isoform of Neurofascin, Nfasc186, clusters voltage-gated sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier in myelinated nerves: here, we investigate its role in AIS assembly and stabilization. Inactivation of the Nfasc gene in cerebellar Purkinje cells of adult mice causes rapid loss of Nfasc186 from the AIS but not from nodes of Ranvier. This causes AIS disintegration, impairment of motor learning and the abolition of the spontaneous tonic discharge typical of Purkinje cells. Nevertheless, action potentials with a modified waveform can still be evoked and basic motor abilities remain intact. We propose that Nfasc186 optimizes communication between mature neurons by anchoring the key elements of the adult AIS complex. PMID:21382554

  15. Citizen Science: The Small World Initiative Improved Lecture Grades and California Critical Thinking Skills Test Scores of Nonscience Major Students at Florida Atlantic University.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Joseph P; Israel, Natalie; Rowland, Kimberly; Lovelace, Matthew J; Saunders, Mary Jane

    2016-03-01

    Course-based undergraduate research is known to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics student achievement. We tested "The Small World Initiative, a Citizen-Science Project to Crowdsource Novel Antibiotic Discovery" to see if it also improved student performance and the critical thinking of non-science majors in Introductory Biology at Florida Atlantic University (a large, public, minority-dominant institution) in academic year 2014-15. California Critical Thinking Skills Test pre- and posttests were offered to both Small World Initiative (SWI) and control lab students for formative amounts of extra credit. SWI lab students earned significantly higher lecture grades than control lab students, had significantly fewer lecture grades of D+ or lower, and had significantly higher critical thinking posttest total scores than control students. Lastly, more SWI students were engaged while taking critical thinking tests. These results support the hypothesis that utilizing independent course-based undergraduate science research improves student achievement even in nonscience students. PMID:27047613

  16. Citizen Science: The Small World Initiative Improved Lecture Grades and California Critical Thinking Skills Test Scores of Nonscience Major Students at Florida Atlantic University.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Joseph P; Israel, Natalie; Rowland, Kimberly; Lovelace, Matthew J; Saunders, Mary Jane

    2016-03-01

    Course-based undergraduate research is known to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics student achievement. We tested "The Small World Initiative, a Citizen-Science Project to Crowdsource Novel Antibiotic Discovery" to see if it also improved student performance and the critical thinking of non-science majors in Introductory Biology at Florida Atlantic University (a large, public, minority-dominant institution) in academic year 2014-15. California Critical Thinking Skills Test pre- and posttests were offered to both Small World Initiative (SWI) and control lab students for formative amounts of extra credit. SWI lab students earned significantly higher lecture grades than control lab students, had significantly fewer lecture grades of D+ or lower, and had significantly higher critical thinking posttest total scores than control students. Lastly, more SWI students were engaged while taking critical thinking tests. These results support the hypothesis that utilizing independent course-based undergraduate science research improves student achievement even in nonscience students.

  17. Understanding Change for Effective School Improvement Initiatives: Critical Elements of School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnautz, Dee Ann Piercy

    2012-01-01

    With the historical political and social changes, which ultimately affect education, it is easy to see why teachers sometimes balk at new initiatives and perceived new best practices. For change to occur it is important to understand how perception of critical elements of change impact student academic growth. It is also important to have a…

  18. The Impact of One Florida Initiative on Florida's Public Law Schools: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Adriel A.; Gasman, Marybeth; Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the One Florida Initiative (OFI) on racial diversity in Florida's public law schools and legal profession using the lens of Critical Race Theory (CRT). This study seeks to determine what, if any, impact this event has had on recruitment, admissions, and enrollment of Florida's public schools of…

  19. Physical Education Initial Teacher Educators' Expressions of Critical Pedagogy(ies): Coherency, Complexity or Confusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpot, Rod

    2016-01-01

    While an emphasis on social justice has emerged as a theme in initial teacher education (ITE) over the past decade, there is much debate about how to engage ITE students in foregrounding issues of equity and social justice in their own teaching. One strategy, the introduction of critical pedagogy in ITE, has been promoted in teacher education…

  20. The IAU’s involvement in the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative: achievements and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    Since 2008 the IAU has worked with UNESCO and its advisory bodies to help recognise, promote and protect all types of astronomical heritage and to encourage nominations for World Heritage Sites relating to astronomy. I will review the main challenges and achievements so far, and suggest how the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative is likely to develop in the future.Among the main milestones are the first two in a series of Thematic Studies (Ruggles and Cotte, 2010; 2015 in press), which help to establish broad principles for assessing the “value”, and ultimately the potential “outstanding universal value”, of different types of astronomical heritage, and the Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy, linked to the World Heritage Centre’s own website, which helps to raise awareness about important astronomical heritage sites and facilitates the comparative studies that form an essential part of any nomination dossier. Among the most challenging issues for the IAU has been how to recognise and protect the value of the dark night sky at places connected with astronomy—whether ancient sites, indigenous cultural landscapes, or modern observatories. A very significant development for the future is the IAU’s involvement in the “upstream process” whereby, along with UNESCO's advisory bodies, it can enter into discussion with, and give advice to, national authorities considering potential nominations.ReferencesRuggles, C. and Cotte, M., eds (2010) Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy: a Thematic Study. ICOMOS-IAU, Paris.

  1. The Greenhouse Gas Project Of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): Phase 1 Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Aben, I.; Armante, R.; Bergamaschi, P.; Blumenstock, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Brunner, D.; Buchmann, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Chevallier, F.; Crevoisier, C. D.; Detmers, R.; Deutcher, N.; Dils, B.; Frankenberg, C.; Guerlet, S.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Heymann, J.; Kaminski, T.; Laeng, A.; Lichtenberg, G.; De Maziere, M.; Noel, S.; Notholt, J.; Parker, R.; Scholze, M.; Sussmann, R.; Stiller, G. P.; Warneke, T.; Zehner, C.

    2013-12-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI, http://www.esa-cci.org/), which delivers data sets of various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to generate global satellite-derived data sets of the two important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) with a quality as needed to derive information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks. A good understanding of GHG sources and sinks is a pre-requisite for reliable climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are near-surface sensitive column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and TANSO- FTS/GOSAT. Other satellite instruments such as IASI and MIPAS are also used as they provide additional information about the two GHGs. Here we present an overview of Phase 1 of the GHG-CCI project (Sept.2010 - Dec.2013), focusing on scientific achievements and on the “Climate Research Data Package” (CRDP), which is the first version of the ECV GHG data base.

  2. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1; The Critical Components to Simulate Cirrus Initiation Explicitly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Sassen, Kenneth; Jensen, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project, a project of the GCSS (GEWEX Cloud System Studies) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems, involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. In Phase I of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties are compared for situations of "warm" (40 C) and "cold" (-60 C) cirrus, both subject to updrafts of 4, 20 and 100 centimeters per second. Five models participated. The various models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins or treated separately. Simulations are made including both the homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. To isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze droplets) nucleation process, the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations. Qualitative agreement is found for the homogeneous-nucleation- only simulations, e.g., the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, significant quantitative differences are found. Detailed analysis reveals that the homogeneous nucleation rate, haze particle solution concentration, and water vapor uptake rate by ice crystal growth (particularly as controlled by the deposition coefficient) are critical components that lead to differences in predicted microphysics. Systematic bias exists between results based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each approach is constrained by critical freezing data from laboratory studies, but each includes assumptions that can only be justified by further laboratory research. Consequently, it is not yet

  3. A National Initiative of Teaching, Researching, and Dreaming: Community College Faculty Research in "Achieving the Dream" Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2015-01-01

    Dating back to 2004, the Achieving the Dream initiative was established to promote evidence-based programs and interventions to produce and sustain student success. Achieving the Dream has created a new environment and new forms of thinking among the faculty that have spurred some to action research within their classrooms and beyond. Using three…

  4. African American Students in Urban Schools: Critical Issues and Solutions for Achievement. Educational Psychology: Critical Pedagogical Perspectives. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James L., III, Ed.; Lewis, Chance W., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "African American Students in Urban Schools" offers readers a critical yet comprehensive examination of the issues affecting African American students' outcomes in urban school systems and beyond. Across disciplines including teacher education, school counseling, school psychology, gifted education, career and technical education, higher…

  5. 5 CFR 317.501 - Recruitment and selection for initial SES career appointment be achieved from the brightest and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... career appointment be achieved from the brightest and most diverse pool possible. 317.501 Section 317.501... EXECUTIVE SERVICE Career Appointments § 317.501 Recruitment and selection for initial SES career appointment... accordance with the requirements of this section, conduct the merit staffing process for initial SES...

  6. 5 CFR 317.501 - Recruitment and selection for initial SES career appointment be achieved from the brightest and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... career appointment be achieved from the brightest and most diverse pool possible. 317.501 Section 317.501... EXECUTIVE SERVICE Career Appointments § 317.501 Recruitment and selection for initial SES career appointment... accordance with the requirements of this section, conduct the merit staffing process for initial SES...

  7. 5 CFR 317.501 - Recruitment and selection for initial SES career appointment be achieved from the brightest and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... career appointment be achieved from the brightest and most diverse pool possible. 317.501 Section 317.501... EXECUTIVE SERVICE Career Appointments § 317.501 Recruitment and selection for initial SES career appointment... accordance with the requirements of this section, conduct the merit staffing process for initial SES...

  8. 5 CFR 317.501 - Recruitment and selection for initial SES career appointment be achieved from the brightest and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... career appointment be achieved from the brightest and most diverse pool possible. 317.501 Section 317.501... EXECUTIVE SERVICE Career Appointments § 317.501 Recruitment and selection for initial SES career appointment... accordance with the requirements of this section, conduct the merit staffing process for initial SES...

  9. Critical Initial Slip Scaling for Driven-dissipative Bose-Einstein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weigang; Tauber, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the universal non-equilibrium critical behavior at the driven- dissipative Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition by means of the perturbative field-theoretic renormalization group method. Such criticality may be realized experimentally in driven open systems on the interface of quantum optics and many-body physics, ranging from exciton-polariton condensates in optically pumped semiconductor wells to cold atomic gases. We describe the critical dynamics through a noisy and dissipative Gross- Pitaevski or time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation with complex coefficients. We focus on the universal critical behavior of this system in the early stages of the relaxation process following a quench from an initially (Gaussian distributed) disordered state that is characterized by broken time translation invariance and governed by the ``initial slip'' exponent θ. We compute θ to first order in the dimensional ɛ = 4 - d expansion with respect to the upper critical dimension d =4, and find that its one-loop value is identical to that of the classical relaxational model A for a two-component non-conserved order parameter. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-09ER46613.

  10. Critical initial-slip scaling for the noisy complex Ginzburg–Landau equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weigang; Täuber, Uwe C.

    2016-10-01

    We employ the perturbative fieldtheoretic renormalization group method to investigate the universal critical behavior near the continuous non-equilibrium phase transition in the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation with additive white noise. This stochastic partial differential describes a remarkably wide range of physical systems: coupled nonlinear oscillators subject to external noise near a Hopf bifurcation instability; spontaneous structure formation in non-equilibrium systems, e.g., in cyclically competing populations; and driven-dissipative Bose–Einstein condensation, realized in open systems on the interface of quantum optics and many-body physics, such as cold atomic gases and exciton-polaritons in pumped semiconductor quantum wells in optical cavities. Our starting point is a noisy, dissipative Gross–Pitaevski or nonlinear Schrödinger equation, or equivalently purely relaxational kinetics originating from a complex-valued Landau–Ginzburg functional, which generalizes the standard equilibrium model A critical dynamics of a non-conserved complex order parameter field. We study the universal critical behavior of this system in the early stages of its relaxation from a Gaussian-weighted fully randomized initial state. In this critical aging regime, time translation invariance is broken, and the dynamics is characterized by the stationary static and dynamic critical exponents, as well as an independent ‘initial-slip’ exponent. We show that to first order in the dimensional expansion about the upper critical dimension, this initial-slip exponent in the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation is identical to its equilibrium model A counterpart. We furthermore employ the renormalization group flow equations as well as construct a suitable complex spherical model extension to argue that this conclusion likely remains true to all orders in the perturbation expansion.

  11. Shock Initiation of Hexanitrostilbene at Ultra-high Shock Pressures and Critical Energy Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Mike; Maisey, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Hexanitrostilbene is a secondary explosive with attractive properties for detonator usage, including thermal stability, good safety properties and easy initiability. It is desirable to characterize the shock initiation of detonator explosives to enable optimization of system parameters. HNS is a suitable explosive for use in electrical and optical slapper detonators, where shock pressures generated by the flyer plates used can exceed 30 GPa. This extreme shock regime can be explored by initiating HNS with a variety of flyer thicknesses, from 3 to 25 microns at velocities of several km/s. Thresholds for optical and electrical slapper detonators were evaluated, and Photonic Doppler Velocimetery used to determine the flyer velocity at threshold. The flyer diameters are in excess of the critical diameter for HNS, allowing a one-dimensional treatment of the initiation. Calculated values for pressure and shock duration are used to evaluate the critical energy criteria Pn τ . The calculated value of n is compared to published values and discussed for similar systems. The James Criterion is used to analyze the initiation, with values of Ec and Σc being determined from experimental data, providing a predictive capability to model other configurations such as different flyer thicknesses and materials.

  12. Shock initiation of hexanitrostilbene at ultra-high shock pressures and critical energy determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Mike; Maisey, Matthew Peter; Knowles, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) is a secondary explosive with attractive properties for detonator usage, including thermal stability, good safety properties and easy initiability. It is desirable to characterize the shock initiation of detonator explosives to enable optimization of system parameters. HNS is a suitable explosive for use in electrical and optical slapper detonators, where shock pressures generated by the flyer plates used can exceed 30 GPa. This extreme shock regime can be explored by initiating HNS with a variety of flyer thicknesses, from 3 to 25 microns at velocities of several km/s. Thresholds for optical and electrical slapper detonators were evaluated, and Photonic Doppler Velocimetery used to determine the flyer velocity at threshold. The flyer diameters are in excess of the critical diameter for HNS, allowing a one-dimensional treatment of the initiation. Calculated values for pressure and shock duration are used to evaluate the critical energy criteria P2τ. The James Criterion is used to analyse the initiation, with values of EC and ΣC being determined from experimental data, providing a predictive capability to model other configurations such as different flyer thicknesses and materials.

  13. Promoting Space Education and Awareness in Pakistan- Initiatives, Achievements, Challenges and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagirani, Aisha

    With about 180 million inhabitants, Pakistan is the sixth most populous and the 34th largest country in the world in terms of area. Pakistan's economy, which is pre-dominantly based on agriculture, is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP. Pakistan is counted among the Next Eleven (N11) countries that have the potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century. Despite considerable potential to develop into a stable, moderate and democratic state, major challenges of internal security, poor agricultural productivity, inadequate infrastructure, food insecurity, insufficient health and educational facilities, depletion of natural resources, rapid environmental degradation and recurring natural disasters have burdened the country and have hampered sustainable development of Pakistan. Space technology applications offer a cost-effective means of addressing many of the above mentioned issues and have made impressive advances in the last few years in different countries in the region. Unfortunately, for various reasons, Pakistan has not been able to fully exploit the benefits of space technology and its applications to meet the challenges she faces. One of the reasons is lack of awareness and understanding by planners, decision-makers and users about the potential benefits of space technology in planning and implementation of developmental plans as well as good governance. Similarly, Pakistan's space program enjoys little public support due, primarily, to lack of awareness of the benefits space offers and the ubiquitousness of space applications in modern life. There is thus an acute need to create awareness and educate all segments of the society and stakeholders in Pakistan about the potential benefits of space technology and its applications. In the past ten years, many initiatives have been taken to promote space education and awareness for students as well as decision-makers in

  14. Achieving Social Justice within and through Higher Education: The Challenge for Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Jan

    2010-01-01

    While the term critical pedagogy embraces a range of writers and literature, a common feature of all is a belief that education and society are intrinsically inter-related and that the fundamental purpose of education is to improve social justice. However there are perceptions that critical pedagogy has been more successful in critiquing…

  15. TARGETING THE eIF4F TRANSLATION INITIATION COMPLEX: A CRITICAL NEXUS FOR CANCER DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jerry; Graff, Jeremy; Ruggero, Davide; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    Elevated protein synthesis is an important feature of many cancer cells and often arises as a consequence of increased signaling flux channeled to eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F, the key regulator of the mRNA-ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation. In many cellular and pre-clinical models of cancer, eIF4F deregulation results in changes in translational efficiency of specific mRNA classes. Importantly, many of these mRNAs code for proteins that potently regulate critical cellular processes such as cell growth and proliferation, enhanced cell survival, and cell migration that ultimately impinge on several hallmarks of cancer, including increased angiogenesis, deregulated growth control, enhanced cellular survival, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion and metastasis. By being positioned as the molecular nexus downstream of key oncogenic signaling pathways (e.g. Ras, PI3K/AKT/TOR, and Myc), eIF4F serves as a direct link between important steps in cancer development and translation initiation. Identification of mRNAs particularly responsive to elevated eIF4F activity that typifies tumorigenesis underscores the critical role of eIF4F in cancer and raises the exciting possibility of developing new-in-class small molecules targeting translation initiation as anti-neoplastic agents. PMID:25593033

  16. INITIAL WASTE PACKAGE PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER WITH DISPOSAL CONTAINER (TBV)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Massari

    1995-10-06

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide an assessment of the present waste package design from a criticality risk standpoint. The specific objectives of this initial analysis are to: (1) Establish a process for determining the probability of waste package criticality as a function of time (in terms of a cumulative distribution function, probability distribution function, or expected number of criticalities in a specified time interval) for various waste package concepts; (2) Demonstrate the established process by estimating the probability of criticality as a function of time since emplacement for an intact multi-purpose canister waste package (MPC-WP) configuration; (3) Identify the dominant sequences leading to waste package criticality for subsequent detailed analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to document and demonstrate the developed process as it has been applied to the MPC-WP. This revision is performed to correct deficiencies in the previous revision and provide further detail on the calculations performed. This analysis is similar to that performed for the uncanistered fuel waste package (UCF-WP, B00000000-01717-2200-00079).

  17. Digital Storytelling for Enhancing Student Academic Achievement, Critical Thinking, and Learning Motivation: A Year-Long Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Wu, Wan-Chi I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of Digital storytelling (DST) on the academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation of senior high school students learning English as a foreign language. The one-year study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design involving 110 10th grade students in two English…

  18. Niggers No More: A Critical Race Counternarrative on Black Male Student Achievement at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2009-01-01

    A methodological approach popularized by critical race theorists is used in this article to oppose dominant discourse concerning the social and educational status of Black men in America. Specifically, this counternarrative on student achievement was derived from face-to-face individual interviews with 143 Black male undergraduates at 30…

  19. The Impact of Chess Instruction on the Critical Thinking Ability and Mathematical Achievement of Developmental Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, Darrin K.

    2012-01-01

    This sequential explanatory mixed-methods study determined whether the game of chess can be used as an educational tool to improve critical thinking skills of developmental mathematics students and improve mathematics achievement for these students. Five research questions were investigated. These questions were as follows: (a) Is there a…

  20. Impact of early methadone initiation in critically injured burn patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jones, G Morgan; Porter, Kyle; Coffey, Rebecca; Miller, Sidney F; Cook, Charles H; Whitmill, Melissa L; Murphy, Claire V

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified strategies to reduce mechanical ventilation duration by targeting appropriate sedation levels. However, applicability of these strategies to critically injured patients with burn injury has not been established. At our medical center, methadone is commonly used early in the care of burn patients to treat background pain and limit the development of opioid tolerance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of early methadone initiation in critically injured burn patients requiring mechanical ventilation. This retrospective study compared patients who received early methadone with patients who did not while mechanically ventilated with the primary outcome of ventilator-free days in a 28-day period. Those who received methadone within 4 days of intubation and remained ventilated for 2 days after the first dose were included in the methadone group. Propensity scores were used to match up to three control patients to each methadone patient. Seventy patients (18 methadone and 52 matched control patients) were included in the final evaluation. Patients in the methadone group averaged 16.5 ventilator-free days compared with 11.5 in the control group (P = .03). There was no statistical difference in the duration of intensive care unit or hospital length of stay between groups. Our results suggest that early methadone initiation may have a significant effect on ventilator outcomes in critically injured patients with burn injury. However, further research is warranted.

  1. 5 CFR 317.501 - Recruitment and selection for initial SES career appointment be achieved from the brightest and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... political or other non-job-related factors. If a candidate is a current SES career appointee or an SES... career appointment be achieved from the brightest and most diverse pool possible. 317.501 Section 317.501... EXECUTIVE SERVICE Career Appointments § 317.501 Recruitment and selection for initial SES career...

  2. Leveling the Playing Field: Using a One-to-One Laptop Initiative to Close the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Luke Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how the one-to-one laptop initiative affected student achievement gaps for students at a single high school in Mooresville, NC. The variable in this study was the preexisting End of Course exams for Algebra I and English I for the two school years prior to the one-to-one laptop implementation year…

  3. The Impact of California's Class Size Reduction Initiative on Student Achievement: Detailed Findings from Eight School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Mitchell, Ross E.

    This report presents a comprehensive preliminary analysis of how California's Class Size Reduction (CSR) initiative has impacted student achievement during the first 2 years of implementation. The analysis is based on complete student, classroom, and teacher records from 26,126 students in 1,174 classrooms from 83 schools in 8 Southern California…

  4. Spontaneous Initiation of Detonations in White Dwarf Environments: Determination of Critical Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Meakin, Casey A.; Townsley, Dean M.; Lamb, Don Q.; Truran, James W.

    2009-05-01

    Some explosion models for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), such as the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) or the double detonation sub-Chandrasekhar (DDSC) models, rely on the spontaneous initiation of a detonation in the degenerate 12C}/16O} material of a white dwarf (WD). The length scales pertinent to the initiation of the detonation are notoriously unresolved in multidimensional stellar simulations, prompting the use of results of one-dimensional simulations at higher resolution, such as those performed for this work, as guidelines for deciding whether or not conditions reached in the higher dimensional full star simulations successfully would lead to the onset of a detonation. Spontaneous initiation relies on the existence of a suitable gradient in self-ignition (induction) times of the fuel, which we set up with a spatially localized nonuniformity of temperature—a hot spot. We determine the critical (smallest) sizes of such hot spots that still marginally result in a detonation in WD matter by integrating the reactive Euler equations with the hydrodynamics code FLASH. We quantify the dependences of the critical sizes of such hot spots on composition, background temperature, peak temperature, geometry, and functional form of the temperature disturbance, many of which were hitherto largely unexplored in the literature. We discuss the implications of our results in the context of modeling of SNe Ia.

  5. The Influence of a Statewide Green School Initiative on Student Achievement in K-12 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghent, Cynthia; Trauth-Nare, Amy; Dell, Katie; Haines, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of Green School designation on students' achievement in state-mandated standardized tests. Data were gathered 3 years pre- and post-Green schools designation, from test pass rates in reading and mathematics for Grade 5 and Grade 8 students, and from mathematics, English language arts, and biology scores…

  6. A Barrio Pedagogy: Identity, Intellectualism, Activism, and Academic Achievement through the Evolution of Critically Compassionate Intellectualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Augustine; Arce, Sean; Cammarota, Julio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we forward our experiences and understanding of how we have used critical race theory (CRT) in our classrooms; more importantly, we bring forth the voices of students as a method of conveying the impact of our CRT classroom exercises. These exercises are parts of three structures that we created to counter the reality of racism and…

  7. Making Critical Connections between Social Studies Teaching and Student Achievement Using NAEP Data Explorer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.

    2013-01-01

    In this analysis of promising practice, we demonstrate how social studies methods instructors can incorporate data analysis of the 2010 United States History National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP-USH) to facilitate pedagogical aims, engage teacher candidates in critical discourse, and investigate the contexts of teaching and learning.…

  8. Critical Media Pedagogy: Teaching for Achievement in City Schools. Language & Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Ernest; Duenas, Rudy; Garcia, Veronica; Lopez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This practical book examines how teaching media in high school English and social studies classrooms can address major challenges in our educational system. The authors argue that, in addition to providing underserved youth with access to 21st century learning technologies, critical media education will help improve academic literacy achievement…

  9. Advancing Achievement: Findings from an Independent Evaluation of a Major After-School Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbreton, Amy; Sheldon, Jessica; Bradshaw, Molly; Goldsmith, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This report presents outcomes from Public/Private Ventures research on CORAL, an eight-year, $58 million after-school initiative of The James Irvine Foundation. Findings described in the report demonstrate the relationship between high-quality literacy programming and academic gains and underscore the potential role that quality programs may play…

  10. Challenges Surrounding Widening Participation and Fair Access to Initial Teacher Education: Can It Be Achieved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Access to initial teacher education (ITE) across the United Kingdom continues to be significantly determined by selective entry requirements, based on prior academic qualifications. While a number of alternative routes to teacher education exist, several barriers to participation in higher education, including teacher education, still exist.…

  11. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a southern state's department of education program to improve science achievement through embedded professional development of science teachers in the lowest performing schools. The Science Mentor Program provided content and inquiry-based coaching by teacher leaders to science teachers in their own classrooms. The study analyzed the mean scale scores for the science portion of the state's high school graduation test for the years 2004 through 2007 to determine whether schools receiving the intervention scored significantly higher than comparison schools receiving no intervention. The results showed that all schools achieved significant improvement of scale scores between 2004 and 2007, but there were no significant performance differences between intervention and comparison schools, nor were there any significant differences between various subgroups in intervention and comparison schools. However, one subgroup, economically disadvantaged (ED) students, from high-level intervention schools closed the achievement gap with ED students from no-intervention schools across the period of the study. The study provides important information to guide future research on and design of large-scale professional development programs to foster inquiry-based science.

  12. Critical Components of Online Learning Readiness and Their Relationships with Learner Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigdem, Harun; Ozturk, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between certain factors of online learning readiness and learners' end-of-course achievements. The study was conducted at a two-year post-secondary Turkish military school within the scope of the course titled Computer Literacy, which was designed and implemented in a blended way. The data were…

  13. A Critical Race Analysis of the Achievement Gap in the United States: Politics, Reality, and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Federal educational legislation in the United States has focused increased attention on the racial achievement gap between minority and majority students. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation has forced high-stakes accountability in public schools, with the assumption that these policies will create performance pressures on schools to…

  14. What PISA Intends to and Can Possibly Achieve: A Critical Programme Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanberger, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the enlightened discussion of the nature, logic, and possible effects of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The purpose is to analyse the assumptions regarding how PISA is to achieve its intended effects, that is, to reconstruct PISA's programme theory (PT) and to probe the validity of its…

  15. Why Closing the Research-Practice Gap Is Critical to Closing Student Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Discussions of the research-practice gap often assume that K-12 educators are uninterested in or even derisive about the value of research for improving student learning. The work of K-12 educators in the Minority Student Achievement Network (MSAN) counters this conventional wisdom. This article provides evidence that MSAN educators not only value…

  16. A Critical Role for Proinflammatory Behavior of Smooth Muscle Cells in Hemodynamic Initiation of Intracranial Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Mandelbaum, Max; Kolega, John; Dolan, Jennifer M.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Meng, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Background Intracranial aneurysm initiation is poorly understood, although hemodynamic insult is believed to play an important role in triggering the pathology. It has recently been found in a rabbit model that while macrophages are absent during hemodynamic aneurysm initiation, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are elevated and co-localize with smooth muscle cells (SMCs). This study investigates whether SMCs play a mechanistic role in aneurysm initiation triggered by hemodynamics. Methods Aneurysmal damage was induced at the basilar terminus via bilateral common carotid artery ligation in rabbits (n = 45, plus 7 sham controls). 16 ligated rabbits were treated with doxycycline to inhibit MMPs, 7 received clodronate liposomes to deplete circulating monocytes, and the rest received no drug. Effects of the treatments on aneurysm development were assessed histologically 5 days and 6 months after ligation. MMP production and expression of inflammatory markers by SMCs was monitored by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Treatment with doxycycline attenuated aneurysmal development examined at 5 days and 6 months, suggesting that MMPs contribute to aneurysm initiation. However, systemic depletion of macrophages did not decrease MMPs or suppress aneurysmal development. Immunofluorescence showed that during aneurysm initiation MMP-2 and MMP-9 were distributed in SMCs, and in situ hybridization indicated that they were transcribed by SMCs. In regions of early aneurysmal lesion, SMCs exhibited decreased expression of smooth muscle actin and increased NF-κB and MCP-1 expressions. Conclusions During aneurysm initiation triggered by hemodynamics, SMCs rather than macrophages are responsible for MMP production that is critical for aneurysmal lesion development. These SMCs exhibit proinflammatory behavior. PMID:24023941

  17. Critical perspectives on cultural competence as a strategic opportunity for achieving high performance in healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Strelitz, Philippa; Watson, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    * Cultural proficiency is a critical component of diversity competence. Diversity competency attends to issues of cultural proficiency and links cultural competence to issues of diverse representation and organizational inclusivity. * Developing and applying cultural competencies in diagnostic and invasive imaging services provides strategic opportunities to experience better patient cooperation, increase patient satisfaction, reduce medical errors, reduce patient complaints, and improve service recovery. * New Jersey recently passed legislation that requires 16 hours of cultural competency education as a condition of licensure to practice medicine. Four other states have similar legislation pending. The state of Washington passed legislation requiring all state accredited programs to include cultural competency education.

