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Sample records for achieved major molecular

  1. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in cBIM Is Associated with a Slower Achievement of Major Molecular Response in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia Treated with Imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Augis, Vanessa; Airiau, Kelly; Josselin, Marina; Turcq, Béatrice; Mahon, François-Xavier; Belloc, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose BIM is essential for the response to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients. Recently, a deletion polymorphism in intron 2 of the BIM gene was demonstrated to confer an intrinsic TKI resistance in Asian patients. The present study aimed at identifying mutations in the BIM sequence that could lead to imatinib resistance independently of BCR-ABL mutations. Experimental Design BIM coding sequence analysis was performed in 72 imatinib-treated CML patients from a French population of our centre and in 29 healthy controls (reference population) as a case-control study. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT qPCR) was performed to assess Bim expression in our reference population. Results No mutation with amino-acid change was found in the BIM coding sequence. However, we observed a silent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c465C>T (rs724710). A strong statistical link was found between the presence of the T allele and the high Sokal risk group (p = 0.0065). T allele frequency was higher in non responsive patients than in the reference population (p = 0.0049). Similarly, this T allele was associated with the mutation frequency on the tyrosine kinase domain of BCR-ABL (p<0.001) and the presence of the T allele significantly lengthened the time to achieve a major molecular response (MMR). Finally, the presence of the T allele was related to a decreased basal expression of the Bim mRNA in the circulating mononuclear cells of healthy controls. Conclusion These results suggest that the analysis of the c465C>T SNP of BIM could be useful for predicting the outcome of imatinib-treated CML patients. PMID:24223824

  2. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  3. ALMA Achieves Major Milestone With Antenna-Link Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international telescope project, reached a major milestone on March 2, when two ALMA prototype antennas were first linked together as an integrated system to observe an astronomical object. The milestone achievement, technically termed "First Fringes," came at the ALMA Test Facility (ATF) on the grounds of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation (NSF), managed by Associated Universities, Incorporated (AUI). AUI also is designated by NSF as the North American Executive for ALMA. ALMA Test Facility ALMA Test Facility, New Mexico: VertexRSI antenna, left; AEC antenna, right. CREDIT: Drew Medlin, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and full information Faint radio waves emitted by the planet Saturn were collected by the two ALMA antennas, then processed by new, state-of-the-art electronics to turn the two antennas into a single, high-resolution telescope system, called an interferometer. Such pairs of antennas are the basic building blocks of multi-antenna imaging systems such as ALMA and the VLA. In such a system, each antenna is combined electronically with every other antenna to form a multitude of pairs. Each pair contributes unique information that is used to build a highly-detailed image of the astronomical object under observation. When completed in 2012, ALMA will have 66 antennas. The successful Saturn observation began at 7:13 p.m., U.S. Mountain Time Friday (0213 UTC Saturday). The planet's radio emissions at a frequency of 104 GigaHertz (GHz) were tracked by the ALMA system for more than an hour. "Our congratulations go to the dedicated team of scientists, engineers and technicians who produced this groundbreaking achievement for ALMA. Much hard work and many long hours went into this effort, and we appreciate it all. This team should be very proud today," said NRAO

  4. Major Molecular Response Achievement in CML Patients Can Be Predicted by BCR-ABL1/ABL1 or BCR-ABL1/GUS Ratio at an Earlier Time Point of Follow-Up than Currently Recommended

    PubMed Central

    Huet, Sarah; Cony-Makhoul, Pascale; Heiblig, Maël; Tigaud, Isabelle; Gazzo, Sophie; Belhabri, Amine; Souche, Denis; Michallet, Mauricette; Magaud, Jean-Pierre; Hayette, Sandrine; Nicolini, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that early molecular response to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors is strongly predictive of outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia patients and that early response landmarks may identify patients at higher risk for transformation who would benefit from an early switch to second-line therapy. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the control gene GUS to identify relevant thresholds for known therapeutic decision levels (BCR-ABL1/ABL1IS  = 10% and 0.1%). We then defined the most relevant cut-offs for early molecular response markers (transcript level at 3 months, halving time and log reduction between diagnosis and 3 months of treatment) using GUS or ABL1. We demonstrated that, although both control genes could be used (in an equivalent way) to accurately assess early molecular response, the BCR-ABL1/GUS level at diagnosis is impacted by the higher GUS copy number over-expressed in CML cells, thus negatively impacting its ability to completely replace ABL1 at diagnosis. Furthermore, we pointed out, for the first time, that it would be helpful to monitor BCR-ABL1 levels at an earlier time point than that currently performed, in order to assess response to first-line tyrosine-kinase inhibitors and consider a potential switch of therapy as early as possible. We evaluated this optimal time point as being 19 days after the start of treatment in our cohort. PMID:25203717

  5. Enhancing reproductive performance in dairy buffalo: major constraints and achievements.

    PubMed

    Nanda, A S; Brar, P S; Prabhakar, S

    2003-01-01

    Buffalo are of high economic importance for farmers in several developing countries but reproductive performance is poor. A large proportion of heifers attain puberty at 3-5 years of age. A good quality diet supplemented with extra nutrients reduces the age of puberty, whereas the effects of administration of exogenous GnRH or equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) are equivocal. The incidence of anoestrus in buffalo ranges from 20 to 80% depending on season. Most buffalo cease ovarian cyclicity during hot summers probably due to the combined effects of nutrition, environment and management. Keeping buffalo cool by wallowing, water sprinklers or shade improves fertility. Supplementary feeding with Urea Molasses Multi-nutrient Blocks (UMMB) for 60 days before calving enhances the early onset of postpartum oestrus. Regular UMMB supplementation also improves pregnancy rates in anoestrous non-pregnant buffalo. Prepartum vaginal prolapse is hereditary and eradication can be achieved by genetic selective breeding programmes. Treatment with calcium, phosphorus and progesterone gives only transient relief to clinical cases. Uterine torsion is the most common cause of dystocia (70%). Deployment of Sharma's detorsion method and anti-stress measures increase survival rates in cases presented within 36 h. In conclusion, greater understanding about the effects of better year-round nutrition, improved management and markers for logical breeding programmes are essential to curtail the incidence of the reproductive disorders that reduce buffalo fertility.

  6. [Animal experiments and the major achievements in the history of biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Kopaladze, R A

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that major achievements in the history of biomedicine, obtained in experiments on animals: the discovery of blood circulation, the achievements of microbiology and development of the concept of immunity, the discovery of reflex and the doctrine of higher nervous activity, achievements of genetics, formation of modeling methods on animals and drug testing. It is stressed that the benefits for science and medicine, obtained through experimentation on animals, does not relieve scientists from responsibility.

  7. Molecular and genetic inflammation networks in major human diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongzhong; Forst, Christian V; Sayegh, Camil E; Wang, I-Ming; Yang, Xia; Zhang, Bin

    2016-07-19

    It has been well-recognized that inflammation alongside tissue repair and damage maintaining tissue homeostasis determines the initiation and progression of complex diseases. Albeit with the accomplishment of having captured the most critical inflammation-involved molecules, genetic susceptibilities, epigenetic factors, and environmental factors, our schemata on the role of inflammation in complex diseases remain largely patchy, in part due to the success of reductionism in terms of research methodology per se. Omics data alongside the advances in data integration technologies have enabled reconstruction of molecular and genetic inflammation networks which shed light on the underlying pathophysiology of complex diseases or clinical conditions. Given the proven beneficial role of anti-inflammation in coronary heart disease as well as other complex diseases and immunotherapy as a revolutionary transition in oncology, it becomes timely to review our current understanding of the molecular and genetic inflammation networks underlying major human diseases. In this review, we first briefly discuss the complexity of infectious diseases and then highlight recently uncovered molecular and genetic inflammation networks in other major human diseases including obesity, type II diabetes, coronary heart disease, late onset Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and sporadic cancer. The commonality and specificity of these molecular networks are addressed in the context of genetics based on genome-wide association study (GWAS). The double-sword role of inflammation, such as how the aberrant type 1 and/or type 2 immunity leads to chronic and severe clinical conditions, remains open in terms of the inflammasome and the core inflammatome network features. Increasingly available large Omics and clinical data in tandem with systems biology approaches have offered an exciting yet challenging opportunity toward reconstruction of more comprehensive and dynamic molecular and genetic

  8. Molecular, Functional, and Structural Imaging of Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Yunqi; Zhu, Yuankai; Wu, Shuang; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Caiyun; Zhang, Hong; Hayashi, Takuya; Tian, Mei

    2016-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, correlating with genetic susceptibility and environmental risk factors. Molecular, functional, and structural imaging approaches have been increasingly used to detect neurobiological changes, analyze neurochemical correlates, and parse pathophysiological mechanisms underlying MDD. We reviewed recent neuroimaging publications on MDD in terms of molecular, functional, and structural alterations as detected mainly by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography. Altered structure and function of brain regions involved in the cognitive control of affective state have been demonstrated. An abnormal default mode network, as revealed by resting-state functional MRI, is likely associated with aberrant metabolic and serotonergic function revealed by radionuclide imaging. Further multi-modal investigations are essential to clarify the characteristics of the cortical network and serotonergic system associated with behavioral and genetic variations in MDD. PMID:27142698

  9. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  10. The significance of early, major and stable molecular responses in chronic myeloid leukemia in the imatinib era.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2011-08-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have dramatically changed the management and the outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Imatinib is recognized as gold standard first-line therapy and impressive clinical and cytogenetic responses are obtained in the majority of chronic phase patients treated with this drug. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) tool is used to monitor molecular residual disease, but practical issues are associated to measurement of molecular responses. Several evidences have now proved that molecular responses have prognostic significance: patients who achieve early molecular response are more likely to obtain durable cytogenetic response and to present less rate of disease progression. While some reports indicated that achieving major molecular response (MMR) represents the most important endpoint associated to best outcome, some other reports indicated that achievement of MMR does not improve the greatest clinical benefit brought by complete cytogenetic response. In this review, we discuss on the role of molecular monitoring, the significance of early response and its correlation with outcome, the significance of major and complete molecular response, the emphasized value of a stable molecular response, the early identification of resistance presenting with increased molecular level.

  11. Molecular biology of major components of chloride cells.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Shigehisa; Kaneko, Toyoji; Naito, Nobuko; Takei, Yoshio

    2003-12-01

    Current understanding of chloride cells (CCs) is briefly reviewed with emphasis on molecular aspects of their channels, transporters and regulators. Seawater-type and freshwater-type CCs have been identified based on their shape, location and response to different ionic conditions. Among the freshwater-type CCs, subpopulations are emerging that are implicated in the uptake of Na(+), Cl(-) and Ca(2+), respectively, and can be distinguished by their shape of apical crypt and affinity for lectins. The major function of the seawater CC is transcellular secretion of Cl(-), which is accomplished by four major channels and transporters: (1). CFTR Cl(-) channel, (2). Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, (3). Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter and (4). a K(+) channel. The first three components have been cloned and characterized, but concerning the K(+) channel that is essential for the continued generation of the driving force by Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, only one candidate is identified. Although controversial, freshwater CCs seem to perform the uptake of Na(+), Cl(-) and Ca(2+) in a manner analogous to but slightly different from that seen in the absorptive epithelia of mammalian kidney and intestine since freshwater CCs face larger concentration gradients than ordinary epithelial cells. The components involved in these processes are beginning to be cloned, but their CC localization remains to be established definitively. The most important yet controversial issue is the mechanism of Na(+) uptake. Two models have been postulated: (i). the original one involves amiloride-sensitive electroneutral Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) with the driving force generated by Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA) and (ii). the current model suggests that Na(+) uptake occurs through an amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) electrogenically coupled to H(+)-ATPase. While fish ENaC remains to be identified by molecular cloning and database mining, fish NHE has been cloned and shown to be highly

  12. A decade of molecular cell biology: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Asifa; Fuchs, Elaine; Mitchison, Tim; Shaw, Reuben J; St Johnston, Daniel; Strasser, Andreas; Taylor, Susan; Walczak, Claire; Zerial, Marino

    2011-09-23

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology celebrated its 10-year anniversary during this past year with a series of specially commissioned articles. To complement this, here we have asked researchers from across the field for their insights into how molecular cell biology research has evolved during this past decade, the key concepts that have emerged and the most promising interfaces that have developed. Their comments highlight the broad impact that particular advances have had, some of the basic understanding that we still require, and the collaborative approaches that will be essential for driving the field forward.

  13. Stereotype Threat's Effect on Women's Achievement in Chemistry: The Interaction of Achievement Goal Orientation for Women in Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For…

  14. The Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Major and Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberal Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The defining task for undergraduate departments is the design of a major, including the number and content of courses as well as other requirements. Department members must weigh the desire to produce graduates superbly prepared for further study against the charge that the major requires too large a share of an undergraduate's course options.…

  15. Mental Functioning, Perceptual Differentiation, Personality, and Achievement among Art and Non-Art Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorethy, Rex; Reeves, Dan

    1979-01-01

    College art majors, art education majors, and nonart majors were compared on measures of brain hemisphere dominance, general intelligence, brain functioning, visual perceptual differentiation, grade point average, flexibility-rigidity, and personal-social adjustment. (SJL)

  16. Building a Bridge to Span the Minority-Majority Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanasa, Philip J., III; Potter, Jane Hopkins

    A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain why black students lag behind whites in school achievement. In the 1950s and 1960s, an environmental hypothesis emerged which attributed the achievement gap to environment. Environmentalists at this point were divided between those who felt the family determined achievement and those who felt…

  17. Molecular Aspects of Bone Resorption in β-Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Najmaldin; Abroun, Saeid; Salari, Fatemeh; Rahim, Fakher; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Javad, Mohammadi-Asl

    2015-01-01

    β-thalassemia is the most common single gene disorder worldwide, in which hemoglobin β-chain production is decreased. Today, the life expectancy of thalassemic patients is increased because of a variety of treatment methods; however treatment related complications have also increased. The most common side effect is osteoporosis, which usually occurs in early adulthood as a consequence of increased bone resorption. Increased bone resorption mainly results from factors such as delayed puberty, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, ineffective hematopoiesis as well as hyperplasia of the bone marrow, parathyroid gland dysfunction, toxic effect of iron on osteoblasts, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. These factors disrupt the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts by interfering with various molecular mechanisms and result in decreased bone density. Given the high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in thalassemic patients and complexity of their development process, the goal of this review is to evaluate the molecular aspects involved in osteopenia and osteoporosis in thalassemic patients, which may be useful for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26199898

  18. A Study of the Relationship between Learning Belief and English Achievement of Chinese English Major College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Hulin; Bai, Yulian

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that learning belief has great effect on learning, however, few studies examine the extent to which learning belief affects related achievement. This paper mainly discusses the study of relationship between learning belief and English achievement of Chinese English major students in College. Through the data analysis of…

  19. Achieving deeper molecular response is associated with a better clinical outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia patients on imatinib front-line therapy

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Gabriel; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Nicolini, Franck-Emmanuel; Morisset, Stéphane; Fort, Marie-Pierre; Schmitt, Anna; Etienne, Madeleine; Hayette, Sandrine; Lippert, Eric; Bureau, Caroline; Tigaud, Isabelle; Adiko, Didier; Marit, Gérald; Reiffers, Josy; Mahon, François-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Sustained imatinib treatment in chronic myeloid leukemia patients can result in complete molecular response allowing discontinuation without relapse. We set out to evaluate the frequency of complete molecular response in imatinib de novo chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients, to identify base-line and under-treatment predictive factors of complete molecular response in patients achieving complete cytogenetic response, and to assess if complete molecular response is associated with a better outcome. A random selection of patients on front-line imatinib therapy (n=266) were considered for inclusion. Complete molecular response was confirmed and defined as MR 4.5 with undetectable BCR-ABL transcript levels. Median follow up was 4.43 years (range 0.79–10.8 years). Sixty-five patients (24%) achieved complete molecular response within a median time of 32.7 months. Absence of spleen enlargement at diagnosis, achieving complete cytogenetic response before 12 months of therapy, and major molecular response during the year following complete cytogenetic response was predictive of achieving further complete molecular response. Patients who achieved complete molecular response had better event-free and failure-free survivals than those with complete cytogenetic response irrespective of major molecular response status (95.2% vs. 64.7% vs. 27.7%, P=0.00124; 98.4% vs. 82.3% vs. 56%, P=0.0335), respectively. Overall survival was identical in the 3 groups. In addition to complete cytogenetic response and major molecular response, further deeper molecular response is associated with better event-free and failure-free survivals, and complete molecular response confers the best outcome. PMID:24362549

  20. The Effect of Cognitive Learning Style-Based Reading Program on the Achievement of Jordanian Freshmen English Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hajaya, Nail; Al-Khresheh, Taisir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive learning style-based reading program on the achievement of Jordanian freshmen English majors. The subjects of the study consisted of 104 freshmen English majors enrolled for Reading Skills 1 in Tafila Technical University in Jordan in the fall semester 2007/2008. Students' learning styles,…

  1. Investigation of Writing Strategies, Writing Apprehension, and Writing Achievement among Saudi EFL-Major Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Asmari, AbdulRahman

    2013-01-01

    The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students' writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the…

  2. A Teaching Intervention to Increase Achievement of Hispanic Nonscience Majors Taking Physical Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poelzer, G. Herold; Zeng, Liang

    2008-01-01

    This quasi-experimental pilot study of nonscience majors taking a physical science course at a university in South Texas was conducted on Hispanic undergraduate students, and is theory based--an application of attribution theory. That the treatment group outperformed the comparison group provides evidence of the positive effect of having students…

  3. The Validity of the Strong Interest Inventory in Predicting College Major Choice and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shawn Michael

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the Strong Interest Inventory's (SII) ability to measure vocational interests and better understand how it predicts concurrent undergraduate academic majors. Although much literature exists concerning vocational interest measurement, no published study has utilized all scales on the SII to predict concurrent academic…

  4. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    PubMed

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  5. A Learner-Centered Molecular Modeling Exercise for Allied Health Majors in a Biochemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Terace M.; Ershler, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Learner-centered molecular modeling exercises in college science courses can be especially challenging for nonchemistry majors as students typically have a higher degree of anxiety and may not appreciate the relevance of the work. This article describes a learner-centered project given to allied health majors in a Biochemistry course. The project…

  6. Deep molecular responses achieved in patients with CML-CP who are switched to nilotinib after long-term imatinib.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Timothy P; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Spector, Nelson; Cervantes, Francisco; Pasquini, Ricardo; Clementino, Nelma Cristina D; Dorlhiac Llacer, Pedro Enrique; Schwarer, Anthony P; Mahon, Francois-Xavier; Rea, Delphine; Branford, Susan; Purkayastha, Das; Collins, LaTonya; Szczudlo, Tomasz; Leber, Brian

    2014-07-31

    Patients in complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) with detectable BCR-ABL1 after ≥2 years on imatinib were randomized to nilotinib (400 mg twice daily, n = 104) or continued imatinib (n = 103) in the Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in clinical Trials-Complete Molecular Response (ENESTcmr) trial. By 1 and 2 years, confirmed undetectable BCR-ABL1 was achieved by 12.5% vs 5.8% (P = .108) and 22.1% vs 8.7% of patients in the nilotinib and imatinib arms, respectively (P = .0087). Among patients without molecular response 4.5 (BCR-ABL1(IS) ≤0.0032%; MR(4.5)) and those without major molecular response at study start, MR(4.5) by 2 years was achieved by 42.9% vs 20.8% and 29.2% vs 3.6% of patients in the nilotinib and imatinib arms, respectively. No patient in the nilotinib arm lost CCyR, vs 3 in the imatinib arm. Adverse events were more common in the nilotinib arm, as expected with the introduction of a new drug vs remaining on a well-tolerated drug. The safety profile of nilotinib was consistent with other reported studies. In summary, switching to nilotinib enabled more patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) to sustain lower levels of disease burden vs remaining on imatinib. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00760877.