  18. Community-Driven Initiatives to Achieve Interoperability for Ecological and Environmental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madin, J.; Bowers, S.; Jones, M.; Schildhauer, M.

    2007-12-01

    Advances in ecology and environmental science increasingly depend on information from multiple disciplines to tackle broader and more complex questions about the natural world. Such advances, however, are hindered by data heterogeneity, which impedes the ability of researchers to discover, interpret, and integrate relevant data that have been collected by others. Here, we outline two community-building initiatives for improving data interoperability in the ecological and environmental sciences, one that is well-established (the Ecological Metadata Language [EML]), and another that is actively underway (a unified model for observations and measurements). EML is a metadata specification developed for the ecology discipline, and is based on prior work done by the Ecological Society of America and associated efforts to ensure a modular and extensible framework to document ecological data. EML "modules" are designed to describe one logical part of the total metadata that should be included with any ecological dataset. EML was developed through a series of working meetings, ongoing discussion forums and email lists, with participation from a broad range of ecological and environmental scientists, as well as computer scientists and software developers. Where possible, EML adopted syntax from the other metadata standards for other disciplines (e.g., Dublin Core, Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata, and more). Although EML has not yet been ratified through a standards body, it has become the de facto metadata standard for a large range of ecological data management projects, including for the Long Term Ecological Research Network, the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, and the Ecological Society of America. The second community-building initiative is based on work through the Scientific Environment for Ecological Knowledge (SEEK) as well as a recent workshop on multi-disciplinary data management. This initiative aims at improving

  19. Measurement of critical energy for direct initiation of spherical detonations in stoichiometric high-pressure H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenskihs, Vsevolods; Lee, John H.S.; Ng, Hoi Dick

    2010-09-15

    In this study, the critical energy for direct initiation of spherical detonations in stoichiometric high-pressure hydrogen-oxygen mixtures are measured and investigated to look at the effect of explosion limits on the detonation sensitivity. Results up to an initial pressure of 20 atm are obtained. Experiments are carried out in a spherical bomb and direct initiation is achieved via spark ignition from a high-voltage capacitor discharge. A detailed description of different methods to obtain a good estimate of the correct amount of energy deposited into the mixture used to initiate the detonation, including the calorimeter method and current method, is provided. It is demonstrated that at elevated initial pressure, the second explosion limit effect plays a significant role leading to slow-branching reactions and the detonation sensitivity of hydrogen mixtures is comparable to other common hydrocarbon mixtures at such condition. (author)

  20. Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative Project Achievements for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Hohman, E.H.; Lohrstorfer, C.L.; Venedam, R.J.; Weeks, S.J.; Fannin, C.R.

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) project has been in existence since 2002. In this short time period, AMSI has successfully developed, tested and/or demonstrated over 30 advanced sensors and monitoring systems for applications in environmental restoration, waste management and other areas of national interest. This presentation summarizes the AMSI project, and gives examples of recent successes. The purpose of the presentation is to make Symposium attendees aware of AMSI's capabilities and experience, for possible use in the future. Example successes include the following: - Automated hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) monitoring in wells alongside the Columbia River; - Atmospheric chemical sensor array for remote, real-time plume tracking; - Wireless sensor platform for long-term monitoring of subsurface moisture; - Embedded piezo-resistive micro-cantilever (EPM) units for carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection; - 'iHistorian' for efficient, real-time data management of chemical releases. (authors)

  1. Achieving glycemic control in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: a critical comparison of current options

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ye-Fong; Ou, Horng-Yih; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Chiu, Ching-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in the elderly. Because of the unique characteristics of elderly people with T2DM, therapeutic strategy and focus should be tailored to suit this population. This article reviews the guidelines and studies related to older people with T2DM worldwide. A few important themes are generalized: 1) the functional and cognitive status is critical for older people with T2DM considering their life expectancy compared to younger counterparts; 2) both severe hypoglycemia and persistent hyperglycemia are deleterious to older adults with T2DM, and both conditions should be avoided when determining therapeutic goals; 3) recently developed guidelines emphasize the avoidance of hypoglycemic episodes in older people, even in the absence of symptoms. In addition, we raise the concern of glycemic variability, and discuss the rationale for the selection of current options in managing this patient population. PMID:25429208

  2. Critical appraisal of amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil fixed-dose combination in achieving blood pressure goals.

    PubMed

    Basile, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension remains a significant health burden in the United States, with almost one in three adults affected, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. The goal of antihypertensive treatment is to reduce cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality by reducing blood pressure (BP). Guidelines recommend a target BP of <140/90 mmHg, with a more stringent goal of <130/80 mmHg for patients with diabetes and chronic renal disease. However, BP goal attainment rates remain low and most patients require therapy with two or more antihypertensive agents. Combination antihypertensive therapy usually employs agents from different classes, thus benefitting from complementary mechanisms of action to achieve greater BP control with fewer side effects. Patient adherence to therapy is enhanced by formulating treatments as fixed-dose (single-pill) combinations. One example is the combination of amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB), with olmesartan medoxomil, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Here, the rationale for the use of CCB/ARB combination therapy is discussed, as well as the pharmacology and tolerability of the amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil combination and its efficacy in terms of achieving BP goal in patients with hypertension. Advantages of its use from the patient's perspective are also discussed.

  3. Critical appraisal of amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil fixed-dose combination in achieving blood pressure goals

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension remains a significant health burden in the United States, with almost one in three adults affected, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. The goal of antihypertensive treatment is to reduce cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality by reducing blood pressure (BP). Guidelines recommend a target BP of <140/90 mmHg, with a more stringent goal of <130/80 mmHg for patients with diabetes and chronic renal disease. However, BP goal attainment rates remain low and most patients require therapy with two or more antihypertensive agents. Combination antihypertensive therapy usually employs agents from different classes, thus benefitting from complementary mechanisms of action to achieve greater BP control with fewer side effects. Patient adherence to therapy is enhanced by formulating treatments as fixed-dose (single-pill) combinations. One example is the combination of amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB), with olmesartan medoxomil, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Here, the rationale for the use of CCB/ARB combination therapy is discussed, as well as the pharmacology and tolerability of the amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil combination and its efficacy in terms of achieving BP goal in patients with hypertension. Advantages of its use from the patient’s perspective are also discussed. PMID:21949625

  4. Effects of divalproex on smoking cue reactivity and cessation outcomes among smokers achieving initial abstinence.

    PubMed

    Ditre, Joseph W; Oliver, Jason A; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Saladin, Michael E; Drobes, David J

    2012-08-01

    Divalproex, a GABA agonist, may be a useful agent in the treatment of tobacco dependence. Cue reactivity assessment paradigms are ideally suited to explore basic mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effects of medications that purport to have efficacy for smoking cessation. Our primary goal in the current study was to examine the effects of divalproex on in-treatment reactivity to smoking-relevant and affective cues, and to determine if these reactions were predictive of posttreatment smoking behavior. There were 120 nicotine dependent smokers enrolled in an 8-week double-blind clinical trial and randomly assigned to either divalproex or placebo conditions. Of these, 72 smokers (60% female) who achieved a minimal level of abstinence underwent an in-treatment cue reactivity assessment. Contrary to expectations, divalproex was associated with greater craving and arousal during smoking cue presentation. Divalproex also inhibited cardiovascular response to pleasant cues. Although no significant differences in cessation-related outcomes between divalproex- and placebo-treated participants were observed, cue-elicited craving to smoke predicted end-of-treatment and posttreatment smoking rates. These findings suggest that in-treatment cue reactivity assessment may proactively and dynamically inform ongoing treatment as well as provide a tool for screening potential medications for smoking cessation.

  5. Effects of Divalproex on Smoking Cue Reactivity and Cessation Outcomes Among Smokers Achieving Initial Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Oliver, Jason A.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Saladin, Michael E.; Drobes, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Divalproex, a GABA agonist, may be a useful agent in the treatment of tobacco dependence. Cue reactivity assessment paradigms are ideally suited to explore basic mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effects of medications that purport to have efficacy for smoking cessation. Our primary goal in the current study was to examine the effects of divalproex on in-treatment reactivity to smoking-relevant and affective cues, and to determine if these reactions were predictive of posttreatment smoking behavior. There were 120 nicotine dependent smokers enrolled in an 8-week double-blind clinical trial and randomly assigned to either divalproex or placebo conditions. Of these, 72 smokers (60% female) who achieved a minimal level of abstinence underwent an in-treatment cue reactivity assessment. Contrary to expectations, divalproex was associated with greater craving and arousal during smoking cue presentation. Divalproex also inhibited cardiovascular response to pleasant cues. Although no significant differences in cessation-related outcomes between divalproex- and placebo-treated participants were observed, cue-elicited craving to smoke predicted end-of-treatment and posttreatment smoking rates. These findings suggest that in-treatment cue reactivity assessment may proactively and dynamically inform ongoing treatment as well as provide a tool for screening potential medications for smoking cessation. PMID:22468897

  6. Re-Imagining Initial Multiracial Teacher Education (IMTE) Model through the ODL Philosophy: A Critical Qualitative Meta-Synthesis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyoni, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a critical meta-analysis of empirical studies done by human sciences researchers on the initial multicultural teacher education (IMTE) models in multicultural post-colonial transitional societies with reference to sub-Saharan African states in general and South Africa in particular. Using a critical post-positivist…

  7. FINAL REPORT: SUNSHINE STATE SOLAR GRID INITIATIVE (SUNGRIN) PHASE 1 (Critical Milestone Review Version)

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, Rick; Steurer, Mischa; Li, Hui; Edrington, Chris; Dale, Steinar; Faruque, MD Omar; Schoder, Karl; McLaren, Peter G.; Liu, Liming; Ravindra, Harsha; Henry, Shawn; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Xiaohu; Springstroh, Aaron; Click, David; Reedy, Robert; Moaveni, Houtan; Davis, Kristopher; Cromer, Charlie; Pappalardo, Anthoney; Krueger, Rodica; Domijan, Alexander; Islam, Arif; Islam, Mujahidil; Damole, Ademole

    2012-03-30

    This report provides details on the activities and accomplishments of Phase 1 of the Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN) Project for the period beginning 4/28/2010 and ending 12/31/2011. SUNGRIN is a five-phase high-penetration solar PV project within the Systems Integration (SI) area of the Solar Energy Technologies (SETP) Program, under the SunShot Initiative. SUNGRIN is focused on understanding and enabling high-penetration grid-connected solar PV through simulation assisted studies of actual Florida utility high-penetration distribution circuits as well as substations and, to a limited extent, the bulk power system. Each phase builds and expands upon the efforts of the previous phase, leading to a comprehensive examination and understanding of high-penetration solar PV issues, from the solar resource to the conversion and integration technologies to the electric power system, with Florida and it’s utility partners providing the broad range of conditions and system integration scenarios necessary to develop useful insight and solutions. This phase, Phase 1, was funded with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. This version of the final report is organized to align with statement of project objectives (SOPO) critical milestones.

  8. Measurement and scaling analysis of critical energy for direct initiation of gaseous detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Ng, H. D.; Lee, J. H. S.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, the critical energies required for direct initiation of spherical detonations in four gaseous fuels (C2H2, C2H4, C3H8 and H2)-oxygen mixtures at different initial pressures, equivalence ratios and with different amounts of argon dilution are reported. Using these data, a scaling analysis is performed based on two main parameters of the problem: the explosion length R o that characterizes the blast wave and a characteristic chemical length that characterizes the detonation. For all the undiluted mixtures considered in this study, it is found that the relationship is closely given by {R_o ≈ 26 λ} , where λ is the characteristic detonation cell size of the explosive mixture. While for C2H2-2.5O2 mixtures highly diluted with argon, in which cellular instabilities are shown to play a minor role on the detonation propagation, the proportionality factor increases to 37.3, 47 and 54.8 for 50, 65 and 70% argon dilution, respectively. Using the ZND induction length Δ I as the characteristic chemical length scale for argon diluted or `stable' mixtures, the explosion length is also found to scale adequately with {R_o ≈ 2320 Δ_I}.

  9. Citizen Science: The Small World Initiative Improved Lecture Grades and California Critical Thinking Skills Test Scores of Nonscience Major Students at Florida Atlantic University

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Joseph P.; Israel, Natalie; Rowland, Kimberly; Lovelace, Matthew J.; Saunders, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research is known to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics student achievement. We tested “The Small World Initiative, a Citizen-Science Project to Crowdsource Novel Antibiotic Discovery” to see if it also improved student performance and the critical thinking of non-science majors in Introductory Biology at Florida Atlantic University (a large, public, minority-dominant institution) in academic year 2014–15. California Critical Thinking Skills Test pre- and posttests were offered to both Small World Initiative (SWI) and control lab students for formative amounts of extra credit. SWI lab students earned significantly higher lecture grades than control lab students, had significantly fewer lecture grades of D+ or lower, and had significantly higher critical thinking posttest total scores than control students. Lastly, more SWI students were engaged while taking critical thinking tests. These results support the hypothesis that utilizing independent course-based undergraduate science research improves student achievement even in nonscience students. PMID:27047613

  10. Critical discussion of social-cognitive factors in smoking initiation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-01-01

    Social-cognitive models have often been used in research on prevention in adolescent populations, even though the models were designed to describe adult behavior. The aim of the study reported here was to examine critically and constructively the five social-cognitive factors in the 'attitude, social influence, self-efficacy' (ASE) model. Methods. The examination draws on the results of a qualitative follow-up study of smoking initiation based on semi-structured interviews and observations of 12 adolescents in two Danish school classes, grades 7 and 8. The qualitative study was conducted in connection with and sampled from a large quantitative study and the results of both studies are discussed. In the analyses, we explored the ASE constructs according to how they are described in the ASE theory. Furthermore, we examined contradictions and aspects which are not explained in the model and if relevant discussed these aspects using other theoretical frameworks. Results. The results showed that aspects other than those in the ASE model are also important. Smoking initiation was often situational and unplanned and was sometimes used in negotiating social relationships and identity. Furthermore, the social-cognitive models are based on the assumption that adolescents talk about smoking norms and have a high degree of individual reflexivity, which is not always characteristic of adolescent behavior. Conclusion. Applying theoretical models in health research should be a continuous process of both applying the model and discussing the theoretical assumptions of the model when applied to a specific sample. The results of the qualitative study provide some support for use of the ASE model, but the results also suggest that further studies are needed to explore how social-cognitive models can be expanded to be more comprehensive behavioral models.

  11. Counterfactual Mutation of Critical Classroom Incidents: Implications for Reflective Practice in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarr, Oliver; McCormack, Orla

    2016-01-01

    This study explores reflective practice through the lens of counterfactual thinking and examines its role in encouraging student teachers to reflect on negative "critical incidents". The study posits that reflections on critical incidents are often not "critical" in nature. They more frequently result in counterfactual thinking…

  12. Stimulus-induced critical point. Mechanism for electrical initiation of reentry in normal canine myocardium.

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, D W; Wolf, P D; Wharton, J M; Tang, A S; Smith, W M; Ideker, R E

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the field of a premature (S2) stimulus, interacting with relatively refractory tissue, can create unidirectional block and reentry in the absence of nonuniform dispersion of recovery. Simultaneous recordings from a small region of normal right ventricular (RV) myocardium were made from 117 to 120 transmural or epicardial electrodes in 14 dogs. S1 pacing from a row of electrodes on one side of the mapped area generated parallel activation isochrones followed by uniform parallel isorecovery lines. Cathodal S2 shocks of 25 to 250 V lasting 3 ms were delivered from a mesh electrode along one side of the mapped area to scan the recovery period, creating isogradient electric field lines perpendicular to the isorecovery lines. Circus reentry was created following S2 stimulation; initial conduction was distant from the S2 site and spread towards more refractory tissue. Reentry was clockwise for right S1 (near the septum) with top S2 (near the pulmonary valve) and for left S1 with bottom S2; and counterclockwise for right S1 with bottom S2 and left S1 with top S2. The center of the reentrant circuit for all S2 voltages and coupling intervals occurred at potential gradients of 5.1 +/- 0.6 V/cm (mean +/- standard deviation) and at preshock intervals 1 +/- 3 ms longer than refractory periods determined locally for a 2 mA stimulus. Thus, when S2 field strengths and tissue refractoriness are uniformally dispersed at an angle to each other, circus reentry occurs around a "critical point" where an S2 field of approximately 5 V/cm intersects tissue approximately at the end of its refractory period. Images PMID:2921316

  13. CARMA3 Is Critical for the Initiation of Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Causton, Benjamin; Ramadas, Ravisankar A; Cho, Josalyn L; Jones, Khristianna; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Xavier, Ramnik J; Medoff, Benjamin D

    2015-07-15

    Innate immune responses to allergens by airway epithelial cells (AECs) help initiate and propagate the adaptive immune response associated with allergic airway inflammation in asthma. Activation of the transcription factor NF-κB in AECs by allergens or secondary mediators via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is an important component of this multifaceted inflammatory cascade. Members of the caspase recruitment domain family of proteins display tissue-specific expression and help mediate NF-κB activity in response to numerous stimuli. We have previously shown that caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein (CARMA)3 is specifically expressed in AECs and mediates NF-κB activation in these cells in response to stimulation with the GPCR agonist lysophosphatidic acid. In this study, we demonstrate that reduced levels of CARMA3 in normal human bronchial epithelial cells decreases the production of proasthmatic mediators in response to a panel of asthma-relevant GPCR ligands such as lysophosphatidic acid, adenosine triphosphate, and allergens that activate GPCRs such as Alternaria alternata and house dust mite. We then show that genetically modified mice with CARMA3-deficient AECs have reduced airway eosinophilia and proinflammatory cytokine production in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. Additionally, we demonstrate that these mice have impaired dendritic cell maturation in the lung and that dendritic cells from mice with CARMA3-deficient AECs have impaired Ag processing. In conclusion, we show that AEC CARMA3 helps mediate allergic airway inflammation, and that CARMA3 is a critical signaling molecule bridging the innate and adaptive immune responses in the lung. PMID:26041536

  14. Achievement of Climate Planning Objectives among U.S. Member Cities of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI)

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, Kelsey W.; Lam, Nina S. N.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to address climate change, many cities have joined the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) whose members commit to work toward five specific program objectives designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study examines the extent to which 257 member cities in the US have been successful in achieving these program milestones and identifies factors that may explain variation in the performance of member cities. Potential influences on milestone attainment include socioeconomic, political and ideological characteristics of residents, length of ICLEI membership, existence of other climate programs within the state, and local environmental pressures. Multiple regression results indicate that length of membership is the strongest predictor of milestone attainment, regardless of local socioeconomic conditions, ideological and political orientations of residents, or other climate-related initiatives within the state. This finding supports the general effectiveness of ICLEI’s network organizational model and its outreach and education efforts. However, member cities facing more “climate stress”, including higher levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAP’s) and greater automobile use among residents are making slower progress. The findings yield insight into the conditions under which cities engaged in climate planning are more likely to succeed in reducing local greenhouse gas emissions-relevant information for planners, community stakeholders and administrators of organizations like ICLEI. PMID:27478682

  15. Education Policy and Family Values: A Critical Analysis of Initiatives from the Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumashiro, Kevin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes current education policy initiatives from the political Right in the United States, focusing on initiatives at the federal level (standards and testing), the state level (funding), the local level (alternative certification), and the campus level (censorship). Each initiative has received wide bipartisan and public support,…

  16. Initiative Games in Physical Education: A Practical Approach for Teaching Critical Thinking Skills--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Hunt, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Often students have a difficult time when asked to use critical thinking skills to solve a problem. Perhaps students have a difficult time adjusting because teachers frequently tell them exactly what to do and how to do it. When asked to use critical thinking skills, students may suddenly become confused and discouraged because the teacher no…

  17. Toward a Critical Model of Teacher Learning: Lessons from the South Carolina Reading Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Paulo Freire, Morrell argues for critical, humanizing inquiry spaces in which literacy teachers learn with and from one another. However, he points to critical race theory and poses important questions, for example, wondering whether empowered spaces for teachers are transferred into empowerment for students.

  18. Exploring the Use of Critical Incident Analysis and the Professional Learning Conversation in an Initial Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Jennifer K.; Lee, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on critical incident analysis in initial teacher education and the part played by the professional learning conversation. A reflection framework was used to identify changes in levels of reflective practice. Conversational skills of the supervising teacher in recognising the "person" in the student teacher, and their management…

  19. Establishing open and critical discourses in the science classroom: Reflecting on initial difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille M.; Taylor, Peter C.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a reflective account of a science teacher’s endeavours to use the referent of critical constructivism to transform her pedagogical practices. The context of her action research was a Year 10 Bioethics unit taught at an independent girls’ school in Perth, Western Australia. Students were provided with opportunities to engage in open and critical discourses; many did, but a few were unwilling to participate in accordance with the teacher’s intentions. We illustrate the disruptive influence of these “dissident” students and explore the reasons for their unwillingness to suspend their disbelief in a new way of knowing (and of being) that involves a radical change in the role of language in the classroom. We conclude with recommendations for epistemological pluralism and the careful use of critical discourse for re-negotiating teaching and learning roles and creating conditions for open discourse to flourish.

  20. Initial conceptual design study of self-critical nuclear pumped laser systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical study of self-critical nuclear pumped laser system concepts was performed. Primary emphasis was placed on reactor concepts employing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) as the fissionable material. Relationships were developed between the key reactor design parameters including reactor power level, critical mass, neutron flux level, reactor size, operating pressure, and UF6 optical properties. The results were used to select a reference conceptual laser system configuration. In the reference configuration, the 3.2 m cubed lasing volume is surrounded by a graphite internal moderator and a region of heavy water. Results of neutronics calculations yield a critical mass of 4.9 U(235) in the form (235)UF6. The configuration appears capable of operating in a continuous steady-state mode. The average gas temperature in the core is 600 K and the UF6 partial pressure within the lasing volume is 0.34 atm.

  1. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate achievements along…

  2. The Application of Critical Incident Procedures for an Initial Audit of Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, R. Stanley

    This paper discusses the concept of the critical incidents technique, traces its early development in the training of airplane pilots during World War II, sketches the requirements of the typical steps, notes the few studies in communication using this technique, provides an evaluation, and briefly describes a study concerning department chairmen.…

  3. Establishing Open and Critical Discourses in the Science Classroom: Reflecting on Initial Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille M.; Taylor, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a reflective account of a science teacher's endeavors to use the referent of critical constructivism to transform her pedagogical practices. The context of the action research is a Year 10 bioethics unit taught at an independent girls' school. Contains 44 references. (DDR)

  4. 76 FR 41266 - Critical Path Manufacturing Sector Research Initiative (U01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... processes and to ensure that they are in statistical control will be done. This includes science-based... enable a more predictable approach to manufacturing development and design of control systems. This... understand the product design and performance and to control the critical manufacturing parameters....

  5. Promoting Critical Awareness in the Initial Training of Preschool Teachers in Greece: Resistance and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourti, Evangelia; Androussou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of future preschool teachers' critical awareness through the introduction of two "new" subjects--intercultural education and media education--in the curriculum of an early childhood department in Greece. The current social and political context, the structure of preschool teachers'…

  6. The effect of initial flaw configuration on leak critical pressure vessel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, D. E.; Hoeppner, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of initial flaw shape and depth on the cycles required to produce a pressure leak condition in parent and welded 2219-T87 aluminum was examined for thicknesses from 0.04 to 0.3 inch. Initial flaw aspect ratios of 0.5, 0.3, and 0.15 were examined for tests conducted at a frequency of 4 Hz at room temperature and at 300 F. A computer program developed by Forman was used to predict the cycles to leak curve as a function of initial crack aspect ratio, material thickness, and specimen type and the results compared with the experimental data. Sources of error in the crack propagation analysis and the interface with NDI capabilities are discussed.

  7. Participation in ICZM initiatives: critical aspects and lessons learnt from the Mediterranean and Black Sea experiences.

    PubMed

    Soriani, Stefano; Buono, Fabrizia; Tonino, Marco; Camuffo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Public participation is recognized as a necessary tool to ensure a successful implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) strategies and plans. This paper, based on the experiences carried out in the Mediterranean and in the Black Sea within the EU FP7 project PEGASO, presents some critical aspects and lessons learnt regarding participation in ICZM projects. The research shows that data availability, the complexity of data interpretation, an inadequate legal and cultural framework and the difficulties in promoting integration of all the components of coastal management within short term projects are all elements that if not properly considered since the beginning of the participatory process may hinder public participation effectiveness. Moreover the definition of the spatial scale of coastal phenomenon as well as the discrepancy between the local scale of coastal governance and the complex multi-scale nature of coastal systems remain highly critical aspects to be addressed. PMID:25659448

  8. Participation in ICZM initiatives: critical aspects and lessons learnt from the Mediterranean and Black Sea experiences.

    PubMed

    Soriani, Stefano; Buono, Fabrizia; Tonino, Marco; Camuffo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Public participation is recognized as a necessary tool to ensure a successful implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) strategies and plans. This paper, based on the experiences carried out in the Mediterranean and in the Black Sea within the EU FP7 project PEGASO, presents some critical aspects and lessons learnt regarding participation in ICZM projects. The research shows that data availability, the complexity of data interpretation, an inadequate legal and cultural framework and the difficulties in promoting integration of all the components of coastal management within short term projects are all elements that if not properly considered since the beginning of the participatory process may hinder public participation effectiveness. Moreover the definition of the spatial scale of coastal phenomenon as well as the discrepancy between the local scale of coastal governance and the complex multi-scale nature of coastal systems remain highly critical aspects to be addressed.

  9. Critical Characteristics of Successful After-School Programs: An Evaluation of the 21st Century Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Nancy P.

    With the recent U.S. Department of Education's 21st Century Initiative there has been a proliferation of after-school programs emerging in rural, suburban, and urban school communities across the country. Although these programs are financially supported through the federal government, the grants are only funded for a 3-year period. Given the…

  10. Managing Systemic Curriculum Change: A Critical Analysis of Hong Kong's Target-Oriented Curriculum Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, David

    1997-01-01

    Describes Hong Kong's Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC), a major curriculum renewal initiative designed to improve the quality of learning in local primary schools. Discusses the context in which it was introduced and factors that proved problematic in managing change. Focuses on five elements in the change process: practicality, ownership, teacher…

  11. Critical self-organized self-sustained oscillations in large regulatory networks: towards understanding the gene expression initiation.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Simon

    2011-03-22

    In this paper, a new model of self-organized criticality is introduced. This model, called the gene expression paradigm, is motivated by the problem of gene expression initiation in the newly-born daughter cells after mitosis. The model is fundamentally different in dynamics and properties from the well known sand-pile paradigm. Simulation experiments demonstrate that a critical total number of proteins exists below which transcription is impossible. Above this critical threshold, the system enters the regime of self-sustained oscillations with standard deviations and periods proportional to the genes' complexities with probability one. The borderline between these two regimes is very sharp. Importantly, such a self-organization emerges without any deterministic feedback loops or external supervision, and is a result of completely random redistribution of proteins between inactive genes. Given the size of the genome, the domain of self-organized oscillatory motion is also limited by the genes' maximal complexities. Below the critical complexity, all the regimes of self-organized oscillations are self-similar and largely independent of the genes' complexities. Above the level of critical complexity, the whole-genome transcription is impossible. Again, the borderline between the domains of oscillations and quiescence is very sharp. The gene expression paradigm is an example of cellular automata with the domain of application potentially far beyond its biological context. The model seems to be simple enough for staging an experiment for verification of its remarkable properties.

  12. Using the tax system to promote physical activity: critical analysis of Canadian initiatives.

    PubMed

    von Tigerstrom, Barbara; Larre, Tamara; Sauder, Joanne

    2011-08-01

    In Canada, tax incentives have been recently introduced to promote physical activity and reduce rates of obesity. The most prominent of these is the federal government's Children's Fitness Tax Credit, which came into effect in 2007. We critically assess the potential benefits and limitations of using tax measures to promote physical activity. Careful design could make these measures more effective, but any tax-based measures have inherent limitations, and the costs of such programs are substantial. Therefore, it is important to consider whether public funds are better spent on other strategies that could instead provide direct public funding to address environmental and systemic factors.

  13. Catalyzing the Critical Path Initiative: FDA's progress in drug development activities.

    PubMed

    Parekh, A; Buckman-Garner, S; McCune, S; ONeill, R; Geanacopoulos, M; Amur, S; Clingman, C; Barratt, R; Rocca, M; Hills, I; Woodcock, J

    2015-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has directed considerable effort towards modernizing its regulatory processes over the past decade to address the challenges in the drug development sector. Through partnerships and input from stakeholders, multiple initiatives are under way, many projects have been launched, several have resulted in tangible results, and many are ongoing and under discussion. We are learning that collaborative efforts can better inform and leverage existing knowledge, that the challenges of data sharing and intellectual property can be overcome, and that there is wide interest in partnering to address key public health regulatory science issues. It is crucial that we continue to build on these initial efforts to facilitate drug development.

  14. Catalyzing the Critical Path Initiative: FDA's progress in drug development activities.

    PubMed

    Parekh, A; Buckman-Garner, S; McCune, S; ONeill, R; Geanacopoulos, M; Amur, S; Clingman, C; Barratt, R; Rocca, M; Hills, I; Woodcock, J

    2015-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has directed considerable effort towards modernizing its regulatory processes over the past decade to address the challenges in the drug development sector. Through partnerships and input from stakeholders, multiple initiatives are under way, many projects have been launched, several have resulted in tangible results, and many are ongoing and under discussion. We are learning that collaborative efforts can better inform and leverage existing knowledge, that the challenges of data sharing and intellectual property can be overcome, and that there is wide interest in partnering to address key public health regulatory science issues. It is crucial that we continue to build on these initial efforts to facilitate drug development. PMID:25670629

  15. International overview of high-level simulation education initiatives in relation to critical care.

    PubMed

    Alinier, Guillaume; Platt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The use of simulation in health care education has become very topical across all professions and specialties in order to improve patient safety and quality of care. In the last decade, the adoption of more realistic simulation-based teaching methodologies, which serves as a bridge between the acquisition and application of clinical skills, knowledge, and attributes, has been accompanied by the development of a multitude of international and national simulation societies. These serve as important exchange fora for educators, clinicians, researchers, and engineers who desire to learn and share their experience and knowledge around simulation-based education. Several countries have derived their own strategy in order to promote the use of such training methodology. Current key national strategies will be presented in this paper alongside a discussion of their expected impact. Various approaches have been adopted and each has their own place and the potential to be adopted by other nations depending on their political, economic or even geographic context. Within the critical care arena, simulation has generated considerable interest and there is a growing evidence base for its use as a learning and teaching strategy within this environment. A number of critical care-related associations and societies are now recognizing simulation as an appropriate pedagogical approach and acknowledging its potential to improve patient care and clinical outcomes. Its implementation should be carefully considered to ensure that developments are based on current best educational practice to maximize the efficiency of these educational interventions.

  16. A critical role of downstream RNA polymerase-promoter interactions in the formation of initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Mekler, Vladimir; Minakhin, Leonid; Severinov, Konstantin

    2011-06-24

    Nucleation of promoter melting in bacteria is coupled with RNA polymerase (RNAP) binding to a conserved -10 promoter element located at the upstream edge of the transcription bubble. The mechanism of downstream propagation of the transcription bubble to include the transcription start site is unclear. Here we introduce new model downstream fork junction promoter fragments that specifically bind RNAP and mimic the downstream segment of promoter complexes. We demonstrate that RNAP binding to downstream fork junctions is coupled with DNA melting around the transcription start point. Consequently, certain downstream fork junction probes can serve as transcription templates. Using a protein beacon fluorescent method, we identify structural determinants of affinity and transcription activity of RNAP-downstream fork junction complexes. Measurements of RNAP interaction with double-stranded promoter fragments reveal that the strength of RNAP interactions with downstream DNA plays a critical role in promoter opening and that the length of the downstream duplex must exceed a critical length for efficient formation of transcription competent open promoter complex.

  17. The critical warzone experiences (CWE) scale: initial psychometric properties and association with PTSD, anxiety, and depression.

    PubMed

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; Evans, Lianna D; Patel, Amee B; Wilson, Laura C; Meyer, Eric C; Gulliver, Suzy B; Morissette, Sandra B

    2014-12-30

    The objective of the present research was to develop and evaluate a critical warzone experiences (CWE) scale for use with Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. The psychometric properties of the CWE were evaluated across three independent samples of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. Despite its brevity (7 items), the CWE exhibited good internal consistency (average α =0.83), good temporal stability (1-year test-retest reliability=0.73), good concurrent validity with lengthier measures of warzone experiences (average r=0.74), and a clear unidimensional factor structure (average factor loading=0.69). Study 2 confirmed the CWE׳s factor structure through confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling demonstrated a strong association between CWE and post-deployment mental health, β =0.49, p<0.001. Study 3 provided further support for the predictive validity of the CWE by demonstrating that it was associated with PTSD diagnosis, clinician-rated PTSD symptom severity, and global functional impairment in an independent sample of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans (average r=0.59). While replication of these findings in more diverse samples is needed, the preliminary evidence from these studies indicates that the CWE is a brief, reliable, and valid measure of critical warzone experiences among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans.

  18. Longitudinal Impacts of the Children's Literacy Initiative Professional Development, Coaching, and Model Classroom Intervention on Early Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Julia; Meakin, John; Salinger, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement in literacy has been a focal concern in the United States for many years. Improving teachers' knowledge and skill that leads to improved student achievement, particularly in the early grades, can place children on an improved trajectory that can have long-term impacts on life outcomes. Over the past decade, a large body of…

  19. An Emerging Allee Effect Is Critical for Tumor Initiation and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Böttger, Katrin; Hatzikirou, Haralambos; Voss-Böhme, Anja; Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta Ada; Herrero, Miguel A.; Deutsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells develop different strategies to cope with changing microenvironmental conditions. A prominent example is the adaptive phenotypic switching between cell migration and proliferation. While it has been shown that the migration-proliferation plasticity influences tumor spread, it remains unclear how this particular phenotypic plasticity affects overall tumor growth, in particular initiation and persistence. To address this problem, we formulate and study a mathematical model of spatio-temporal tumor dynamics which incorporates the microenvironmental influence through a local cell density dependence. Our analysis reveals that two dynamic regimes can be distinguished. If cell motility is allowed to increase with local cell density, any tumor cell population will persist in time, irrespective of its initial size. On the contrary, if cell motility is assumed to decrease with respect to local cell density, any tumor population below a certain size threshold will eventually extinguish, a fact usually termed as Allee effect in ecology. These results suggest that strategies aimed at modulating migration are worth to be explored as alternatives to those mainly focused at keeping tumor proliferation under control. PMID:26335202

  20. !Claro, se puede! Critical resilience: A critical race perspective on resilience in the baccalaureate achievement of Latino/a engineering and life science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Gary Anthony

    An under representation of Latino/as in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) still persists. In Rising Above the Gathering Storm, the National Academies sounded an alarm in response to data indicating a "troubling decline" in the number of U.S. citizens trained to become scientists and engineers at a time when the number of technical jobs is outpacing the rate of the U.S. workforce. The shrinking technical talent pipeline threatens the country's future in technology innovation, energy alternatives, national security, and education. This study purported to contextualize resilience and discern the cultural capital and persistence behaviors of STEM Latino/a students succeeding in two adverse environments---higher education and science and engineering. Through a critical race perspective the student cuentos were thematically analyzed. Student narratives were then triangulated with the narrative of the researcher---a Mexican American, first-generation college student, who pursued a life science bachelor's degree through the two institutions in this study. The theoretical framework was guided by Critical Race Theory, Resiliency, Persistence Theory, and Social Construction of Technology. The study consisted of a pilot survey and narrative inquiry. The survey contained pilot questions on the use and perception of information technologies in STEM education. The narrative inquiry was guided by critical race that enabled both positionality and storytelling through narratives and counter-narratives. Twenty-two Latino/a graduating seniors majoring in the biological sciences or engineering/engineering technology at a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) and a Predominantly-White Institution (PWI) in Texas were recruited. The narratives of these students were collected through one-time, semi-structured interviews during the last semester of their studies. Results from the study indicate that these Latino/a STEM students are conscious of their ethnicity

  1. School Improvement in Petersburg: A Comprehensive Three-Year Study of the Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools Initiative Model IV Intervention. Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Joanna; Smith, Karen; Marr, Linda; Wyshynski, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Dr. Jo Lynne DeMary, Virginia's state superintendent of public instruction, requested that the Appalachia Educational Laboratory at Edvantia work in partnership with the Virginia Department of Education and Petersburg City Schools to design and test the Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools Initiative (PA+SS) Model IV Intervention. The goal…

  2. The Predictive Nature of Humor, Authoritative Parenting Style, and Academic Achievement on Indices of Initial Adjustment and Commitment to College among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Crossland, Garnet L.

    2004-01-01

    Through the administration of self-report surveys, this study examined the relationships among a) parenting styles, b) family structure, c) academic achievement, d) birth order, e) gender, and f) humor on the initial personal-emotional, social, academic, and commitment to college adjustment among 257 first-quarter college freshmen. Multiple…

  3. The Effects of Formative Assessment Pre-Lecture Online Chapter Quizzes and Student-Initiated Inquiries to the Instructor on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Judith C.; Majerich, David M.; Bernacki, Matthew L.; Varnum, Susan Jansen; Ducette, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    This study's goal was to quantify the effects pre-lecture online quizzes and student-initiated inquiries to the instructor, either virtually or in person, had on students' achievement. Pre- and post-course tests were also implemented to an experimental and a comparison section of the same course. The number of electronic administrative contacts…

  4. Clinical utility of the Food and Drug Administration Electrocardiogram Warehouse: a paradigm for the critical pathway initiative.

    PubMed

    Cabell, Christopher H; Noto, Tory C; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2005-10-01

    Although there are rising public expectations about the prospects for new therapies based on advances in biomedical discoveries, the rate of new product submissions to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not been increasing. Alarmingly, over the past 6 years, there has been a 30% decline in submissions. The reasons for this are multifactorial and include new science not at its full potential, mergers/business arrangements have decreased candidates, chronic disease is harder to study, the failure rate has not improved, and rapidly escalating costs and complexity. Notably, societal investment in research and development to improve the drug approval process has been lacking in contrast to the large investments, both private and public, in basic research and specific product advances. The Critical Path Initiative has been developed by the FDA to combat many of these issues. This initiative is designed to be collaborative between government, academic, industry, and patient groups. The partnership is designed to expand product opportunities by sharing existing knowledge and data, allowing the development of enabling standards, to improve drug development and approval. A central tenant of Critical Path is a focus on the evaluative science of the drug approval process, including both efficacy and safety measures. The FDA Electrocardiogram Warehouse is 1 example where a government resource could be used by a confluence of groups to improve the science surrounding important components of the drug approval process such as cardiac safety evaluation.

  5. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  6. Interdisciplinary collaboration: the slogan that must be achieved for models of delivering critical care to be successful.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Richard S; Flaherty, Helen M; French, Cynthia T; Cody, Shawn; Chandler, M Willis; Connolly, Ann; Lilly, Craig M

    2012-12-01

    There is wide acceptance of the concept that interdisciplinary collaboration is an essential building block for successful health-care teams. This belief is grounded in our understanding of how teams function to address complex care needs that change with acute illness or injury. This general agreement has been validated in studies that have reported favorable outcomes associated with successfully implementing interdisciplinary models of health-care delivery in non-critical care settings. The very short time frames over which the care needs of critically ill or injured adults change and the team approach taken by nearly all ICUs strongly suggest that interdisciplinary collaboration is also beneficial in this setting. In this commentary, we define interdisciplinary collaboration and share the story of how we successfully redesigned and transformed our system-wide, interdisciplinary collaborative model for delivering critical care in order to share the lessons we learned as the process evolved with those who are about to embark on a similar challenge. We anticipate that those health-care systems that successfully implement interdisciplinary collaboration will be ahead of the curve in providing high-quality care at as low a cost as possible. Such institutions will also potentially be better positioned for improving teaching and providing a better foundation for critical care research in their institutions. PMID:23208334

  7. Achieving Equity through Critical Science Agency: An Ethnographic Study of African American Students in a Health Science Career Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart &…

  8. Initial mental graphemic representation acquisition and later literacy achievement in children with language impairment: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Julie A; Self, Trisha; Apel, Kenn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the ability to quickly acquire initial mental graphemic representations (MGRs) in kindergarten and fourth grade literacy skills in children with typical language (TL) and children with language impairment (LI). The study is a longitudinal extension of a study conducted by Wolter and Apel in which kindergarten children with LI and TL were administered early literacy measures as well as a novel written pseudoword task of MGR learning (spelling and identification of target pseudowords). In the current study (4 years later), the authors administered reading and spelling measures to 37 of the original 45 children (18 children with LI, 19 children with TL). The children with LI performed significantly lower than their peers with TL on all fourth grade literacy measures. For both groups, kindergarten initial MGR acquisition ability significantly related to fourth grade real-word reading and spelling. For the children with LI, kindergarten initial MGR acquisition ability also related to fourth grade pseudoword decoding and reading comprehension. Collectively, the findings suggest that initial MGR learning in kindergarten is an essential skill that may uniquely relate to later literacy abilities. PMID:21252375

  9. Initial mental graphemic representation acquisition and later literacy achievement in children with language impairment: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Julie A; Self, Trisha; Apel, Kenn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the ability to quickly acquire initial mental graphemic representations (MGRs) in kindergarten and fourth grade literacy skills in children with typical language (TL) and children with language impairment (LI). The study is a longitudinal extension of a study conducted by Wolter and Apel in which kindergarten children with LI and TL were administered early literacy measures as well as a novel written pseudoword task of MGR learning (spelling and identification of target pseudowords). In the current study (4 years later), the authors administered reading and spelling measures to 37 of the original 45 children (18 children with LI, 19 children with TL). The children with LI performed significantly lower than their peers with TL on all fourth grade literacy measures. For both groups, kindergarten initial MGR acquisition ability significantly related to fourth grade real-word reading and spelling. For the children with LI, kindergarten initial MGR acquisition ability also related to fourth grade pseudoword decoding and reading comprehension. Collectively, the findings suggest that initial MGR learning in kindergarten is an essential skill that may uniquely relate to later literacy abilities.

  10. Selection of the initial methadone regimen for the management of iatrogenic opioid abstinence syndrome in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Peter N; Boyles, Krystal A; Miller, Jamie L

    2012-02-01

    Iatrogenic opioid abstinence syndrome (IOAS) is a common complication in critically ill infants and children receiving prolonged exposure to continuous infusions of opioids. Although no guidelines are available regarding management of IOAS in children, several treatment options are available, including clonidine, morphine, and methadone. Methadone is commonly prescribed due to its long half-life and antagonism of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Different approaches, such as weight-based and formula-based methods, have been used to determine the initial methadone dosing regimen. Because of the vast differences in the recommended dosing regimen from these sources, we conducted a literature search to identify articles evaluating the initial methadone dosing regimen for prevention and/or treatment of IOAS in children. Specifically, we evaluated the reported frequency of withdrawal and oversedation after initiation of methadone treatment. Our literature search was limited to English-language articles in the MEDLINE (1950-March 2011), EMBASE (1988-March 2011), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-March 2011), and Cochrane Library (1996-March 2011) databases. Relevant abstracts and reference citations were also reviewed. A total of eight reports representing 183 patients were included in the analysis. There was wide discrepancy in the initial methadone dosing regimen. Approximately one-third of all patients experienced withdrawal after starting methadone, and there did not appear to be a difference between weight-based and formula-based regimens. Seven patients experienced oversedation; however, not all articles reported this complication. It appears that a standard approach to initial methadone dosing does not exist because withdrawal occurred despite the regimen started. Therefore, it seems best to begin with the lowest dose possible and titrate to the child's response to avoid complications such as oversedation. Routine monitoring should be performed in all

  11. Critical behavior for random initial conditions in the one-dimensional fixed-energy Manna sandpile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sungchul; Kim, Jin Min

    2016-07-01

    A fixed-energy Manna sandpile model undergoes an absorbing phase transition at a critical ρc, where an order parameter ϕ (t ) decays as t-α in time t . As the prototype of the Manna class, the model has been extensively studied in one dimension. However, the previous estimates of ρc and some critical exponents are different, depending on the types of initial conditions; random, natural, and regular conditions. The estimates of ρc for the random and the regular conditions are the lower and the upper bound among currently known estimates, respectively. In this work, for the random conditions, ρc and α are measured by taking into account finite-size (FS) effects. At the previous estimate of ρc, simulation results show that the temporal decay of ϕ (t ) is strongly affected by the FS effects up to much larger system size (˜106 ). For the sizes for which ϕ (t ) is independent up to t =2 ×107 , we estimate ρc=0.8925 (1 ) and α =0.110 (5 ) , which clearly differ from the previous results for the random conditions, ρc=0.89199 (5 ) and α =0.141 (24 ) . Instead, the present ρc agrees with ρc=0.89255 (2 ) of the regular conditions. In addition, the present α is substantially distinguishable from the results of the other types of initial conditions, α =0.159 (3 ) and 0.146 (2 ) for the natural and the regular conditions, respectively, which supports the claim of the initial condition dependence of dynamical exponents in the Manna class.

  12. Reallocating Human Resources to Maximize Student Achievement: A Critical Case Study of a Southern California School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazener, Adrianna Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study applied the Evidence-Based Model (Odden & Picus, 2008) as a framework for determining how district leadership could potentially reallocate human resources to maximize the opportunity for student achievement, relying heavily on the ten strategies for doubling student performance (Odden, 2009; Odden & Archibald, 2009) and the…

  13. The Relationship of Self-Esteem to Grades, Achievement Scores, and Other Factors Critical to School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, James D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined self-esteem related to earned grades, achievement test scores, and other factors among all regular fifth- and sixth-grade students in one intermediate school. Findings seemed to reaffirm importance of self-esteem to academic school success. School Form of the Self-Esteem Inventory scores were more predictive of grades than were composite…

  14. Achieving equity through critical science agency: An ethnographic study of African American students in a health science career academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart & Finkel, 1998) to highlight the intersections between the career trajectory implied by the Academy (its curriculum, classroom activities, and clinical experiences) and the students' pursued career trajectories. Data was collected over five months and included individual student interviews, group interviews, parent and administrator interviews, field notes from a culminating medical course and clinical internship, and Academy recruitment documents. The results of this study suggest that participants pursued a health science career for altruistic purposes and the Academy was a resource they drew upon to do so. However, the meanings of science and science person implied by the Academy hindered the possibility for many participants' to advance their science career trajectories. While the Academy promised to expose students to a variety of high-status health care roles, they were funneled into feminine, entry-level positions. This study adds to previous underrepresentation literature by contextualizing how identity-related factors influence African American students' career attainment.

  15. Kupffer Cells Undergo Fundamental Changes during the Development of Experimental NASH and Are Critical in Initiating Liver Damage and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Reid, D T; Reyes, J L; McDonald, B A; Vo, T; Reimer, R A; Eksteen, B

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become the leading liver disease in North America and is associated with the progressive inflammatory liver disease non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Considerable effort has been made to understand the role of resident and recruited macrophage populations in NASH however numerous questions remain. Our goal was to characterize the dynamic changes in liver macrophages during the initiation of NASH in a murine model. Using the methionine-choline deficient diet we found that liver-resident macrophages, Kupffer cells were lost early in disease onset followed by a robust infiltration of Ly-6C+ monocyte-derived macrophages that retained a dynamic phenotype. Genetic profiling revealed distinct patterns of inflammatory gene expression between macrophage subsets. Only early depletion of liver macrophages using liposomal clodronate prevented the development of NASH in mice suggesting that Kupffer cells are critical for the orchestration of inflammation during experimental NASH. Increased understanding of these dynamics may allow us to target potentially harmful populations whilst promoting anti-inflammatory or restorative populations to ultimately guide the development of effective treatment strategies. PMID:27454866

  16. Kupffer Cells Undergo Fundamental Changes during the Development of Experimental NASH and Are Critical in Initiating Liver Damage and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Reid, D T; Reyes, J L; McDonald, B A; Vo, T; Reimer, R A; Eksteen, B

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become the leading liver disease in North America and is associated with the progressive inflammatory liver disease non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Considerable effort has been made to understand the role of resident and recruited macrophage populations in NASH however numerous questions remain. Our goal was to characterize the dynamic changes in liver macrophages during the initiation of NASH in a murine model. Using the methionine-choline deficient diet we found that liver-resident macrophages, Kupffer cells were lost early in disease onset followed by a robust infiltration of Ly-6C+ monocyte-derived macrophages that retained a dynamic phenotype. Genetic profiling revealed distinct patterns of inflammatory gene expression between macrophage subsets. Only early depletion of liver macrophages using liposomal clodronate prevented the development of NASH in mice suggesting that Kupffer cells are critical for the orchestration of inflammation during experimental NASH. Increased understanding of these dynamics may allow us to target potentially harmful populations whilst promoting anti-inflammatory or restorative populations to ultimately guide the development of effective treatment strategies.

  17. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Structural Analyses Supporting the NESC Critical Initial Flaw Size Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. The structural analysis effort for the NESC assessment had three thrusts: shell buckling analyses, detailed stress analyses of the single-bolt joint test; and stress analyses of two-segment 10 degree-wedge models for the peak axial tensile running load. Elasto-plastic, large-deformation simulations were performed. Stress analysis results indicated that the stress levels were well below the material yield stress for the bounding axial tensile design load. This report also summarizes the analyses and results from parametric studies on modeling the shell-to-gusset weld, flange-surface mismatch, bolt preload, and washer-bearing-surface modeling. These analyses models were used to generate the stress levels specified for the fatigue crack growth assessment using the design load with a factor of safety.

  18. Kupffer Cells Undergo Fundamental Changes during the Development of Experimental NASH and Are Critical in Initiating Liver Damage and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Reid, D. T.; Reyes, J. L.; McDonald, B. A.; Vo, T.; Reimer, R. A.; Eksteen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become the leading liver disease in North America and is associated with the progressive inflammatory liver disease non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Considerable effort has been made to understand the role of resident and recruited macrophage populations in NASH however numerous questions remain. Our goal was to characterize the dynamic changes in liver macrophages during the initiation of NASH in a murine model. Using the methionine-choline deficient diet we found that liver-resident macrophages, Kupffer cells were lost early in disease onset followed by a robust infiltration of Ly-6C+ monocyte-derived macrophages that retained a dynamic phenotype. Genetic profiling revealed distinct patterns of inflammatory gene expression between macrophage subsets. Only early depletion of liver macrophages using liposomal clodronate prevented the development of NASH in mice suggesting that Kupffer cells are critical for the orchestration of inflammation during experimental NASH. Increased understanding of these dynamics may allow us to target potentially harmful populations whilst promoting anti-inflammatory or restorative populations to ultimately guide the development of effective treatment strategies. PMID:27454866

  19. The East African Training Initiative. A Model Training Program in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine for Low-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Charles B; Carter, E Jane; Braendli, Otto; Getaneh, Asqual; Schluger, Neil W

    2016-04-01

    Despite an extensive burden of lung disease in East Africa, there are remarkably few pulmonary physicians in the region and no pulmonary subspecialty training programs. We developed a unique training program for pulmonary medicine in Ethiopia. The East African Training Initiative (EATI) is a 2-year fellowship program at Tikur Anbessa (Black Lion) Specialized Teaching Hospital, the largest public hospital in Ethiopia and the teaching hospital for the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The first year is devoted to clinical care and procedural skills. Lectures, conferences, daily inpatient and outpatient rounds, and procedure supervision by visiting faculty provide the clinical knowledge foundation. In the second year, training in clinical research is added to ongoing clinical training. Before graduation, fellows must pass rigorous written and oral examinations and achieve high marks on faculty evaluations. Funding derives from several sources. Ethiopian trainees are paid by the Ethiopian Ministry of Health and the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The World Lung Foundation and the Swiss Lung Foundation supply travel and housing costs for visiting faculty, who receive no other stipend. The first two trainees graduated in January 2015, and a second class of three fellows completed training in January 2016. All five presented research abstracts at the annual meetings of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease in 2014 and 2015. The EATI has successfully provided pulmonary medicine training in Ethiopia and has capacity for local leadership. We believe that EATI could be a model for other resource-limited countries. PMID:26991950

  20. Variability in protein binding of teicoplanin and achievement of therapeutic drug monitoring targets in critically ill patients: lessons from the DALI Study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J A; Stove, V; De Waele, J J; Sipinkoski, B; McWhinney, B; Ungerer, J P J; Akova, M; Bassetti, M; Dimopoulos, G; Kaukonen, K-M; Koulenti, D; Martin, C; Montravers, P; Rello, J; Rhodes, A; Starr, T; Wallis, S C; Lipman, J

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the variability in protein binding of teicoplanin in critically ill patients as well as the number of patients achieving therapeutic target concentrations. This report is part of the multinational pharmacokinetic DALI Study. Patients were sampled on a single day, with blood samples taken both at the midpoint and the end of the dosing interval. Total and unbound teicoplanin concentrations were assayed using validated chromatographic methods. The lower therapeutic range of teicoplanin was defined as total trough concentrations from 10 to 20 mg/L and the higher range as 10-30 mg/L. Thirteen critically ill patients were available for analysis. The following are the median (interquartile range) total and free concentrations (mg/L): midpoint, total 13.6 (11.2-26.0) and free 1.5 (0.7-2.5); trough, total 11.9 (10.2-22.7) and free 1.8 (0.6-2.6). The percentage free teicoplanin for the mid-dose and trough time points was 6.9% (4.5-15.6%) and 8.2% (5.5-16.4%), respectively. The correlation between total and free antibiotic concentrations was moderate for both the midpoint (ρ = 0.79, P = 0.0021) and trough (ρ = 0.63, P = 0.027). Only 42% and 58% of patients were in the lower and higher therapeutic ranges, respectively. In conclusion, use of standard dosing for teicoplanin leads to inappropriate concentrations in a high proportion of critically ill patients. Variability in teicoplanin protein binding is very high, placing significant doubt on the validity of total concentrations for therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill patients. PMID:24630304

  1. Variability in protein binding of teicoplanin and achievement of therapeutic drug monitoring targets in critically ill patients: lessons from the DALI Study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J A; Stove, V; De Waele, J J; Sipinkoski, B; McWhinney, B; Ungerer, J P J; Akova, M; Bassetti, M; Dimopoulos, G; Kaukonen, K-M; Koulenti, D; Martin, C; Montravers, P; Rello, J; Rhodes, A; Starr, T; Wallis, S C; Lipman, J

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the variability in protein binding of teicoplanin in critically ill patients as well as the number of patients achieving therapeutic target concentrations. This report is part of the multinational pharmacokinetic DALI Study. Patients were sampled on a single day, with blood samples taken both at the midpoint and the end of the dosing interval. Total and unbound teicoplanin concentrations were assayed using validated chromatographic methods. The lower therapeutic range of teicoplanin was defined as total trough concentrations from 10 to 20 mg/L and the higher range as 10-30 mg/L. Thirteen critically ill patients were available for analysis. The following are the median (interquartile range) total and free concentrations (mg/L): midpoint, total 13.6 (11.2-26.0) and free 1.5 (0.7-2.5); trough, total 11.9 (10.2-22.7) and free 1.8 (0.6-2.6). The percentage free teicoplanin for the mid-dose and trough time points was 6.9% (4.5-15.6%) and 8.2% (5.5-16.4%), respectively. The correlation between total and free antibiotic concentrations was moderate for both the midpoint (ρ = 0.79, P = 0.0021) and trough (ρ = 0.63, P = 0.027). Only 42% and 58% of patients were in the lower and higher therapeutic ranges, respectively. In conclusion, use of standard dosing for teicoplanin leads to inappropriate concentrations in a high proportion of critically ill patients. Variability in teicoplanin protein binding is very high, placing significant doubt on the validity of total concentrations for therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill patients.