  7. Foundational concepts and underlying theories for majors in "biochemistry and molecular biology".

    PubMed

    Tansey, John T; Baird, Teaster; Cox, Michael M; Fox, Kristin M; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3) foundational skills that undergraduate majors in biochemistry and molecular biology must understand to complete their major coursework. Using information gained from these workshops, as well as from the ASBMB accreditation working group and the NSF Vision and Change report, the Core Concepts working group has developed a consensus list of learning outcomes and objectives based on five foundational concepts (evolution, matter and energy transformation, homeostasis, information flow, and macromolecular structure and function) that represent the expected conceptual knowledge base for undergraduate degrees in biochemistry and molecular biology. This consensus will aid biochemistry and molecular biology educators in the development of assessment tools for the new ASBMB recommended curriculum.

  8. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology.

  9. [The major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries and their significance for the near future].

    PubMed

    Lisitsyn, Iu P; Zhuravleva, T V

    2012-01-01

    Among major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries considered as the most outstanding contribution are the development of theory of system of control of functions of organism and its integrity by I.P. Pavlov and his disciples and followers: the concept of psycho-somatic medicine by Z. Freud and social psychology; the theory of stress and general adaptive syndrome by H. Selye and the discovering of nature of many infectious and parasitic diseases. Then establishment of pathogenic impact of extra-environmental factors, decoding of gene chromosomal structure of organism, development of genetic engineering, effective pharmaceuticals, and techniques of treatment and prevention of various inherent and acquired diseases also can be put into this category. The achievements and discoveries in the area of public health, social medicine and hygiene and development of concept of healthy life-style are discussed too. PMID:23350086

  10. Technical Tension Between Achieving Particulate and Molecular Organic Environmental Cleanliness: Data from Astromaterial Curation Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Burkett, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center operates clean curation facilities for Apollo lunar, Antarctic meteorite, stratospheric cosmic dust, Stardust comet and Genesis solar wind samples. Each of these collections is curated separately due unique requirements. The purpose of this abstract is to highlight the technical tensions between providing particulate cleanliness and molecular cleanliness, illustrated using data from curation laboratories. Strict control of three components are required for curating samples cleanly: a clean environment; clean containers and tools that touch samples; and use of non-shedding materials of cleanable chemistry and smooth surface finish. This abstract focuses on environmental cleanliness and the technical tension between achieving particulate and molecular cleanliness. An environment in which a sample is manipulated or stored can be a room, an enclosed glovebox (or robotic isolation chamber) or an individual sample container.

  11. Major Radiations in the Evolution of Caviid Rodents: Reconciling Fossils, Ghost Lineages, and Relaxed Molecular Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, María Encarnación; Pol, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Background Caviidae is a diverse group of caviomorph rodents that is broadly distributed in South America and is divided into three highly divergent extant lineages: Caviinae (cavies), Dolichotinae (maras), and Hydrochoerinae (capybaras). The fossil record of Caviidae is only abundant and diverse since the late Miocene. Caviids belongs to Cavioidea sensu stricto (Cavioidea s.s.) that also includes a diverse assemblage of extinct taxa recorded from the late Oligocene to the middle Miocene of South America (“eocardiids”). Results A phylogenetic analysis combining morphological and molecular data is presented here, evaluating the time of diversification of selected nodes based on the calibration of phylogenetic trees with fossil taxa and the use of relaxed molecular clocks. This analysis reveals three major phases of diversification in the evolutionary history of Cavioidea s.s. The first two phases involve two successive radiations of extinct lineages that occurred during the late Oligocene and the early Miocene. The third phase consists of the diversification of Caviidae. The initial split of caviids is dated as middle Miocene by the fossil record. This date falls within the 95% higher probability distribution estimated by the relaxed Bayesian molecular clock, although the mean age estimate ages are 3.5 to 7 Myr older. The initial split of caviids is followed by an obscure period of poor fossil record (refered here as the Mayoan gap) and then by the appearance of highly differentiated modern lineages of caviids, which evidentially occurred at the late Miocene as indicated by both the fossil record and molecular clock estimates. Conclusions The integrated approach used here allowed us identifying the agreements and discrepancies of the fossil record and molecular clock estimates on the timing of the major events in cavioid evolution, revealing evolutionary patterns that would not have been possible to gather using only molecular or paleontological data alone. PMID

  12. Carboxylate-based molecular magnet: One path toward achieving stable quantum correlations at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, C.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Brandão, P.; dos Santos, A. M.; Reis, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    The control of quantum correlations in solid-state systems by means of material engineering is a broad avenue to be explored, since it makes possible steps toward the limits of quantum mechanics and the design of novel materials with applications on emerging quantum technologies. In this context, this letter explores the potential of molecular magnets to be prototypes of materials for quantum information technology. More precisely, we engineered a material and from its geometric quantum discord we found significant quantum correlations up to 9540 K (even without entanglement); and, in addition, a pure singlet state occupied up to around 80 K (above liquid nitrogen temperature). These results could only be achieved due to the carboxylate group promoting a metal-to-metal huge magnetic interaction.

  13. Effect of bead and illustrations models on high school students' achievement in molecular genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2006-05-01

    Our main goal in this study was to explore whether the use of models in molecular genetics instruction in high school can contribute to students' understanding of concepts and processes in genetics. Three comparable groups of 11th and 12th graders participated: The control group (116 students) was taught in the traditional lecture format, while the others received instructions which integrated a bead model (71 students), or an illustration model (71 students). Similar instructions and the same guiding questions accompanied the two models. We used three instruments: a multiple-choice and an open-ended written questionnaire, as well as personal interviews. Five of the multiple-choice questions were also given to students before receiving their genetics instruction (pretest). We found that students who used one of the two types of models improved their knowledge in molecular genetics compared to the control group. However, the open-ended questions revealed that bead model activity was significantly more effective than illustration activity. On the basis of these findings we conclude that, though it is advisable to use a three-dimensional model, such as the bead model, engaging students in activities with illustrations can still improve their achievement in comparison to traditional instruction.

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of Cuc m 2, a major allergen in Cucumis melo

    PubMed Central

    Sankian, Mojtaba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies reported the clinical features of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity after ingestion of melon. Melon allergy is a common IgE-mediated fruit allergy in Iran. This prompted us to investigate immunochemical and molecular properties of the major allergen in melon fruit, to compare the IgE-binding capacity of the natural protein with the recombinant allergen, and to determine cross-reactivity of the major allergen with closely-related allergens from other plants displaying clinical cross-reactivity with melon. Methods: Identification and molecular characterization of the major melon allergen were performed using IgE immunoblotting, allergen-specific ELISA, affinity-based purifications, cross-inhibition assays, cloning, and expression of the allergen in Escherichia coli. Results: Melon profilin was identified and isolated as a major IgE-binding component and designated as Cuc m 2. Sequencing corresponding cDNA revealed an open reading frame of 363 bp coding for 131 amino acid residues and two fragments of 171 bp and 383 bps for the 5’and 3’ UTRs, respectively. Significant cross-reactivity was found between melon profilin and Cynodon dactylon, tomato, peach, and grape profilins in cross-inhibition assays. Although the highest degree of amino acid identity was revealed with watermelon profilin, there was no significant cross-reactivity between melon and watermelon profilins. Conclusion: Melon profilin is the major IgE-binding component in melon extract, and the recombinant and natural forms exhibited similar IgE-binding capacities. A part of the fruit-fruit and pollen-fruit cross-reactions could be explained by the presence of this conserved protein; however, sequence homology provides insufficient information to predict IgE cross-reactivity of profilins. PMID:26989709

  15. Male Saudi Arabian freshman science majors at Jazan University: Their perceptions of parental educational practices on their science achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of education and participant's choice of science major were used to identify groups for the purpose of data analysis. Data were gathered using five independent variables concerning parental educational practices (attitude, involvement, autonomy support, structure and control) and the dependent variable of science scores in high school. The sample consisted of 338 participants and was arbitrarily drawn from the science-based colleges (medical, engineering, and natural science) at Jazan University in Saudi Arabia. The data were tested using Pearson's analysis, backward multiple regression, one way ANOVA and independent t-test. The findings of the study reveal significant correlations for all five of the variables. Multiple regressions revealed that all five of the parents' educational practices indicators combined together could explain 19% of the variance in science scores and parental attitude toward science and educational involvement combined accounted for more than 18% of the variance. Analysis indicates that no significant difference is attributable to parental involvement and educational level. This finding is important because it indicates that, in Saudi Arabia, results are not consistent with research in Western or other Asian contexts.

  16. [Major host-protective antigens of Taeniidae cestode and their molecular biological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Yue, Long; Fu, Bao-quan

    2014-12-01

    Taeniidae cestodes are the pathogens of cysticercosis and hydatid disease, these diseases lead to substantial economic losses in animal husbandry and cause morbidity and mortality in human population. In recent years, many host-protective antigens of Taeniidae cestodes has been found, and their recombinant protein vaccines have been developed against several species, such as Taenia ovis, T. saginata, T. solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and E. multilocularis. This paper focuses on the major host-protective antigens of Taeniidae cestodes and their molecular biological characteristics. PMID:25902683

  17. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Hans F. Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  18. Skin: major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Merk, Hans F; Baron, Jens M; Neis, Mark M; Obrigkeit, Daniela Höller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  19. Hands-On, Demonstration, and Videotape Laboratories for Non-Science Majors in a Food Science Course: Achievement, Attitude, and Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. L.; Trout, B. L.; Brekke, C. J.; Luedecke, L. O.

    2004-01-01

    Student achievement, attitude, and instructional efficiency were determined for hands-on and for live and videotape demonstration laboratories for nonscience majors. Each of 3 laboratory sections experienced 3 different teaching methods for one 4-wk unit. No significant difference in achievement was found among the laboratory methods. An attitude…

  20. A Single Molecular Diels-Alder Crosslinker for Achieving Recyclable Cross-Linked Polymers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shengli; Wang, Fenfen; Peng, Yongjin; Chen, Tiehong; Wu, Qiang; Sun, Pingchuan

    2015-09-01

    A triol-functional crosslinker combining the thermoreversible properties of Diels-Alder (DA) adducts in one molecule is designed, synthesized, and used as an ideal substitute of a traditional crosslinker to prepare thermal recyclable cross-linked polyurethanes with excellent mechanical properties and recyclability in a very simple and efficient way. The recycle property of these materials achieved by the DA/retro-DA reaction at a suitable temperature is verified by differential scanning calorimetry and in situ variable temperature solid-state NMR experiments during the cyclic heating and cooling processes. The thermal recyclability and remending ability of the bulk polyurethanes is demonstrated by three polymer processing methods, including hot-press molding, injection molding, and solution casting. It is notable that all the recycled cross-linked polymers display nearly invariable elongation/stress at break compared to the as-synthesized samples. Further end-group functionalization of this single molecular DA crosslinker provides the potential in preparing a wide range of recyclable cross-linked polymers.

  1. Thermal boundary conductance enhancement using experimentally achievable nanostructured interfaces - analytical study combined with molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eungkyu; Zhang, Teng; Hu, Ming; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-06-22

    Interfacial thermal resistance presents great challenges to the thermal management of modern electronics. In this work, we perform an analytical study to enhance the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) of nanostructured interfaces with square-shape pillar arrays, extendable to the characteristic lengths that can be fabricated in practice. As a representative system, we investigate a SiC substrate with the square-shape pillar array combined with epitaxial GaN as the nanostructured interface. By applying a first-order ray tracing method and molecular dynamics simulations to analyze phonon incidence and transmission at the nanostructured interface, we systematically study the impact of the characteristic dimensions of the pillar array on the TBC. Based on the multi-scale analysis we provide a general guideline to optimize the nanostructured interfaces to achieve higher TBC, demonstrating that the optimized TBC value of the nanostructured SiC/GaN interfaces can be 42% higher than that of the planar SiC/GaN interfaces without nanostructures. The model used and results obtained in this study will guide the further experimental realization of nanostructured interfaces for better thermal management in microelectronics. PMID:27275647

  2. A Single Molecular Diels-Alder Crosslinker for Achieving Recyclable Cross-Linked Polymers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shengli; Wang, Fenfen; Peng, Yongjin; Chen, Tiehong; Wu, Qiang; Sun, Pingchuan

    2015-09-01

    A triol-functional crosslinker combining the thermoreversible properties of Diels-Alder (DA) adducts in one molecule is designed, synthesized, and used as an ideal substitute of a traditional crosslinker to prepare thermal recyclable cross-linked polyurethanes with excellent mechanical properties and recyclability in a very simple and efficient way. The recycle property of these materials achieved by the DA/retro-DA reaction at a suitable temperature is verified by differential scanning calorimetry and in situ variable temperature solid-state NMR experiments during the cyclic heating and cooling processes. The thermal recyclability and remending ability of the bulk polyurethanes is demonstrated by three polymer processing methods, including hot-press molding, injection molding, and solution casting. It is notable that all the recycled cross-linked polymers display nearly invariable elongation/stress at break compared to the as-synthesized samples. Further end-group functionalization of this single molecular DA crosslinker provides the potential in preparing a wide range of recyclable cross-linked polymers. PMID:26248230

  3. Molecular basis of major psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and depression.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Masaya; Miyata, Shingo; Hattori, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Shoko; Matsuzaki, Shinsuke

    2015-06-01

    Recently several potential susceptibility genes for major psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia and major depression) such as disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1(DISC1), dysbindin and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have been reported. DISC1 is involved in neural development directly via adhesion molecules or via its binding partners of DISC1 such as elongation protein ζ-1 (FEZ1), DISC1-binding zinc-finger protein (DBZ) and kendrin. PACAP also regulates neural development via stathmin 1 or via regulation of the DISC1-DBZ binding. Dysbindin is also involved in neural development by regulating centrosomal microtubule network formation. All such molecules examined to date are involved in neural development. Thus, these findings provide new molecular insights into the mechanisms of neural development and neuropsychiatric disorders. On the other hand, in addition to neurons, both DISC and DBZ have been detected in oligodendrocytes and implicated in regulating oligodendrocyte differentiation. DISC1 inhibits the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into oligodendrocytes, while DBZ has a positive regulatory role in oligodendrocyte differentiation. Evidence suggesting that disturbance of oligodendrocyte development causes major depression is also described.

  4. Delayed cytogenetic and major molecular responses associated to increased BMI at baseline in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Loglisci, Giuseppina; Salaroli, Adriano; Serrao, Alessandra; Mancini, Marco; Diverio, Daniela; Latagliata, Roberto; Alimena, Giuliana

    2013-06-01

    Obesity, measured as body mass index (BMI), has been identified as a possible risk factor for several solid tumors as well as for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). To date, no correlations have been reported in this latter disease between BMI at baseline and response to targeted therapies. We refer here on the impact of BMI on clinical response in 339 chronic phase (CP) CML patients treated with imatinib and 35 CP-CML patients treated frontline with nilotinib. If compared to patients with low BMI (<18.5-25), patients with increased BMI (>25-40) at diagnosis who received imatinib showed a significantly longer median time to achieve complete cytogenetic response (6.8 months vs 3.3 months, p=0.001), a reduced rate of major molecular response (77% vs 58%, p=0.01) which was also achieved in a longer median time (29 months compared to 14 months, p=0.01). Conversely, no differences were revealed with respect to BMI in patients treated frontline with nilotinib and also patients with increased BMI obtained rapidly CCyR and MMR with an incidence similar to that of underweight/normal weight patients. These results suggest that CML patients with increased weight at baseline should be followed and carefully monitored if treated with standard dose imatinib frontline for a possible early switch.

  5. Exploring the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors: Motivators and strategies for achieving baccalaureate attainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajal, Sandy C.

    Drawing from Latino/a Critical Race Theory and the related Community Cultural Wealth (CCW) model, I concentrate on three forms of CCW---aspirational, navigational, and resistance capital---for this qualitative study on the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors, focusing on strategies and achieving baccalaureate attainment. I interviewed ten Latina students and asked them questions regarding their educational experiences in STEM majors, what contributed to their degree completion, and the strategies they employed for achieving baccalaureate attainment. I identified and described six themes within the study (the underrepresentation of Latinas in STEM majors, the lack of preparation by academic programs for upper division courses, motivators, involvement, time management, and support networks) that, when combined, contributed to participants' degree attainment. This study concludes with implications for policy and practice that would allow universities to better assist Latinas in STEM majors to achieve baccalaureate attainment.

  6. Proteomics, metabolomics, and protein interactomics in the characterization of the molecular features of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Martins-de-Souza, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Omics technologies emerged as complementary strategies to genomics in the attempt to understand human illnesses. In general, proteomics technologies emerged earlier than those of metabolomics for major depressive disorder (MDD) research, but both are driven by the identification of proteins and/or metabolites that can delineate a comprehensive characterization of MDD's molecular mechanisms, as well as lead to the identification of biomarker candidates of all types-prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and patient stratification. Also, one can explore protein and metabolite interactomes in order to pinpoint additional molecules associated with the disease that had not been picked up initially. Here, results and methodological aspects of MDD research using proteomics, metabolomics, and protein interactomics are reviewed, focusing on human samples.

  7. A Glimpse to Background and Characteristics of Major Molecular Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md.; Katsuragi, Tetsuo; Sato, Tetsuo; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2015-01-01

    Recently, biology has become a data intensive science because of huge data sets produced by high throughput molecular biological experiments in diverse areas including the fields of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. These huge datasets have paved the way for system-level analysis of the processes and subprocesses of the cell. For system-level understanding, initially the elements of a system are connected based on their mutual relations and a network is formed. Among omics researchers, construction and analysis of biological networks have become highly popular. In this review, we briefly discuss both the biological background and topological properties of major types of omics networks to facilitate a comprehensive understanding and to conceptualize the foundation of network biology. PMID:26491677

  8. Major Ampullate Spider Silk with Indistinguishable Spidroin Dope Conformations Leads to Different Fiber Molecular Structures.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Justine; Lefèvre, Thierry; Auger, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    To plentifully benefit from its properties (mechanical, optical, biological) and its potential to manufacture green materials, the structure of spider silk has to be known accurately. To this aim, the major ampullate (MA) silk of Araneus diadematus (AD) and Nephila clavipes (NC) has been compared quantitatively in the liquid and fiber states using Raman spectromicroscopy. The data show that the spidroin conformations of the two dopes are indistinguishable despite their specific amino acid composition. This result suggests that GlyGlyX and GlyProGlyXX amino acid motifs (X = Leu, Glu, Tyr, Ser, etc.) are conformationally equivalent due to the chain flexibility in the aqueous environment. Species-related sequence specificity is expressed more extensively in the fiber: the β-sheet content is lower and width of the orientation distribution of the carbonyl groups is broader for AD (29% and 58°, respectively) as compared to NC (37% and 51°, respectively). β-Sheet content values are close to the proportion of polyalanine segments, suggesting that β-sheet formation is mainly dictated by the spidroin sequence. The extent of molecular alignment seems to be related to the presence of proline (Pro) that may decrease conformational flexibility and inhibit chain extension and alignment upon drawing. It appears that besides the presence of Pro, secondary structure and molecular orientation contribute to the different mechanical properties of MA threads. PMID:27548146

  9. Major Ampullate Spider Silk with Indistinguishable Spidroin Dope Conformations Leads to Different Fiber Molecular Structures

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Justine; Lefèvre, Thierry; Auger, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    To plentifully benefit from its properties (mechanical, optical, biological) and its potential to manufacture green materials, the structure of spider silk has to be known accurately. To this aim, the major ampullate (MA) silk of Araneus diadematus (AD) and Nephila clavipes (NC) has been compared quantitatively in the liquid and fiber states using Raman spectromicroscopy. The data show that the spidroin conformations of the two dopes are indistinguishable despite their specific amino acid composition. This result suggests that GlyGlyX and GlyProGlyXX amino acid motifs (X = Leu, Glu, Tyr, Ser, etc.) are conformationally equivalent due to the chain flexibility in the aqueous environment. Species-related sequence specificity is expressed more extensively in the fiber: the β-sheet content is lower and width of the orientation distribution of the carbonyl groups is broader for AD (29% and 58°, respectively) as compared to NC (37% and 51°, respectively). β-Sheet content values are close to the proportion of polyalanine segments, suggesting that β-sheet formation is mainly dictated by the spidroin sequence. The extent of molecular alignment seems to be related to the presence of proline (Pro) that may decrease conformational flexibility and inhibit chain extension and alignment upon drawing. It appears that besides the presence of Pro, secondary structure and molecular orientation contribute to the different mechanical properties of MA threads. PMID:27548146

  10. Electroconvulsive therapy exerts mainly acute molecular changes in serum of major depressive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Guest, Paul C; Rothermundt, Matthias; Sondermann, Carina; Michael, Nikolaus; Schwarz, Emanuel; Rahmoune, Hassan; Bahn, Sabine

    2013-10-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is mainly used to treat medication resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, with a remission rate of up to 90%. However, little is known about the serum molecular changes induced by this treatment. Understanding the mechanisms of action of ECT at the molecular level could lead to identification of response markers and potential new drug targets for more effective antidepressant treatments. We have carried out a pilot study which analysed serum samples of MDD patients who received a series of ECT treatments over 4 weeks. Patients received only ECT treatments over the first two weeks and a combination of ECT and antidepressant drugs (AD) over the subsequent two weeks. Blood serum analyses were carried out using a combination of multiplex Human MAP® immunoassay and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)) profiling. This showed that ECT had a predominant acute effect on the levels of serum proteins and small molecules, with changes at the beginning of ECT treatment and after administration of the ECT+AD combination treatment. This suggested a positive interaction between the two types of treatment. Changed molecules included BDNF, CD40L, IL-8, IL-13, EGF, IGF-1, pancreatic polypeptide, SCF, sortilin-1 and others which have already been implicated in MDD pathophysiology. We conclude that ECT appears to exert mainly acute effects on serum molecules.

  11. Molecular Evolution of the Yersinia Major Outer Membrane Protein C (OmpC)

    PubMed Central

    Stenkova, Anna M.; Bystritskaya, Evgeniya P.; Guzev, Konstantin V.; Rakin, Alexander V.; Isaeva, Marina P.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Yersinia includes species with a wide range of eukaryotic hosts (from fish, insects, and plants to mammals and humans). One of the major outer membrane proteins, the porin OmpC, is preferentially expressed in the host gut, where osmotic pressure, temperature, and the concentrations of nutrients and toxic products are relatively high. We consider here the molecular evolution and phylogeny of Yersinia ompC. The maximum likelihood gene tree reflects the macroevolution processes occurring within the genus Yersinia. Positive selection and horizontal gene transfer are the key factors of ompC diversification, and intraspecies recombination was revealed in two Yersinia species. The impact of recombination on ompC evolution was different from that of another major porin gene, ompF, possibly due to the emergence of additional functions and conservation of the basic transport function. The predicted antigenic determinants of OmpC were located in rapidly evolving regions, which may indicate the evolutionary mechanisms of Yersinia adaptation to the host immune system. PMID:27578962

  12. Molecular Evolution of the Yersinia Major Outer Membrane Protein C (OmpC).

    PubMed

    Stenkova, Anna M; Bystritskaya, Evgeniya P; Guzev, Konstantin V; Rakin, Alexander V; Isaeva, Marina P

    2016-01-01

    The genus Yersinia includes species with a wide range of eukaryotic hosts (from fish, insects, and plants to mammals and humans). One of the major outer membrane proteins, the porin OmpC, is preferentially expressed in the host gut, where osmotic pressure, temperature, and the concentrations of nutrients and toxic products are relatively high. We consider here the molecular evolution and phylogeny of Yersinia ompC. The maximum likelihood gene tree reflects the macroevolution processes occurring within the genus Yersinia. Positive selection and horizontal gene transfer are the key factors of ompC diversification, and intraspecies recombination was revealed in two Yersinia species. The impact of recombination on ompC evolution was different from that of another major porin gene, ompF, possibly due to the emergence of additional functions and conservation of the basic transport function. The predicted antigenic determinants of OmpC were located in rapidly evolving regions, which may indicate the evolutionary mechanisms of Yersinia adaptation to the host immune system. PMID:27578962

  13. The Continued Evaluation of Voucher Impact on the Achievement of Elementary Students in a Majority African American Public School District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Kim K.; Boone, William J.; Legan, Natalie A.; Paul, Kelli M.

    Vouchers for students in urban school districts may promote the increased participation of underrepresented groups in the fields of science and engineering in at least two ways: (a) by optimizing the achievement of students who use vouchers and (b) by expanding the scope of educational and curricular options available to students. Presently, nearly 5,000 children in Cleveland, Ohio, attend private schools with publicly funded vouchers. This study presents the results of evaluating the achievement of a cohort of these students from the fall of first grade to the spring of fourth grade. For public school students, first grade seems to be a time during which they catch up with peers who attend private schools with vouchers. The analysis of data using adjusted measures suggests no differences in achievement from first grade to fourth grade with respect to achievement in many content areas. The use of unadjusted measures suggests possible differences with respect to fourth grade reading (with voucher students performing at a statistically higher level than their peers). The present data set neither clearly supports nor refutes the use of vouchers.

  14. Male Saudi Arabian Freshman Science Majors at Jazan University: Their Perceptions of Parental Educational Practices on Their Science Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    2012-01-01

    Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of…

  15. "Rules of Engagement" of Protein-Glycoconjugate Interactions: A Molecular View Achievable by using NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Roberta; Perez, Serge; Arda, Ana; Imberty, Anne; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the dynamics of protein-ligand interactions, which lie at the heart of host-pathogen recognition, represents a crucial step to clarify the molecular determinants implicated in binding events, as well as to optimize the design of new molecules with therapeutic aims. Over the last decade, advances in complementary biophysical and spectroscopic methods permitted us to deeply dissect the fine structural details of biologically relevant molecular recognition processes with high resolution. This Review focuses on the development and use of modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to dissect binding events. These spectroscopic methods, complementing X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling methodologies, will be taken into account as indispensable tools to provide a complete picture of protein-glycoconjugate binding mechanisms related to biomedicine applications against infectious diseases. PMID:27547635

  16. "Rules of Engagement" of Protein-Glycoconjugate Interactions: A Molecular View Achievable by using NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Roberta; Perez, Serge; Arda, Ana; Imberty, Anne; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the dynamics of protein-ligand interactions, which lie at the heart of host-pathogen recognition, represents a crucial step to clarify the molecular determinants implicated in binding events, as well as to optimize the design of new molecules with therapeutic aims. Over the last decade, advances in complementary biophysical and spectroscopic methods permitted us to deeply dissect the fine structural details of biologically relevant molecular recognition processes with high resolution. This Review focuses on the development and use of modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to dissect binding events. These spectroscopic methods, complementing X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling methodologies, will be taken into account as indispensable tools to provide a complete picture of protein-glycoconjugate binding mechanisms related to biomedicine applications against infectious diseases.

  17. Low-molecular-weight sulfonates, a major substrate for sulfate reducers in marine microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Visscher, P T; Gritzer, R F; Leadbetter, E R

    1999-08-01

    Several low-molecular-weight sulfonates were added to microbial mat slurries to investigate their effects on sulfate reduction. Instantaneous production of sulfide occurred after taurine and cysteate were added to all of the microbial mats tested. The rates of production in the presence of taurine and cysteate were 35 and 24 microM HS(-) h(-1) in a stromatolite mat, 38 and 36 microM HS(-) h(-1) in a salt pond mat, and 27 and 18 microM HS(-) h(-1) in a salt marsh mat, respectively. The traditionally used substrates lactate and acetate stimulated the rate of sulfide production 3 to 10 times more than taurine and cysteate stimulated the rate of sulfide production in all mats, but when ethanol, glycolate, and glutamate were added to stromatolite mat slurries, the resulting increases were similar to the increases observed with taurine and cysteate. Isethionate, sulfosuccinate, and sulfobenzoate were tested only with the stromatolite mat slurry, and these compounds had much smaller effects on sulfide production. Addition of molybdate resulted in a greater inhibitory effect on acetate and lactate utilization than on sulfonate use, suggesting that different metabolic pathways were involved. In all of the mats tested taurine and cysteate were present in the pore water at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. An enrichment culture from the stromatolite mat was obtained on cysteate in a medium lacking sulfate and incubated anaerobically. The rate of cysteate consumption by this enrichment culture was 1.6 pmol cell(-1) h(-1). Compared to the results of slurry studies, this rate suggests that organisms with properties similar to the properties of this enrichment culture are a major constituent of the sulfidogenic population. In addition, taurine was consumed at some of highest dilutions obtained from most-probable-number enrichment cultures obtained from stromatolite samples. Based on our comparison of the sulfide production rates found in various mats, low-molecular

  18. How Do Academic Achievement and Gender Affect the Earnings of STEM Majors? A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olitsky, Neal H.

    2014-01-01

    The United States government recently enacted a number of policies designed to increase the number of American born students graduating with degrees in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), especially among women and racial and ethnic minorities. This study examines how the earnings benefits of choosing a STEM major vary both by…

  19. Physiology of digestion and the molecular characterization of the major digestive enzymes from Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Fábio K; Pimentel, André C; Dias, Alcides B; Cardoso, Christiane; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Ferreira, Clélia; Terra, Walter R

    2014-11-01

    Cockroaches are among the first insects to appear in the fossil record. This work is part of ongoing research on insects at critical points in the evolutionary tree to disclose evolutionary trends in the digestive characteristics of insects. A transcriptome (454 Roche platform) of the midgut of Periplanetaamericana was searched for sequences of digestive enzymes. The selected sequences were manually curated. The complete or nearly complete sequences showing all characteristic motifs and highly expressed (reads counting) had their predicted sequences checked by cloning and Sanger sequencing. There are two chitinases (lacking mucin and chitin-binding domains), one amylase, two α- and three β-glucosidases, one β-galactosidase, two aminopeptidases (none of the N-group), one chymotrypsin, 5 trypsins, and none β-glucanase. Electrophoretic and enzymological data agreed with transcriptome data in showing that there is a single β-galactosidase, two α-glucosidases, one preferring as substrate maltase and the other aryl α-glucoside, and two β-glucosidases. Chromatographic and enzymological data identified 4 trypsins, one chymotrypsin (also found in the transcriptome), and one non-identified proteinase. The major digestive trypsin is identifiable to a major P. americana allergen (Per a 10). The lack of β-glucanase expression in midguts was confirmed, thus lending support to claims that those enzymes are salivary. A salivary amylase was molecularly cloned and shown to be different from the one from the midgut. Enzyme distribution showed that most digestion occurs under the action of salivary and midgut enzymes in the foregut and anterior midgut, except the posterior terminal digestion of proteins. A counter-flux of fluid may be functional in the midgut of the cockroach to explain the low excretory rate of digestive enzymes. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical localization data showed that amylase and trypsin are released by both merocrine and apocrine secretion

  20. Molecular cytogenetic analysis and genomic organization of major DNA repeats in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, O S; Karlov, G I

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the bioinformatic, molecular genetic, and cytogenetic study of castor bean (Ricinus communis, 2n = 20), which belongs to the monotypic Ricinus genus within the Euphorbiaceae family. Because castor bean chromosomes are small, karyotypic studies are difficult. However, the use of DNA repeats has yielded new prospects for karyotypic research and genome characterization. In the present study, major DNA repeat sequences were identified, characterized and localized on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene chromosomes. Analyses of the nucleotide composition, curvature models, and FISH localization of the rcsat39 repeat suggest that this repeat plays a key role in building heterochromatic arrays in castor bean. Additionally, the rcsat390 sequences were determined to be chromosome-specific repeats located in the pericentromeric region of mitotic chromosome A (pachytene chromosome 1). The localization of rcsat39, rcsat390, 45S and 5S rDNA genes allowed for the development of cytogenetic landmarks for chromosome identification. General questions linked to heterochromatin formation, DNA repeat distribution, and the evolutionary emergence of the genome are discussed. The article may be of interest to biologists studying small genome organization and short monomer DNA repeats. PMID:26589420

  1. Molecular cytogenetic analysis and genomic organization of major DNA repeats in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, O S; Karlov, G I

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the bioinformatic, molecular genetic, and cytogenetic study of castor bean (Ricinus communis, 2n = 20), which belongs to the monotypic Ricinus genus within the Euphorbiaceae family. Because castor bean chromosomes are small, karyotypic studies are difficult. However, the use of DNA repeats has yielded new prospects for karyotypic research and genome characterization. In the present study, major DNA repeat sequences were identified, characterized and localized on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene chromosomes. Analyses of the nucleotide composition, curvature models, and FISH localization of the rcsat39 repeat suggest that this repeat plays a key role in building heterochromatic arrays in castor bean. Additionally, the rcsat390 sequences were determined to be chromosome-specific repeats located in the pericentromeric region of mitotic chromosome A (pachytene chromosome 1). The localization of rcsat39, rcsat390, 45S and 5S rDNA genes allowed for the development of cytogenetic landmarks for chromosome identification. General questions linked to heterochromatin formation, DNA repeat distribution, and the evolutionary emergence of the genome are discussed. The article may be of interest to biologists studying small genome organization and short monomer DNA repeats.

  2. The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same? Prior Achievement Fails to Explain Gender Inequality in Entry into Stem College Majors over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; King, Barbara; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the empirical basis for often-repeated arguments that gender differences in entrance into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors are largely explained by disparities in prior achievement. Analyses use data from three national cohorts of college matriculates across three decades to consider…

  3. The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same? Examining Gender Equality in Prior Achievement and Entry into STEM College Majors over Time

    PubMed Central

    King, Barbara; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the empirical basis for often-repeated arguments that gender differences in entrance into STEM majors are largely explained by disparities in prior achievement. Analyses use data from three national cohorts of college matriculates across three decades to consider differences across several indicators of high school math and science achievement at the mean and also at the top of the test distribution. Analyses also examine the different comparative advantages men and women enjoy in math/science vs. English/reading. Regardless of how prior achievement is measured, very little of the strong and persistent gender gap in physical science and engineering majors over time is explained. Findings highlight the limitations of theories focusing on gender differences in skills and suggest directions for future research. PMID:24371330

  4. NF1 Gene Mutations Represent the Major Molecular Event Underlying Neurofibromatosis-Noonan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Alessandro; Bottillo, Irene; Sarkozy, Anna; Carta, Claudio; Neri, Cinzia; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Schirinzi, Annalisa; Conti, Emanuela; Zampino, Giuseppe; Battaglia, Agatino; Majore, Silvia; Rinaldi, Maria M.; Carella, Massimo; Marino, Bruno; Pizzuti, Antonio; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Tartaglia, Marco; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) demonstrates phenotypic overlap with Noonan syndrome (NS) in some patients, which results in the so-called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome (NFNS). From a genetic point of view, NFNS is a poorly understood condition, and controversy remains as to whether it represents a variable manifestation of either NF1 or NS or is a distinct clinical entity. To answer this question, we screened a cohort with clinically well-characterized NFNS for mutations in the entire coding sequence of the NF1 and PTPN11 genes. Heterozygous NF1 defects were identified in 16 of the 17 unrelated subjects included in the study, which provides evidence that mutations in NF1 represent the major molecular event underlying this condition. Lesions included nonsense mutations, out-of-frame deletions, missense changes, small inframe deletions, and one large multiexon deletion. Remarkably, a high prevalence of inframe defects affecting exons 24 and 25, which encode a portion of the GAP-related domain of the protein, was observed. On the other hand, no defect in PTPN11 was observed, and no lesion affecting exons 11–27 of the NF1 gene was identified in 100 PTPN11 mutation-negative subjects with NS, which provides further evidence that NFNS and NS are genetically distinct disorders. These results support the view that NFNS represents a variant of NF1 and is caused by mutations of the NF1 gene, some of which have been demonstrated to cause classic NF1 in other individuals. PMID:16380919

  5. Purification, characterization and molecular cloning of the major chitinase from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut.