  2. Alternate Routes in Initial Teacher Education: A Critical Review of the Research and Policy Implications for Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kwok Chan; Grossman, David

    2008-01-01

    In this article Hong Kong's policy on initial teacher training is used as a case study of the interplay between international trends and local policy. Traditionally initial teacher preparation in most countries has been based in higher education institutions. In recent years alternative routes for initial teacher education have proliferated in the…

  3. "In the Middle of Difficulty Lies Opportunity"--Using a Case Study to Identify Critical Success Factors Contributing to the Initiation of International Collaborative Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that contribute to the successful initiation of international collaborative projects intended to support the development of education for librarianship and information sciences. It discusses the widespread failure to analyse the Critical Success Factors in international collaborative projects and proposes a case study…

  4. A Critical Analysis of Initial Teacher Education Policy in Australia and England: Past, Present and Possible Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasman, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of schooling and the teaching workforce are global issues. The author uses a futures methodology to reflect on the past and speculate on the future of initial teacher education policy. The first section looks back at initial teacher education over the last 10 years to clarify and critique the policy directions that are currently…

  5. System Critical Design Audit (CDA). Books 1, 2 and 3; [Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI Lewis Spacecraft Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) Lewis Spacecraft Program is evaluated. Spacecraft integration, test, launch, and spacecraft bus are discussed. Payloads and technology demonstrations are presented. Mission data management system and ground segment are also addressed.

  6. How a Small Family Run Business Adopted Critical Reflection Action Learning Using Hand Drawn Images to Initiate Organisational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In this account of practice I would like to share my experiences of facilitating a Critical Reflection Action Learning (CRAL) set with a small family run business, struggling to make change and expand their services due to the problems they encountered in separating their business lives from their family lives. The account I present here is based…

  7. Expert meeting on Child Growth and Micronutrient Deficiencies--New Initiatives for Developing Countries to Achieve Millennium Development Goals: executive summary report.

    PubMed

    Usfar, Avita A; Achadi, Endang L; Martorell, Reynaldo; Hadi, Hamam; Thaha, Razak; Jus'at, Idrus; Atmarita; Martianto, Drajat; Ridwan, Hardinsyah; Soekirman

    2009-01-01

    Undernutrition in early childhood has long-term physical and intellectual consequences. Improving child growth should start before the age of two years and be an integrated effort between all sectors, covering all aspects such as diet and nutrient intake, disease reduction, optimum child care, and improved environmental sanitation. To discuss these issues, the Indonesian Danone Institute Foundation organized an expert meeting on Child Growth and Micronutrient Deficiencies: New Initiatives for Developing Countries to Achieve Millennium Development Goals. The objective of the meeting was to have a retrospective view on child growth: lessons learned from programs to overcome under-nutrition in the developed countries and to relate the situation to the Indonesian context, as well as to discuss implications for future programs. Recommendations derived from the meeting include focus intervention on the window of opportunity group, re-activation of the Integrated Health Post at the village level, improvement of infant and young child feeding, expand food fortification intervention programs, strengthen supplementation programs with multi-micronutrient, and strengthening public and private partnership on food related programs.

  8. Influence of Spoken Language on the Initial Acquisition of Reading/Writing: Critical Analysis of Verbal Deficit Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos-Sanchez, Jose Luis; Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a quasi-experimental study of whether there exists a causal relationship between spoken language and the initial learning of reading/writing. The subjects were two matched samples each of 24 preschool pupils (boys and girls), controlling for certain relevant external variables. It was found that there was no…

  9. The impact of the Baby Friendly Health Initiative in the Australian health care system: a critical narrative review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Atchan, Marjorie; Davis, Deborah; Foureur, Maralyn

    2013-07-01

    Studies have identified that the practices of maternity facilities and health professionals are crucial to women's experience of support and breastfeeding 'success'. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched globally in 1991 to protect, promote and support breastfeeding. While a direct causal effect has not been established and critics suggest the rhetoric conflicts with women's lived experiences as new mothers, a positive association between the Initiative and breastfeeding prevalence is apparent. Internationally, impact studies have demonstrated that where the Initiative is well integrated, there is an increase in rates of breastfeeding initiation and, to a lesser extent, duration. In consideration of the known health risks associated with the use of artificial baby milks this would suggest that BFHI implementation and accreditation should be a desirable strategy for committed health facilities. However, a variation in both BFHI uptake and breastfeeding prevalence between nations has been reported. This narrative review critically discusses a variety of issues relevant to the uptake and support of breastfeeding and the BFHI, utilising Australia as a case study. Whilst it enjoys 'in principle' policy support, Australia also suffers from a lack of uniformity in uptake and perception of the benefits of BFHI at all levels of the health system. Australian and international studies have identified similar enablers and barriers to implementation. PMID:23957177

  10. The impact of the Baby Friendly Health Initiative in the Australian health care system: a critical narrative review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Atchan, Marjorie; Davis, Deborah; Foureur, Maralyn

    2013-07-01

    Studies have identified that the practices of maternity facilities and health professionals are crucial to women's experience of support and breastfeeding 'success'. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched globally in 1991 to protect, promote and support breastfeeding. While a direct causal effect has not been established and critics suggest the rhetoric conflicts with women's lived experiences as new mothers, a positive association between the Initiative and breastfeeding prevalence is apparent. Internationally, impact studies have demonstrated that where the Initiative is well integrated, there is an increase in rates of breastfeeding initiation and, to a lesser extent, duration. In consideration of the known health risks associated with the use of artificial baby milks this would suggest that BFHI implementation and accreditation should be a desirable strategy for committed health facilities. However, a variation in both BFHI uptake and breastfeeding prevalence between nations has been reported. This narrative review critically discusses a variety of issues relevant to the uptake and support of breastfeeding and the BFHI, utilising Australia as a case study. Whilst it enjoys 'in principle' policy support, Australia also suffers from a lack of uniformity in uptake and perception of the benefits of BFHI at all levels of the health system. Australian and international studies have identified similar enablers and barriers to implementation.

  11. The Effect of Inadequate Initial Empiric Antimicrobial Treatment on Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Bloodstream Infections: A Multi-Centre Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Savage, Rachel D; Fowler, Robert A; Rishu, Asgar H; Bagshaw, Sean M; Cook, Deborah; Dodek, Peter; Hall, Richard; Kumar, Anand; Lamontagne, François; Lauzier, François; Marshall, John; Martin, Claudio M; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Muscedere, John; Reynolds, Steven; Stelfox, Henry T; Daneman, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Hospital mortality rates are elevated in critically ill patients with bloodstream infections. Given that mortality may be even higher if appropriate treatment is delayed, we sought to determine the effect of inadequate initial empiric treatment on mortality in these patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted across 13 intensive care units in Canada. We defined inadequate initial empiric treatment as not receiving at least one dose of an antimicrobial to which the causative pathogen(s) was susceptible within one day of initial blood culture. We evaluated the association between inadequate initial treatment and hospital mortality using a random effects multivariable logistic regression model. Among 1,190 patients (1,097 had bacteremia and 93 had candidemia), 476 (40%) died and 266 (22%) received inadequate initial treatment. Candidemic patients more often had inadequate initial empiric therapy (64.5% versus 18.8%), as well as longer delays to final culture results (4 vs 3 days) and appropriate therapy (2 vs 0 days). After adjustment, there was no detectable association between inadequate initial treatment and mortality among bacteremic patients (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.02, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70-1.48); however, candidemic patients receiving inadequate treatment had nearly three times the odds of death (OR: 2.89, 95% CI: 1.05-7.99). Inadequate initial empiric antimicrobial treatment was not associated with increased mortality in bacteremic patients, but was an important risk factor in the subgroup of candidemic patients. Further research is warranted to improve early diagnostic and risk prediction methods in candidemic patients. PMID:27152615

  12. The Effect of Inadequate Initial Empiric Antimicrobial Treatment on Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Bloodstream Infections: A Multi-Centre Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Rachel D.; Fowler, Robert A.; Rishu, Asgar H.; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Cook, Deborah; Dodek, Peter; Hall, Richard; Kumar, Anand; Lamontagne, François; Lauzier, François; Marshall, John; Martin, Claudio M.; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Muscedere, John; Reynolds, Steven; Stelfox, Henry T.; Daneman, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Hospital mortality rates are elevated in critically ill patients with bloodstream infections. Given that mortality may be even higher if appropriate treatment is delayed, we sought to determine the effect of inadequate initial empiric treatment on mortality in these patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted across 13 intensive care units in Canada. We defined inadequate initial empiric treatment as not receiving at least one dose of an antimicrobial to which the causative pathogen(s) was susceptible within one day of initial blood culture. We evaluated the association between inadequate initial treatment and hospital mortality using a random effects multivariable logistic regression model. Among 1,190 patients (1,097 had bacteremia and 93 had candidemia), 476 (40%) died and 266 (22%) received inadequate initial treatment. Candidemic patients more often had inadequate initial empiric therapy (64.5% versus 18.8%), as well as longer delays to final culture results (4 vs 3 days) and appropriate therapy (2 vs 0 days). After adjustment, there was no detectable association between inadequate initial treatment and mortality among bacteremic patients (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.02, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70–1.48); however, candidemic patients receiving inadequate treatment had nearly three times the odds of death (OR: 2.89, 95% CI: 1.05–7.99). Inadequate initial empiric antimicrobial treatment was not associated with increased mortality in bacteremic patients, but was an important risk factor in the subgroup of candidemic patients. Further research is warranted to improve early diagnostic and risk prediction methods in candidemic patients. PMID:27152615

  13. The implementation of California's tobacco tax initiative: the critical role of outsider strategies in protecting Proposition 99.

    PubMed

    Balbach, E D; Traynor, M P; Glantz, S A

    2000-08-01

    Enacted in 1988, Proposition 99 increased California's cigarette tax by 25 cents per pack and allocated a minimum of 20 percent of the revenues to fund antitobacco education. Tobacco control advocates had used an initiative to secure the tax increase because the legislature had not increased the tobacco tax since 1967, even though public opinion polls showed that the tax was politically popular. Advocates, however, then had to return to the legislature to negotiate implementing legislation. Between 1989 and 1996, the legislature underfunded the Proposition 99 Health Education programs by over $273 million. This underfunding occurred because the public health groups failed to exercise power, ideas, and the leadership needed for legislative success. Even successful litigation against the governor failed to restore the programs. In July 1996, however, the underexpenditures stopped because the issue of the diversions received significant media and public attention. The tobacco control groups used a variety of outsider strategies, including paid advertising, free media, and a grassroots campaign, and the leadership of these groups, in addition to the lobbyists, got involved in the campaign to secure implementing legislation. Without ongoing public pressure, it is likely that policy changes created by tobacco tax initiatives will dissipate into something acceptable to powerful insider interests, such as the tobacco and medical service provider industries.

  14. Influence of operation factors on brittle fracture initiation and critical local normal stress in SE(B) type specimens of VVER reactor pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshova, E. A.; Erak, A. D.; Kiselev, A. S.; Bubyakin, S. A.; Bandura, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    A complex of mechanical tests and fractographic studies of VVER-1000 RPV SE(B) type surveillance specimens was carried out: the brittle fracture origins were revealed (non-metallic inclusions and structural boundaries) and the correlation between fracture toughness parameters (CTOD) and fracture surface parameters (CID) was established. A computational and experimental method of the critical local normal stress determination for different origin types was developed. The values of the critical local normal stress for the structural boundary origin type both for base and weld metal after thermal exposure and neutron irradiation are lower than that for initial state due to the lower cohesive strength of grain boundaries as a result of phosphorus segregation.

  15. Clinical and microbiological outcome in septic patients with extremely low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at initiation of critical care.

    PubMed

    De Pascale, G; Vallecoccia, M S; Schiattarella, A; Di Gravio, V; Cutuli, S L; Bello, G; Montini, L; Pennisi, M A; Spanu, T; Zuppi, C; Quraishi, S A; Antonelli, M

    2016-05-01

    A relationship between vitamin D status and mortality in patients in intensive care units (ICU) has been documented. The present study aims to describe the clinical profile and sepsis-related outcome of critically ill septic patients with extremely low (<7 ng/mL) vitamin D levels at ICU admission. We conducted an observational study in the ICU of a teaching hospital including all patients admitted with severe sepsis/septic shock and undergoing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) testing within the first 24 hours from admission. We studied 107 patients over 12 months. At ICU admission vitamin D deficiency (≤20 ng/mL) was observed in 93.5% of the patients: 57 (53.3%) showed levels <7 ng/mL. As primary outcome, sepsis-related mortality rate was higher in patients with vitamin D levels <7 ng/mL (50.9% versus 26%). Multivariate regression analysis showed that vitamin D concentration <7 ng/mL on ICU admission (p 0.01) and higher mean SAPS II (p <0.01) score were independent predictors of sepsis-related mortality. Patients with very low vitamin D levels suffered higher rate of microbiologically confirmed infections but a lower percentage of microbiological eradication with respect to patients whose values were >7 ng/mL (80.7% versus 58%, p 0.02; 35.3% versus 68%; p 0.03, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed that, in the extremely low vitamin D group, the 52 patients with pneumonia showed a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (9 days (3.75-12.5 days) versus 4 days (2-9 days), p 0.04) and the 66 with septic shock needed vasopressor support for a longer period of time (7 days (4-10 days) versus 4 days (2-7.25 days), p 0.02). Our results suggest that in critical septic patients extremely low vitamin D levels on admission may be a major determinant of clinical outcome. Benefits of vitamin D replacement therapy in this population should be elucidated. PMID:26721785

  16. Stat5 is critical for the development and maintenance of myeloproliferative neoplasm initiated by Nf1 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Zohar; Been, Raha A.; DeCoursin, Krista J.; Nguyen, Hanh T.; Mohd Hassan, Nurul A.; Noble-Orcutt, Klara E.; Eckfeldt, Craig E.; Pomeroy, Emily J.; Diaz-Flores, Ernesto; Geurts, Jennifer L.; Diers, Miechaleen D.; Hasz, Diane E.; Morgan, Kelly J.; MacMillan, Margaret L.; Shannon, Kevin M.; Largaespada, David A.; Wiesner, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by hyperactive RAS signaling. Neurofibromin1 (encoded by the NF1 gene) is a negative regulator of RAS activation. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 harbor loss-of-function mutations in NF1 and have a 200- to 500-fold increased risk of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Leukemia cells from patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia display hypersensitivity to certain cytokines, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor utilizes pre-associated JAK2 to initiate signals after ligand binding. JAK2 subsequently activates STAT5, among other downstream effectors. Although STAT5 is gaining recognition as an important mediator of growth factor signaling in myeloid leukemias, the contribution of STAT5 to the development of hyperactive RAS-initiated myeloproliferative disease has not been well described. In this study, we investigated the consequence of STAT5 attenuation via genetic and pharmacological approaches in Nf1-deficient murine models of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. We found that homozygous Stat5 deficiency extended the lifespan of Nf1-deficient mice and eliminated the development of myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with Nf1 gene loss. Likewise, we found that JAK inhibition with ruxolitinib attenuated myeloproliferative neoplasm in Nf1-deficient mice. Finally, we found that primary cells from a patient with KRAS-mutant juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia displayed reduced colony formation in response to JAK2 inhibition. Our findings establish a central role for STAT5 activation in the pathogenesis of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and suggest that targeting this pathway may be of clinical utility in these patients. PMID:27418650

  17. Critical Combinations of Radiation Dose and Volume Predict Intelligence Quotient and Academic Achievement Scores After Craniospinal Irradiation in Children With Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Schreiber, Jane E.; Wu, Shengjie; Lukose, Renin; Xiong, Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To prospectively follow children treated with craniospinal irradiation to determine critical combinations of radiation dose and volume that would predict for cognitive effects. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2003, 58 patients (median age 8.14 years, range 3.99-20.11 years) with medulloblastoma received risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation followed by dose-intense chemotherapy and were followed longitudinally with multiple cognitive evaluations (through 5 years after treatment) that included intelligence quotient (estimated intelligence quotient, full-scale, verbal, and performance) and academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) tests. Craniospinal irradiation consisted of 23.4 Gy for average-risk patients (nonmetastatic) and 36-39.6 Gy for high-risk patients (metastatic or residual disease >1.5 cm{sup 2}). The primary site was treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy using a 2-cm clinical target volume margin. The effect of clinical variables and radiation dose to different brain volumes were modeled to estimate cognitive scores after treatment. Results: A decline with time for all test scores was observed for the entire cohort. Sex, race, and cerebrospinal fluid shunt status had a significant impact on baseline scores. Age and mean radiation dose to specific brain volumes, including the temporal lobes and hippocampi, had a significant impact on longitudinal scores. Dichotomized dose distributions at 25 Gy, 35 Gy, 45 Gy, and 55 Gy were modeled to show the impact of the high-dose volume on longitudinal test scores. The 50% risk of a below-normal cognitive test score was calculated according to mean dose and dose intervals between 25 Gy and 55 Gy at 10-Gy increments according to brain volume and age. Conclusions: The ability to predict cognitive outcomes in children with medulloblastoma using dose-effects models for different brain subvolumes will improve treatment planning, guide intervention, and help

  18. Achieving high treatment success for multidrug-resistant TB in Africa: initiation and scale-up of MDR TB care in Ethiopia—an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meressa, Daniel; Hurtado, Rocío M; Andrews, Jason R; Diro, Ermias; Abato, Kassim; Daniel, Tewodros; Prasad, Paritosh; Prasad, Rebekah; Fekade, Bekele; Tedla, Yared; Yusuf, Hanan; Tadesse, Melaku; Tefera, Dawit; Ashenafi, Abraham; Desta, Girma; Aderaye, Getachew; Olson, Kristian; Thim, Sok; Goldfeld, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Background In Africa, fewer than half of patients receiving therapy for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) are successfully treated, with poor outcomes reported for HIV-coinfected patients. Methods A standardised second-line drug (SLD) regimen was used in a non-governmental organisation–Ministry of Health (NGO-MOH) collaborative community and hospital-based programme in Ethiopia that included intensive side effect monitoring, adherence strategies and nutritional supplementation. Clinical outcomes for patients with at least 24 months of follow-up were reviewed and predictors of treatment failure or death were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models. Results From February 2009 to December 2014, 1044 patients were initiated on SLD. 612 patients with confirmed or presumed MDR TB had ≥24 months of follow-up, 551 (90.0%) were confirmed and 61 (10.0%) were suspected MDR TB cases. 603 (98.5%) had prior TB treatment, 133 (21.7%) were HIV coinfected and median body mass index (BMI) was 16.6. Composite treatment success was 78.6% with 396 (64.7%) cured, 85 (13.9%) who completed treatment, 10 (1.6%) who failed, 85 (13.9%) who died and 36 (5.9%) who were lost to follow-up. HIV coinfection (adjusted HR (AHR): 2.60, p<0.001), BMI (AHR 0.88/kg/m2, p=0.006) and cor pulmonale (AHR 3.61, p=0.003) and confirmed MDR TB (AHR 0.50, p=0.026) were predictive of treatment failure or death. Conclusions We report from Ethiopia the highest MDR TB treatment success outcomes so far achieved in Africa, in a setting with severe resource constraints and patients with advanced disease. Intensive treatment of adverse effects, nutritional supplementation, adherence interventions and NGO-MOH collaboration were key strategies contributing to success. We argue these approaches should be routinely incorporated into programmes. PMID:26506854

  19. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neuron Migration: Initiation, Maintenance and Cessation as Critical Steps to Ensure Normal Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Wierman, Margaret E.; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Tobet, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    GnRH neurons follow a carefully orchestrated journey from their birth in the olfactory placode area. Initially, they migrate along with the vomeronasal nerve into the brain at the cribriform plate, then progress caudally to sites within the hypothalamus where they halt and send projections to the median eminence to activate pituitary gonadotropes. Many factors controlling this precise journey have been elucidated by the silencing or over expression of candidate genes in mouse models. Importantly, a number of these factors may not only play a role in normal physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis but also be mis-expressed to cause human disorders of GnRH deficiency, presenting as a failure to undergo normal pubertal development. This review outlines the current cadre of candidates thought to modulate GnRH neuronal migration. The further elucidation and characterization of these factors that impact GnRH neuron development may shed new light on human reproductive disorders and provide potential targets to develop new pro-fertility or contraceptive agents. PMID:20650288

  20. [Re]Conceptualizing Inclusion: Can Critical Race Theory and Interest Convergence Be Utilized to Achieve Inclusion and Equity for African American Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Shelley D.; Blanchett, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Even though not fully realized, in legislation and theory, the requirements of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act and the No Child Left Behind Act have created pressure to address the historical inequity in educational opportunity, achievement, and outcomes, as well as disparities in achievement between…

  1. An Analysis of the Relationship Between Critical Components of a Special Education Delivery System, Selected Community Demographic Variables and Student Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Martha L.

    To determine the relationship of characteristics of the consulting teacher model to measures of school achievement, special education for 1,628 children in 42 Vermont sites was examined through a stepwise multiple regression analysis of 17 variables descriptive of service, teaching, community, and school achievement. Service variables included…

  2. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  3. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  4. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  5. Teaching Practices and Student Achievement: Report of First-Year Findings from the 'Mosaic' Study of Systemic Initiatives in Mathematics and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen; Hamilton, Laura; McCaffrey, Daniel; Stecher, Brian; Robyn, Abby; Burroughs, Delia

    This book reports on the first wave of the Mosaic Project which investigates the effects of educational change and teaching practices in mathematics and science on student achievement. The Mosaic project was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and featured two waves. The states that participated in the first wave were State Systemic…

  6. Humor and College Adjustment: The Predictive Nature of Humor, Academic Achievement, Authoritative Parenting Styles on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…

  7. The Relative Effectiveness of the Initial Teaching Alphabet and Traditional Orthography on Reading, Spelling and Writing Achievement of First and Second Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carner, Rebecca L.

    This study determined the effectiveness of the Initial Teaching Alphabet and Traditional Orthography on first and second grade pupils of normal and superior intelligence. The experimental i.t.a. group contained 44 first graders and 37 second graders, and the control traditional orthography groups had 43 first graders and 48 second graders.…

  8. An Examination of the Perceptions of Educational Leaders on the Ensuring Literacy for All Initiative's Impact on Student Reading Achievement in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen-Dufour, Khanh Kim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to examine the experiences of Louisiana's Ensuring Literacy For All (ELFA) initiative from the perspective of educational administrators in order to identify: (a) the factors within ELFA that contributed to student reading performance; (b) the effects of the perceptions of ELFA…

  9. Achievements and Challenges: A Five-Year Report on the Status of the National Supported Employment Initiative. FY 1986-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul

    This report presents results from a fiscal year 1990 survey of supported employment funding and implementation in state vocational rehabilitation (VR) systems, and a 5-year longitudinal analysis of the national supported employment initiative. The report is based on a survey of representatives from the vocational service provider agencies from the…

  10. Monosegment ALPPS: A new variant of the techniques for rapid hepatic regeneration. Critical review of the initial results of our series.

    PubMed

    Montalvá Orón, Eva María; Maupoey Ibáñez, Javier; Bañuelos Carrillo, Rómulo; Boscà Robledo, Andrea; Orbis Castellanos, Juan Francisco; Moya Herraiz, Ángel; Ballester Vallés, Carmen; Pérez Rojas, Judith; Aparicio Urtasun, Jorge; López-Andújar, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is a novel surgical technique that provides fast and effective growth of liver remnant volume, allowing surgical resection of hepatic lesions initially considered unresectable. Short and long-term results and the convenience of carrying out this technique are issues that still remain under debate while waiting for the final outcomes of the multicenter registries with larger number of cases. The aim of this paper is to describe, from a critical point of view, the outcomes of the cases performed at our center (n=8). On the other hand, it is possible to leave only one hepatic segment as a liver remnant and we illustrate this new surgical procedure (ALPPS monosegment) performed in one patient.

  11. How African American, Middle Class Parents Learn and Enact a Racism Resistant Critical Race Achievement Ideology in Their Adolescents in Gifted and AP Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Tracey Simmons

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine African American, middle class parents' facilitation of an academic achievement ideology that is racism-resistant in their adolescent offspring in AP and Gifted Education classrooms. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how do African American, middle class parents come to acquire or…

  12. "Luchando y Logrando"/Struggling and Achieving: Resilience of Latina/o Math and Science Teacher Candidates at California Hispanic-Serving Institutions: A Critical Race Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Latin@ math and science students represent a resilient, determined, and encouraging group of high achievers. This qualitative study presents the narratives of 10 Latin@ science and math teacher candidates currently attending Hispanic-Serving Institutions in California. Semi structured, in-depth interviews were conducted, where participants shared…

  13. Interaction of PABPC1 with the translation initiation complex is critical to the NMD resistance of AUG-proximal nonsense mutations.

    PubMed

    Peixeiro, Isabel; Inácio, Ângela; Barbosa, Cristina; Silva, Ana Luísa; Liebhaber, Stephen A; Romão, Luísa

    2012-02-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a surveillance pathway that recognizes and rapidly degrades mRNAs containing premature termination codons (PTC). The strength of the NMD response appears to reflect multiple determinants on a target mRNA. We have previously reported that mRNAs containing PTCs in close proximity to the translation initiation codon (AUG-proximal PTCs) can substantially evade NMD. Here, we explore the mechanistic basis for this NMD resistance. We demonstrate that translation termination at an AUG-proximal PTC lacks the ribosome stalling that is evident in an NMD-sensitive PTC. This difference is associated with demonstrated interactions of the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein 1, PABPC1, with the cap-binding complex subunit, eIF4G and the 40S recruitment factor eIF3 as well as the ribosome release factor, eRF3. These interactions, in combination, underlie critical 3'-5' linkage of translation initiation with efficient termination at the AUG-proximal PTC and contribute to an NMD-resistant PTC definition at an early phase of translation elongation.

  14. Auxin responsiveness of the MONOPTEROS-BODENLOS module in primary root initiation critically depends on the nuclear import kinetics of the Aux/IAA inhibitor BODENLOS.

    PubMed

    Herud, Ole; Weijers, Dolf; Lau, Steffen; Jürgens, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Primary root formation in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is initiated with the specification of a single cell called hypophysis. This initial step requires the auxin-dependent release of the transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP, also known as ARF5) from its inhibition by the Aux/IAA protein BODENLOS (BDL, also known as IAA12). Auxin-insensitive bdl mutant embryos and mp loss-of-function embryos fail to specify the hypophysis, giving rise to rootless seedlings. A suppressor screen of rootless bdl mutant seedlings yielded a mutation in the nuclear import receptor IMPORTIN-ALPHA 6 (IMPα6) that promoted primary root formation through rescue of the embryonic hypophysis defects, without causing additional phenotypic changes. Aux/IAA proteins are continually synthesized and degraded, which is essential for rapid transcriptional responses to changing auxin concentrations. Nuclear translocation of bdl:3×GFP was slowed down in impα6 mutants as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which correlated with the reduced inhibition of MP by bdl in transient expression assays in impα6 knock-down protoplasts. The MP-BDL module acts like an auxin-triggered genetic switch because MP activates its own expression as well as the expression of its inhibitor BDL. Using an established simulation model, we determined that the reduced nuclear translocation rate of BDL in impα6 mutant embryos rendered the auxin-triggered switch unstable, impairing the fast response to changes in auxin concentration. Our results suggest that the instability of the inhibitor BDL necessitates a fast nuclear uptake in order to reach the critical threshold level required for auxin responsiveness of the MP-BDL module in primary root initiation.