    PubMed

    Genta, Fernando A; Blanes, Lucas; Cristofoletti, Plínio T; do Lago, Claudimir L; Terra, Walter R; Ferreira, Clélia

    2006-10-01

    Insect chitinases are involved in degradation of chitin from the exoskeleton cuticle or from midgut peritrophic membrane during molts. cDNAs coding for insect cuticular and gut chitinases were cloned, but only chitinases from moulting fluid were purified and characterized. In this study the major digestive chitinase from T. molitor midgut (TmChi) was purified to homogeneity, characterized and sequenced after cDNA cloning. TmChi is secreted by midgut epithelial cells, has a molecular weight of 44 kDa and is unstable in the presence of midgut proteinases. TmChi shows strong substrate inhibition when acting on umbelliferyl-derivatives of chitobio- and chitotriosaccharides, but has normal Michaelis kinetics with the N-acetylglucosamine derivative as substrate. TmChi has very low activity against colloidal chitin, but effectively converts oligosaccharides to shorter fragments. The best substrate for TmChi is chitopentaose, with highest k(cat)/K(M) value. Sequence analysis and chemical modification experiments showed that the TmChi active site contains carboxylic groups and a tryptophane, which are known to be important for catalysis in family 18 chitinases. Modification with p-hidroximercuribenzoate of a cysteine residue, which is exposed after substrate binding, leads to complete inactivation of the enzyme. TmChi mRNA encodes a signal peptide plus a protein with 37 kDa and high similarity with other insect chitinases from family 18. Surprisingly, this gene does not encode the C-terminal Ser-Thr-rich connector and chitin-binding domain normally present in chitinases. The special features of TmChi probably result from its adaptation to digest chitin-rich food without damaging the peritrophic membrane.

  6. Combination of molecular, morphological, and interfacial engineering to achieve highly efficient and stable plastic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Yu; Cheng, Yen-Ju; Hung, Shih-Hsiu; Wu, Jhong-Sian; Kao, Wei-Shun; Lee, Chia-Hao; Hsu, Chain-Shu

    2012-01-24

    A flexible solar device showing exceptional air and mechanical stability is produced by simultaneously optimizing molecular structure, active layer morphology, and interface characteristics. The PFDCTBT-C8-based devices with inverted architecture exhibited excellent power conversion efficiencies of 7.0% and 6.0% on glass and flexible substrates, respectively.

  7. Exploiting β-Cyclodextrin in Molecular Imprinting for Achieving Recognition of Benzylparaben in Aqueous Media

    PubMed Central

    Asman, Saliza; Mohamad, Sharifah; Muhamad Sarih, Norazilawati

    2015-01-01

    The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin (MAA-β-CD) monomer was synthesized for the purpose of selective recognition of benzylparaben (BzP). The MAA-β-CD monomer was produced by bridging a methacrylic acid (MAA) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) using toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) by reacting the –OH group of MAA and one of the primary –OH groups of β-CD. This monomer comprised of triple interactions that included an inclusion complex, π–π interaction, and hydrogen bonding. To demonstrate β-CD performance in MIPs, two MIPs were prepared; molecularly imprinted polymer-methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin, MIP(MAA-β-CD), and molecularly imprinted polymer-methacrylic acid, MIP(MAA); both prepared by a reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) in the bulk polymerization process. Both MIPs were characterized using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The presence of β-CD not only influenced the morphological structure, it also affected the specific surface area, average pore diameter, and total pore volume of the MIP. The rebinding of the imprinting effect was evaluated in binding experiments, which proved that the β-CD contributed significantly to the enhancement of the recognition affinity and selective adsorption of the MIP. PMID:25667978

  8. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  9. Low defect densities in molecular beam epitaxial GaAs achieved by isoelectronic In doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, P. K.; Dhar, S.; Berger, P.; Juang, F.-Y.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of adding small amounts of In (0.2-1.2 pct) to GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The density of four electron traps decreases in concentration by an order of magnitude, and the peak intensities of prominent emissions in the excitonic spectra are reduced with increase in In content. Based on the higher surface migration rate of In, compared to Ga, at the growth temperatures it is apparent that the traps and the excitonic transitions are related to point defects. This agrees with earlier observations by Briones and Collins (1982) and Skromme et al. (1985).

  10. Virtual Transgenics: Using a Molecular Biology Simulation to Impact Student Academic Achievement and Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shegog, Ross; Lazarus, Melanie M.; Murray, Nancy G.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Sessions, Nathalie; Zsigmond, Eva

    2012-10-01

    The transgenic mouse model is useful for studying the causes and potential cures for human genetic diseases. Exposing high school biology students to laboratory experience in developing transgenic animal models is logistically prohibitive. Computer-based simulation, however, offers this potential in addition to advantages of fidelity and reach. This study describes and evaluates a computer-based simulation to train advanced placement high school science students in laboratory protocols, a transgenic mouse model was produced. A simulation module on preparing a gene construct in the molecular biology lab was evaluated using a randomized clinical control design with advanced placement high school biology students in Mercedes, Texas ( n = 44). Pre-post tests assessed procedural and declarative knowledge, time on task, attitudes toward computers for learning and towards science careers. Students who used the simulation increased their procedural and declarative knowledge regarding molecular biology compared to those in the control condition (both p < 0.005). Significant increases continued to occur with additional use of the simulation ( p < 0.001). Students in the treatment group became more positive toward using computers for learning ( p < 0.001). The simulation did not significantly affect attitudes toward science in general. Computer simulation of complex transgenic protocols have potential to provide a "virtual" laboratory experience as an adjunct to conventional educational approaches.

  11. Dye-sensitized solar cells with 13% efficiency achieved through the molecular engineering of porphyrin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Simon; Yella, Aswani; Gao, Peng; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Curchod, Basile F E; Ashari-Astani, Negar; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Nazeeruddin, Md Khaja; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells have gained widespread attention in recent years because of their low production costs, ease of fabrication and tunable optical properties, such as colour and transparency. Here, we report a molecularly engineered porphyrin dye, coded SM315, which features the prototypical structure of a donor-π-bridge-acceptor and both maximizes electrolyte compatibility and improves light-harvesting properties. Linear-response, time-dependent density functional theory was used to investigate the perturbations in the electronic structure that lead to improved light harvesting. Using SM315 with the cobalt(II/III) redox shuttle resulted in dye-sensitized solar cells that exhibit a high open-circuit voltage VOC of 0.91 V, short-circuit current density JSC of 18.1 mA cm(-2), fill factor of 0.78 and a power conversion efficiency of 13%.

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells with 13% efficiency achieved through the molecular engineering of porphyrin sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Simon; Yella, Aswani; Gao, Peng; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Curchod, Basile F. E.; Ashari-Astani, Negar; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Nazeeruddin, Md. Khaja; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells have gained widespread attention in recent years because of their low production costs, ease of fabrication and tunable optical properties, such as colour and transparency. Here, we report a molecularly engineered porphyrin dye, coded SM315, which features the prototypical structure of a donor-π-bridge-acceptor and both maximizes electrolyte compatibility and improves light-harvesting properties. Linear-response, time-dependent density functional theory was used to investigate the perturbations in the electronic structure that lead to improved light harvesting. Using SM315 with the cobalt(II/III) redox shuttle resulted in dye-sensitized solar cells that exhibit a high open-circuit voltage VOC of 0.91 V, short-circuit current density JSC of 18.1 mA cm-2, fill factor of 0.78 and a power conversion efficiency of 13%.

  13. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF THE SWINE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX, THE SLA COMPLEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span ~1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 Mb, respectively, making the swi...

  14. Microfluidic means of achieving attomolar detection limits with molecular beacon probes.

    PubMed

    Puleo, Christopher M; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2009-04-21

    We used inline, micro-evaporators to concentrate and transport DNA targets to a nanoliter single molecule fluorescence detection chamber for subsequent molecular beacon probe hybridization and analysis. This use of solvent removal as a unique means of target transport in a microanalytical platform led to a greater than 5000-fold concentration enhancement and detection limits that pushed below the femtomolar barrier commonly reported using confocal fluorescence detection. This simple microliter-to-nanoliter interconnect for single molecule counting analysis resolved several common limitations, including the need for excessive fluorescent probe concentrations at low target levels and inefficiencies in direct handling of highly dilute biological samples. In this report, the hundreds of bacteria-specific DNA molecules contained in approximately 25 microliters of a 50 aM sample were shuttled to a four nanoliter detection chamber through micro-evaporation. Here, the previously undetectable targets were enhanced to the pM regime and underwent probe hybridization and highly-efficient fluorescent event analysis via microfluidic recirculation through the confocal detection volume. This use of microfluidics in a single molecule detection (SMD) platform delivered unmatched sensitivity and introduced compliment technologies that may serve to bring SMD to more widespread use in replacing conventional methodologies for detecting rare target biomolecules in both research and clinical labs.

  15. Foundational Concepts and Underlying Theories for Majors in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, John T.; Baird, Teaster, Jr.; Cox, Michael M.; Fox, Kristin M.; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3)…

  16. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  17. Evolutionary, behavioural and molecular ecology must meet to achieve long-term conservation goals.

    PubMed

    Keogh, J Scott

    2009-09-01

    Founder populations in reintroduction programmes can experience a genetic bottleneck simply because of their small size. The influence of reproductive skew brought on by polygynous or polyandrous mating systems in these populations can exacerbate already difficult conservation genetic problems, such as inbreeding depression and loss of adaptive potential. Without an understanding of reproductive skew in a target species, and the effect it can have on genetic diversity retained over generations, long-term conservation goals will be compromised. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Miller et al. (2009a) test how founder group size and variance in male reproductive success influence the maintenance of genetic diversity following reintroduction on a long-term scale. They evaluated genetic diversity in two wild populations of the iconic New Zealand tuatara (Fig. 1), which differ greatly in population size and genetic diversity, and compared this to genetic diversity in multiple founder populations sourced from both populations. Population viability analysis on the maintenance of genetic diversity over 400 years (10 generations) demonstrated that while the loss of heterozygosity was low when compared with both source populations (1-14%), the greater the male reproductive skew, the greater the predicted losses of genetic diversity. Importantly however, the loss of genetic diversity was ameliorated after population size exceeded 250 animals, regardless of the level of reproductive skew. This study demonstrates that highly informed conservation decisions could be made when you build on a solid foundation of demographic, natural history and behavioural ecology data. These data, when informed by modern population and genetic analysis, mean that fundamental applied conservation questions (how many animals should make up a founder population?) can be answered accurately and with an eye to the long-term consequences of management decisions.

  18. Versatile low-molecular-weight hydrogelators: achieving multiresponsiveness through a modular design.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Lilia; Hunter, Christopher A; Tzokova, Nadejda; Waltho, Jonathan P; Tomas, Salvador

    2011-08-22

    Multiresponsive low-molecular-weight hydrogelators (LMWHs) are ideal candidates for the development of smart, soft, nanotechnology materials. The synthesis is however very challenging. On the one hand, de novo design is hampered by our limited ability to predict the assembly of small molecules in water. On the other hand, modification of pre-existing LMWHs is limited by the number of different stimuli-sensitive chemical moieties that can be introduced into a small molecule without seriously disrupting the ability to gelate water. Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of multistimuli LMWHs, based on a modular design, composed of a hydrophobic, disulfide, aromatic moiety, a maleimide linker, and a hydrophilic section based on an amino acid, here N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). As most LMWHs, these gelators experience reversible gel-to-sol transition following temperature changes. Additionally, the NAC moiety allows reversible control of the assembly of the gel by pH changes. The reduction of the aromatic disulfide triggers a gel-to-sol transition that, depending on the design of the particular LMWH, can be reverted by reoxidation of the resulting thiol. Finally, the hydrolysis of the cyclic imide moieties provides an additional trigger for the gel-to-sol transition with a timescale that is appropriate for use in drug-delivery applications. The efficient response to the multiple external stimuli, coupled to the modular design makes these LMWHs an excellent starting point for the development of smart nanomaterials with applications that include controlled drug release. These hydrogelators, which were discovered by serendipity rather than design, suggest nonetheless a general strategy for the introduction of multiple stimuli-sensitive chemical moieties, to offset the introduction of hydrophilic moieties with additional hydrophobic ones, in order to minimize the upsetting of the critical hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of the LMWH.

  19. The path to achieving molecular dispersion in an extremely dense reactive mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Jigneshkumar; Xiang, Zou; Hsu, Shaw; Schoch, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    In any multicomponent reactive system, a uniform and continuous dispersion of reactants is necessary to achieve a complete reaction. In this study, we have examined the role of one additional component to disperse two seemingly unlikely reactants, including a highly crystalline hexamethylenetetramine (hexa) and strongly hydrogen bonded phenol formaldehyde resin. By combining information from NMR, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, we were able to decipher the role of specific intermolecular interactions in order for this additional component to dissolve the highly crystalline hexa and to plasticize the phenol formaldehyde resin in this crosslinking reaction. It is clear that the presence of the third component increased the segmental mobility, disrupted the hydrogen bonded matrix, and freed the hydroxyl units, which further increased the solubility of hexa. Both the endothermic and exothermic transitions are accounted for in the calorimetric data obtained. For the first time, it is possible to understand the miscibility behavior of this multicomponent system. By designing the additional component to form a hydrogen bond with one or more N of the highly symmetric hexamethylenetetramine, it is then possible to obtain the effective molar ratio of each component needed to complete the crosslinking reaction efficiently. The understanding of this system is applicable to a broad range of reactive systems.

  20. Gamma-glutamylcysteine and thiosulfate are the major low-molecular-weight thiols in halobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, Gerald L.; Javor, Barbara

    1985-01-01

    Six representative species of extremely halophilic bacteria were found to contain approximately millimolar concentrations of gamma-glutamylcysteine in the absence of significant glutathione. Thiosulfate also accumulated in the halobacteria, apparently as a major product of cysteine oxidation.

  1. Molecular Genetic Diversity of Major Indian Rice Cultivars over Decadal Periods

    PubMed Central

    Deborah, Dondapati Annekitty; Vipparla, Abhilash; Anuradha, Ghanta; Siddiq, Ebrahimali Abubacker; Vemireddy, Lakshminarayana Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity in representative sets of high yielding varieties of rice released in India between 1970 and 2010 was studied at molecular level employing hypervariable microsatellite markers. Of 64 rice SSR primer pairs studied, 52 showed polymorphism, when screened in 100 rice genotypes. A total of 184 alleles was identified averaging 3.63 alleles per locus. Cluster analysis clearly grouped the 100 genotypes into their respective decadal periods i.e., 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. The trend of diversity over the decadal periods estimated based on the number of alleles (Na), allelic richness (Rs), Nei’s genetic diversity index (He), observed heterozygosity (Ho) and polymorphism information content (PIC) revealed increase of diversity over the periods in year of releasewise and longevitywise classification of rice varieties. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested more variation in within the decadal periods than among the decades. Pairwise comparison of population differentiation (Fst) among decadal periods showed significant difference between all the pairs except a few. Analysis of trends of appearing and disappearing alleles over decadal periods showed an increase in the appearance of alleles and decrease in disappearance in both the categories of varieties. It was obvious from the present findings, that genetic diversity was progressively on the rise in the varieties released during the decadal periods, between 1970s and 2000s. PMID:23805204

  2. Molecular genetics of the swine major histocompatibility complex, the SLA complex.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Joan K; Ho, Chak-Sum; Wysocki, Michal; Smith, Douglas M

    2009-03-01

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span approximately 1.1, 0.7 and 0.5Mb, respectively, making the swine MHC the smallest among mammalian MHC so far examined and the only one known to span the centromere. This review summarizes recent updates to the Immuno Polymorphism Database-MHC (IPD-MHC) website (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/mhc/sla/) which serves as the repository for maintaining a list of all SLA recognized genes and their allelic sequences. It reviews the expression of SLA proteins on cell subsets and their role in antigen presentation and regulating immune responses. It concludes by discussing the role of SLA genes in swine models of transplantation, xenotransplantation, cancer and allergy and in swine production traits and responses to infectious disease and vaccines.

  3. Molecular characterization of major allergens Ara h 1, 2, 3 in peanut seed.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Wang, Songhua; Sun, Yujun; Zhou, Zhengyi; Wang, Guiqin

    2011-06-01

    Peanut is among the most commonly used dietary seeds, but peanut allergens, especially Ara h 1 (Arachis hypogaea allergy 1), 2 and 3, can cause severe IgE-mediated reactions. In this study, the molecular characterization and expression pattern of three allergens in peanut LUHUA 8, the representative of the cultivated lines in China, are reported. In situ hybridization and real time PCR analysis revealed high expression levels and different tissue expression patterns of the three allergens, which might be connected with many aspects, such as the strong conservation of intron phase of the allergen genes, the low energy of the mRNA's regions, and the complicated post-translational modifications. Furthermore, the different sequences between the cloned allergens and the reported sequences previously involved the charged amino acids especially in IgE epitopes, which might alter specific physicochemical and physiological properties, and thus influence the immunity of the allergens. The identification of the specific features of the allergen genes would be of considerable importance to the basic understanding of the specific characteristics of peanut seed allergens.