  15. The benefit of consolidation radiotherapy to initial disease bulk in patients with advanced Hodgkin’s disease who achieved complete remission after standard chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bayoumi, Yasser; Al-Homaidi, Abdulaziz; Zaidi, Syed; Tailor, Imran; Motiabi, Ibrahiem; Alshehri, Nawal; Al-Ghazali, Assem; Almudaibigh, Samer

    2015-01-01

    Background/purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of consolidation radiotherapy (RT) in advanced-stage Hodgkin’s disease (HD) with initial bulky sites after radiological complete remission (CR) or partial response (PR) with positron emission tomography-negative (metabolic CR) following standard chemotherapy (ABVD [Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine]) six to eight cycles. Patients and methods Adult patients with advanced-stage HD treated at our institute during the period 2006 to 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. One hundred and ninety-two patients with initial bulky disease size (>7 cm) who attained radiological CR/PR and metabolic CR were included in the analysis. One hundred and thirteen patients who received radiotherapy (RT) as consolidation postchemotherapy (RT group) were compared to 79 patients who did not receive RT (non-RT group). Disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and were compared according to treatment group by the log-rank tests at P ≤0.05 significance level. Results The mean age of the cohort was 33 (range: 14 to 81) years. Eighty-four patients received involved-field radiation and 29 patients received involved-site RT. The RT group had worse prognostic factors compared to the non-RT group. Thirteen (12%) relapses occurred in the RT group, and 19 (24%) relapses occurred in the non-RT group. Nine patients (8%) in the RT group died, compared to eleven patients (14%) in the non-RT group. Second malignancies were seen in only five patients: three patients in the RT group compared to two patients in the non-RT group. At 5 years, overall DFS was 79%±9% and OS was 85%±9%. There was significant statistical difference between the RT group and the non-RT group regarding 5-year DFS: 86%±7% and 74%±9%, respectively (P ≤0.02). However, the 5-year OS was 90%±5% for the RT group and 83%±8% for the non-RT group, with no statistical difference (P ≤0

  16. Does integration of HIV and SRH services achieve economies of scale and scope in practice? A cost function analysis of the Integra Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Guinness, Lorna; Sweeney, Sedona; Initiative, Integra; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Policy-makers have long argued about the potential efficiency gains and cost savings from integrating HIV and sexual reproductive health (SRH) services, particularly in resource-constrained settings with generalised HIV epidemics. However, until now, little empirical evidence exists on whether the hypothesised efficiency gains associated with such integration can be achieved in practice. Methods We estimated a quadratic cost function using data obtained from 40 health facilities, over a 2-year-period, in Kenya and Swaziland. The quadratic specification enables us to determine the existence of economies of scale and scope. Findings The empirical results reveal that at the current output levels, only HIV counselling and testing services are characterised by service-specific economies of scale. However, no overall economies of scale exist as all outputs are increased. The results also indicate cost complementarities between cervical cancer screening and HIV care; post-natal care and HIV care and family planning and sexually transmitted infection treatment combinations only. Conclusions The results from this analysis reveal that contrary to expectation, efficiency gains from the integration of HIV and SRH services, if any, are likely to be modest. Efficiency gains are likely to be most achievable in settings that are currently delivering HIV and SRH services at a low scale with high levels of fixed costs. The presence of cost complementarities for only three service combinations implies that careful consideration of setting-specific clinical practices and the extent to which they can be combined should be made when deciding which services to integrate. Trial registration number NCT01694862. PMID:26438349

  17. Cell Size Critically Determines Initial Retention of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells in the Heart after Intracoronary Injection: Evidence from a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Niall G.; Kaneko, Masahiro; Shintani, Yasunori; Narita, Takuya; Sawhney, Vinit; Coppen, Steven R.; Yashiro, Kenta; Mathur, Anthony; Suzuki, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Intracoronary injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) is an emerging treatment for heart failure. Initial donor cell retention in the heart is the key to the success of this approach, but this process remains insufficiently characterized. Although it is assumed that cell size of injected cells may influence their initial retention, no scientific evidence has been reported. We developed a unique model utilizing an ex-vivo rat heart perfusion system, enabling quantitative assessment of retention of donor cells after intracoronary injection. The initial (5 minutes after intracoronary injection) retention rate of BMMNC was as low as approximately 20% irrespective of donor cell doses injected (1×106, 8×106, 4×107). Quantitative cell-size assessment revealed a positive relationship between the size of BMMNC and retention ratio; larger subpopulations of BMMNC were more preferentially retained compared to smaller ones. Furthermore, a larger cell type—bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (median size = 11.5μm versus 7.0μm for BMMNC)—had a markedly increased retention rate (77.5±1.8%). A positive relationship between the cell size and retention ratio was also seen in mesenchymal stromal cells. Flow-cytometric studies showed expression of cell-surface proteins, including integrins and selectin-ligands, was unchanged between pre-injection BMMNC and those exited from the heart, suggesting that biochemical interaction between donor cells and host coronary endothelium is not critical for BMMNC retention. Histological analyses showed that retained BMMNC and mesenchymal stromal cells were entrapped in the coronary vasculature and did not extravasate by 60 minutes after transplantation. Whilst BMMNC did not change coronary flow after intracoronary injection, mesenchymal stromal cells reduced it, suggesting coronary embolism, which was supported by the histological finding of intravascular cell-clump formation. These data indicate that cell

  18. Cell Size Critically Determines Initial Retention of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells in the Heart after Intracoronary Injection: Evidence from a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Niall G; Kaneko, Masahiro; Shintani, Yasunori; Narita, Takuya; Sawhney, Vinit; Coppen, Steven R; Yashiro, Kenta; Mathur, Anthony; Suzuki, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Intracoronary injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) is an emerging treatment for heart failure. Initial donor cell retention in the heart is the key to the success of this approach, but this process remains insufficiently characterized. Although it is assumed that cell size of injected cells may influence their initial retention, no scientific evidence has been reported. We developed a unique model utilizing an ex-vivo rat heart perfusion system, enabling quantitative assessment of retention of donor cells after intracoronary injection. The initial (5 minutes after intracoronary injection) retention rate of BMMNC was as low as approximately 20% irrespective of donor cell doses injected (1×106, 8×106, 4×107). Quantitative cell-size assessment revealed a positive relationship between the size of BMMNC and retention ratio; larger subpopulations of BMMNC were more preferentially retained compared to smaller ones. Furthermore, a larger cell type-bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (median size = 11.5μm versus 7.0μm for BMMNC)-had a markedly increased retention rate (77.5±1.8%). A positive relationship between the cell size and retention ratio was also seen in mesenchymal stromal cells. Flow-cytometric studies showed expression of cell-surface proteins, including integrins and selectin-ligands, was unchanged between pre-injection BMMNC and those exited from the heart, suggesting that biochemical interaction between donor cells and host coronary endothelium is not critical for BMMNC retention. Histological analyses showed that retained BMMNC and mesenchymal stromal cells were entrapped in the coronary vasculature and did not extravasate by 60 minutes after transplantation. Whilst BMMNC did not change coronary flow after intracoronary injection, mesenchymal stromal cells reduced it, suggesting coronary embolism, which was supported by the histological finding of intravascular cell-clump formation. These data indicate that cell-size dependent

  19. Upregulation of lactate dehydrogenase a by 14-3-3ζ leads to increased glycolysis critical for breast cancer initiation and progression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Zhang, Chenyu; Zhang, Qingling; Sahin, Ozgur; Wang, Hai; Xu, Jia; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Rehman, Sumaiyah K.; Li, Ping; Hung, Mien-Chie; Behbod, Fariba; Yu, Dihua

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Elevated glycolysis in cancer cells switches the cellular metabolic flux to produce more biological building blocks, thereby sustaining rapid proliferation. Recently, new evidence has emerged that metabolic dysregulation may occur at early-stages of neoplasia and critically contribute to cancer initiation. Here, our bioinformatics analysis of microarray data from early-stages breast neoplastic lesions revealed that 14-3-3ζ expression is strongly correlated with the expression of canonical glycolytic genes, particularly lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). Experimentally, increasing 14-3-3ζ expression in human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs) up-regulated LDHA expression, elevated glycolytic activity, and promoted early transformation. Knockdown of LDHA in the 14-3-3ζ-overexpressing hMECs significantly reduced glycolytic activity and inhibited transformation. Mechanistically, 14-3-3ζ overexpression activates the MEK-ERK-CREB axis, which subsequently up-regulates LDHA. In vivo, inhibiting the activated the MEK/ERK pathway in 14-3-3ζ-overexpressing hMEC-derived MCF10DCIS.COM lesions led to effective inhibition of tumor growth. Therefore, targeting the MEK/ERK pathway could be an effective strategy for intervention of 14-3-3ζ-overexpressing early breast lesions. Together, our data demonstrate that overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in early stage pre-cancerous breast epithelial cells may trigger an elevated glycolysis and transcriptionally up-regulating LDHA, thereby contributes to human breast cancer initiation. PMID:27150057

  20. Achievement of practical level critical current densities in Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes by conventional cold mechanical deformation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhaoshun; Togano, Kazumasa; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered iron-based superconductors are potential candidates for high-field magnet applications. However, the critical current densities (Jc) of iron-based superconducting wires remain far below the level needed for practical applications. Here, we show that the transport Jc of Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes is significantly enhanced by the combination process of cold flat rolling and uniaxial pressing. At 4.2 K, Jc exceeds the practical level of 105 A/cm2 in magnetic fields up to 6 T. The Jc-H curve shows extremely small magnetic field dependence and maintains a high value of 8.6 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T. These are the highest values reported so far for iron-based superconducting wires. Hardness measurements and microstructure investigations reveal that the superior Jc in our samples is due to the high core density, more textured grains, and a change in the microcrack structure. These results indicate that iron-based superconductors are very promising for high magnetic field applications. PMID:24513646

  1. Feedback stabilization initiative

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  2. The Mississippi Teacher Fellowship Program: A State-Based Initiative for the Recruitment and Retention of Teachers in Critical Shortage Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambless, J. R.; Sweeney, M. V.; Thompson, W. D.

    The 1998 Mississippi Legislature passed a bill which addressed the state's problem with critical teacher shortages. The Mississippi Teacher Fellowship Program (MTFP), which was developed in response to critical teacher shortages in certain school districts and in certain content areas, grew out of this legislation. The state-based initiative…

  3. A Critical Policy Analysis of Texas' "Closing the Gaps 2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Thackik, Stefani Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This critical policy analysis uses critical race theory to provide a counter narrative to the P-16 initiative in Texas known as "Closing the Gaps 2015". Findings indicate that while these reforms aim to increase educational access and achievement for people of color, they fall short of addressing systemic inequities such as enduring…

  4. A Critical Evaluation of the Department of Education and Science's Initiatives to Integrate ICT into the Republic of Ireland's Primary School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examines recent initiatives in the Irish Republic to integrate ICT into the primary school system. The study includes an analysis of the social, political and educational background to past initiatives, both government and teacher-led, to make more use of ICT in the general school system over the past 30 years. The government's…

  5. Initial use of one or two antibiotics for critically ill patients with community-acquired pneumonia: impact on survival and bacterial resistance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several guidelines recommend initial empirical treatment with two antibiotics instead of one to decrease mortality in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring intensive-care-unit (ICU) admission. We compared the impact on 60-day mortality of using one or two antibiotics. We also compared the rates of nosocomial pneumonia and multidrug-resistant bacteria. Methods This is an observational cohort study of 956 immunocompetent patients with CAP admitted to ICUs in France and entered into a prospective database between 1997 and 2010. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were excluded. Multivariate analysis adjusted for disease severity, gender, and co-morbidities was used to compare the impact on 60-day mortality of receiving adequate initial antibiotics and of receiving one versus two initial antibiotics. Results Initial adequate antibiotic therapy was significantly associated with better survival (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR), 0.63; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.42 to 0.94; P = 0.02); this effect was strongest in patients with Streptococcus pneumonia CAP (sHR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.005 to 0.46; p = 0.001) or septic shock (sHR: 0.62; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.00; p = 0.05). Dual therapy was associated with a higher frequency of initial adequate antibiotic therapy. However, no difference in 60-day mortality was found between monotherapy (β-lactam) and either of the two dual-therapy groups (β-lactam plus macrolide or fluoroquinolone). The rates of nosocomial pneumonia and multidrug-resistant bacteria were not significantly different across these three groups. Conclusions Initial adequate antibiotic therapy markedly decreased 60-day mortality. Dual therapy improved the likelihood of initial adequate therapy but did not predict decreased 60-day mortality. Dual therapy did not increase the risk of nosocomial pneumonia or multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:24200097

  6. Latino Educational Opportunity in Discourse and Policy: A Critical and Policy Discourse Analysis of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Susana

    2013-01-01

    This study interrogates how federal policy discursively shapes Latino educational opportunity and equity. The White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics (WHIEEH) represents the pre-eminent federal discourse on Latino educational opportunity, and sets the parameters by which institutions are able to be informed and respond to…

  7. Early Initiation of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1–Infected Newborns Can Achieve Sustained Virologic Suppression With Low Frequency of CD4+ T Cells Carrying HIV in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bitnun, Ari; Samson, Lindy; Chun, Tae-Wook; Kakkar, Fatima; Brophy, Jason; Murray, Danielle; Justement, Shawn; Soudeyns, Hugo; Ostrowski, Mario; Mujib, Shariq; Harrigan, P. Richard; Kim, John; Sandstrom, Paul; Read, Stanley E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. A human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected infant started on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at 30 hours of life was recently reported to have no detectable plasma viremia after discontinuing cART. The current study investigated the impact of early cART initiation on measures of HIV-1 reservoir size in HIV-1–infected children with sustained virologic suppression. Methods. Children born to HIV-1–infected mothers and started on cART within 72 hours of birth at 3 Canadian centers were assessed. HIV serology, HIV-1–specific cell-mediated immune responses, plasma viremia, cell-associated HIV-1 DNA and RNA, presence of replication-competent HIV-1, and HLA genotype were determined for HIV-1–infected children with sustained virologic suppression. Results. Of 136 cART-treated children, 12 were vertically infected (8.8%). In the 4 who achieved sustained virologic suppression, HIV serology, HIV-1–specific cell-mediated immune responses (Gag, Nef), and ultrasensitive viral load were negative. HIV-1 DNA was not detected in enriched CD4+ T cells of the 4 children (<2.6 copies/106 CD4+ T cells), whereas HIV-1 RNA was detected (19.5–130 copies/1.5 µg RNA). No virion-associated HIV-1 RNA was detected following mitogenic stimulation of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells (5.4–8.0 million CD4+ T cells) in these 4 children, but replication competent virus was detected by quantitative co-culture involving a higher number of cells in 1 of 2 children tested (0.1 infectious units/106 CD4+ T cells). Conclusions. In perinatally HIV-1–infected newborns, initiation of cART within 72 hours of birth may significantly reduce the size of the HIV-1 reservoirs. Cessation of cART may be necessary to determine whether functional HIV cure can be achieved in such children. PMID:24917662

  8. Therapeutic implications of new insights into the critical role of VP16 in initiating the earliest stages of HSV reactivation from latency

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Richard L; Sawtell, Nancy M

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a leading cause of fatal encephalitis in the USA and recurrent herpetic keratitis is a major infectious cause of blindness. There is no effective vaccine and no cure for HSV latency. While current antiviral drugs reduce viral replication, none prevent the initiation of reactivation in the nervous system and, thus, chronic inflammatory damage proceeds. The discovery that HSV VP16 is necessary for the exit from latency represents the first potential target for preventing the chronic inflammatory insult associated with HSV reactivation. Blocking VP16 transactivation would reduce the spread of the virus in the population and, importantly, presumably reduce or prevent the pathological long term chronic inflammation in the nervous system. PMID:21426158

  9. A critical assessment of marine aquarist biodiversity data and commercial aquaculture: identifying gaps in culture initiatives to inform local fisheries managers.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joanna M; Watson, Gordon J

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey) and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives) in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture) for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry "greenwashing" from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns, and, ultimately

  10. A Critical Assessment of Marine Aquarist Biodiversity Data and Commercial Aquaculture: Identifying Gaps in Culture Initiatives to Inform Local Fisheries Managers

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joanna M.; Watson, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey) and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives) in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture) for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry “greenwashing” from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns, and, ultimately

  11. Transforming schools of social work into spaces of social action: a critical exploration of Project Interaction, The Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Two-Spirit Initiative of McGill University's School of Social Work.

    PubMed

    Chervin, Michael; Brotman, Shari; Ryan, Bill; Mullin, Heather

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the question of how universities can be encouraged to address the mental health concerns of GLBT-SQ people and communities from a perspective of solidarity. In so doing, the authors take a case study approach, using Project Interaction: The Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Two-Spirit Initiative of McGill University's School of Social Work, to critically reflect upon the challenges arising from the development of an alternative organization within academia. The purpose of this reflection is to highlight how normal operations at work on university campuses, and within health and allied health curriculum, can be disrupted with the goal of providing momentum for the creation of affirmative space, the advancement of educational initiatives, and the building of opportunities for social change. PMID:15868839

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron migration: initiation, maintenance and cessation as critical steps to ensure normal reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Wierman, Margaret E; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Tobet, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    GnRH neurons follow a carefully orchestrated journey from their birth in the olfactory placode area. Initially, they migrate along with the vomeronasal nerve into the brain at the cribriform plate, then progress caudally to sites within the hypothalamus where they halt and send projections to the median eminence to activate pituitary gonadotropes. Many factors controlling this precise journey have been elucidated by the silencing or over-expression of candidate genes in mouse models. Importantly, a number of these factors may not only play a role in normal physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis but also be mis-expressed to cause human disorders of GnRH deficiency, presenting as a failure to undergo normal pubertal development. This review outlines the current cadre of candidates thought to modulate GnRH neuronal migration. The further elucidation and characterization of these factors that impact GnRH neuron development may shed new light on human reproductive disorders and provide potential targets to develop new pro-fertility or contraceptive agents.

  13. Critical Approaches to Critical Pedagogy in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grollios, George; Liambas, Anastassios

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an initial review of the presentations and uses of critical pedagogy in Greek educational literature since the mid-1980s. These have appeared in the form of three books and an edited volume (translated in Greek), all written by American critical educators, as well as in texts produced by Greek educators who have either written the…

  14. The pool of preactivated Lck in the initiation of T-cell signaling: a critical re-evaluation of the Lck standby model.

    PubMed

    Ballek, Ondřej; Valečka, Jan; Manning, Jasper; Filipp, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The initiation of T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling, based on the cobinding of TCR and CD4-Lck heterodimer to a peptide-major histocompatibility complex II on antigen presenting cells, represents a classical model of T-cell signaling. What is less clear however, is the mechanism which translates TCR engagement to the phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs on CD3 chains and how this event is coupled to the delivery of Lck function. Recently proposed 'standby model of Lck' posits that resting T-cells contain an abundant pool of constitutively active Lck (pY394(Lck)) required for TCR triggering, and this amount, upon TCR engagement, remains constant. Here, we show that although maintenance of the limited pool of pY394(Lck) is necessary for the generation of TCR proximal signals in a time-restricted fashion, the total amount of this pool, ~2%, is much smaller than previously reported (~40%). We provide evidence that this dramatic discrepancy in the content of pY394(Lck)is likely the consequence of spontaneous phosphorylation of Lck that occurred after cell solubilization. Additional discrepancies can be accounted for by the sensitivity of different pY394(Lck)-specific antibodies and the type of detergents used. These data suggest that reagents and conditions used for the quantification of signaling parameters must be carefully validated and interpreted. Thus, the limited size of pY394(Lck) pool in primary T-cells invites a discussion regarding the adjustment of the quantitative parameters of the standby model of Lck and reevaluation of the mechanism by which this pool contributes to the generation of proximal TCR signaling.

  15. The effect of O2 and CO2 on the dive behavior and heart rate of lesser scaup ducks (Aythya affinis): quantification of the critical PaO2 that initiates a diving bradycardia.

    PubMed

    Borg, Kim A; Milsom, William K; Jones, David R

    2004-12-15

    Lesser scaup ducks were trained to dive for short and long durations following exposure to various gas concentrations to determine the influence of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) on diving behavior and heart rate. Compared with normoxia, hyperoxia (50% O2) significantly increased the duration of long dives, whereas severe hypoxia (9% O2) significantly decreased the duration of both short and long dives. Hypercapnia (5% CO2) had no effect on dive duration. Surface intervals were not significantly altered by the oxygen treatments, but significantly increased following CO2 exposure. Heart rate during diving was unaffected by hyperoxia and hypercapnia, but gradually declined in long dives after severe hypoxia. Thus, our results suggest that during the majority of dives, O2 and CO2 levels in lesser scaup ducks are managed through changes in diving behavior without any major cardiovascular adjustments, but below a threshold PaO2, a bradycardia is evoked to conserve the remaining oxygen for hypoxia sensitive tissues. A model of oxygen store utilization during voluntary diving was developed to estimate the critical PaO2 below which bradycardia is initiated (approximately 26 mmHg) and predicted that this critical PaO2 would be reached 19s into a dive after exposure to severe hypoxia, which corresponded exactly with the time of initiation of bradycardia in the severe hypoxia trials. PMID:15556108

  16. Towards coherent control of energetic material initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, Margo T; Mcgrane, Shawn D; Scharff, R Jason; Moore, David S

    2009-01-01

    Direct optical initiation (DOI) of energetic materials using coherent control of localized energy deposition requires depositing energy into the material to produce a critical size hot spot, which allows propagation of the reaction and thereby initiation, The hot spot characteristics needed for growth to initiation can be studied using quantum controlled initiation (QCI). Achieving direct quantum controlled initiation (QCI) in condensed phase systems requires optimally shaped ultrafast laser pulses to coherently guide the energy flow along the desired paths. As a test of our quantum control capabilities we have successfully demonstrated our ability to control the reaction pathway of the chemical system stilbene. An acousto-optical modulator based pulse shaper was used at 266 nm, in a shaped pump/supercontinuum probe technique, to enhance and suppress th relative yields of the cis- to trans-stilbene isomerization. The quantum control techniques tested in the stilbene experiments are currently being used to investigate QCI of the explosive hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB).

  17. Using School-Level Student Achievement to Engage in Formative Evaluation: Comparative School-Level Rates of Oral Reading Fluency Growth Conditioned by Initial Skill for Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kelli D.; Stoolmiller, Michael L.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source,…

  18. Strategic Initiatives and Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD.

    This document outlines Howard Community College's (HCC) six strategic initiatives and goals. Each of the strategic initiatives is presented, along with a context for the statement and a list of goals to be achieved in support of the overall initiative. First, HCC will be a learning community that provides possibilities for learning that address…

  19. An Analysis of the Relationships between South Carolina Department of Education Annual School Report Card Variables of Public Elementary Schools and Student Achievement as Measured by 2008 PACT Data: With an Initial Emphasis on School Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minolfo, Salvatore Andrew

    2010-01-01

    One purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the size of South Carolina PreKindergarten-5 or Kindergarten-5 public elementary schools and student achievement while controlling for the effect of socioeconomic status. The independent variable school size, or 135-day average daily membership, the dependent variable…

  20. Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of Youth at Risk Following a Pre-Eighth-Grade Summer Academic Enrichment Program and Participation in a School-Wide, School Year Long, Ownership, Mastery, and Grading Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alati, David K.

    2011-01-01

    No significant differences in beginning eighth-grade pretest compared to ending eighth-grade posttest California Achievement Test Normal Curve Equivalent Scores were found for youth at risk who completed a pre-eighth-grade summer academic enrichment program where comparisons for reading vocabulary t(19) = 0.46, p = 0.33 (one-tailed), d = 0.107,…

  1. The Star with My Name: The Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative and the Impact of Place-Based Education on Native Student Achievement. The Case for Place-Based. Rural Trust White Paper on Place-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emekauwa, Emeka

    2004-01-01

    After nearly two centuries of denial within Western education institutions, the indigenous knowledge systems of Alaska's Natives are being recaptured through the work of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative. These knowledge systems, coupled with the best of Western science, form the foundation for a new type of education--one that is place-based,…

  2. A critical role for heat shock transcription factor in establishing a nucleosome-free region over the TATA-initiation site of the yeast HSP82 heat shock gene.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, D S; Adams, C C; Lee, S; Stentz, B

    1993-01-01

    Heat shock genes are poised for rapid transcriptional activation in response to environmental stress. A universal structural characteristic of such genes is the presence of a nucleosome-free, DNase I hypersensitive promoter region. Here we investigate the structural and functional effects of mutating HSE1, the preferred heat shock factor (HSF) binding site upstream of the yeast HSP82 gene. In situ deletion or substitution of this sequence reduces both basal and induced transcription by at least two orders of magnitude. Moreover, such mutations lead to a dramatic transition in chromatin structure: the DNase I hypersensitive region is replaced by two stable, sequence-positioned nucleosomes. One of these is centered over the mutated heat shock element, while the other--as revealed by DNase I genomic footprinting--is precisely positioned in a rotational sense over the TATA-initiation site. Overexpression of yeast HSF strongly suppresses the null phenotype of the induced hsp82-delta HSE1 gene and re-establishes DNase I hypersensitivity over its promoter. Such suppression is mediated through sequence disposed immediately upstream of HSE1 and containing two low affinity heat shock elements. These data imply a critical role for HSF in displacing stably positioned nucleosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and suggest that HSF transcriptionally activates HSP82 at least partly through its ability to alleviate nucleosome repression of the core promoter. Images PMID:8404861

  3. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  4. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  5. Tailoring mass drug administration to context: implementation research is critical in achieving equitable progress in the control and elimination of helminth neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Dean, Laura; Page, Samantha; Hawkins, Kate; Stothard, Russell; Thomson, Rachael; Wanji, Samuel; Gyapong, Margaret; Anagbogu, Ifeoma; Molyneux, David; Theobald, Sally

    2016-07-01

    The concept of a technological quick fix or 'magic-bullet' for control and elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) is flawed. NTDs are embedded within complex biological and social systems that are shaped by ecological and political contexts. This commentary emphasises the need for implementation research to address implementation gaps in the control of NTDs. With a specific focus on sub-Saharan Africa and helminth diseases amenable to preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration, we explore the important role of context, programme partnerships and community in achieving equitable and effective NTD control. PMID:27481833

  6. Critical assumptions: thinking critically about critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Thelma

    2007-03-01

    The concept of critical thinking has been featured in nursing literature for the past 20 years. It has been described but not defined by both the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and the National League for Nursing, although their corresponding accreditation bodies require that critical thinking be included in nursing curricula. In addition, there is no reliable or valid measurement tool for critical thinking ability in nursing. As a result, there is a lack of research support for the assumptions that critical thinking can be learned and that critical thinking ability improves clinical competence. Brookfield suggested that commitments should be made only after a period of critically reflective analysis, during which the congruence between perceptions and reality are examined. In an evidence-based practice profession, we, as nurse educators, need to ask ourselves how we can defend our assumptions that critical thinking can be learned and that critical thinking improves the quality of nursing practice, especially when there is virtually no consensus on a definition.

  7. Global land-cover and land-use change of the last 6000 years for climate modelling studies: the PAGES LandCover6k initiative and its first achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Morrison, Kathleen; Madella, Marco; Whitehouse, Nicki J.; Pages Landcover6k Sub-Coordinators

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the PAGES LandCover6k initiative is to provide relevant, empirical data on past anthropogenic land-cover change (land-use change) to climate modellers (e.g. the CMIP5 initiative). Land-use change is one of many climate forcings and its effect on climate is still badly understood. Among the effects of land-cover change on climate, the best known are the biogeochemical effects, and in particular the influence on the exchange of CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere. The biogeophysical effects are less well understood, i.e. the net effect of changes in the albedo and evapotranspiration is complex. Moreover, the net effect of both biogeochemical and biogeophysical processes due to land-use change is still a matter of debate. The LandCover6k working group infers land-use data from fossil pollen records from lake sediments and peat deposits, and from historical archives and archaeological records (including pollen and other palaeoecological records such as wood and plant micro/macroremains). The working group is divided into two activities, i) pollen-based reconstructions of past land cover using pollen-vegetation modelling approaches, and mapping of pollen-based land-cover change using spatial statistics (e.g. Trondman et al., 2015; Pirzimanbein et al., 2014), and ii) upscaling and summarizing historical and archaeological data into maps of major land-use categories linked to quantitative attributes. Studies on pollen productivity of major plant taxa are an essential part of activity i). Pollen productivity estimates are available for a large number of the northern hemisphere, major plant taxa, but are still missing for large parts of the tropics for which research is currently in progress. The results of both activities are then used to revise existing Anthropogenic Land-Cover Change (ALCC) scenarios, the HYDE database (Klein-Goldewijk et al.,) and KK (Kaplan et al.,). Climate modellers (e.g. the CMIP5 initiative) can use the LandCover6k products

  8. Critical Care

    MedlinePlus

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  9. Archetypal Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesebro, James W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Argues that archetypal criticism is a useful way of examining universal, historical, and cross-cultural symbols in classrooms. Identifies essential features of an archetype; outlines operational and critical procedures; illustrates archetypal criticism as applied to the cross as a symbol; and provides a synoptic placement for archetypal criticism…

  10. Short neuropeptide F (sNPF) is a stage-specific suppressor for juvenile hormone biosynthesis by corpora allata, and a critical factor for the initiation of insect metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yu; Hiruma, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-15

    Molting and metamorphosis are essential events for arthropod development, and juvenile hormone (JH) and its precursors play critical roles for these events. We examined the regulation of JH biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) in Bombyx mori, and found that intact brain-corpora cardiaca (CC)-CA complexes produced a smaller amount of JH than that in CC-CA complexes and CA alone throughout the 4th and 5th (last) instar stadium. The smaller amount of synthesis was due to allatostatin-C (AST-C) produced by the brain. The CC synthesized short neuropeptide F (sNPF) that also suppressed the JH synthesis, but only in day 3 4th stadium and after the last larval ecdysis. For the suppression, both peptides prevented the expression of some of the distinct JH biosynthetic enzymes in the mevalonate pathway. Allatotropin (AT) stimulated sNPF expression in the CC of day 1 5th instar stadium, not of day 3 4th; therefore the stage-specific inhibition of JH synthesis by sNPF was partly due to the stimulative action of AT on the sNPF expression besides the stage-specific expression of the sNPF receptors in the CA, the level of which was high in day 2 4th and day 0 5th instar larvae. The cessation of JH biosynthesis in the last instar larvae is a key event to initiate pupal metamorphosis, and both sNPF and AST-C are key factors in shutting down JH synthesis, along with the decline of ecdysone titer and dopamine.