  4. A broad molecular phylogeny of ciliates: identification of major evolutionary trends and radiations within the phylum.

    PubMed Central

    Baroin-Tourancheau, A; Delgado, P; Perasso, R; Adoutte, A

    1992-01-01

    The cellular architecture of ciliates is one of the most complex known within eukaryotes. Detailed systematic schemes have thus been constructed through extensive comparative morphological and ultrastructural analysis of the ciliature and of its internal cytoskeletal derivatives (the infraciliature), as well as of the architecture of the oral apparatus. In recent years, a consensus was reached in which the phylum was divided in eight classes as defined by Lynn and Corliss [Lynn, D. H. & Corliss, J. O. (1991) in Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates: Protozoa (Wiley-Liss, New York), Vol. 1, pp. 333-467]. By comparing partial sequences of the large subunit rRNA molecule, and by using both distance-matrix and maximum-parsimony-tree construction methods (checked by boot-strapping), we examine the phylogenetic relationships of 22 species belonging to seven of these eight classes. At low taxonomic levels, the traditional grouping of the species is generally confirmed. At higher taxonomic levels, the branching pattern of these seven classes is resolved in several deeply separated major branches. Surprisingly, the first emerging one contains the heterotrichs and is strongly associated with a karyorelictid but deeply separated from hypotrichs. The litostomes, the oligohymenophorans, and the hypotrichs separate later in a bush-like topology hindering the resolution of their order of diversification. These results show a much more ancient origin of heterotrichs than was classically assumed, indicating that asymmetric, abundantly ciliated oral apparatuses do not correspond to "highly evolved" traits as previously thought. They also suggest the occurrence of a major radiative explosion in the evolutionary history of the ciliates, yielding five of the eight classes of the phylum. These classes appear to differ essentially according to the cytoskeletal architecture used to shape and sustain the cellular cortex (a process of essential adaptative and morphogenetic importance in

  5. Natural selection and molecular evolution in primate PAX9 gene, a major determinant of tooth development.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Tiago V; Salzano, Francisco M; Mostowska, Adrianna; Trzeciak, Wieslaw H; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Chies, José A B; Saavedra, Carmen; Nagamachi, Cleusa; Hurtado, Ana M; Hill, Kim; Castro-de-Guerra, Dinorah; Silva-Júnior, Wilson A; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira

    2006-04-11

    Large differences in relation to dental size, number, and morphology among and within modern human populations and between modern humans and other primate species have been observed. Molecular studies have demonstrated that tooth development is under strict genetic control, but, the genetic basis of primate tooth variation remains unknown. The PAX9 gene, which codes for a paired domain-containing transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of mammal dentition, has been associated with selective tooth agenesis in humans and mice, which mainly involves the posterior teeth. To determine whether this gene is polymorphic in humans, we sequenced approximately 2.1 kb of the entire four-exon region (exons 1, 2, 3 and 4; 1,026 bp) and exon-intron (1.1 kb) boundaries of 86 individuals sampled from Asian, European, and Native American populations. We provided evidence that human PAX9 polymorphisms are limited to exon 3 only and furnished details about the distribution of a mutation there in 350 Polish subjects. To investigate the pattern of selective pressure on exon 3, we sequenced ortholog regions of this exon in four species of New World monkeys and one gorilla. In addition, orthologous sequences of PAX9 available in public databases were also analyzed. Although several differences were identified between humans and other species, our findings support the view that strong purifying selection is acting on PAX9. New World and Old World primate lineages may, however, have different degrees of restriction for changes in this DNA region.

  6. Molecular Analysis and Genomic Organization of Major DNA Satellites in Banana (Musa spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa. PMID:23372772

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection in a Major Chinese Hospital: an Underrecognized Problem in Asia?

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Clare; Liu, Wen En; Jian, Zi Juan; Gao, Qian; Ling, Thomas Kin Wah; Chow, Viola; So, Erica; Chan, Raphael; Hardy, Katie; Xu, Li; Manzoor, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is almost unrecognized in mainland China. We have undertaken a study in a large Chinese teaching hospital in Changsha, Hunan, China, to identify cases of C. difficile, record patient characteristics, and define the molecular epidemiology with respect to ribotype distribution and cross-infection. Between April 2009 and February 2010, we examined fecal samples from 70 hospitalized patients with diarrhea who were receiving or had received antibiotics within the previous 6 weeks. Clinical information was collected and the samples were cultured for C. difficile retrospectively. Isolates were ribotyped, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay (MLVA) subtyping was performed on clusters of the same ribotype. The mean age of patients from whom C. difficile was cultured was 58 years, with only 4/21 patients aged >65 years. All patients, with a single exception, had received a third-generation cephalosporin and/or a quinolone antibiotic. Twenty-one isolates of C. difficile were recovered, and seven different ribotypes were identified, the dominant types being 017 (48%), 046 (14%), and 012 (14%). We identified two clusters of cross-infection with indistinguishable isolates of ribotype 017, with evidence of spread both within and between wards. We have identified C. difficile as a possibly significant problem, with cross-infection and a distinct ribotype distribution, in a large Chinese hospital. C. difficile may be underrecognized in China, and further epidemiological studies across the country together with the introduction of routine diagnostic testing are needed to ascertain the size of this potentially significant problem. PMID:23903542

  8. Molecular analysis and genomic organization of major DNA satellites in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa.

  9. Natural selection and molecular evolution in primate PAX9 gene, a major determinant of tooth development

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Tiago V.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Mostowska, Adrianna; Trzeciak, Wieslaw H.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Chies, José A. B.; Saavedra, Carmen; Nagamachi, Cleusa; Hurtado, Ana M.; Hill, Kim; Castro-de-Guerra, Dinorah; Silva-Júnior, Wilson A.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira

    2006-01-01

    Large differences in relation to dental size, number, and morphology among and within modern human populations and between modern humans and other primate species have been observed. Molecular studies have demonstrated that tooth development is under strict genetic control, but, the genetic basis of primate tooth variation remains unknown. The PAX9 gene, which codes for a paired domain-containing transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of mammal dentition, has been associated with selective tooth agenesis in humans and mice, which mainly involves the posterior teeth. To determine whether this gene is polymorphic in humans, we sequenced ≈2.1 kb of the entire four-exon region (exons 1, 2, 3 and 4; 1,026 bp) and exon-intron (1.1 kb) boundaries of 86 individuals sampled from Asian, European, and Native American populations. We provided evidence that human PAX9 polymorphisms are limited to exon 3 only and furnished details about the distribution of a mutation there in 350 Polish subjects. To investigate the pattern of selective pressure on exon 3, we sequenced ortholog regions of this exon in four species of New World monkeys and one gorilla. In addition, orthologous sequences of PAX9 available in public databases were also analyzed. Although several differences were identified between humans and other species, our findings support the view that strong purifying selection is acting on PAX9. New World and Old World primate lineages may, however, have different degrees of restriction for changes in this DNA region. PMID:16585527

  10. Tracking molecular evolution of photosynthesis by characterization of a major photosynthesis gene cluster from Heliobacillus mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jin; Inoue, Kazuhito; Bauer, Carl E.

    1998-01-01

    A DNA sequence has been obtained for a 35.6-kb genomic segment from Heliobacillus mobilis that contains a major cluster of photosynthesis genes. A total of 30 ORFs were identified, 20 of which encode enzymes for bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis, reaction-center (RC) apoprotein, and cytochromes for cyclic electron transport. Donor side electron-transfer components to the RC include a putative RC-associated cytochrome c553 and a unique four-large-subunit cytochrome bc complex consisting of Rieske Fe-S protein (encoded by petC), cytochrome b6 (petB), subunit IV (petD), and a diheme cytochrome c (petX). Phylogenetic analysis of various photosynthesis gene products indicates a consistent grouping of oxygenic lineages that are distinct and descendent from anoxygenic lineages. In addition, H. mobilis was placed as the closest relative to cyanobacteria, which form a monophyletic origin to chloroplast-based photosynthetic lineages. The consensus of the photosynthesis gene trees also indicates that purple bacteria are the earliest emerging photosynthetic lineage. Our analysis also indicates that an ancient gene-duplication event giving rise to the paralogous bchI and bchD genes predates the divergence of all photosynthetic groups. In addition, our analysis of gene duplication of the photosystem I and photosystem II core polypeptides supports a “heterologous fusion model” for the origin and evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. PMID:9843979

  11. Molecular Cloning and Expression of a New Major Allergen, Ani s 14, from Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kakemoto, Seiko; Shimakura, Kuniyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Anisakis simplex is a representative parasite infecting marine animals. When third stage larvae of A. simplex infecting fish and squids are ingested by humans, individuals previously sensitized by this parasite may experience IgE-mediated allergic reactions. So far, as many as 13 kinds of proteins (Ani s 1-13) have been identified as A. simplex allergens but several more unknown allergens are suggested to exist. In this study, therefore, chemiluminescent immunoscreening of an expression cDNA library constructed from the third stage larvae was conducted to identify a new allergen. As a result, an IgE-positive clone coding for a 23.5 kDa protein (named Ani s 14) composed of 217 amino acid residues was isolated. The regions 4-147 and 34-123 of Ani s 14 share 31% identity with the region 796-940 of Ani s 7 and 32% identity with the region 2-91 of Ani s 12, respectively. Recombinant Ani s 14 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein and shown to be IgE reactive to 14 (54%) of 26 sera from Anisakis-allergic patients. In conclusion, Ani s 14 is a new major allergen of A. simplex that is specific to Anisakis-allergic patients.

  12. Major Intercontinentally Distributed Sequence Types of Kingella kingae and Development of a Rapid Molecular Typing Tool

    PubMed Central

    Basmaci, Romain; Bidet, Philippe; Yagupsky, Pablo; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Balashova, Nataliya V.; Doit, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Although Kingella kingae is the most common etiology of osteoarticular infections in young children, is a frequent cause of bacteremia in those younger than 4 years, and has been involved in clusters of invasive infections among daycare center attendees, the population structure of the species has not been systematically studied. Using multilocus sequence typing, we investigated the genetic diversity of the largest intercontinental collection of K. kingae strains to date. To facilitate typing of bacterial isolates, we developed a novel genotyping tool that targets the DNA uptake sequence (DUS). Among 324 strains isolated from asymptomatic carriers and patients from Israel, Europe, North America, and Australia with various invasive forms of the disease from 1960 to 2013, we identified 64 sequence types (STs) and 12 ST complexes (STcs). Five predominant STcs, comprising 72.2% of all strains, were distributed intercontinentally. ST-6 was the most frequent, showing a worldwide distribution, and appeared genotypically isolated by exhibiting few neighboring STs, suggesting an optimal fitness. ST-14 and ST-23 appeared to be the oldest groups of bacteria, while ST-25 probably emerged more recently from the highly evolutive ST-23. Using the DUS typing method, randomly chosen isolates were correctly classified to one of the major STcs. The comprehensive description of K. kingae evolution would help to detect new emerging clones and decipher virulence and fitness mechanisms. The rapid and reproducible DUS typing method may serve in the initial investigation of K. kingae outbreaks. PMID:25143574

  13. Isolation and molecular characterization of a major hemolymph serpin from the triatomine, Panstrongylus megistus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas disease kills 2.5 thousand people per year of 15 million persons infected in Latin America. The disease is caused by the protozoan, Trypanosome cruzi, and vectored by triatomine insects, including Panstrongylus megistus, an important vector in Brazil. Medicines treating Chagas disease have unpleasant side effects and may be ineffective, therefore, alternative control techniques are required. Knowledge of the T. cruzi interactions with the triatomine host needs extending and new targets/strategies for control identified. Serine and cysteine peptidases play vital roles in protozoan life cycles including invasion and entry of T. cruzi into host cells. Peptidase inhibitors are, therefore, promising targets for disease control. Methods SDS PAGE and chromatograpy detected and isolated a P. megistus serpin which was peptide sequenced by mass spectrometry. A full amino acid sequence was obtained from the cDNA and compared with other insect serpins. Reverse transcription PCR analysis measured serpin transcripts of P. megistus tissues with and without T. cruzi infection. Serpin homology modeling used the Swiss Model and Swiss-PDB viewer programmes. Results The P. megistus serpin (PMSRP1) has a ca. 40 kDa molecular mass with 404 amino acid residues. A reactive site loop contains a highly conserved hinge region but, based on sequence alignment, the normal cleavage site for serine proteases at P1-P1′ was translocated to the putative position P4′-P5′. A small peptide obtained corresponded to the C-terminal 40 amino acid region. The secondary structure of PMSRP1 indicated nine α-helices and three β-sheets, similar to other serpins. PMSRP1 transcripts occurred in all tested tissues but were highest in the fat body and hemocytes. Levels of mRNA encoding PMSRP1 were significantly modulated in the hemocytes and stomach by T. cruzi infection indicating a role for PMSRP1 in the parasite interactions with P. megistus. Conclusions For the first time, a

  14. Molecular Cytogenetics in Digenean Parasites: Linked and Unlinked Major and 5S rDNAs, B Chromosomes and Karyotype Diversification.

    PubMed

    García-Souto, Daniel; Pasantes, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Digenetic trematodes are the largest group of internal metazoan parasites, but their chromosomes are poorly studied. Although chromosome numbers and/or karyotypes are known for about 300 of the 18,000 described species, molecular cytogenetic knowledge is mostly limited to the mapping of telomeric sequences and/or of major rDNA clusters in 9 species. In this work we mapped major and 5S rDNA clusters and telomeric sequences in chromosomes of Bucephalus minimus, B. australis, Prosorhynchoides carvajali (Bucephaloidea), Monascus filiformis (Gymnophalloidea), Parorchis acanthus (Echinostomatoidea), Cryptocotyle lingua (Opisthorchioidea), Cercaria longicaudata, Monorchis parvus (Monorchioidea), Diphterostomum brusinae, and Bacciger bacciger (Microphalloidea). Whilst single major and minor rDNA clusters were mapped to different chromosome pairs in B. minimus and P. acanthus, overlapping signals were detected on a single chromosome pair in the remaining taxa. FISH experiments using major rDNA and telomeric probes clearly demonstrated the presence of highly stretched NORs in most of the digenean taxa analyzed. B chromosomes were detected in the B. bacciger samples hosted by Ruditapes decussatus. Although the cercariae specimens obtained from Donax trunculus, Tellina tenuis, and R. decussatus were in agreement with B. bacciger, their karyotypes showed striking morphological differences in agreement with the proposed assignation of these cercariae to different species of the genus Bacciger. Results are discussed in comparison with previous data on digenean chromosomes. PMID:26680763

  15. Computing Molecular Devices in L.major through Transcriptome Analysis: Structured Simulation Approach.

    PubMed

    Bejugam, Pruthvi Raj; Singh, Shailza

    2016-01-01

    In the modern era of post genomics and transcriptomics, non-coding RNAs and non-coding regions of many RNAs are a big puzzle when we try deciphering their role in specific gene function. Gene function assessment is a main task wherein high throughput technologies provide an impressive body of data that enables the design of hypotheses linking genes to phenotypes. Gene knockdown technologies and RNA-dependent gene silencing are the most frequent approaches to assess the role of key effectors in a particular scenario. Ribozymes are effective modulators of gene expression because of their simple structure, site-specific cleavage activity, and catalytic potential. In our study, after an extensive transcriptomic search of Leishmania major transcriptome we found a Putative ATP dependent DNA helicase (Lmjf_09_0590) 3' UTR which has a structural signature similar to well-known HDV hammerhead ribozyme, even though they have variable sequence motifs. Henceforth, to determine their structural stability and sustainability we analyzed our predicted structural model of this 3'UTR with a 30ns MD simulation, further confirmed with 100ns MD simulation in presence of 5mM MgCl2 ionic environment. In this environment, structural stability was significantly improved by bonded interactions between a RNA backbone and Mg2+ ions. These predictions were further validated in silico using RNA normal mode analysis and anisotropic network modelling (ANM) studies. The study may be significantly imparted to know the functional importance of many such 3'UTRs to predict their role in a mechanistic manner. PMID:26901858

  16. Computing Molecular Devices in L.major through Transcriptome Analysis: Structured Simulation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bejugam, Pruthvi Raj; Singh, Shailza

    2016-01-01

    In the modern era of post genomics and transcriptomics, non-coding RNAs and non-coding regions of many RNAs are a big puzzle when we try deciphering their role in specific gene function. Gene function assessment is a main task wherein high throughput technologies provide an impressive body of data that enables the design of hypotheses linking genes to phenotypes. Gene knockdown technologies and RNA-dependent gene silencing are the most frequent approaches to assess the role of key effectors in a particular scenario. Ribozymes are effective modulators of gene expression because of their simple structure, site-specific cleavage activity, and catalytic potential. In our study, after an extensive transcriptomic search of Leishmania major transcriptome we found a Putative ATP dependent DNA helicase (Lmjf_09_0590) 3’ UTR which has a structural signature similar to well-known HDV hammerhead ribozyme, even though they have variable sequence motifs. Henceforth, to determine their structural stability and sustainability we analyzed our predicted structural model of this 3’UTR with a 30ns MD simulation, further confirmed with 100ns MD simulation in presence of 5mM MgCl2 ionic environment. In this environment, structural stability was significantly improved by bonded interactions between a RNA backbone and Mg2+ ions. These predictions were further validated in silico using RNA normal mode analysis and anisotropic network modelling (ANM) studies. The study may be significantly imparted to know the functional importance of many such 3’UTRs to predict their role in a mechanistic manner. PMID:26901858

  17. Quantitative Molecular Detection of 19 Major Pathogens in the Interdental Biofilm of Periodontally Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Carrouel, Florence; Viennot, Stéphane; Santamaria, Julie; Veber, Philippe; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    In oral health, the interdental spaces are a real ecological niche for which the body has few or no alternative defenses and where the traditional daily methods for control by disrupting biofilm are not adequate. The interdental spaces are the source of many hypotheses regarding their potential associations with and/or causes of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, degenerative disease, and depression. This PCR study is the first to describe the interdental microbiota in healthy adults aged 18–35 years-old with reference to the Socransky complexes. The complexes tended to reflect microbial succession events in developing dental biofilms. Early colonizers included members of the yellow, green, and purple complexes. The orange complex bacteria generally appear after the early colonizers and include many putative periodontal pathogens, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum. The red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola) was considered the climax community and is on the list of putative periodontal pathogens. The 19 major periodontal pathogens tested were expressed at various levels. F. nucleatum was the most abundant species, and the least abundant were Actinomyces viscosus, P. gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The genome counts for Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, T. denticola, and Tannerella forsythensis increased significantly with subject age. The study highlights the observation that bacteria from the yellow complex (Streptococcus spp., S. mitis), the green complex (E. corrodens, Campylobacter gracilis, Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, A. actinomycetemcomitans), the purple complex (Veillonella parvula, Actinomyces odontolyticus) and the blue complex (A. viscosus) are correlated. Concerning the orange complex, F. nucleatum is the most abundant species in interdental biofilm. The red complex, which is recognized as the most important

  18. Quantitative Molecular Detection of 19 Major Pathogens in the Interdental Biofilm of Periodontally Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Carrouel, Florence; Viennot, Stéphane; Santamaria, Julie; Veber, Philippe; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    In oral health, the interdental spaces are a real ecological niche for which the body has few or no alternative defenses and where the traditional daily methods for control by disrupting biofilm are not adequate. The interdental spaces are the source of many hypotheses regarding their potential associations with and/or causes of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, degenerative disease, and depression. This PCR study is the first to describe the interdental microbiota in healthy adults aged 18-35 years-old with reference to the Socransky complexes. The complexes tended to reflect microbial succession events in developing dental biofilms. Early colonizers included members of the yellow, green, and purple complexes. The orange complex bacteria generally appear after the early colonizers and include many putative periodontal pathogens, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum. The red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola) was considered the climax community and is on the list of putative periodontal pathogens. The 19 major periodontal pathogens tested were expressed at various levels. F. nucleatum was the most abundant species, and the least abundant were Actinomyces viscosus, P. gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The genome counts for Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, T. denticola, and Tannerella forsythensis increased significantly with subject age. The study highlights the observation that bacteria from the yellow complex (Streptococcus spp., S. mitis), the green complex (E. corrodens, Campylobacter gracilis, Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, A. actinomycetemcomitans), the purple complex (Veillonella parvula, Actinomyces odontolyticus) and the blue complex (A. viscosus) are correlated. Concerning the orange complex, F. nucleatum is the most abundant species in interdental biofilm. The red complex, which is recognized as the most important

  19. Does Speciation between Arabidopsis halleri and Arabidopsis lyrata Coincide with Major Changes in a Molecular Target of Adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Camille; Castric, Vincent; Pauwels, Maxime; Wright, Stephen I.; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Vekemans, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Ever since Darwin proposed natural selection as the driving force for the origin of species, the role of adaptive processes in speciation has remained controversial. In particular, a largely unsolved issue is whether key divergent ecological adaptations are associated with speciation events or evolve secondarily within sister species after the split. The plant Arabidopsis halleri is one of the few species able to colonize soils highly enriched in zinc and cadmium. Recent advances in the molecular genetics of adaptation show that the physiology of this derived ecological trait involves copy number expansions of the AhHMA4 gene, for which orthologs are found in single copy in the closely related A. lyrata and the outgroup A. thaliana. To gain insight into the speciation process, we ask whether adaptive molecular changes at this candidate gene were contemporary with important stages of the speciation process. We first inferred the scenario and timescale of speciation by comparing patterns of variation across the genomic backgrounds of A. halleri and A. lyrata. Then, we estimated the timing of the first duplication of AhHMA4 in A. halleri. Our analysis suggests that the historical split between the two species closely coincides with major changes in this molecular target of adaptation in the A. halleri lineage. These results clearly indicate that these changes evolved in A. halleri well before industrial activities fostered the spread of Zn- and Cd-polluted areas, and suggest that adaptive processes related to heavy-metal homeostasis played a major role in the speciation process. PMID:22069475

  20. Evaluating the efficacy of vilazodone in achieving remission in patients with major depressive disorder: post-hoc analyses of a phase IV trial.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie; Gommoll, Carl P; Tang, Xiongwen; Nunez, Rene; Mathews, Maju

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone using different definitions of remission. Post-hoc analyses were carried out using data from an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vilazodone 40 mg/day in adults with major depressive disorder (NCT01473394). The primary efficacy endpoint was a mean change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score; additional measures included the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) scores. In addition to treatment response (MADRS≥50% improvement), post-hoc analyses were carried out for remission of depressive symptoms [MADRS score≤10; MADRS≤5 (complete remission)], anxiety symptoms (HAMA≤7), and combined depression and anxiety symptoms (MADRS/HAMA≤10/≤7), as well as for overall symptom severity (CGI-S=1). Odds ratios (ORs) and numbers needed to treat (NNTs) were also calculated. Significant outcomes were obtained with vilazodone versus placebo for MADRS response (50.6 vs. 33.3%, OR=2.04, P<0.001, NNT=6), remission (34.0 vs. 21.8%, OR=1.82, P=0.003, NNT=9), and complete remission (18.2 vs. 8.3%, OR=2.42, P=0.002, NNT=11). More patients receiving vilazodone rather than placebo also met remission criteria for HAMA (48.8 vs. 35.2%, OR=1.82, P=0.002, NNT=8), MADRS/HAMA (32.1 vs. 20.4%, OR=1.83, P=0.004, NNT=9), and CGI-S (24.1 vs. 11.5%, OR=2.41, P<0.001, NNT=8). Treatment with vilazodone 40 mg/day may help adult patients with major depressive disorder achieve remission of depression and/or anxiety symptoms.

  1. Molecular polymorphism and expression analysis of MHC class II B gene from red sea bream (Chrysophrys major).

    PubMed

    Chen, Song-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Xi; Xu, Mei-Yu; Ji, Xiang-Shan; Yu, Guo-Cai; Dong, Cheng-Fang

    2006-01-01

    MHC class II (major histocompatibility complex class II) plays an important role in the immune response of vertebrates. Its function is to present antigenic peptides to the T-cell receptor. In order to study the function and molecular polymorphism of class II B gene in fish, we have isolated cDNAs encoding class II B from spleen cDNA library of red sea bream (Chrysophrys major) by using EST sequencing, and examined genomic organization, molecular polymorphism and expression of red sea bream class II B gene. As in other vertebrates, five exons and four introns were identified in red sea bream class II B gene. Seven class II B alleles were identified from seven individuals of red sea bream. The deduced amino acid sequence of red sea bream MHC class II B 1(Chma-DAB*0101) had 87.1, 85.1, 87.1, 90.4, 87.1, 90.8% identity with those of red sea bream class II B 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7(Chma-DAB*0201-Chma-DAB*0701), respectively, and had 75.2, 74.5, 55.9, 55.1, 34.3 and 30.4% identity with those of striped sea bass, cichlid, rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, mouse and human, respectively. Four different class II B alleles were observed in a single individual and two different 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) sequences from this individual may infer the existence of two loci at least. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that high expression was detected in liver, head kidney, kidney, intestine, gill, stomach, hear and spleen, low expression in muscle and blood. Challenge of red sea bream with the pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio anguillarum, resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of MHC class II B mRNA from 5 to 72 h after infection in liver, spleen, head kidney and intestine, followed by a recovery to normal level after 96 h.

  2. In situ molecular elucidation of drug supersaturation achieved by nano-sizing and amorphization of poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Keisuke; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2015-09-18

    Quantitative evaluation of drug supersaturation and nanoparticle formation was conducted using in situ evaluation techniques, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We prepared a ternary complex of carbamazepine (CBZ) with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to improve the drug concentration. Different preparation methods, including grinding and spray drying, were performed to prepare the ternary component products, ground mixture (GM) and spray-dried sample (SD), respectively. Although CBZ was completely amorphized in the ternary SD, CBZ was partially amorphized with the remaining CBZ crystals in the ternary GM. Aqueous dispersion of the ternary GM formed nanoparticles of around 150 nm, originating from the CBZ crystals in the ternary GM. In contrast, the ternary SD formed transparent solutions without a precipitate. The molecular-level evaluation using NMR measurements revealed that approximately half a dose of CBZ in the ternary GM dispersion was present as nanoparticles; however, CBZ in the ternary SD was completely dissolved in the aqueous solution. The characteristic difference between the solid states, followed by different preparation methods, induced different solution characteristics in the ternary GM and SD. The permeation study, using a dialysis membrane, showed that the CBZ concentration dissolved in the bulk water phase rapidly reduced in the ternary SD dispersion compared to the ternary GM dispersion; this demonstrated the advantage of ternary GM dispersion in the maintenance of CBZ supersaturation. Long-term maintenance of a supersaturated state of CBZ observed in the ternary GM dispersion rather than in the ternary SD dispersion was achieved by the inhibition of CBZ crystallization owing to the existence of CBZ nanoparticles in the ternary GM dispersion. Nanoparticle formation, combined with drug amorphization, could be a promising approach to improve drug concentrations. The detailed elucidation

  3. Molecular Detection of Leishmania major and L. turanica in Phlebotomus papatasi and First Natural Infection of P. salehi to L. major in North-East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rafizadeh, Sayena; Saraei, Mehrzad; Abaei, Mohammad Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Mohebali, Mehdi; Peymani, Amir; Naserpour-Farivar, Taghi; Bakhshi, Hassan; Rassi, Yavar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is an important public health disease in many developing countries as well in Iran. The main objective of this study was to investigate on leishmania infection of wild caught sand flies in an endemic focus of disease in Esfarayen district, north east of Iran. Methods: Sand flies were collected by sticky papers and mounted in a drop of Puri’s medium for species identification. Polymerase chain reaction techniques of kDNA, ITS1-rDNA, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism were used for identification of DNA of Leishmania parasites within infected sand flies. Results: Among the collected female sand flies, two species of Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus salehi were found naturally infected with Leishmania major. Furthermore, mixed infection of Leishmania turanica and L. major was observed in one specimen of P. papatasi. Sequence analysis revealed two parasite ITS1 haplotypes including three L. major with accession numbers: KJ425408, KJ425407, KM056403 and one L. turanica. (KJ425406). The haplotype of L. major was identical (100%) to several L. major sequences deposited in GenBank, including isolates from Iran, (Gen Bank accession nos.AY573187, KC505421, KJ194178) and Uzbekistan (Accession no.FN677357). Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first detection of L. major within wild caught P. salehi in northeast of Iran. PMID:27308272

  4. Kavain, the Major Constituent of the Anxiolytic Kava Extract, Potentiates GABAA Receptors: Functional Characteristics and Molecular Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Han Chow; Christensen, Emilie T. H.; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Hartiadi, Leonny Y.; Ramzan, Iqbal; Jensen, Anders A.; Absalom, Nathan L.; Chebib, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of the pepper plant kava (Piper methysticum) are effective in alleviating anxiety in clinical trials. Despite the long-standing therapeutic interest in kava, the molecular target(s) of the pharmacologically active constituents, kavalactones have not been established. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) are assumed to be the in vivo molecular target of kavalactones based on data from binding assays, but evidence in support of a direct interaction between kavalactones and GABAARs is scarce and equivocal. In this study, we characterised the functional properties of the major anxiolytic kavalactone, kavain at human recombinant α1β2, β2γ2L, αxβ2γ2L (x = 1, 2, 3 and 5), α1βxγ2L (x = 1, 2 and 3) and α4β2δ GABAARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. We found that kavain positively modulated all receptors regardless of the subunit composition, but the degree of enhancement was greater at α4β2δ than at α1β2γ2L GABAARs. The modulatory effect of kavain was unaffected by flumazenil, indicating that kavain did not enhance GABAARs via the classical benzodiazepine binding site. The β3N265M point mutation which has been previously shown to profoundly decrease anaesthetic sensitivity, also diminished kavain-mediated potentiation. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the functional characteristics of a single kavalactone at distinct GABAAR subtypes, and presents the first experimental evidence in support of a direct interaction between a kavalactone and GABAARs. PMID:27332705

  5. A mitochondrial genome phylogeny of termites (Blattodea: Termitoidae): robust support for interfamilial relationships and molecular synapomorphies define major clades.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Stephen L; Lo, Nathan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Svenson, Gavin J; Evans, Theodore A

    2012-10-01

    Despite their ecological significance as decomposers and their evolutionary significance as the most speciose eusocial insect group outside the Hymenoptera, termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae or Isoptera) evolutionary relationships have yet to be well resolved. Previous morphological and molecular analyses strongly conflict at the family level and are marked by poor support for backbone nodes. A mitochondrial (mt) genome phylogeny of termites was produced to test relationships between the recognised termite families, improve nodal support and test the phylogenetic utility of rare genomic changes found in the termite mt genome. Complete mt genomes were sequenced for 7 of the 9 extant termite families with additional representatives of each of the two most speciose families Rhinotermitidae (3 of 7 subfamilies) and Termitidae (3 of 8 subfamilies). The mt genome of the well supported sister-group of termites, the subsocial cockroach Cryptocercus, was also sequenced. A highly supported tree of termite relationships was produced by all analytical methods and data treatment approaches, however the relationship of the termites+Cryptocercus clade to other cockroach lineages was highly affected by the strong nucleotide compositional bias found in termites relative to other dictyopterans. The phylogeny supports previously proposed suprafamilial termite lineages, the Euisoptera and Neoisoptera, a later derived Kalotermitidae as sister group of the Neoisoptera and a monophyletic clade of dampwood (Stolotermitidae, Archotermopsidae) and harvester termites (Hodotermitidae). In contrast to previous termite phylogenetic studies, nodal supports were very high for family-level relationships within termites. Two rare genomic changes in the mt genome control region were found to be molecular synapomorphies for major clades. An elongated stem-loop structure defined the clade Polyphagidae + (Cryptocercus+termites), and a further series of compensatory base changes in this stem-loop is

  6. In situ formation of phosphorescent molecular gold(I) cluster in a macroporous polymer film to achieve colorimetric cyanide sensing.

    PubMed

    Zong, Chenghua; Zheng, Li Rong; He, Wenhui; Ren, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Chunhuan; Lu, Lehui

    2014-02-01

    A highly phosphorescent molecular Au(I) cluster capable of rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of cyanide has been successfully fabricated. The origin of the outstanding sensing performance of the molecular Au(I) cluster toward cyanide is justified by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses. The response mechanism employed with the molecular Au(I) cluster and the cost-effectiveness in cyanide detection affords several key sensor features, making this molecular Au(I) cluster-based sensor unique compared to other cyanide sensing schemes. Importantly, by exploring the phosphorescent properties of the molecular Au(I) cluster in solid state, we demonstrate the first example of the molecular gold(I) cluster-based macroporous sensing film for colorimetric detection of cyanide in complex samples, including red wine, coffee, juice, and soil. Remarkably, the as-prepared sensing film inherits the sensing ability of the molecular Au(I) cluster, and offers a high mechanical flexibility and novel opportunities for real-time monitoring cyanide release in cassava manufacturing.

  7. Development of SRAP, SNP and multiplexed SCAR molecular markers for the major seed coat color gene in Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mukhlesur; McVetty, Peter B E; Li, Genyi

    2007-11-01

    Seed coat color inheritance in B. rapa was studied in F(1), F(2), F(3), and BC(1) progenies from a cross of a Canadian brown-seeded variety 'SPAN' and a Bangladeshi yellow sarson variety 'BARI-6'. A pollen effect was found when the yellow sarson line was used as the maternal parent. Seed coat color segregated into brown, yellow-brown and bright yellow classes. Segregation was under digenic control where the brown or yellow-brown color was dominant over bright yellow seed coat color. A sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) marker linked closely to a major seed coat color gene (Br1/br1) was developed. This dominant SRAP molecular marker was successfully converted into single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and sequence characterized amplification region (SCAR) markers after the extended flanking sequence of the SRAP was obtained with chromosome walking. In total, 24 SNPs were identified with more than 2-kb sequence. A 12-bp deletion allowed the development of a SCAR marker linked closely to the Br1 gene. Using the five-fluorescence dye set supplied by ABI, four labeled M13 primers were integrated with different SCAR primers to increase the throughput of SCAR marker detection. Using multiplexed SCAR markers targeting insertions and deletions in a genome shows great potential for marker assisted selection in plant breeding.

  8. Genomic, RNAseq, and molecular modeling evidence suggests that the major allergen domain in insects evolved from a homodimeric origin.

    PubMed

    Randall, Thomas A; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E; Mueller, Geoffrey A

    2013-01-01

    The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects.

  9. Major Variations in HIV-1 Capsid Assembly Morphologies Involve Minor Variations in Molecular Structures of Structurally Ordered Protein Segments.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun-Xia; Bayro, Marvin J; Tycko, Robert

    2016-06-17

    We present the results of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments on HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) assemblies with three different morphologies, namely wild-type CA (WT-CA) tubes with 35-60 nm diameters, planar sheets formed by the Arg(18)-Leu mutant (R18L-CA), and R18L-CA spheres with 20-100 nm diameters. The experiments are intended to elucidate molecular structural variations that underlie these variations in CA assembly morphology. We find that multidimensional solid state NMR spectra of (15)N,(13)C-labeled CA assemblies are remarkably similar for the three morphologies, with only small differences in (15)N and (13)C chemical shifts, no significant differences in NMR line widths, and few differences in the number of detectable NMR cross-peaks. Thus, the pronounced differences in morphology do not involve major differences in the conformations and identities of structurally ordered protein segments. Instead, morphological variations are attributable to variations in conformational distributions within disordered segments, which do not contribute to the solid state NMR spectra. Variations in solid state NMR signals from certain amino acid side chains are also observed, suggesting differences in the intermolecular dimerization interface between curved and planar CA lattices, as well as possible differences in intramolecular helix-helix packing. PMID:27129282

  10. Molecular Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Symptomatic Individuals Attending Two Major Public Hospitals in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2015-01-01

    Background The flagellate protozoan Giardia duodenalis is an enteric parasite causing human giardiasis, a major gastrointestinal disease of global distribution affecting both developing and industrialised countries. In Spain, sporadic cases of giardiasis have been regularly identified, particularly in pediatric and immigrant populations. However, there is limited information on the genetic variability of circulating G. duodenalis isolates in the country. Methods In this longitudinal molecular epidemiological study we report the diversity and frequency of the G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages identified in 199 stool samples collected from 184 individual with symptoms compatible with giardiasis presenting to two major public hospitals in Madrid for the period December 2013–January 2015. G. duodenalis cysts were initially detected by conventional microscopy and/or immunochomatography on stool samples. Confirmation of the infection was performed by direct immunofluorescence and real-time PCR methods. G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multi-locus genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and β-giardin (BG) genes of the parasite. Sociodemographic and clinical features of patients infected with G. duodenalis were also analysed. Principal findings Of 188 confirmed positive samples from 178 giardiasis cases a total of 124 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully typed at the GDH and/or the BG loci, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages BIV (62.1%), AII (15.3%), BIII (4.0%), AI (0.8%), and AIII (0.8%). Additionally, 6.5% of the isolates were only characterised at the assemblage level, being all of them assigned to assemblage B. Discordant genotype results AII/AIII or BIII/BIV were also observed in 10.5% of DNA isolates. A large number of multi-locus genotypes were identified in G. duodenalis assemblage B, but not assemblage A, isolates at both the GDH and BG loci, confirming the high degree of genetic variability

  11. Dealing with the Challenges of Teaching Molecular Biophysics to Biochemistry Majors through an Heuristics-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.