  11. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  12. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  13. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  14. Focusing educational initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The United States will soon be facing a critical shortage of aerospace scientists and engineers. To address this problem, Space Grant Colleges can assist in focusing interest in existing educational initiatives and in creating new educational opportunities, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities.

  15. Preparing Educational Leaders to Close Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joseph F., Jr.; Uline, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    For more than 25 years, researchers have described the critical roles leaders play in creating effective schools and school districts. If U.S. schools are to close achievement gaps, their leaders must possess the appropriate knowledge, dispositions, and skills to assume these critical roles. The Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium…

  16. Criticality Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  17. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the Breckinridge Project and summarizes the results achieved during the development phase of the project performed under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy. The Breckinridge Project provides for the design, construction and operation of a 50,000 barrel per day coal liquefaction facility in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. The development of the basic technology used in the Breckinridge Project dates back to the late 1950's and the invention by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., (HRI) of the ebullated-bed reactor and the H-OIL process. The H-COAL process is based on the H-OIL technology. This coal liquefaction process produces clean low-sulfur petroleum substitutes suitable for most types of hydrocarbon-based fuel and chemical uses regardless of the sulfur content of the coal. A large H-COAL Pilot Plant in operation at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, is converting 220 tons of coal per day into 600 barrels of distillate products by catalytic hydrogenation. The estimated capital cost of the commercial facility is $3.17 billion, and the associated out-of-pocket operating cost is $18 per barrel, both in January 1981 dollars. Financial analysis shows the project to be an attractive investment under certain leveraged conditions which are possible through the assistance of the Synthetic Fuels Corporation. Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. is currently working with the Synthetic Fuels Corporation and potential partners to develop financing for the commercial venture. Critical permits are being obtained and an Environmental Impact Statement is being prepared pursuant to initiating site preparation in early 1983. Commercial operations are expected to start up in early 1988.

  18. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  19. Critical Muralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  20. Research Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides detailed information about currently funded RFA initiatives both led by DCCPS, and those led by other NIH Institutes and Centers (I/Cs) that include DCCPS as a partner. Each initiative includes a table of funded grants and a map that shows the location of funded institutions.

  1. Computational Biology: A Strategic Initiative LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    Barksy, D; Colvin, M

    2002-02-07

    The goal of this Strategic Initiative LDRD project was to establish at LLNL a new core capability in computational biology, combining laboratory strengths in high performance computing, molecular biology, and computational chemistry and physics. As described in this report, this project has been very successful in achieving this goal. This success is demonstrated by the large number of referred publications, invited talks, and follow-on research grants that have resulted from this project. Additionally, this project has helped build connections to internal and external collaborators and funding agencies that will be critical to the long-term vitality of LLNL programs in computational biology. Most importantly, this project has helped establish on-going research groups in the Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, the Physics and Applied Technology Directorate, and the Computation Directorate. These groups include three laboratory staff members originally hired as post-doctoral researchers for this strategic initiative.

  2. Taking Initiative on Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gere, Anne Ruggles

    2010-01-01

    A strong schoolwide writing program supports learning across disciplines and provides a focus for collaboration and professional development for all teachers. The elements for schoolwide writing initiatives include: (1) Setting schoolwide goals for student achievement in writing; (2) Developing and implementing action steps that address both…

  3. The critics return to flight.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas D

    2005-08-01

    A former astronaut justifies human space exploration and provides a rebuttal to criticism of continued exploration. The discussion includes examples of skeptics' arguments and examples of NASA achievements that have had direct economic and social impacts on the United States.

  4. Critics and Criticism of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1977-01-01

    Radical educational critics, such as Edgar Friedenberg, Paul Goodman, A. S. Neill, John Holt, Jonathan Kozol, Herbert Kohl, James Herndon, and Ivan Illich, have few constructive goals, no strategy for broad change, and a disdain for modernization and compromise. Additionally, these critics, says the author, fail to consider social factors related…

  5. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  6. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  7. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  8. Civil space technology initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a major, focused, space technology program of the Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology (OAET) of NASA. The program was initiated to advance technology beyond basic research in order to expand and enhance system and vehicle capabilities for near-term missions. CSTI takes critical technologies to the point at which a user can confidently incorporate the new or expanded capabilities into relatively near-term, high-priority NASA missions. In particular, the CSTI program emphasizes technologies necessary for reliable and efficient access to and operation in Earth orbit as well as for support of scientific missions from Earth orbit.

  9. Critical Issues Facing School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Styron, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further extend research initially conducted in 2003 pertaining to the critical issues K-12 principals address on a daily basis. The study involved surveying school principals within the state of Mississippi to discover the critical issues they identified, the significance level of these issues, and the rationale…

  10. Reading Achievement in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Kathleen W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in elementary reading comprehension achievement existed as a result of statewide implementation of the Alabama Reading Initiative post No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Research supports the premise that targeted instruction in reading comprehension yields increases in reading achievement for…

  11. Achieving scale strategies for sustained competitive performance.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mark E; Gish, Ryan S; Tkach, Sasha N

    2008-05-01

    Growth to achieve scale requires the following strategic initiatives: Having a clear understanding of what the organization is and what it wants to become. Ensuring a structured and rigorous growth process. Leveraging size to achieve benefits of scale. Recognizing the importance of physicians, ambulatory care, and primary care. Establishing and maintaining accountability as growth occurs.

  12. Staying Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wilfred; Kemmis, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the two authors of "Becoming Critical: education, knowledge and action research" look back at the book's history since its publication 20 years ago. We describe how the book was originally written, and the diverse responses and reactions that it has produced. We identify some of the book's inadequacies and limitations, and…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  11. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  12. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  13. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  14. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  15. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  16. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  17. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  18. Environmental initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.C. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    J I Case, a leading worldwide maker of agricultural and construction equipment based in Racine, Wisconsin, is taking an aggressive and responsible approach to environmental issues. From integrated solid waste handling plans and Freon recovery initiatives, to special employee training programs and voluntary participation in the EPA's Industrial Toxics Program, Case is addressing environmental issues at its facilities and in its products. One of the key environmental initiatives at Case is the company's voluntary participation in the US EPA's Industrial Toxics Program, also known as the 33/50 Program. This program is an EPA pollution prevention initiative started in 1990 that is designed to reduce industrial toxics generation quickly through voluntary actions by industry. The program derives its name from the EPA's national reduction goals for 17 high priority toxic pollutants - 33 percent reduction by 1992 and 50 percent by 1995. As a result, the Pryor Foundry has slashed its emissions of industrial toxic pollutants by 98 percent, from over 350,000 pounds (159 metric tons) in 1988 to around 5,000 pounds (2.27 metric tons) in 1991, with a projected reduction to only 750 pounds (340 kilograms) by 1995.

  19. Critical Information at Critical Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierman, Ben; Thrower, Raymond H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    On a daily basis, administrators are reminded of the potential, perhaps the likelihood, of violence or natural crises on their campuses. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and point to recommendations and best practices for planning, preparing, responding to, and recovering from critical incidents. The International Association of Campus…

  20. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    PubMed Central

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization. PMID:25999899

  1. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect.

    PubMed

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.

  2. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  3. Horizon as critical phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Sik

    2016-09-01

    We show that renormalization group flow can be viewed as a gradual wave function collapse, where a quantum state associated with the action of field theory evolves toward a final state that describes an IR fixed point. The process of collapse is described by the radial evolution in the dual holographic theory. If the theory is in the same phase as the assumed IR fixed point, the initial state is smoothly projected to the final state. If in a different phase, the initial state undergoes a phase transition which in turn gives rise to a horizon in the bulk geometry. We demonstrate the connection between critical behavior and horizon in an example, by deriving the bulk metrics that emerge in various phases of the U( N ) vector model in the large N limit based on the holographic dual constructed from quantum renormalization group. The gapped phase exhibits a geometry that smoothly ends at a finite proper distance in the radial direction. The geometric distance in the radial direction measures a complexity: the depth of renormalization group transformation that is needed to project the generally entangled UV state to a direct product state in the IR. For gapless states, entanglement persistently spreads out to larger length scales, and the initial state can not be projected to the direct product state. The obstruction to smooth projection at charge neutral point manifests itself as the long throat in the anti-de Sitter space. The Poincare horizon at infinity marks the critical point which exhibits a divergent length scale in the spread of entanglement. For the gapless states with non-zero chemical potential, the bulk space becomes the Lifshitz geometry with the dynamical critical exponent two. The identification of horizon as critical point may provide an explanation for the universality of horizon. We also discuss the structure of the bulk tensor network that emerges from the quantum renormalization group.

  4. Dynamic pay initiatives.

    PubMed

    Pagoaga, J; Williams, J B

    1993-09-01

    In the battle to manage change and deal successfully with health care reform, hospitals are looking to innovative methods to optimize compensation for their executives. Results of the 1993 Hay Hospital Compensation Survey indicate clearly that the pressures of managed care and the uncertainty--but inevitability--of reform are forcing organizations to use new tools and strategies for achieving productivity and quality goals. Another interesting survey finding: Two positions critical to the success of integrated health care systems--the head of medical affairs and the head of managed care--show significant compensation growth during the past two years. PMID:8353561

  5. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  6. The Relationship between Resources and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.

    This paper evaluates whether or not there is a direct academic-achievement benefit from additional expenditures on education in the United States. Numerous critics have said that education is already overfunded and that it can never be funded enough to make any appreciable difference. Berliner's study of 900 school districts in Texas in the 1993…

  7. Review of "Our Immense Achievement Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This report misrepresents and then criticizes recommendations from the Minnesota Department of Education, a think tank and two independent study groups, each of which recently encouraged particular voluntary efforts to reduce concentrated poverty and achieve racial and socioeconomic integration in schools and housing in Minnesota. In building its…

  8. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  9. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  10. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  11. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  12. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  13. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  14. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  15. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  16. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  17. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  18. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  19. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  20. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  1. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  2. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  3. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  4. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  5. Critical care in India.

    PubMed

    Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D

    1997-04-01

    India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

  6. Beam shaping for laser initiated optical primers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2008-08-01

    Remington was one of the first firearm manufacturing companies to file a patent for laser initiated firearms, in 1969. Nearly 40 years later, the development of laser initiated firearms has not become a mainstream technology in the civilian market. Requiring a battery is definitely a short coming, so it is easy to see how such a concept would be problematic. Having a firearm operate reliably and the delivery of laser energy in an efficient manner to ignite the shock-sensitive explosive primer mixtures is a tall task indeed. There has been considerable research on optical element based methods of transferring or compressing laser energy to ignite primer charges, including windows, laser chip primers and various lens shaped windows to focus the laser energy. The focusing of laser light needs to achieve igniting temperatures upwards of >400°C. Many of the patent filings covering this type of technology discuss simple approaches where a single point of light might be sufficient to perform this task. Alternatively a multi-point method might provide better performance, especially for mission critical applications, such as precision military firearms. This paper covers initial design and performance test of the laser beam shaping optics to create simultaneous multiple point ignition locations and a circumferential intense ring for igniting primer charge compounds. A simple initial test of the ring beam shaping technique was evaluated on a standard large caliber primer to determine its effectiveness on igniting the primer material. Several tests were conducted to gauge the feasibility of laser beam shaping, including optic fabrication and mounting on a cartridge, optic durability and functional ignition performance. Initial data will be presented, including testing of optically elements and empirical primer ignition / burn analysis.

  7. Mutational analysis of the helicase domain of a replication initiator protein reveals critical roles of Lys 272 of the B' motif and Lys 289 of the β-hairpin loop in geminivirus replication.

    PubMed

    George, Biju; Ruhel, Rajrani; Mazumder, Mohit; Sharma, Veerendra Kumar; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Gourinath, Samudrala; Chakraborty, Supriya

    2014-07-01

    Replication initiator protein (Rep) is indispensable for rolling-circle replication of geminiviruses, a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses. However, the mechanism of DNA unwinding by circular ssDNA virus-encoded helicases is unknown. To understand geminivirus Rep function, we compared the sequence and secondary structure of Rep with those of bovine papillomavirus E1 and employed charged residue-to-alanine scanning mutagenesis to generate a set of single-substitution mutants in Walker A (K227), in Walker B (D261, 262), and within or adjacent to the B' motif (K272, K286 and K289). All mutants were asymptomatic and viral accumulation could not be detected by Southern blotting in both tomato and N. benthamiana plants. Furthermore, the K272 and K289 mutants were deficient in DNA binding and unwinding. Biochemical studies and modelling data based on comparisons with the known structures of SF3 helicases suggest that the conserved lysine (K289) located in a predicted β-hairpin loop may interact with ssDNA, while lysine 272 in the B' motif (K272) located on the outer surface of the protein is presumably involved in coupling ATP-induced conformational changes to DNA binding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the roles of the B' motif and the adjacent β-hairpin loop in geminivirus replication have been elucidated.

  8. EUROANDRILL Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florindo, Fabio; Steering Committee, Euroandrill

    2010-05-01

    EuroANDRILL is a new initiative to create a European network with the goal to increase future involvement of European countries in the ANDRILL [ANtarctic geological DRILLing] Programme. Antarctica has been heavily glaciated for approximately 34 million years, but its ice sheets have fluctuated considerably and are one of the major driving forces for changes in climate throughout the Cenozoic Era. The spatial scale and temporal pattern of these fluctuations is subject to considerable debate. Understanding the response of large ice masses to climatic forcing is of vital importance because ice volume variations drive global sea level changes and also alter the capacity of ice sheets and sea-ice to act as major heat sinks/insulators. It is particularly important to assess the stability of the cryosphere in the face of rising CO2 levels, as modelling of the climate shift from a warm, vegetated Antarctica to a cold, ice-covered state 34 million years ago suggests a powerful greenhouse gas influence. As Antarctica is the major driver of Earth's climate and sea level, much effort has been expended in deriving models of its behaviour. Some of these models have been successfully validated against modern conditions. EuroANDRILL will provide a coherent, integrated platform for European leadership and involvement in the international ANDRILL programme. The coordination and networking provided by EuroANDRILL will seek to expand participation by European nations, institutions, and individual scientists in the study of the geologic history of the polar regions and their paleoclimatic significance. During the IPY, ANDRILL has been a highly visible and successful programme. This programme seeks to expand on this legacy beyond the IPY and make these contributions sustainable in the European Research Area through networking of research projects and future planning efforts, which establish Europe as a key player in future polar sediment and rock drilling. EuroANDRILL is set up under

  9. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  10. Microdrill Initiative - Initial Market Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Spears & Associates, Inc

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a major research and development initiative to create a small, fast, inexpensive and environmentally friendly rig for drilling 5000 feet boreholes to investigate potential oil and gas reservoirs. DOE wishes to get input from petroleum industry operators, service companies and equipment suppliers on the operation and application of this coiled-tubing-based drilling unit. To that end, DOE has asked Spears & Associates, Inc. (SAI) to prepare a special state-of-the-market report and assist during a DOE-sponsored project-scoping workshop in Albuquerque near the end of April 2003. The scope of the project is four-fold: (1) Evaluate the history, status and future of demand for very small bore-hole drilling; (2) Measure the market for coiled tubing drilling and describe the state-of-the-art; (3) Identify companies and individuals who should have an interest in micro drilling and invite them to the DOE workshop; and (4) Participate in 3 concurrent workshop sessions, record and evaluate participant comments and report workshop conclusions.

  11. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  12. Critical behavior of gravitating sphalerons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, R. Steven; Hirschmann, Eric W.

    2003-07-01

    We examine the gravitational collapse of sphaleron type configurations in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory. Working in spherical symmetry, we investigate the critical behavior in this model. We provide evidence that for various initial configurations, there can be three different critical transitions between possible end states with different critical solutions sitting on the threshold between these outcomes. In addition, we show that within the dispersive and black hole regimes there are new possible end states: namely, a stable, regular sphaleron and a stable, hairy black hole.

  13. Accelerator driven sub-critical core

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Peter M; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

    2015-03-17

    Systems and methods for operating an accelerator driven sub-critical core. In one embodiment, a fission power generator includes a sub-critical core and a plurality of proton beam generators. Each of the proton beam generators is configured to concurrently provide a proton beam into a different area of the sub-critical core. Each proton beam scatters neutrons within the sub-critical core. The plurality of proton beam generators provides aggregate power to the sub-critical core, via the proton beams, to scatter neutrons sufficient to initiate fission in the sub-critical core.

  14. NASA industry education initiative. Education programs report, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Findings from the initial inventory of education programs show that support for the NASA-Industry Education Initiative (NIEI) appears to be strong among the organizations surveyed. In addition, the range, depth and historical baselines of NIEI education programs are encouraging. It is also apparent that there is a significant level of cooperation between NIEI members and other organizations. Heavily focused towards science, engineering, mathematics and technology achievement, NIEI activities appear to be aligned with national education goals. Three criticisms are revealed: (1) the majority of programs are targeted fairly late in the education cycle; (2) the number of initiatives geared towards adult literacy and adult skills-enhancement appears to be relatively low; (3) the majority of NIEI activities involve traditional education-assistance programs, but the number of critical assessment and systematic reform initiatives is low. Four Working Group recommendations resulted from this activity: (1) NIEI Working Group operations should continue for an indefinite period, with participation open to other like-minded private-sector organization; (2) the report should be periodically updated; (3) an analysis of ongoing education programs should be conducted; (4) American corporations should continue to support education and evaluate in-house programs periodically.

  15. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  16. Libraries, the MAP, and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cherri; Singer, Marietta; Miller, David W.; Makemson, Carroll; Elliott, Kara; Litsch, Diana; Irwin, Barbara; Hoemann, Cheryl; Elmore, Jennifer; Roe, Patty; Gregg, Diane; Needham, Joyce; Stanley, Jerri; Reinert, John; Holtz, Judy; Jenkins, Sandra; Giles, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Includes 17 articles that discuss the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) and the role of school library media centers. Highlights include improving student achievement; improving student scores on the MAP; graphic organizers; programs for volunteer student library workers; research process; research skills; reading initiatives; collaborative…

  17. A Knowledge Management Approach to Support Software Process Improvement Implementation Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoni, Mariano Angel; Cerdeiral, Cristina; Zanetti, David; Cavalcanti da Rocha, Ana Regina

    The success of software process improvement (SPI) implementation initiatives depends fundamentally of the strategies adopted to support the execution of such initiatives. Therefore, it is essential to define adequate SPI implementation strategies aiming to facilitate the achievement of organizational business goals and to increase the benefits of process improvements. The objective of this work is to present an approach to support the execution of SPI implementation initiatives. We also describe a methodology applied to capture knowledge related to critical success factors that influence SPI initiatives. This knowledge was used to define effective SPI strategies aiming to increase the success of SPI initiatives coordinated by a specific SPI consultancy organization. This work also presents the functionalities of a set of tools integrated in a process-centered knowledge management environment, named CORE-KM, customized to support the presented approach.

  18. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  19. Harmonization Initiatives in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Modern medicine is more and more based on protocols and guidelines; clinical laboratory data play very often a relevant role in these documents and for this reason the need for their harmonization is increasing. To achieve harmonized results the harmonization process must not be limited to only the analytical part, but has to include the pre- and the post-analytical phases. Results To fulfill this need the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) has started several initiatives. A Working Group on harmonization of the total testing process (WG-H) has been created with the aims of: 1) surveying and summarizing national European and pan European harmonization initiatives; 2) promoting and coordinating the dissemination of especially promising harmonization initiatives among the EFLM member societies; and 3) taking initiatives to harmonize nomenclature, units and reference intervals at a European level. The activity of the WG started this year with a questionnaire targeted at surveying the status of various harmonization activities, especially those in the pre- and post-analytical phase categories, among the European laboratory medicine societies. Conclusions Based on the results of the questionnaire, some activities promoting the dissemination of best practice in blood sampling, sample storage and transportation, in collaboration with WG on the pre-analytical phase, will be promoted, and initiatives to spread to all the European countries the use of SI units in reporting, will be undertaken. Moreover, EFLM has created a Task and Finish Group on standardization of the color coding for blood collection tube closures that is actively working to accomplish this difficult task through collaboration with manufacturers. PMID:27683503

  20. Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…

  1. Perspectives on achieving sustainable energy production and use

    EPA Science Inventory

    The traditional definition of sustainability calls for polices and strategies that meet society's present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Achieving operational sustainability requires three critical elements: advances in scien...

  2. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  3. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decision maker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its

  4. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decisionmaker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its content

  5. Achieving Provider Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Harris, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The literature on integrated care is limited with respect to practical learning and experience. Although some attention has been paid to organizational processes and structures, not enough is paid to people, relationships, and the importance of these in bringing about integration. Little is known, for example, about provider engagement in the organizational change process, how to obtain and maintain it, and how it is demonstrated in the delivery of integrated care. Based on qualitative data from the evaluation of a large-scale integrated care initiative in London, United Kingdom, we explored the role of provider engagement in effective integration of services. Using thematic analysis, we identified an evolving engagement narrative with three distinct phases: enthusiasm, antipathy, and ambivalence, and argue that health care managers need to be aware of the impact of professional engagement to succeed in advancing the integrated care agenda. PMID:25212855

  6. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring

  7. Innovation through Initiatives -- A Framework for Building New Capabilities in Public Sector Research Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Geffen, Charlette A.; Judd, Kathleen S.

    2004-12-01

    The accelerating pace of change in science and technology has resulted in new attention to the process of identifying and developing ideas that ultimately lead to new scientific capabilities and business opportunities for an organization. The need to refresh research programs and capabilities is as important in federally funded laboratories as it is for industry. This paper explores the critical success factors for new initiatives at a federal laboratory, and building on lessons learned through this study and in private industry, identifies a more systematic process that could potentially improve the effectiveness of these initiatives in achieving results.

  8. Achieving effective supervision.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, David J; Spence, Susan H; Wilson, Jill; Crow, Natasha

    2002-09-01

    Supervision probably does have benefits both for the maintenance and improvement of clinical skills and for job satisfaction, but the data are very thin and almost non-existent in the area of alcohol and other drugs services. Because of the potential complexity of objectives and roles in supervision, a structured agreement appears to be an important part of the effective supervision relationship. Because sessions can degenerate easily into unstructured socialization, agendas and session objectives may also be important. While a working alliance based on mutual respect and trust is an essential base for the supervision relationship, procedures for direct observation of clinical skills, demonstration of new procedures and skills practice with detailed feedback appear critical to supervision's impact on practice. To ensure effective supervision, there needs not only to be a minimum of personnel and resources, but also a compatibility with the values and procedures of management and staff, access to supervision training and consultation and sufficient incentives to ensure it continues. PMID:12270075

  9. The initiation of grain movement by wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickling, William G.

    1987-01-01

    When air blows across the surface of dry, loose sand, a critical shear velocity must be achieved to initiate motion. Since most natural sediments consist of a range of grain sizes, fluid threshold for any sediment cannot really be defined by a finite value but should be viewed as a threshold range which is a function of the mean size, sorting, and packing of the sediment. In order to investigate the initiation of particle movement by wind, a series of wind tunnel tests were carried out on a range of screened sands and commercially available glass beads of differing size, sorting, and shape characteristics. In addition, individual samples of the glass beads were mixed to produce rather poorly sorted bimodal distributions. Test results suggest the when velocity is slowly increased over the sediment surface the smaller or more exposed grains are first engrained by the fluid drag of the air either in surface creep or in saltation. As velocity continues to rise, the larger more protected grains may also be moved by fluid drag. The data also indicate that predicted values based on the modified Bagnold equation fall within the range of threshold values defined by the transition section of the grain movement/shear velocity plots. Moreover, the predicted values are very similar to the threshold values derived for the point maximum inflection on the curves.

  10. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  11. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  12. Initial evaluation and management of the critical burn patient.

    PubMed

    Vivó, C; Galeiras, R; del Caz, Ma D P

    2016-01-01

    The major improvement in burn therapy is likely to focus on the early management of hemodynamic and respiratory failures in combination with an aggressive and early surgical excision and skin grafting for full-thickness burns. Immediate burn care by first care providers is important and can vastly alter outcomes, and it can significantly limit burn progression and depth. The goal of prehospital care should be to cease the burning process as well as prevent future complications and secondary injuries for burn shock. Identifying burn patients appropriate for immediate or subacute transfer is an important step in reducing morbidity and mortality. Delays in transport to Burn Unit should be minimized. The emergency management follows the principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support Guidelines for assessment and stabilization of airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure and environment control. All patients with suspected inhalation injury must be removed from the enclosure as soon as possible, and immediately administer high-flow oxygen. Any patient with stridor, shortness of breath, facial burns, singed nasal hairs, cough, soot in the oral cavity, and history of being in a fire in an enclosed space should be strongly considered for early intubation. Fibroscopy may also be useful if airway damage is suspected and to assess known lung damage. Secondary evaluation following admission to the Burn Unit of a burned patient suffering a severe thermal injury includes continuation of respiratory support and management and treatment of inhalation injury, fluid resuscitation and cardiovascular stabilization, pain control and management of burn wound. PMID:26724246

  13. Initial evaluation and management of the critical burn patient.

    PubMed

    Vivó, C; Galeiras, R; del Caz, Ma D P

    2016-01-01

    The major improvement in burn therapy is likely to focus on the early management of hemodynamic and respiratory failures in combination with an aggressive and early surgical excision and skin grafting for full-thickness burns. Immediate burn care by first care providers is important and can vastly alter outcomes, and it can significantly limit burn progression and depth. The goal of prehospital care should be to cease the burning process as well as prevent future complications and secondary injuries for burn shock. Identifying burn patients appropriate for immediate or subacute transfer is an important step in reducing morbidity and mortality. Delays in transport to Burn Unit should be minimized. The emergency management follows the principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support Guidelines for assessment and stabilization of airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure and environment control. All patients with suspected inhalation injury must be removed from the enclosure as soon as possible, and immediately administer high-flow oxygen. Any patient with stridor, shortness of breath, facial burns, singed nasal hairs, cough, soot in the oral cavity, and history of being in a fire in an enclosed space should be strongly considered for early intubation. Fibroscopy may also be useful if airway damage is suspected and to assess known lung damage. Secondary evaluation following admission to the Burn Unit of a burned patient suffering a severe thermal injury includes continuation of respiratory support and management and treatment of inhalation injury, fluid resuscitation and cardiovascular stabilization, pain control and management of burn wound.

  14. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  15. Actuating critical care therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Stone, David J; Csete, Marie

    2016-10-01

    Viewing the intensive care unit (ICU) as a control system with inputs (patients) and outputs (outcomes), we focus on actuation (therapies) of the system and how to enhance our understanding of status of patients and their trajectory in the ICU. To incorporate the results of these analytics meaningfully, we feel that a reassessment of predictive scoring systems and of ways to optimally characterize and display the patient's "state space" to clinicians is important. Advances in sensing (diagnostics) and computation have not yet led to significantly better actuation, and so we focus on ways that data can be used to improve actuation in the ICU, in particular by following therapeutic burden along with disease severity. This article is meant to encourage discussion about how the critical care community can best deal with the data they see each day, and prepare for recommendations that will inevitably arise from application of major federal and state initiatives in big data analytics and precision medicine.

  16. Critical CRBR core pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, F.D.

    1980-06-01

    The conditions are detailed under which gas pressure will cause or initiate failure in the structural containment of the fuel core. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant is the prototype structure. Two general classes of problems have been studied, representing two entirely distinct configurations of containment failure. The first model determines the minimum pressure to lift a portion or the entire core from its containment. The second model estimates the critical pressure above which the fuel rods interior to the hexagonal fuel can warp, leading to blockage of the gas passages. Such blockage might cause further buildup of the gas pressure to a level causing the failure of the fuel rod containment in the hexagonal fuel container.

  17. Critical Viewing: Stimulant to Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin; Splaine, John

    This document is intended to improve the critical viewing skills and increase the understanding and appreciation of what is viewed. Included are the chapters: (1) "Critical Thinking: The Parts of an Argument," intended to develop a process to help a person judge arguments in what is read, seen, and heard; (2) "Critical Viewing: Concepts, Skills,…

  18. Bolstering medical education to enhance critical care capacity in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Albert, Tyler J; Fassier, Thomas; Chhuoy, Meng; Bounchan, Youttiroung; Tan, Sokhak; Ku, No; Chhor, Nareth; LoGerfo, James P; West, T Eoin

    2015-04-01

    The capacity to care for the critically ill has long been viewed as a fundamental element of established and comprehensive health care systems. Extending this capacity to health care systems in low- and middle-income countries is important given the burden of disease in these regions and the significance of critical care in overall health system strengthening. However, many practicalities of improving access and delivery of critical care in resource-limited settings have yet to be elucidated. We have initiated a program to build capacity for the care of critically ill patients in one low-income Southeast Asian country, Cambodia. We are leveraging existing international academic partnerships to enhance postgraduate critical care education in Cambodia. After conducting a needs assessment and literature review, we developed a three-step initiative targeting training in mechanical ventilation. First, we assessed and revised the current resident curriculum pertaining to mechanical ventilation. We addressed gaps in training, incorporated specific goals and learning objectives, and decreased the hours of lectures in favor of additional bedside training. Second, we are incorporating e-learning, e-teaching, and e-assessment into the curriculum, with both live, interactive and independent, self-paced online instruction. Third, we are developing a train-the-trainer program defined by bidirectional international faculty exchanges to provide hands-on, case-based, and bedside training to achieve competency-based outcomes. In targeting specific educational needs and a key population-the next generation of Cambodian intensivists-this carefully designed approach should address some existing gaps in the health care system and hopefully yield a lasting impact.

  19. Critical Thinking in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Rodney D.

    Critical thinking is often defined as that which a particular instrument measures. The most prominent tests are the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test, and the Cornell Critical Thinking Tests. Watson and Glaser's (1980) view of critical thinking is "a composite of attitudes, knowledge, and…

  20. Psychopharmacology in pediatric critical care.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Usher, Craigan T; Abrams, Annah N

    2006-07-01

    Psychopharmacologic treatment in pediatric critical care requires a careful child or adolescent psychiatric evaluation, including a thorough review of the history of present illness or injury, any current or pre-existing psychiatric disorder, past history, and laboratory studies. Although there is limited evidence to guide psychopharmacologic practice in this setting, psychopharmacologic treatment is increasing in critical care, with known indications for treatment, benefits, and risks; initial dosing guidelines; and best practices. Treatment is guided by the knowledge bases in pediatric physiology, psycho-pharmacology, and treatment of critically ill adults. Pharmacologic considerations include pharmacokinetic and pharmcodynamic aspects of specific drugs and drug classes, in particular elimination half-life, developmental considerations, drug interactions, and adverse effects. Evaluation and management of pain is a key initial step, as pain may mimic psychiatric symptoms and its effective treatment can ameliorate them. Patient comfort and safety are primary objectives for children who are acutely ill and who will survive and for those who will not. Judicious use of psychopharmacolgic agents in pediatric critical care using the limited but growing evidence base and a clinical best practices collaborative approach can reduce anxiety,sadness, disorientation, and agitation; improve analgesia; and save lives of children who are suicidal or delirious. In addition to pain, other disorders or indications for psychopharmacologic treatment are affective disorders;PTSD; post-suicide attempt patients; disruptive behavior disorders (especially ADHD); and adjustment, developmental, and substance use disorders. Treating children who are critically ill with psychotropic drugs is an integral component of comprehensive pediatric critical care in relieving pain and delirium; reducing inattention or agitation or aggressive behavior;relieving acute stress, anxiety, or depression; and

  1. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  2. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  3. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  4. Use of the Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory in critical care orientation.

    PubMed

    Smith-Blair, N; Neighbors, M

    2000-01-01

    In the current health care environment it is imperative that orientation programs be effective and efficient in the preparation of nurses entering critical care nursing. Institutions strive to develop orientation programs that use the least amount of resources necessary to achieve the desired outcome. The desired outcome of the critical care orientation process is for nurses to use critical thinking skills to make sound clinical judgments based on scientific knowledge of critical care nursing. Identifying areas of strengths and deficits in critical thinking could prove beneficial in assisting educators to individualize nursing orientation programs using critical thinking skills in practice. The purpose of this article is to describe a method used to measure nurses' dispositions toward critical thinking and the application of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) in critical care orientation programs.

  5. Critical Care in Critical Access Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Seright, Teresa J; Winters, Charlene A

    2015-10-01

    What began as a grant-funded demonstration project, as a means of bridging the gap in rural health care, has developed into a critical access hospital system comprising 1328 facilities across 45 states. A critical access hospital is not just a safety net for health care in a rural community. Such hospitals may also provide specialized services such as same-day surgery, infusion therapy, and intensive care. For hospitals located near the required minimum of 35 miles from a tertiary care center, management of critically ill patients may be a matter of stabilization and transfer. Critical access hospitals in more rural areas are often much farther from tertiary care; some of these hospitals are situated within frontier areas of the United States. This article describes the development of critical access hospitals, provision of care and services, challenges to critical care in critical access hospitals, and suggestions to address gaps in research and collaborative care.

  6. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Alex King

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  7. Critical Materials Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alex King

    2013-01-09

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  8. Critical Care Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... Please enable scripts and reload this page. About Critical Care Currently selected Team Questions During the ICU Chronic ... Team Currently selected Questions Patients and Families > About Critical Care > Team Tweet Team Page Content ​The critical care ...

  9. Critical thinking and accuracy of nurses' diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Interpretations of patient data are complex and diverse, contributing to a risk of low accuracy nursing diagnoses. This risk is confirmed in research findings that accuracy of nurses' diagnoses varied widely from high to low. Highly accurate diagnoses are essential, however, to guide nursing interventions for the achievement of positive health outcomes. Development of critical thinking abilities is likely to improve accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. New views of critical thinking serve as a basis for critical thinking in nursing. Seven cognitive skills and ten habits of mind are identified as dimensions of critical thinking for use in the diagnostic process. Application of the cognitive skills of critical thinking illustrates the importance of using critical thinking for accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. Ten strategies are proposed for self-development of critical thinking abilities.

  10. Toward Educational Testing Reform: Inside Reading Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Dick

    2013-01-01

    The commentary (1) uses the U. S. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as a prototype for examining standardized reading achievement tests at the item level, and (2) sketches an alternative based on an initiative underway in the United Kingdom.

  11. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war, the... power, fuel, and water, or on long-distance communications; with spare replacements for...

  12. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war, the... power, fuel, and water, or on long-distance communications; with spare replacements for...

  13. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war, the... power, fuel, and water, or on long-distance communications; with spare replacements for...

  14. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  15. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  16. Achieving ideal breast aesthetics with autologous reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Achieving ideal breast aesthetic has become a top priority for women considering breast reconstruction following mastectomy. The use of autologous tissue is generally regarded as providing the most natural results because donor tissues quality and consistency is similar to that of the native breast. There are several donor sites that are particularly useful for autologous reconstruction that include the abdomen, gluteal region, posterior thorax, and the thigh. Traditional and microsurgical techniques can be used. Shaping is a critical component and involves a basic understanding of the footprint, conus, and skin envelope. This manuscript will review many aspects of breast shaping in-order to achieve aesthetically pleasing results in a predictable manner. PMID:26005645

  17. A Critical Humanist Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Kevin; Rodriguez, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a critical humanist discussion of curriculum; a departure from the technicist view of education [education meant to support a global capitalist economy] and an analysis of curriculum considering critical humanism, political economy and critical race theory among other modes of critical analysis and inquiry. Our discussion supports a…

  18. Multidimensional Parents' Action on Adolescents Academic Achievement in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, William Koh Siaw; Lan, Ong Saw

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an initial examination of the norm activities of what parents do at home to their adolescence school-going children and eventually how these factors contribute to their academic achievement. The notion that parental involvement was crucial to their children academic achievement and well being was reinvestigated by utilizing a…

  19. Sustaining Continued Acceleration in Reading Comprehension Achievement Following an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mei Kuin; McNaughton, Stuart; Timperley, Helen; Hsiao, Selena

    2009-01-01

    Schooling improvement initiatives have demonstrated that moderate but significant achievement gains are possible with well designed interventions, but there is little research into whether these gains can be sustained. The present study examines the extent to which acceleration in achievement made during a three-year literacy intervention and the…

  20. What Matters, What Works: Advancing Achievement after School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public/Private Ventures, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brief provides highlights from "Advancing Achievement: Findings from an Independent Evaluation of a Major After-School Initiative." The brief underscores the potential of after-school programs in the ongoing drive to advance children's academic achievement. It shines a light on some of the issues that matter most for programs striving to…

  1. Task Values, Achievement Goals, and Interest: An Integrative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Durik, Amanda M.; Schweigert, Shaun B.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this article integrates 3 theoretical perspectives in the field of motivation: expectancy-value, achievement goals, and interest. The authors examined the antecedents (initial interest, achievement goals) and consequences (interest, performance) of task value judgments in 2 learning contexts: a college classroom and a…

  2. WFH: closing the global gap--achieving optimal care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark W

    2012-07-01

    For 50 years, the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) has been working globally to close the gap in care and to achieve Treatment for All patients, men and women, with haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders, regardless of where they might live. The WFH estimates that more than one in 1000 men and women has a bleeding disorder equating to 6,900,000 worldwide. To close the gap in care between developed and developing nations a continued focus on the successful strategies deployed heretofore will be required. However, in response to the rapid advances in treatment and emerging therapeutic advances on the horizon it will also require fresh approaches and renewed strategic thinking. It is difficult to predict what each therapeutic advance on the horizon will mean for the future, but there is no doubt that we are in a golden age of research and development, which has the prospect of revolutionizing treatment once again. An improved understanding of "optimal" treatment is fundamental to the continued evolution of global care. The challenges of answering government and payer demands for evidence-based medicine, and cost justification for the introduction and enhancement of treatment, are ever-present and growing. To sustain and improve care it is critical to build the body of outcome data for individual patients, within haemophilia treatment centers (HTCs), nationally, regionally and globally. Emerging therapeutic advances (longer half-life therapies and gene transfer) should not be justified or brought to market based only on the notion that they will be economically more affordable, although that may be the case, but rather more importantly that they will be therapeutically more advantageous. Improvements in treatment adherence, reductions in bleeding frequency (including microhemorrhages), better management of trough levels, and improved health outcomes (including quality of life) should be the foremost considerations. As part of a new WFH strategic plan

  3. WFH: closing the global gap--achieving optimal care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark W

    2012-07-01

    For 50 years, the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) has been working globally to close the gap in care and to achieve Treatment for All patients, men and women, with haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders, regardless of where they might live. The WFH estimates that more than one in 1000 men and women has a bleeding disorder equating to 6,900,000 worldwide. To close the gap in care between developed and developing nations a continued focus on the successful strategies deployed heretofore will be required. However, in response to the rapid advances in treatment and emerging therapeutic advances on the horizon it will also require fresh approaches and renewed strategic thinking. It is difficult to predict what each therapeutic advance on the horizon will mean for the future, but there is no doubt that we are in a golden age of research and development, which has the prospect of revolutionizing treatment once again. An improved understanding of "optimal" treatment is fundamental to the continued evolution of global care. The challenges of answering government and payer demands for evidence-based medicine, and cost justification for the introduction and enhancement of treatment, are ever-present and growing. To sustain and improve care it is critical to build the body of outcome data for individual patients, within haemophilia treatment centers (HTCs), nationally, regionally and globally. Emerging therapeutic advances (longer half-life therapies and gene transfer) should not be justified or brought to market based only on the notion that they will be economically more affordable, although that may be the case, but rather more importantly that they will be therapeutically more advantageous. Improvements in treatment adherence, reductions in bleeding frequency (including microhemorrhages), better management of trough levels, and improved health outcomes (including quality of life) should be the foremost considerations. As part of a new WFH strategic plan

  4. Health Care Provider Initiative Strategic Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education & Training Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This document lays out the strategy for achieving the goals and objectives of NEETF's "Health Care Provider Initiative." The goal of NEETF's "Health Care Provider Initiative" is to incorporate environmental health into health professionals' education and practice in order to improve health care and public health, with a special emphasis on…

  5. Student Access to Technology and Its Impact on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    One to One technology initiatives are a national trend, but something districts must weigh heavily as they are costly. The purpose of this study is to explore the One to One initiative in a middle school as it relates to student achievement and reducing economic disparity. Bourdieu's Cultural Capital Theory applies to this study as one would…

  6. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will

  7. A Critical Look into Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pishghadam, Reza; Meidani, Elham Naji

    2012-01-01

    In line with postmodern philosophy, critical pedagogy has gained considerable importance and has become a valuable educational goal. The purpose of this study is to dig into the effects of critical pedagogy in a modernist educational system. To this aim, 15 Iranian university students were asked to write down their feelings at the end of a course…

  8. Revalorizing the Critical Attitude for Critical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Sarah S.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that at a moment of crisis in education, the defence of critical pedagogy is vitally important. However, it also suggests that such a defence should be more than a "cri de coeur" that asserts principles and methods of criticality against those of neoliberal or conservative education policy. Narratives of a totalising "crisis of…

  9. Critical Friendship and Critical Orphanship: Embedded Research of an English Local Authority Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The article engages with the opportunities and constraints raised by embedded research during times of rapid and extensive organisational change. Embedded research is an increasingly common approach for funding PhD studentships. The rapid and extensive reforms of the English public sector pose significant and underexplored challenges for embedded…

  10. How critical is chronic critical leg ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Kroese, A J; Stranden, E

    1998-01-01

    "Critical" according to the Oxford dictionary means: a "turning point" where an acute change for better or worse may be anticipated. Thus, the meaning of the word "critical" complies with its use in relation to ischaemia. We don't really know, prospectively, what will happen to the critically ischaemic limb, whether it will improve or worsen. The answer to the question "How critical is critical leg ischaemia (CLI)?" must be: "We don't know!" The addition of ankle systolic pressure as an objective haemodynamic measurement has not made the definition of the Second European Consensus Group significantly better than the original Fontaine classification, grade III and IV. For clinical practice the Fontaine classification will be sufficient. For scientific purposes macro- and microcirculatory assessments and information about the patient's risk profile should be added. PMID:9676324

  11. How critical is chronic critical leg ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Kroese, A J; Stranden, E

    1998-01-01

    "Critical" according to the Oxford dictionary means: a "turning point" where an acute change for better or worse may be anticipated. Thus, the meaning of the word "critical" complies with its use in relation to ischaemia. We don't really know, prospectively, what will happen to the critically ischaemic limb, whether it will improve or worsen. The answer to the question "How critical is critical leg ischaemia (CLI)?" must be: "We don't know!" The addition of ankle systolic pressure as an objective haemodynamic measurement has not made the definition of the Second European Consensus Group significantly better than the original Fontaine classification, grade III and IV. For clinical practice the Fontaine classification will be sufficient. For scientific purposes macro- and microcirculatory assessments and information about the patient's risk profile should be added.

  12. The initiation of grain movement by wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickling, W. G.

    1986-01-01

    When air blows across the surface of dry, loose sand, a critical shear velocity must be achieved to inititate motion. Since most natural sediments consist of a range of grain sizes, fluid threshold for any sediment cannot really be defined by a finite value but should be viewed as a threshold range which is a function of the mean size, sorting, and packing of the sediment. In order to investigate the initiation of particle movement by wind, a series of wind tunnel tests were carried out on a range of screened sands and commercially available glass beads of differing sizes, sorting, and shape characteristics. In addition, individual samples of the glass beads were mixed to produce rather poorly sorted bimodal distributions. Test results suggest that when velocity is slowly increased over the sediment surface the smaller or more exposed grains are first entrained by the fluid drag of the air either in surface creep or in saltation. As velocity continues to rise, the larger more protected grains may also be moved by fluid drag. The data also indicate that predicted values based on the modified Bagnold equation fall within the range of threshold values defined by the transition section of the grain movement/shear velocity plots. Moreover, the predicted values are very similar to the threshold values derived for the point maximum inflection on the curves.

  13. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  14. The Relation between Critical Thinking Abilities and Student Study Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study of 54 first-year engineering students at an Australian university investigated their critical thinking skills as related to 3 kinds of study strategy: surface strategy; deep strategy; and achieving strategy. Results indicated a negative correlation between critical thinking ability and the achieving study strategy. Implications for…

  15. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  16. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  17. Osteoarthritis: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Kentaro; Utturkar, Amol; Chang, Eric; Panush, Richard; Hata, Justin; Perret-Karimi, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) are faced with a barrage of treatment options, from recommendations from friends and social media to medications prescribed by the primary care physician. The purpose of this article is to critically review current approaches to generalized or monoarticular OA based on available evidence and to illustrate multidisciplinary and multimodal treatment strategies for the management of OA. Treatment options assessed for efficacy include patient education; oral and topical pharmacological agents; complementary and alternative medicine; surgery; manual medicine; acupuncture; interventional procedures (corticosteroid injection, viscosupplementation, and pulsed radiofrequency); bracing; assistive devices; physical therapy; and physical modalities. Multidisciplinary and multimodal treatment strategies combined with early detection and prevention strategies provide the best benefit to patients. This review also illustrates that traditional and alternative modalities of treatment can be both synergistic and beneficial. Physicians should be aware of the variety of tools available for the management of OA and the associated symptoms. Those healthcare providers who can best individualize treatment plans for specific patients and inspire their patients to embrace healthy lifestyle modifications will achieve the best results. PMID:25750483

  18. Teaching critical thinking

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, N. G.; Wieman, Carl E.; Bonn, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year. PMID:26283351

  19. Teaching critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Holmes, N G; Wieman, Carl E; Bonn, D A

    2015-09-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year.

  20. TFTR initial operations

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.; Bell, M.; Blanchard, W.R.; Bretz, N.; Cecchi, J.; Coonrod, J.; Davis, S.; Dylla, H.F.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fonck, R.

    1983-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has operated since December 1982 with ohmically heated plasmas. Routine operation with feedback control of plasma current, position, and density has been obtained for plasmas with I/sub p/ approx. = 800 kA, a = 68 cm, R = 250 cm, and B/sub t/ = 27 kG. A maximum plasma current of 1 MA was achieved with q approx. = 2.5. Energy confinement times of approx. 150 msec were measured for hydrogen and deuterium plasmas with anti n/sub e/ approx. = 2 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/, T/sub e/ (0) approx. = 1.5 keV, T/sub i/ (0) approx. = 1.5 keV, and Z/sub eff/ approx. = 3. The preliminary results suggest a size-cubed scaling from PLT and are consistent with Alcator C scaling where tau approx. nR/sup 2/a. Initial measurements of plasma disruption characteristics indicate current decay rates of approx. 800 kA in 8 ms which is within the TFTR design requirement of 3 MA in 3 ms.

  1. Sepsis in critical care.

    PubMed

    King, Joan E

    2007-03-01

    Sepsis is a syndrome produced by the accelerated activity of the inflammatory immune response, the clotting cascade, and endothelial damage. It is a systematic process that can progress easily into septic shock and MODS. The chemical mediators or cytokines produce a complex self-perpetuating process that impacts all body systems. It is critical for the nurse first to identify patients at risk for developing sepsis and to assess patients who have SIRS and sepsis continually for signs and symptoms of organ involvement and organ dysfunction. Once sepsis has been diagnosed, evidence-based practice indicates initiation of fluid resuscitation. Vasopressor therapy, positive inotropic support, and appropriate antibiotic therapy should be started within the first hour. Within a 6-hour timeframe the goal is stabilization of the CVP, MAP, and UOP to prevent further organ damage. The challenge for nurses caring for septic patients is to support the treatment goals, to prevent added complications including stress ulcers, DVTs, aspiration pneumonia, and the progression to MODS, and to address the patient's and the family's psychosocial needs. As complex as the pathophysiology of sepsis is, the nursing care is equally complex but also rewarding. Patients who previously might have died now recover as vigilant nursing care combines forces with new drug therapies and evidence-based practice guidelines.

  2. Thermionic critical technology investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalichandra, P.; Hamerdinger, R. W.; Anderson, E. A.; Lamp, T. R.; Donovan, B. D.

    The thermionic critical technology investigation was initiated to enrich the technology base for thermionic space nuclear power systems. The focus of this program is on an out-of-core, Romashka type reactor system which can operate in the 5-40-kW range. The Romashka concept uses uranium carbide fuel in graphite trays which are radiatively coupled to planar thermionic converters. After completion of the design and fabrication of two state-of-the-art baseline converters, the baseline converters have been subject to further performance and life testing. To date, converter performance tests have been conducted for emitter temperatures from 1850 to 2000 K. The studies have shown that a thermionic converter with a heat-pipe-cooled collector is capable of high power conversion efficiency. By selecting the rhenium-rhenium system, in a closely spaced ignited mode converter, conversion efficiencies of 14 percent with a cell potential of 0.7 V can be readily attained. The sodium heat pipe provides a buffer against extreme changes in collector temperature due to fluctuations in converter load, one that can be improved upon by loading with an inert gas.

  3. Real-World Problems: Engaging Young Learners in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Critical thinking is a process that can be taught. It involves "evaluating the accuracy, credibility, and worth of information and lines of reasoning. Critical thinking is reflective, logical, evidence-based, and has a purposeful quality to it--that is, the learner thinks critically in order to achieve a particular goal." The authors have found…

  4. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  5. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  6. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  7. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  8. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  9. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  11. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  12. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. Classroom Composition and Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    Third-grade students in high ability groups in mathematics achieved greater gains than students in low ability groups. The opposite results occurred in reading achievement. Possible reasons for this difference include different instructional techniques for reading and math and the effect of home environment on learning. (IS)

  14. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  15. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  16. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  17. Clinical review: Critical care transport and austere critical care

    PubMed Central

    Rice, David H; Kotti, George; Beninati, William

    2008-01-01

    The development of modern intensive care units (ICUs) has allowed the survival of patients with advanced illness and injury, although at a cost of substantial infrastructure. Natural disasters and military operations are two common situations that can create critically ill patients in an environment that is austere or has been rendered austere. This has driven the development of two related strategies to care for these casualties. Portable ICU capability can be rapidly established in the area of need, providing relatively advanced capability but limited capacity and sustainability. The other strategy is to rapidly evacuate critically ill and injured patients following their initial stabilization. This permits medical personnel in the austere location to focus resources on a larger number of less critical patients. It also permits the most vulnerable patients to receive care in an advanced center. This strategy requires careful planning to overcome the constraints of the transport environment. The optimal strategy has not been determined, but a combination of these two approaches has been used in recent disasters and military operations and is promising. The critical care delivered in an austere setting must be integrated with a long-term plan to provide follow-on care. PMID:18373882

  18. Anomalous critical fields in quantum critical superconductors.

    PubMed

    Putzke, C; Walmsley, P; Fletcher, J D; Malone, L; Vignolles, D; Proust, C; Badoux, S; See, P; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Kasahara, S; Mizukami, Y; Shibauchi, T; Matsuda, Y; Carrington, A

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations around an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point (QCP) are believed to lead to unconventional superconductivity and in some cases to high-temperature superconductivity. However, the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The iron-pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2 is perhaps the clearest example to date of a high-temperature quantum critical superconductor, and so it is a particularly suitable system to study how the quantum critical fluctuations affect the superconducting state. Here we show that the proximity of the QCP yields unexpected anomalies in the superconducting critical fields. We find that both the lower and upper critical fields do not follow the behaviour, predicted by conventional theory, resulting from the observed mass enhancement near the QCP. Our results imply that the energy of superconducting vortices is enhanced, possibly due to a microscopic mixing of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity, suggesting that a highly unusual vortex state is realized in quantum critical superconductors. PMID:25477044

  19. Anomalous critical fields in quantum critical superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Putzke, C.; Walmsley, P.; Fletcher, J. D.; Malone, L.; Vignolles, D.; Proust, C.; Badoux, S.; See, P.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kasahara, S.; Mizukami, Y.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Carrington, A.

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations around an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point (QCP) are believed to lead to unconventional superconductivity and in some cases to high-temperature superconductivity. However, the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The iron-pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As1−xPx)2 is perhaps the clearest example to date of a high-temperature quantum critical superconductor, and so it is a particularly suitable system to study how the quantum critical fluctuations affect the superconducting state. Here we show that the proximity of the QCP yields unexpected anomalies in the superconducting critical fields. We find that both the lower and upper critical fields do not follow the behaviour, predicted by conventional theory, resulting from the observed mass enhancement near the QCP. Our results imply that the energy of superconducting vortices is enhanced, possibly due to a microscopic mixing of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity, suggesting that a highly unusual vortex state is realized in quantum critical superconductors. PMID:25477044

  20. The Impact of Academic Freedom Policies on Critical Thinking Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessel, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students' rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional…

  1. Toward critical bioethics.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical.

  2. Toward critical bioethics.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical

  3. An Initial Mars Habitat (IMH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    As long duration, manned missions to Mars are studied for feasibility, the requirements to maintain a crew for two years in hostile environments while allowing productive and necessary work to occur, quickly becomes a driving force. Based on a mission scenario developed in the Explorations Program Office at the Johnson Space, the Initial Mars Habitat (IMH) explores one solution to providing a six person crew with the necessary hardware, logistics and environment to support a 500 day Martian surface stay. Many key issues drove the development of this initial concept; crew safety, logistics resupply, crew productivity and several critical mission element assumptions such as the limitations of a surface lander. Consideration of expansion beyond the first mission to an enhanced capability base was also integrated into the development of the IMH.

  4. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  5. Reimagining Critical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments at a…

  6. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  7. Reconceptualising Critical Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangrazio, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption of…

  8. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.

  9. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  10. Propellant for the NASA Standard Initiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl; Tipton, Bill, Jr.; Dutton, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses processes employed in manufacturing zirconium-potassium perchlorate propellant for the NASA standard initiator. It provides both a historical background on the NSI device-detailing problem areas and their resolution--and on propellant blending techniques. Emphasis is placed on the precipitation blending method. The findings on mixing equipment, processing, and raw materials are described. Also detailed are findings on the bridgewire slurry operation, one of the critical steps in the production of the NASA standard initiator.

  11. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  12. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  13. Mastery Achievement of Intellectual Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, Richard J.; White, Richard T.

    1979-01-01

    Mastery learning techniques were improved through mathematics instruction based on a validated learning hierarchy, presenting tasks in a sequence consistent with the requirements of the hierarchy, and requiring learners to demonstrate achievement before being allowed to proceed. (Author/GDC)

  14. Achieving Standards through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Most states do not have the time or resources to develop environmental education standards from scratch. Highlights the role that environmental education and its interdisciplinary nature can play in helping students achieve. (DDR)

  15. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  16. Defining critical thoughts.

    PubMed

    Lovatt, Abbie

    2014-05-01

    Nursing education has long struggled to define critical thinking and explain how the process of critical thinking fits into the context of nursing. Despite this long time struggle, nurses and nurse educators continue to strive to foster critical thinking skills in nursing students as intuitively most nurses believe that critical thinking is necessary to function competently in the workplace. This article explores the most recent work of Dr. Stephen Brookfield and ties the concepts which are explored in Brookfield's work to nursing practice. Brookfield identifies that learners understand the meaning of critical thinking the best when the process is first demonstrated. Role modeling is a method educators can use to demonstrate critical thinking and is a strategy which nurses often use in the clinical area to train and mentor new nursing staff. Although it is not a new strategy in nursing education, it is a valuable strategy to engage learners in critical thinking activities. PMID:24418065

  17. APEC Smart Grid Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2012-03-01

    This brief paper describes the activities of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Smart Grid Initiative (ASGI) which is being led by the U.S. and developed by the APEC Energy Working Group. In the paper, I describe the origin of the initiative and briefly mention the four major elements of the initiative along with existing APEC projects which support it.

  18. Evaluation of Plutonium Hemisphere Critical Experiments Partially Reflected by Steel and Oil

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2012-01-01

    A series of 15 critical experiments performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s were evaluated and then determined to represent acceptable benchmark experiments for the validation of calculational methods. This series of experiments was part of a larger set of experiments performed to evaluate operational safety margins at the Rocky Flats Plant. The experiments consisted of bare plutonium metal hemishells reflected by steel hemishells of increasing thickness and motor oil. The hemishell assembly was suspended within dual aluminum tanks. Criticality was achieved by pumping oil into the tanks such that effectively infinite reflection was achieved in all directions except directly above the assembly; then the critical oil height was recorded. The results of these experiments had been initially ignored because early computational methods had been inadequate to analyze partially-reflected configurations. The dominant uncertainties include the uncertainty in the average plutonium density and the composition of materials in the gaps between the plutonium hemishells. Simple and detailed benchmark models were developed. Eigenvalue calculations using MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 were within 2s of the benchmark values. This benchmark evaluation has been added to the ICSBEP Handbook.