    2002-01-01

    The main distinction between the overlapping fields of molecular biophysics and biochemistry resides in their different approaches to the same problems. Molecular biophysics makes more use of physical techniques and focuses on quantitative data. This difference encounters two difficult pedagogical challenges when teaching molecular biophysics to…

  12. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C; Blaher, B; Rolland, J M; McCluskey, J; Schäppi, G; Kenrick, J; Singh, M B; Knox, R B

    1998-04-01

    Grass pollen, especially of rye-grass (Lolium perenne). represents an important cause of type I allergy. Identification of IgE-binding (allergenic) epitopes of major grass pollen allergens is essential for understanding the molecular basis of interaction between allergens and human IgE antibodies and therefore facilitates the devising of safer and more effective diagnostic and immunotherapy reagents. The aim of this study was to identify the allergenic epitopes of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen, immunodissect these epitopes further so that the amino acid residues critical for antibody binding can be determined and investigate the conservation and nature of these epitopes within the context of the natural grass pollen allergens. Peptides, 12-13 amino acid residues long and overlapping each other by 4 amino acid residues, based on the entire deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of Lol p 5, were synthesised and assayed for IgE-binding. Two strong IgE-binding epitopes (Lol p 5 (49-60) and (265-276), referred to as peptides 7 and 34, respectively) were identified. These epitopes were further resolved by truncated peptides and amino acid replacement studies and the amino acid residues critical for IgE-binding determined (Lol p 5 (49-60) residue Lys57 and (265-276) residue Lys275). Sequences of these epitopes were conserved in related allergens and may form the conserved allergenic domains responsible for the cross-reactivity observed between pollen allergens of taxonomically related grasses. Furthermore, due to its strong IgE-reactivity, synthetic peptide Lol p 5 (265-276) was used to affinity-purify specific IgE antibodies which recognised proteins of other clinically important grass pollens. further indicating presence of allergenic cross-reactivity at the level of allergenic epitope. Moreover, Lol p 5 (265 276) demonstrated a strong capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to natural rye-grass pollen proteins highlighting the antibody accessibility

  13. Molecular Architecture of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I-binding Site of Ly49 Natural Killer Cell Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lu; Cho, Sangwoo; Malchiodi, Emilio L.; Kerzic, Melissa C.; Dam, Julie; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a vital role in the detection and destruction of virally infected and tumor cells during innate immune responses. The highly polymorphic Ly49 family of NK receptors regulates NK cell function by sensing major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules on target cells. Despite the determination of two Ly49-MHC-I complex structures, the molecular features of Ly49 receptors that confer specificity for particular MHC-I alleles have not been identified. To understand the functional architecture of Ly49-binding sites, we determined the crystal structures of Ly49C and Ly49G and completed refinement of the Ly49C-H-2Kb complex. This information, combined with mutational analysis of Ly49A, permitted a structure-based classification of Ly49s that we used to dissect the binding site into three distinct regions, each having different roles in MHC recognition. One region, located at the center of the binding site, has a similar structure across the Ly49 family and mediates conserved interactions with MHC-I that contribute most to binding. However, the preference of individual Ly49s for particular MHC-I molecules is governed by two regions that flank the central region and are structurally more variable. One of the flanking regions divides Ly49s into those that recognize both H-2D and H-2K versus only H-2D ligands, whereas the other discriminates among H-2D or H-2K alleles. The modular design of Ly49-binding sites provides a framework for predicting the MHC-binding specificity of Ly49s that have not been characterized experimentally. PMID:18426793

  14. Molecular and Immunological Significance of Chimpanzee Major Histocompatibility Complex Haplotypes for Hepatitis C Virus Immune Response and Vaccination Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Nascimbeni, Michelina; Blaustein, Joshua B.; Mihalik, Kathleen; Rice, Charles M.; Liang, T. Jake; Feinstone, Stephen M.; Rehermann, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The chimpanzee is a critical animal model for studying cellular immune responses to infectious pathogens such as hepatitis B and C viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, and malaria. Several candidate vaccines and immunotherapies for these infections aim at the induction or enhancement of cellular immune responses against viral epitopes presented by common human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. To identify and characterize chimpanzee MHC class I molecules that are functionally related to human alleles, we sequenced 18 different Pan troglodytes (Patr) alleles of 14 chimpanzees, 2 of them previously unknown and 3 with only partially reported sequences. Comparative analysis of Patr binding pockets and binding assays with biotinylated peptides demonstrated a molecular homology between the binding grooves of individual Patr alleles and the common human alleles HLA-A1, -A2, -A3, and -B7. Using cytotoxic T cells isolated from the blood of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected chimpanzees, we then mapped the Patr restriction of these HCV peptides and demonstrated functional homology between the Patr-HLA orthologues in cytotoxicity and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assays. Based on these results, 21 HCV epitopes were selected to characterize the chimpanzees' cellular immune response to HCV. In each case, IFN-γ-producing T cells were detectable in the blood after but not prior to HCV infection and were specifically targeted against those HCV peptides predicted by Patr-HLA homology. This study demonstrates a close functional homology between individual Patr and HLA alleles and shows that HCV infection generates HCV peptides that are recognized by both chimpanzees and humans with Patr and HLA orthologues. These results are relevant for the design and evaluation of vaccines in chimpanzees that can now be selected according to the most frequent human MHC haplotypes. PMID:12021342

  15. Molecular Architecture of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I-Binding Site of Ly49 Natural Killer Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Deng,L.; Cho, S.; Malchiodi, E.; Kerzic, M.; Dam, J.; Mariuzza, R.

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a vital role in the detection and destruction of virally infected and tumor cells during innate immune responses. The highly polymorphic Ly49 family of NK receptors regulates NK cell function by sensing major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules on target cells. Despite the determination of two Ly49-MHC-I complex structures, the molecular features of Ly49 receptors that confer specificity for particular MHC-I alleles have not been identified. To understand the functional architecture of Ly49-binding sites, we determined the crystal structures of Ly49C and Ly49G and completed refinement of the Ly49C-H-2Kb complex. This information, combined with mutational analysis of Ly49A, permitted a structure-based classification of Ly49s that we used to dissect the binding site into three distinct regions, each having different roles in MHC recognition. One region, located at the center of the binding site, has a similar structure across the Ly49 family and mediates conserved interactions with MHC-I that contribute most to binding. However, the preference of individual Ly49s for particular MHC-I molecules is governed by two regions that flank the central region and are structurally more variable. One of the flanking regions divides Ly49s into those that recognize both H-2D and H-2K versus only H-2D ligands, whereas the other discriminates among H-2D or H-2K alleles. The modular design of Ly49-binding sites provides a framework for predicting the MHC-binding specificity of Ly49s that have not been characterized experimentally.

  16. “Rules of Engagement” of Protein–Glycoconjugate Interactions: A Molecular View Achievable by using NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Roberta; Perez, Serge; Arda, Ana; Imberty, Anne; Jimenez‐Barbero, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the dynamics of protein–ligand interactions, which lie at the heart of host–pathogen recognition, represents a crucial step to clarify the molecular determinants implicated in binding events, as well as to optimize the design of new molecules with therapeutic aims. Over the last decade, advances in complementary biophysical and spectroscopic methods permitted us to deeply dissect the fine structural details of biologically relevant molecular recognition processes with high resolution. This Review focuses on the development and use of modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to dissect binding events. These spectroscopic methods, complementing X‐ray crystallography and molecular modeling methodologies, will be taken into account as indispensable tools to provide a complete picture of protein–glycoconjugate binding mechanisms related to biomedicine applications against infectious diseases. PMID:27547635

  17. Gender Differences in Learning Constructs, Shifts in Learning Constructs, and Their Relationship to Course Achievement in a Structured Inquiry, Yearlong College Physics Course for Life Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann M. L.; Rozman, Michelle; Potter, Wendell H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated differences and shifts in learning and motivation constructs among male and female students in a nonmajors, yearlong structured inquiry college physics course and examined how these variables were related to physics understanding and course achievement. Tests and questionnaires measured students' learning approaches,…

  18. An integrative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus carriers in Vietnam achieved through targeted surveillance and molecular epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multidisciplinary, molecular and conventional epidemiological approach was applied to an investigation of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in Vietnam. Within the study space, it was found that 22.3 percent of sampled ruminants had previously been infected with FMD virus (FMDV) and that 2.4 percent w...

  19. Who Becomes a Physics Major? A Long-term Longitudinal Study Examining the Roles of Pre-college Beliefs about Physics and Learning Physics, Interest, and Academic Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Gratny, Mindy

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we examine the correlation between students' beliefs upon entering college and their likelihood of continuing on to become a physics major. Since 2004, we have collected CLASS survey and self-reported level-of-interest responses from students in the first-term, introductory calculus-based physics course (N>2500). Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of students' incoming CLASS scores and level of interest, comparing those students who go on to become physics majors with those who do not. We find the incoming CLASS scores and reported interest of these future physics majors to be substantially higher than the class average, indicating that these students enter their first college course already having quite expert-like beliefs. The comparative differences are much smaller for grades, SAT score, and university predicted-GPA.

  20. Molecular identification, polymorphism, and expression analysis of major histocompatibility complex class IIA and B genes of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Xi; Chen, Song-Lin

    2006-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II has a central role in the adaptive immune system by presenting foreign peptides to the T-cell receptor. The full lengths of MHC class II A and B cDNA were cloned from turbot by homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE PCR), and genomic organization, molecular polymorphism, and expression of turbot class IIB gene were examined to study the function of class IIB gene in fish. The deduced amino acid sequence of turbot class II A (GenBank accession no.DQ001730) and turbot class IIB (GenBank accession no. DQ094170) had 69.8%, 67.6%, 65.5%, 59.2%, 54.5%, 52.8%, 46.2%, 46.6%, 28.3%, 28.5%, 22.2% identity and 71.5%, 70.7%, 67.1%, 68.4%, 46.7%, 53.5%, 46.7%, 50.0%, 25.2%, 29.2%, 27.6% identity with those of Japanese flounder, striped sea bass, red sea bream, cichlid, rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, carp, zebrafish, nurse shark, mouse and human, respectively. Eleven class IIB alleles were identified from three turbot individuals. The amino acid sequence of turbot class IIB designated as Scma-DAB*0101 had 86.9%, 88.6%, 88.6%, 89.4%, 87.8%, 86.9%, 84.1%, 86.5%, 87.3%, 77.1%, and 86.9% identity with those of turbot class IIB 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 (Scma-DAB*0201- Scma-DAB*1201), respectively. Six different class IIB alleles observed in a single individual may infer the existence of three loci at least. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) demonstrated that turbot class IIA and B were ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues. Challenge of turbot with pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio anguillarum, resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of MHC class IIB mRNA from 24 h to 48 h after infection in liver and head kidney, and a significant decrease from 24 h to 72 h after infection in spleen, followed by an increase after 96 h, respectively.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of organometallic reaction dynamics, and, Enhancing achievement in chemistry for African American students through innovations in pedagogy aligned with supporting assessment and curriculum and integrated under an alternative research paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebane, Sheryl Dee

    Part I. Molecular dynamics simulation of organometallic reaction dynamics. To study the interplay of solute and solvent dynamics, large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were employed. Lennard-Jones and electrostatic models of potential energies from solvent-only studies were combined with solute potentials generated from ab-initio calculations. Radial distribution functions and other measures revealed the polar solvent's response to solute dynamics following CO dissociation. In future studies, the time-scale for solvent coordination will be confirmed with ultrafast spectroscopy data. Part II. Enhancing achievement in chemistry for African American students through innovations in pedagogy aligned with supporting assessment and curriculum and integrated under an alternative research paradigm. Much progress has been made in the area of research in education that focuses on teaching and learning in science. Much effort has also centered on documenting and exploring the disparity in academic achievement between underrepresented minority students and students comprising a majority in academic circles. However, few research projects have probed educational inequities in the context of mainstream science education. In order to enrich this research area and to better reach underserved learning communities, the educational experience of African American students in an ethnically and academically diverse high school science class has been examined throughout one, largely successful, academic year. The bulk of data gathered during the study was obtained through several qualitative research methods and was interpreted using research literature that offered fresh theoretical perspectives on equity that may better support effective action.

  2. HMGI-C rearrangements as the molecular basis for the majority of pulmonary chondroid hamartomas: a survey of 30 tumors.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, B; Rosigkeit, J; Wanschura, S; Meyer-Bolte, K; Van de Ven, W J; Kayser, K; Krieghoff, B; Kastendiek, H; Bartnitzke, S; Bullerdiek, J

    1996-02-01

    Pulmonary chondroid hamartomas (PCH) are benign tumors of the lung characterized by a more or less high degree of mesenchymal metaplasia. In our series we investigated 30 PCH by a combination of cytogenetic and molecular methods. 18 tumors (60%) had cytogenetically detectable aberrations involving either 12q14-15 or 6p21 with a clear predominance of chromosomal abnormalities involving 12q14-15 (15 tumors). As in subgroups of pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands, leiomyomas of the uterus, and lipomas with 12q14-15 abnormalities the HMGI-C gene is frequently rearranged we tested PCH with either 12q14-15 abnormalities or normal karyotype by FISH and 3' RACE experiments for rearrangements of HMGI-C. Rearrangements were found in all cases with chromosomal 12q14-15 abnormalities and further six cases with an apparently normal karyotype. By the combination of cytogenetics with molecular techniques the percentage of cases with intragenic rearrangements of HMGI-C or rearrangements of its immediate surrounding was thus increased to 70% (21/30 cases). Considering all types of aberrations within this series 80% (24/30) of all PCH were aberrant. This is the first report on a combined molecular and cytogenetic analysis of a large series of pulmonary chondroid hamartomas indicating that rearrangements of HMGI-C, a member of the high mobility group protein gene family, are the leading molecular events in the genesis of PCH.

  3. Structural polymorphism of the major capsid protein of a double-stranded RNA virus: an amphipathic alpha helix as a molecular switch.

    PubMed

    Saugar, Irene; Luque, Daniel; Oña, Ana; Rodríguez, José F; Carrascosa, José L; Trus, Benes L; Castón, José R

    2005-07-01

    The infectious bursal disease virus T=13 viral particle is composed of two major proteins, VP2 and VP3. Here, we show that the molecular basis of the conformational flexibility of the major capsid protein precursor, pVP2, is an amphipatic alpha helix formed by the sequence GFKDIIRAIR. VP2 containing this alpha helix is able to assemble into the T=13 capsid only when expressed as a chimeric protein with an N-terminal His tag. An amphiphilic alpha helix, which acts as a conformational switch, is thus responsible for the inherent structural polymorphism of VP2. The His tag mimics the VP3 C-terminal region closely and acts as a molecular triggering factor. Using cryo-electron microscopy difference imaging, both polypeptide elements were detected on the capsid inner surface. We propose that electrostatic interactions between these two morphogenic elements are transmitted to VP2 to acquire the competent conformations for capsid assembly.

  4. Designing molecular structure to achieve ductile fracture behavior in a stiff and strong 2D polymer, ``graphylene''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoz-Rosado, E.; Beaudet, T. D.; Balu, R.; Wetzel, E. D.

    2016-05-01

    As the simplest two-dimensional (2D) polymer, graphene has immensely high intrinsic strength and elastic stiffness but has limited toughness due to brittle fracture. We use atomistic simulations to explore a new class of graphene/polyethylene hybrid 2D polymer, ``graphylene'', that exhibits ductile fracture mechanisms and has a higher fracture toughness and flaw tolerance than graphene. A specific configuration of this 2D polymer hybrid, denoted ``GrE-2'' for the two-carbon-long ethylene chains connecting benzene rings in the inherent framework, is prioritized for study. MD simulations of crack propagation show that the energy release rate to propagate a crack in GrE-2 is twice that of graphene. We also demonstrate that GrE-2 exhibits delocalized failure and other energy-dissipating fracture mechanisms such as crack branching and bridging. These results demonstrate that 2D polymers can be uniquely tailored to achieve a balance of fracture toughness with mechanical stiffness and strength.As the simplest two-dimensional (2D) polymer, graphene has immensely high intrinsic strength and elastic stiffness but has limited toughness due to brittle fracture. We use atomistic simulations to explore a new class of graphene/polyethylene hybrid 2D polymer, ``graphylene'', that exhibits ductile fracture mechanisms and has a higher fracture toughness and flaw tolerance than graphene. A specific configuration of this 2D polymer hybrid, denoted ``GrE-2'' for the two-carbon-long ethylene chains connecting benzene rings in the inherent framework, is prioritized for study. MD simulations of crack propagation show that the energy release rate to propagate a crack in GrE-2 is twice that of graphene. We also demonstrate that GrE-2 exhibits delocalized failure and other energy-dissipating fracture mechanisms such as crack branching and bridging. These results demonstrate that 2D polymers can be uniquely tailored to achieve a balance of fracture toughness with mechanical stiffness and

  5. Design and synthesis of dendritic molecular transporter that achieves efficient in vivo delivery of morpholino antisense oligo.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Fu; Morcos, Paul A

    2008-07-01

    Safe and efficient in vivo delivery of Morpholino antisense oligos was probably the last and most difficult challenge for the broad application of antisense in animal research and therapeutics. Several arginine-rich peptides effective for in vivo delivery of Morpholino antisense oligos require rather complex and expensive procedures for synthesis and conjugation. This work describes the design and synthesis of a dendritic transporter in a most concise manner where the selection of the core scaffold, functional group multiplication, orthogonal protecting group manipulation, solid phase conjugation, and off-resin perguanidinylation of the transporter structure are all orchestrated for efficient assembly. We utilized triazine as a core to provide a site for on-column conjugation to the Morpholino oligo and to anchor functional side arms which, after extension, multiplication, and deprotection, are subsequently converted from primary amines to the eight guanidinium headgroups that serve for transport across cell membranes. Intravenous administration of the delivery-enabled Morpholino into a splice-reporter strain of transgenic living mice results in de novo expression of splice-corrected green fluorescent protein in a broad range of tissues and organs in those treated mice. This rigorously demonstrates that this new dendritic transporter achieves effective delivery of a Morpholino oligo into the cytosol/nuclear compartment of cells systemically in vivo. The practical conjugation process may overcome any availability limitation for routine use by the scientific community, and the efficient delivery ability of this transporter may advance the application of Morpholino antisense technology in animals.