  19. Achieving Inclusion through CLAD: Collaborative Learning Assessment through Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, E. Frank; Hulgin, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    This study measures the effectiveness of Collaborative Learning Assessment through Dialogue (CLAD) on reading achievement in inclusive classrooms in the USA. The CLAD process involved students collaboratively completing multiple-choice quizzes, using dialogue and critical thinking to reach consensus and receiving immediate feedback on their…

  20. The Impact of Principal Instructional Leadership Practices on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nason, Kristen Kendrick

    2011-01-01

    The problem addressed in this cross-sectional, quantitative study was a continual stagnation in student achievement in one U.S. state, which is critical to stakeholders responsible for increasing student advancement in college and the 21st century workforce. Specifically, the objective was to identify the relationship between principal-perceived…

  1. Student Achievement in New Literacies for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kist, William

    2003-01-01

    Describes some alternative conceptions of middle-level student achievement based on case studies profiling new literacies in U.S. and Canadian classrooms. Identifies characteristics of fluency in multiple forms of representation, critical thinking and talking about student work, adaptability of individual and collaborative activities, and high…

  2. Teacher Effectiveness: Making "The" Difference to Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines shifts in emphasis in Australian education from expectations and belief that teachers not only make a difference to student achievement, but they are the difference. In moving from social class relations accounts to self-managing school accounts, latest shifts (teacher effectiveness accounts) over-emphasize teacher…

  3. Empower, Inspire, Achieve: (Dis)Empowerment and the Paralympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue, David E. J.; Howe, P. David

    2012-01-01

    This paper undertakes a critical examination of the International Paralympic Committee's desire to use the Paralympic Games as a vehicle to empower individuals with a disability. We achieve this by applying Pierre Bourdieu's sociological concepts of habitus and capital to semi-structured interviews conducted with Paralympic stakeholders.…

  4. Implications of Student Health Problems on Achievement and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Salle, Tamika P.; Hagermoser Sanetti, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy students are better learners. Establishing positive school climates where students are healthy, engaged, and prepared to learn is a critical component in increasing student engagement and closing the achievement gap. As such, educators need to be aware of the impact of education-related outcomes on student outcomes and schools' ability to…

  5. Effects of Cochlear Implants on Children's Reading and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of empirical studies assessing literacy and other domains of academic achievement among children with cochlear implants. A variety of recent studies have demonstrated benefits to hearing, language, and speech from implants, leading to assumptions that early implantation and longer periods of implant should…

  6. Teaching Triarchically Improves School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Torff, Bruce; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    1998-01-01

    Two studies involving 213 third graders and 141 eighth graders tested the triarchic structure of human intelligence as applied to the classroom by emphasizing traditional instruction, critical thinking, and triarchically based instruction (analytical, creative, and practical). Results support the superiority of triarchically-based instruction.…

  7. Construct Validity and Achievement Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Thomas; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Criticizes an article by Messick (1989) that emphasizes consequential validity (the potential and actual social consequences of test score interpretation and use) as a component of construct validity. Shows the profitability of separating the construct-indicator link from the indicator-score link, and the greater importance of the former.…

  8. Critical fluid light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  9. Initiation of vascular development.

    PubMed

    Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2014-06-01

    The initiation of vascular development occurs during embryogenesis and the development of lateral organs, such as lateral roots and leaves. Understanding the mechanism underlying the initiation of vascular development has been an important goal of plant biologists. Auxin flow is a crucial factor involved in the initiation of vascular development. In addition, recent studies have identified key factors that regulate the establishment of vascular initial cells in embryos and roots. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in this field and discuss the initiation of vascular development.

  10. Initial Events in Bacterial Transcription Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Emily F.; Record, M. Thomas; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Transcription initiation is a highly regulated step of gene expression. Here, we discuss the series of large conformational changes set in motion by initial specific binding of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) to promoter DNA and their relevance for regulation. Bending and wrapping of the upstream duplex facilitates bending of the downstream duplex into the active site cleft, nucleating opening of 13 bp in the cleft. The rate-determining opening step, driven by binding free energy, forms an unstable open complex, probably with the template strand in the active site. At some promoters, this initial open complex is greatly stabilized by rearrangements of the discriminator region between the −10 element and +1 base of the nontemplate strand and of mobile in-cleft and downstream elements of RNAP. The rate of open complex formation is regulated by effects on the rapidly-reversible steps preceding DNA opening, while open complex lifetime is regulated by effects on the stabilization of the initial open complex. Intrinsic DNA opening-closing appears less regulated. This noncovalent mechanism and its regulation exhibit many analogies to mechanisms of enzyme catalysis. PMID:26023916

  11. Critical Psychologies for Critical Health Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…

  12. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  13. Criticality Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Scaglione

    2003-03-12

    The purpose of the ''Criticality Model Report'' is to validate the MCNP (CRWMS M&O 1998h) code's ability to accurately predict the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for a range of conditions spanned by various critical configurations representative of the potential configurations commercial reactor assemblies stored in a waste package may take. Results of this work are an indication of the accuracy of MCNP for calculating eigenvalues, which will be used as input for criticality analyses for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. The scope of this report is to document the development and validation of the criticality model. The scope of the criticality model is only applicable to commercial pressurized water reactor fuel. Valid ranges are established as part of the validation of the criticality model. This model activity follows the description in BSC (2002a).

  14. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  15. Evaluation of English Achievement Test: A Comparison between High and Low Achievers amongst Selected Elementary School Students of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Zubair; Latif, Farah; Akhtar, Samina; Mushtaq, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Validity, reliability and item analysis are critical to the process of evaluating the quality of an educational measurement. The present study evaluates the quality of an assessment constructed to measure elementary school student's achievement in English. In this study, the survey model of descriptive research was used as a research method.…

  16. P-2 Years Targeted to Achieve Grade 3 Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In a bid to help more students read proficiently in 3rd grade--a skill considered critical to their future educational success--new laws and initiatives springing up around the country require educators to step up their efforts to identify and help struggling readers even before they enter kindergarten. It's not unusual for states or school…

  17. Superintendent Leadership and Student Achievement in Suburban High Schools: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellner, Steven Reese

    2012-01-01

    This research study explored the critical nature of the connection between student achievement and superintendent leadership. A great deal of scholarship has addressed either student achievement or leadership and previous evidence has suggested the impact of both parental education and racioethnicity on student achievement, but few studies have…

  18. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Student Achievement in a Rural Florida High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Willie A.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement is viewed as critical to the development of effective schools and student achievement. The relationship between parental involvement and achievement test scores at a rural high school in Florida was not known. This high school has not met the state standards as determined by the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT)…

  19. Middle School Friendships and Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Early adolescence is a critical transition period for the maintenance of academic achievement. One factor that school systems often fail to take into account is the influence of friends on academic achievement during middle school. This study investigated the influence of friends' characteristics on change in academic achievement from Grade 6 to…

  20. Achievement Testing of Disadvantaged and Minority Students for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Michael J., Ed.; Green, Donald Ross, Ed.

    The following papers were delivered: Introductory Remarks, John W. Evans; An Evaluator's Perspective, Michael J. Wargo; Problems of Achievement Tests in Program Evaluation, Donald Ross Green; Diverse Human Populations and Problems in Educational Program Evaluation via Achievement Testing, Edmund W. Gordon; Critical Issues in Achievement Testing of…

  1. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Because xenon near the critical point will collapse under its own weight, experiments on Earth (green line) are limited as they get closer (toward the left) to the critical point. CVX in the microgravity of space (red line) moved into unmeasured territory that scientists had not been able to reach.

  2. Sperm retrieval during critical illness.

    PubMed

    Powner, David J; Rumohr, Jon A; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2010-06-01

    Objective of this study is to review technical methods to retrieve sperm from critically ill/injured patients after an appropriate family request, possible harmful effects on sperm production/function by ICU medications or concurrent illnesses, and ethical considerations for hospitals and care providers in providing this resource. Design used for this study includes: literature review, PubMed 1998-2009, and authors' files. There are no interventions. In conclusion, although successful and unsuccessful pregnancies following sperm removal from critically-ill patients are reported, no firm probability predictions for either result are known. Acute and chronic diseases that effect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and multiple medications common to the ICU may reduce sperm production or function. Retrieval methods before and after cardio-respiratory death differ and often require intracytoplasmic sperm injection or other in vitro fertilization techniques to achieve a subsequent pregnancy. The proactive development of a collaborative policy/procedure to identify appropriate roles for the hospital, its employees, and affiliated critical care and urology physicians is strongly recommended.

  3. Parental Economic Hardship and Children's Achievement Orientations*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Frank Lei; Hussemann, Jeanette; Wu, Chen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    While children’s orientations to achievement are strong predictors of attainments, little is known about how parental economic hardship during recessionary times influences children’s orientations to their futures. The Youth Development Study has followed a community sample of young people in St Paul, Minnesota from mid-adolescence through their mid-thirties with near-annual surveys, and has recently begun surveying the children of this cohort. Using linked parent and child data, the present study examines the relationship between parental economic hardship and children's achievement orientations in the aftermath of the recent “Great Recession.” Initial OLS analyses draw on 345 parent-child pairs, with data collected from parents during their adolescence, during the decade prior to the recession, and in 2011, and from their children (age 11 and older) in 2011. Then, first difference models are estimated, based on a smaller sample (N=186) of parents and children who completed surveys in both 2009 and 2011. Our findings indicate that when families are more vulnerable, as a result of low parental education and prior parental unemployment experience, children’s achievement orientations are more strongly threatened by the family’s economic circumstances. For example, as parental financial problems increased, economic expectations declined only among children of the least well-educated parents. Low household incomes diminished educational aspirations only when parents experienced unemployment during the ten years prior to the recent recession. Parental achievement orientations, as adolescents, were also found to moderate the impacts of shifts in the family’s economic circumstances. Finally, boys reacted more strongly to their parents’ hardship than girls. PMID:25774223

  4. Consideration of criticality in a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Sanchez, L.C.; Stockman, C.T.; Ramsey, J.L. Jr.; Martell, M.

    1995-07-01

    The preliminary criticality analysis that was done suggests that the possibility of achieving critical conditions cannot be easily ruled out without looking at the geochemical process of assembly or the dynamics of the operation of a critical assembly. The evaluation of a critical assembly requires an integrated, consistent approach that includes evaluating the following: (1) the alteration rates of the layers of the container and spent fuel, (2) the transport of fissile material or neutron absorbers, and (3) the assembly mechanisms that can achieve critical conditions. The above is a non-trivial analysis and preliminary work suggests that with the loading assumed, enough fissile mass will leach from the HEU multi-purpose canisters to support a criticality. In addition, the consequences of an unpressurized Oklo type criticality would be insignificant to the performance of an unsaturated, tuff repository.

  5. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  6. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  7. Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

  8. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  9. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  10. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  11. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  12. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  13. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  14. Achieving Results in MBA Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Rice University's Jones Graduate School of Management achieves their mission for the communication program. Discusses three keys to the success of the program: individual coaching, integrated team instruction, and constant assessment of the students and the program. Presents an overview of the program. (SG)

  15. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  16. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  17. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  18. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  19. Achievement in Two School Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borth, Audrey M.

    The purpose of the study was to assess non-intellective correlates of achievement in a lower-class, all black, urban elementary school. These students were compared with a University school population which was different in many dimensions. There were residual similarities relative to the general role of the elementary school student. In neither…

  20. Literacy Achievement in Nongraded Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreide, Anita Therese

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal quantitative study compared literacy achievement of students from second through sixth grade based on two organizational systems: graded (traditional) and nongraded (multiage) classrooms. The California Standards Test (CST) scaled and proficiency scores for English-Language Arts (ELA) were used as the study's independent variable…

  1. PREDICTING ACHIEVEMENT FOR DEAF CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BONHAM, S.J., JR.

    THIS STUDY WAS DONE TO DETERMINE THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACHIEVEMENT TESTS WHEN USED TO EVALUATE DEAF CHILDREN. THE 36 CHILDREN SELECTED FOR THIS STUDY WERE IN GRADES 2, 4, AND 6 IN THE KENNEDY SCHOOL IN DAYTON, OHIO. ALL HAD SEVERE AUDITORY HANDICAPS AND WERE 10 TO 16 YEARS OLD. FOUR PSYCHOLOGISTS ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING…

  2. Perlman receives Sustained Achievement Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Charles; Perlman, David

    David Perlman was awarded the Sustained Achievement Award at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 10, 1997, in San Francisco, California. The award recognizes a journalist who has made significant, lasting, and consistent contributions to accurate reporting or writing on the geophysical sciences for the general public.

  3. Great achievements by dedicated nurses.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Alison

    2016-04-27

    Like many nurses, those featured here are motivated by a desire to do everything they can to give high quality care to their patients. Nurses are often reluctant to seek recognition for their achievements, but by talking publicly about the difference they have made, Gillian Elwood, Anja Templin and Sandra Wood are helping to share good practice. PMID:27191295

  4. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  5. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  6. Helping Rural Schools Achieve Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Senator Collins of Maine plans to fight for proper federal funding of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that allows rural schools to combine federal funding sources. Collins, and Senator Dianne Feinstein, will soon introduce legislation that will eliminate inequities in the current Social Security law that penalize teachers and other…

  7. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  8. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  9. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  10. Representing student achievements in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Dana; Calabrese Barton, Angela

    2001-03-01

    In what follows, we develop a conceptual argument for expanding current visions of performance assessment to include the following three ideals: that performance/assessment addresses the value-laden decisions about what and whose science is learned and assessed and include multiple worldviews, that performance/assessment in science simultaneously emerges in response to local needs, and that the performance/assessment is a method as well as an ongoing search for method. To make this argument, we draw together ideas raised by critical, feminist and multicultural science educators to describe an inclusive science education, one we refer to as critical science education, to raise questions about the nature and purpose of performance assessment in science education. We are particularly interested in how the science of assessment is challenged and transformed within a critical science education perspective and the conditions needed to create an equitable and inclusive practice of science and science assessment across diversity. We present a case study from a youth-led community science project in the inner city to help contextualize our argument.

  11. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation's defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE's capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  12. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation`s defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE`s capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  13. Progress in Initiator Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hrousis, C A; Christensen, J S

    2009-05-04

    There is great interest in applying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation techniques to the designs of electrical high explosive (HE) initiators, for the purpose of better understanding a design's sensitivities, optimizing its performance, and/or predicting its useful lifetime. Two MHD-capable LLNL codes, CALE and ALE3D, are being used to simulate the process of ohmic heating, vaporization, and plasma formation in the bridge of an initiator, be it an exploding bridgewire (EBW), exploding bridgefoil (EBF) or slapper type initiator. The initiation of the HE is simulated using Tarver Ignition & Growth reactive flow models. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D models have been constructed and studied. The models provide some intuitive explanation of the initiation process and are useful for evaluating the potential impact of identified aging mechanisms (such as the growth of intermetallic compounds or powder sintering). The end product of this work is a simulation capability for evaluating margin in proposed, modified or aged initiation system designs.

  14. Detonation Initiation with Thermal Deposition due to Pore Collapse in Energetic Materials - Towards the Coupling between Micro- and Macroscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ju; Jackson, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Initiation of detonation through thermal power deposition due to pore collapse in energetic materials (such as HMX) is studied numerically by solving the reactive Euler equations. The thermal power deposition model is partially based on previous results of direct simulations of pore collapse. The thermal deposition time scales obtained from the pore collapse model are significantly longer than acoustic time scale. It is found here that a critical size of hot spots exists, and when hot spots exceed the critical size, direct initiation of detonation upon ignition seems independent of power input, and is achieved even with low power input. On the other hand, when hot spots are below the critical size, the ignition does not lead to detonation. However, if the thermal deposition time scale is decreased, a scenario different than pore collapse, such that it is on the acoustic time scale, detonation does arise, a scenario corresponding to the so-called ``explosion in explosion''. A time scale criterion for direct initiation of detonation is then proposed and demonstrated with numerical simulations. It is proposed that if the chemical reaction time scale is shorter than the acoustic time scale at ignition, the ignition will lead to a direct initiation of detonation.

  15. The Critical Pragmatist as Scholar-Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    The intention of this article is to firmly build a case for the fit of a "new scholarship" known as scholar-practitioner as a leadership perspective grounded by the philosophical and theoretical tenets of critical pragmatism. Using post-formal thought as an approach to establish the fit of scholar-practitioner as a reform initiative and leadership…

  16. Who initiates emergency commitments?

    PubMed

    Christy, Annette; Handelsman, Jessica B; Hanson, Ardis; Ochshorn, Ezra

    2010-04-01

    Florida's Mental Health Act was amended in 2005 and 2006 to include licensed mental health counselors and licensed marriage and family therapists, respectively, to the list of professionals authorized to initiate emergency commitments. The present study evaluates the volume of involuntary emergency commitments by type of initiator for a 5 year period. The results indicate that allowing licensed mental health counselors and licensed marriage and family therapist to initiate emergency commitments has not been related to increased numbers of emergency commitments or a higher proportion of emergency commitments being initiated by mental health professionals. Potential policy and fiscal implications, as well as future directions for research, are discussed. PMID:19597746

  17. The Need for Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to an article in the same issue of this journal about educational criticism as a form of qualitative inquiry. Argues that research in education has become a dead end. Agrees in the main with the article, but finds its view of criticism somewhat limited. Discusses the classroom itself as hypertext. (SR)

  18. Critical Thinking in Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronis, Diane

    This booklet includes a wheel of problem solving strategies and a seven-step process for approaching and solving complicated problems. The information provided gives students a variety of ways to approach, analyze, and think critically about mathematics problems. The chapters present guides to promoting critical thinking in cooperative groups…

  19. Critical Literacy: Foundational Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The term "critical literacy" refers to use of the technologies of print and other media of communication to analyze, critique, and transform the norms, rule systems, and practices governing the social fields of everyday life (A. Luke, 2004). Since Freire's (1970) educational projects in Brazil, approaches to critical literacy have been developed…

  20. Against Critical Thinking Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…

  1. Rethinking Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is of primary importance in higher education, yet the concept remains slippery and the skill elusive. The author argues that most current critical thinking textbooks are out of line with the seminal work of John Dewey. Rather than logical argument and justification, it is suggested that carefulness, open-mindedness and creativity…

  2. Critical Chain Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce…

  3. Critical Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    This essay begins with a description of Jurgen Habermas's theory of communicative action, emphasizing aspects which relate to a critical theory of teaching/learning. Existing theory and research is reviewed. A critical theory of pedagogy as a form of communicative action or interaction is presented. (MT)

  4. Critical Education Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxley, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Education Studies as an academic discipline within HE in the UK is a contested area. One thing most Education Studies programmes might agree on is that they are "critical". But what is a genuinely critical Education Studies degree? And, how could such a programme survive within the hostile neoliberal environment of the contemporary UK?…

  5. Critical Social Numeracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, David

    2002-01-01

    Presents a five-step method to develop the critical numeracy knowledge of numerically intimidated students. Examines the method in detail, discussing Piagetian diagnostic tools and how to adapt the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy to teach critical numeracy. (CMK)

  6. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  7. Creating a Critical Thinker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2014-01-01

    A college education is expected to improve students' critical thinking skills. Keeping students active in class--through writing activities and class discussion--has been shown to help students think critically. In this article, creative hands-on activities, which are common in engineering courses, are shown to improve students' critical…

  8. The concept of target and critical loads

    SciTech Connect

    Grigal, D.F.

    1991-09-01

    Target and critical loads were initially developed for assessment and control of acidic deposition, but are being considered for other air pollutants such as ozone and air-borne toxic compounds. These loads are based on thresholds, with damage assumed to occur above some defined level of deposition. Many of the historically proposed targets for acidic deposition were based on arbitrary interpretations of data. The concept of critical loads has recently separated from that of target loads. A critical load is the amount of pollutant deposition, determined by technical analysis, above which there is a specific deleterious ecological effect. A target load is the deposition, determined by political agreement, above which unacceptable ecological damage occurs; it may be greater than the critical load because of political or economic considerations, or less to conservatively account for uncertainty in the estimation of the critical load. Recent definitions of critical loads include recognition that each kind of ecosystem and effect may require a different load. Geographic regions contain a mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial resources. If precise knowledge leads to different critical loads for each system, then how is the regional target load established For better or worse, target and critical loads are likely to be used to regulate air pollutants. The philosophy of their establishment as thresholds, their quantitative validity, and their application in regulation all require careful examination. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Strategic Map for Achieving Enceladus Ocean Exploration in Our Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, B.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, the author presented a decomposition and sequencing of science questions and technical capabilities that define viable programmatic pathways to enable sample return and advanced in situ exploration of the Enceladan ocean, consistent with NASA mission-opportunity constraints. Elaborated and refined in 2015 via JpGU, AbSciCon, IAC, and COSPAR Water, this plan is now specific: discrete and integrated analyses and coordination actions that, if acted on by the community over the next 45 months, could result in Enceladus ocean exploration appearing in the next Planetary Decadal Survey's mission priorities, issued in 2021. At AGU 2015, a product-based, outcome-measurable, stepwise milestone plan is presented to catalyze the next level of community discussion. Topics covered by the action plan include: hypothesis-driven science questions; mission cost as a function of mission capability; mission selectability as a function of programmatic constraints and evaluation process; exploration technologies as a function of funding and schedule; international consensus on forward and backward planetary protection requirements and solutions for exploring worlds with astrobiologically significant liquid water; and strategic balance among major NASA planetary science initiatives. Key Decadal-runup milestones are analyzed with respect to stakeholders, success criteria, and - critically - calendar and precedence. These results then inform a multi-year action plan to generate, vet, and socialize throughout the community a set of technically and fiscally viable mission concepts, respectively enabled by an achievable technology development roadmap also detailed in the presentation. This can begin to align advocate actions toward a broad community goal of exploring the Enceladan ocean. Without such coordination, which must reach fruition by Sep 2019, the probability that the next Decadal could explicitly prioritize mission objectives for Enceladus ocean exploration - as one of

  10. Critical Schwinger Pair Production.

    PubMed

    Gies, Holger; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2016-03-01

    We investigate Schwinger pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair production can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-production rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair production exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type scaling, and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting criticality. PMID:26991162

  11. Telemedicine in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Murias, Gastón; Sales, Bernat; Garcia-Esquirol, Oscar; Blanch, Lluis

    2009-01-01

    Critical care medicine is the specialty that cares for patients with acute life-threatening illnesses where intensivists look after all aspects of patient care. Nevertheless, shortage of physicians and nurses, the relationship between high costs and economic restrictions, and the fact that critical care knowledge is only available at big hospitals puts the system on the edge. In this scenario, telemedicine might provide solutions to improve availability of critical care knowledge where the patient is located, improve relationship between attendants in different institutions and education material for future specialist training. Current information technologies and networking capabilities should be exploited to improve intensivist coverage, advanced alarm systems and to have large critical care databases of critical care signals. PMID:19452034

  12. Nutritional interventions in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Powell-Tuck, Jeremy

    2007-02-01

    The metabolism of critical illness is characterised by a combination of starvation and stress. There is increased production of cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon and growth hormone and increased insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1. Phagocytic, epithelial and endothelial cells elaborate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators, and antioxidant depletion ensues. There is hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlactataemia, increased gluconeogenesis and decreased glycogen production. Insulin resistance, particularly in relation to the liver, is marked. The purpose of nutritional support is primarily to save life and secondarily to speed recovery by reducing neuropathy and maintaining muscle mass and function. There is debate about the optimal timing of nutritional support for the patient in the intensive care unit. It is generally agreed that the enteral route is preferable if possible, but the dangers of the parenteral route, a route of feeding that remains important in the context of critical illness, may have been over-emphasised. Control of hyperglycaemia is beneficial, and avoidance of overfeeding is emphasised. Growth hormone is harmful. The refeeding syndrome needs to be considered, although it has been little studied in the context of critical illness. Achieving energy balance may not be necessary in the early stages of critical illness, particularly in patients who are overweight or obese. Protein turnover is increased and N balance is often negative in the face of normal nutrient intake; optimal N intakes are the subject of some debate. Supplementation of particular amino acids able to support or regulate the immune response, such as glutamine, may have a role not only for their potential metabolic effect but also for their potential antioxidant role. Doubt remains in relation to arginine supplementation. High-dose mineral and vitamin antioxidant therapy may have a place. PMID:17343768

  13. AGING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2004-09-10

    The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality calculation for the Aging Facility (documented in BSC 2004a). This design calculation will also demonstrate and ensure that the storage and aging operations to be performed in the Aging Facility meet the criticality safety design criteria in the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (Doraswamy 2004, Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004f, p. 3-12). The scope of this design calculation covers the systems and processes for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and staging Department of Energy (DOE) SNF/High-Level Waste (HLW) prior to its placement in the final waste package (WP) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-1). Aging commercial SNF is a thermal management strategy, while staging DOE SNF/HLW will make loading of WPs more efficient (note that aging DOE SNF/HLW is not needed since these wastes are not expected to exceed the thermal limits form emplacement) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-2). The description of the changes in this revised document is as follows: (1) Include DOE SNF/HLW in addition to commercial SNF per the current ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC 2004f). (2) Update the evaluation of Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the Aging Facility as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004c, Section 7). (3) Further evaluate the design and criticality controls required for a storage/aging cask, referred to as MGR Site-specific Cask (MSC), to accommodate commercial fuel outside the content specification in the Certificate of Compliance for the existing NRC-certified storage casks. In addition, evaluate the design required for the MSC that will accommodate DOE SNF/HLW. This design calculation will achieve the objective of providing the criticality safety results to support the preliminary design of the Aging

  14. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  15. Laser diode initiated detonators for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewick, David W.; Graham, J. A.; Hawley, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Ensign Bickford Aerospace Company (EBAC) has over ten years of experience in the design and development of laser ordnance systems. Recent efforts have focused on the development of laser diode ordnance systems for space applications. Because the laser initiated detonators contain only insensitive secondary explosives, a high degree of system safety is achieved. Typical performance characteristics of a laser diode initiated detonator are described in this paper, including all-fire level, function time, and output. A finite difference model used at EBAC to predict detonator performance, is described and calculated results are compared to experimental data. Finally, the use of statistically designed experiments to evaluate performance of laser initiated detonators is discussed.

  16. Early mobilization in the critical care unit: A review of adult and pediatric literature.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Saoirse; Ball, Ian; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Choong, Karen; Doherty, Timothy J; Ellis, Christopher G; Martin, Claudio M; Mele, Tina S; Sharpe, Michael; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Fraser, Douglas D

    2015-08-01

    Early mobilization of critically ill patients is beneficial, suggesting that it should be incorporated into daily clinical practice. Early passive, active, and combined progressive mobilizations can be safely initiated in intensive care units (ICUs). Adult patients receiving early mobilization have fewer ventilator-dependent days, shorter ICU and hospital stays, and better functional outcomes. Pediatric ICU data are limited, but recent studies also suggest that early mobilization is achievable without increasing patient risk. In this review, we provide a current and comprehensive appraisal of ICU mobilization techniques in both adult and pediatric critically ill patients. Contraindications and perceived barriers to early mobilization, including cost and health care provider views, are identified. Methods of overcoming barriers to early mobilization and enhancing sustainability of mobilization programs are discussed. Optimization of patient outcomes will require further studies on mobilization timing and intensity, particularly within specific ICU populations.

  17. Illinois: Prevention Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Prevention Initiative provides grants to home-based and center-based programs to expand access to the Early Head Start (EHS) model as well as other birth to 3 models. The goal is to serve additional children birth to age 3 and help grantees increase program quality. The initiative to expand access to EHS and other models was…

  18. Prioritizing Scientific Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahcall, John N.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the way in which a limited number of astronomy research initiatives were chosen and prioritized based on a consensus of members from the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. A list of recommended equipment initiatives and estimated costs is provided. (KR)

  19. Nuclear data needs for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S.D.; Auchampaugh, G.

    1991-01-01

    On July 20, 1989, the President of the United States announced a new direction for the US Space Program. The new Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is intended to emplace a permanent base on the Lunar surface and a manned outpost on the Mars surface by 2019. In order to achieve this ambitious challenge, new, innovative and robust technologies will have to be developed to support crew operations. Nuclear power and propulsion have been recognized as technologies that are at least mission enhancing and, in some scenarios, mission enabling. Because of the extreme operating conditions present in a nuclear rocket core, accurate modeling of the rocket will require cross section data sets which do not currently exist. In order to successfully achieve the goals of the SEI, major obstacles inherent in long duration space travel will have to be overcome. One of these obstacles is the radiation environment to which the astronauts will be exposed. In general, an unshielded crew will be exposed to roughly one REM per week in free space. For missions to Mars, the total dose could exceed more than one-half the total allowed lifetime level. Shielding of the crew may be possible, but accurate assessments of shield composition and thickness are critical if shield masses are to be kept at acceptable levels. In addition, the entire ship design may be altered by the differential neutron production by heavy ions (Galactic Cosmic Rays) incident on ship structures. The components of the radiation environment, current modeling capability and envisioned experiments will be discussed.

  20. Higher Education: A Critical Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    Current concepts of critical thinking need to be reconstrued into the much broader concept of "critical being" and applied to higher education. Under this construct, critical persons (students) become more than just critical thinkers; they engage critically with the world and with themselves; they not only reflect critically on knowledge, but also…