  6. Different Morphologies of Leishmania major Amastigotes with No Molecular Diversity in a Neglected Endemic Area of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Spotin, Adel; Rouhani, Soheila; Ghaemmaghami, Parnazsadat; Haghighi, Ali; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; Amirkhani, Aref; Farahmand, Mahin; Bordbar, Ali; Parvizi, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Molecular diversity of Leishmania major and its morphological changes have become a controversial issue among researchers. Some aspects of polymorphic shapes of amastigotes in clinical manifestations along with molecular variation were evaluated among suspected patients of some exceptional zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis locations in Northern Khuzestan, Southwestern Iran. Methods: Suspected patients (n = 165) were sampled in zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis foci over two consecutive years during 2012-2014. Prepared smears were stained, scaled and measured by ocular micrometer. DNA was extracted from smears; ITS-rDNA and Cytochrome b (Cyt b) markers were amplified, and PCR products were digested by BsuR1 restriction enzyme. Then the RFLP and sequencing were employed. Results: Only L. major was identified in patients containing regular amastigotes' shapes (oval or round) with a size of 2-4 µm in each of classical wet, dry, mixed lesions. Meanwhile, irregular shapes (spindle, pear, or cigarette) were observed separately in non-classical wet lesions with more than 4 µm. Interestingly, a few amastigotes with an external flagellum were observed in some lesions. All sequenced ITS-rDNA and Cyt b genes of L. major did not show any molecular variation (χ 2 P > 0.05), including only one common haplotype (GenBank access no. EF413075). Conclusion: Findings proved that unlike other endemic foci, there is not a meaningful correlation between phenotypic and genotypic features of L. major isolates. This study is considered as the first comprehensive report to incriminate morphometric shapes of L. major amastigotes, which enhances our knowledge concerning their relevance with various clinical appearances and genotypic traits. PMID:26081070

  7. Bacteroides fragilis in biopsies of patients with major abscesses and diabetic foot infections: direct molecular versus culture-based detection.

    PubMed

    Stappers, Mark H T; Hagen, Ferry; Reimnitz, Peter; Mouton, Johan W; Meis, Jacques F; Gyssens, Inge C

    2016-06-01

    Direct determination by pathogen-specific real-time PCR assay for Bacteroides fragilis was compared to culture in major abscess and diabetic foot infection biopsy samples. Real-time PCR resulted in an increased detection rate of 12% for B. fragilis and could improve the detection of B. fragilis in clinical samples. PMID:27112830

  8. Online molecular characterization of fine particulate matter in Port Angeles, WA: Evidence for a major impact from residential wood smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Cassandra J.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Whybrew, Lauren E.; Hadley, Odelle; McNair, Fran; Gao, Honglian; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-08-01

    We present on-line molecular composition measurements of wintertime particulate matter (PM) during 2014 using an iodide-adduct high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) coupled to a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO). These measurements were part of an intensive effort to characterize PM in the region with a focus on ultrafine particle sources. The technique was used to detect and quantify different classes of wood burning tracers, including levoglucosan, methoxyphenols, and nitrocatechols, among other compounds in near real-time. During the campaign, particulate mass concentrations of compounds with the same molecular composition as levoglucosan ranged from 0.002 to 19 μg/m3 with a median mass concentration of 0.9 μg/m3. Wood burning markers, in general, showed a strong diurnal pattern peaking at night and in the early morning. This diurnal profile combined with cold, stagnant conditions, wind directions from predominantly residential areas, and observations of lower combustion efficiency at night support residential wood burning as a dominant source of wintertime PM in Port Angeles. This finding has implications for improving wintertime air quality in the region by encouraging the use of high efficiency wood-burning stoves or other cleaner home heating options throughout the relevant domain.

  9. The major low-molecular-weight heat shock protein in chloroplasts shows antigenic conservation among diverse higher plant species.

    PubMed

    Vierling, E; Harris, L M; Chen, Q

    1989-02-01

    Several plant species are known to synthesize low-molecular-weight nucleus-encoded heat shock proteins (HSPs) which localize to chloroplasts. DNA sequence analysis of chloroplast HSP cDNAs from pea (Pisum sativum) and soybean (Glycine max) has shown that the carboxyl-terminal halves of these proteins are homologous to low-molecular-weight HSPs from a wide range of eucaryotes (E. Vierling, R. T. Nagao, A. E. DeRocher, and L. M. Harris, EMBO J. 7:575-581, 1988). We used a pea cDNA to construct fusion proteins containing either the carboxyl-terminal heat shock domain or the amino-terminal domain of the chloroplast HSP. The fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and used to produce choloroplast HSP-specific polyclonal antibodies. The carboxyl-terminal antibodies recognized chloroplast HSP precursor proteins from pea and from three divergent plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, petunia (Petunia hybrida), and maize (Zea mays). The amino-terminal antibodies recognized effectively only the pea precursor. When intact plants of each species were subjected to a heat stress regime mimicking field growth conditions, significant levels of the mature forms of the chloroplast HSPs accumulated in pea, A. thaliana, and maize. The levels of accumulated HSPs remained unchanged for 12 h following the stress treatment. We conclude that the synthesis of chloroplast-localized HSPs is an important component of the stree response in all higher plants and that chloroplast HSPs from dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants have a conserved carboxyl-terminal domain.

  10. Major achievements and challenges of fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendler, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The ITER project is truly at the frontier of knowledge, a collective effort to explore the tantalizing future of free, clean and inexhaustible energy offered by nuclear fusion. Where the Large Hadron Collider at CERN pushes the boundaries of physics to find the origins of matter, the ITER Project seeks to give humans an endless stream of power which could have potentially game-changing consequences for the entire planet. Seminal contributions to the general physics knowledge accomplished by the plasma physics research for the benefit of the ITER project will be brought to light. The legacy of Professor H Alfvén within the framework of the ITER project will be described.

  11. Dominance Is the Major Genetic Basis of Heterosis in Rice as Revealed by Qtl Analysis Using Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, J.; Li, J.; Yuan, L.; Tanksley, S. D.

    1995-01-01

    A set of 194 F(7) lines derived from a subspecific rice cross showing strong F(1) heterosis was backcrossed to the two parents. The materials (388 BC(1)F(7) lines, 194 F(8) lines, two parents, F(1)) were phenotyped for 12 quantitative traits. A total of 37 significant QTLs (LOD >/= 2.0) was detected through 141 RFLP markers in the BC(1)F(7) populations. Twenty-seven (73%) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in only one of the BC(1)F(7) populations. In 82% of these cases, the heterozygotes were superior to the respective homozygotes. The remaining 10 (27%) QTLs were detected in both BC(1)F(7) populations, and the heterozygote had a phenotype falling between those of the two homozygotes and in no instances were the heterozygotes found to be superior to both homozygotes. These results suggest that dominance complementation is the major genetic basis of heterosis in rice. This conclusion was strengthened by the finding that there was no correlation between most traits and overall genome heterozygosity and that there were some recombinant inbred lines in the F(8) population having phenotypic values superior to the F(1) for all of the traits evaluated--a result not expected if overdominance was a major contributor to heterosis. Digenic epistasis was not evident. PMID:7498751

  12. TGF-α and IL-6 plasma levels selectively identify CML patients who fail to achieve an early molecular response or progress in the first year of therapy.

    PubMed

    Nievergall, E; Reynolds, J; Kok, C H; Watkins, D B; Biondo, M; Busfield, S J; Vairo, G; Fuller, K; Erber, W N; Sadras, T; Grose, R; Yeung, D T; Lopez, A F; Hiwase, D K; Hughes, T P; White, D L

    2016-06-01

    Early molecular response (EMR, BCR-ABL1 (IS)⩽10% at 3 months) is a strong predictor of outcome in imatinib-treated chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) patients, but for patients who transform early, 3 months may be too late for effective therapeutic intervention. Here, we employed multiplex cytokine profiling of plasma samples to test newly diagnosed CP-CML patients who subsequently received imatinib treatment. A wide range of pro-inflammatory and angiogenesis-promoting cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were elevated in the plasma of CML patients compared with that of healthy donors. Most of these normalized after tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment while others remained high in remission samples. Importantly, we identified TGF-α and IL-6 as novel biomarkers with high diagnostic plasma levels strongly predictive of subsequent failure to achieve EMR and deep molecular response, as well as transformation to blast crisis and event-free survival. Interestingly, high TGF-α alone can also delineate a poor response group raising the possibility of a pathogenic role. This suggests that the incorporation of these simple measurements to the diagnostic work-up of CP-CML patients may enable therapy intensity to be individualized early according to the cytokine-risk profile of the patient. PMID:26898188

  13. Molecular and immunological characterization of the first allergenic lipocalin in hamster: the major allergen from Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2014-08-22

    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster.

  14. Molecular and immunological characterization and IgE epitope mapping of Pen n 18, a major allergen of Penicillium notatum.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chia-Jung; Chen, Yen-Ming; Su, Song-Nan; Forouhar, Farhad; Lee, Shu-Hua; Chow, Lu-Ping

    2002-01-01

    The mould genus, Penicillium, is a significant source of environmental aero-allergens. A major allergen from Penicillium notatum, Pen n 18, was identified by two-dimensional immunoblotting using monoclonal antibody G11A10, raised against the vacuolar serine protease of Penicillium citrinum, followed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS analysis of the peptide digest. Pen n 18 was then cloned and the amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence. The cDNA encoded a 494 amino acid protein, considerably larger than mature Pen n 18, the differences being due to the N- and C-terminal prosequences. The deduced amino acid sequence showed extensive similarity with those of vacuolar serine proteases from various fungi. The Pen n 18 coding sequence was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged fusion protein and purified by Ni(2+)-chelate affinity chromatography. On immunoblots, the purified recombinant protein specifically bound IgE from mould-allergic patients, and cross-inhibition assays demonstrated the presence of common IgE-binding epitopes on Pen n 18 and a major allergen of P. citrinum, Pen c 18. When mapping of the allergenic epitopes was performed, at least nine different linear IgE-binding epitopes, located throughout the Pen n 18 protein, were identified. Of these, peptide C12, located in the N-terminal region of the molecule, was recognized by serum from 75% of the patients tested and therefore appears to be an immunodominant IgE-binding epitope. PMID:11964171

  15. RhoA/ROCK pathway is the major molecular determinant of basal tone in intact human internal anal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Satish; Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-04-01

    The knowledge of molecular control mechanisms underlying the basal tone in the intact human internal anal sphincter (IAS) is critical for the pathophysiology and rational therapy for a number of debilitating rectoanal motility disorders. We determined the role of RhoA/ROCK and PKC pathways by comparing the effects of ROCK- and PKC-selective inhibitors Y 27632 and Gö 6850 (10(-8) to 10(-4) M), respectively, on the basal tone in the IAS vs. the rectal smooth muscle (RSM). Western blot studies were performed to determine the levels of RhoA/ROCK II, PKC-α, MYPT1, CPI-17, and MLC(20) in the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms, in the IAS vs. RSM. Confocal microscopic studies validated the membrane distribution of ROCK II. Finally, to confirm a direct relationship, we examined the enzymatic activities and changes in the basal IAS tone and p-MYPT1, p-CPI-17, and p-MLC(20), before and after Y 27632 and Gö 6850. Data show higher levels of RhoA/ROCK II and related downstream signal transduction proteins in the IAS vs. RSM. In addition, data show a significant correlation between the active RhoA/ROCK levels, ROCK enzymatic activity, downstream proteins, and basal IAS tone, before and after ROCK inhibitor. From these data we conclude 1) RhoA/ROCK and downstream signaling are constitutively active in the IAS, and this pathway (in contrast with PKC) is the critical determinant of the basal tone in intact human IAS; and 2) RhoA and ROCK are potential therapeutic targets for a number of rectoanal motility disorders for which currently there is no satisfactory treatment.

  16. Presence and molecular characterization of the major serovars of Listeria monocytogenes in ten Sardinian fermented sausage processing plants.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Domenico; Consolati, Simonetta Gianna; Mazza, Roberta; Mureddu, Anna; Fois, Federica; Piras, Francesca; Mazzette, Rina

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in ten Sardinian fermented sausage processing plants. A total of 230 samples were collected and 40 L. monocytogenes isolates were obtained and subjected to serotyping and investigated for the presence of ten virulence-associated genes using multiplex PCR assays. The isolates were further subjected to PFGE and investigated for their adhesion abilities in polystyrene microtiter plates. L. monocytogenes was found in 6% of food contact surfaces, in sausages at the end of acidification (3%) and ripening (8%). Serotyping revealed the presence of four serovars: 1/2c (37.5%), 1/2b (27.5%), 4b (22.5%) and 1/2a (12.5%). All virulence-associated genes were detected in 67.5% of the isolates. Isolates from processing environment, semi-processed and finished products showed high pulsotype diversity and the majority of isolates presented weak adhesion capability. The detection of the pathogen in fermented sausages confirms the ability of L. monocytogenes to overcome the hurdles of the manufacturing process. PMID:24769142

  17. Presence and molecular characterization of the major serovars of Listeria monocytogenes in ten Sardinian fermented sausage processing plants.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Domenico; Consolati, Simonetta Gianna; Mazza, Roberta; Mureddu, Anna; Fois, Federica; Piras, Francesca; Mazzette, Rina

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in ten Sardinian fermented sausage processing plants. A total of 230 samples were collected and 40 L. monocytogenes isolates were obtained and subjected to serotyping and investigated for the presence of ten virulence-associated genes using multiplex PCR assays. The isolates were further subjected to PFGE and investigated for their adhesion abilities in polystyrene microtiter plates. L. monocytogenes was found in 6% of food contact surfaces, in sausages at the end of acidification (3%) and ripening (8%). Serotyping revealed the presence of four serovars: 1/2c (37.5%), 1/2b (27.5%), 4b (22.5%) and 1/2a (12.5%). All virulence-associated genes were detected in 67.5% of the isolates. Isolates from processing environment, semi-processed and finished products showed high pulsotype diversity and the majority of isolates presented weak adhesion capability. The detection of the pathogen in fermented sausages confirms the ability of L. monocytogenes to overcome the hurdles of the manufacturing process.

  18. Identification and molecular analysis of a multigene family encoding calliphorin, the major larval serum protein of Calliphora vicina

    PubMed Central

    Schenkel, Heide; Kejzlarová-Lepesant, Jana; Berreur, Paul; Moreau, Jacques; Scheller, Klaus; Brègègére, François; Lepesant, Jean-Antoine

    1985-01-01

    A library of Calliphora vicina genomic DNA was constructed in the λEMBL3 vector and screened for recombinant phages containing chromosomal segments encoding calliphorin, the major larval serum protein (LSP) of Calliphora. A large series of recombinants hybridizing with in vitro labelled poly(A)+ RNA from Calliphora larval fat bodies and with specific probes derived from the LSP-1 genes of Drosophila melanogaster was isolated. Five of these phages, chosen at random, were shown by hybrid selection to retain calliphorin mRNA specifically. Eleven calliphorin mRNA-homologous regions were located on restriction maps of these phages by hybridization with 5' end-labelled poly(A)+ RNA from Calliphora larval fat bodies. Each phage contains at least two calliphorin genes arranged in direct repeat orientation and seperated by 3.5–5 kb intergenic regions. The genes display similar but not identical restriction patterns. Filter hybridization and heteroduplex analysis indicate that they share a detectable homology with the LSP-1β gene of D. melanogaster. Whole genome Southern analysis showed that these genes belong to a large family of closely related calliphorin genes which were found by in situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes of trichogen cells to be clustered in region 4a of chromosome 2 of Calliphora vicina. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:16453643

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of an α-amylase cDNA highly expressed in major feeding stages of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, C A; Macedo, L L P; Amorim, T M L; Santos, V O; Fragoso, R R; Lucena, W A; Meneguim, A M; Valencia-Jimenez, A; Engler, G; Silva, M C M; Albuquerque, E V S; Grossi-de-Sa, M F

    2014-12-10

    α-Amylases are common enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing starch. Insect-pests, whose larvae develop in seeds, rely obligatorily on α-amylase activity to digest starch, as their major food source. Considering the relevance of insect α-amylases and the natural α-amylase inhibitors present in seeds to protect from insect damage, we report here the molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the full-length AmyHha cDNA of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, a major insect-pest of coffee crops. The AmyHha sequence has 1879 bp, containing a 1458 bp open reading frame, which encodes a predicted protein with 485 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 51.2 kDa. The deduced protein showed 55-79% identity to other insect α-amylases, including Anthonomus grandis, Ips typographus and Sitophilus oryzae α-amylases. In depth analysis revealed that the highly conserved three amino acid residues (Asp184, Glu220, and Asp285), which compose the catalytic site are also presented in AmyHha amylase. The AmyHha gene seems to be a single copy in the haploid genome and AmyHha transcription levels were found higher in L2 larvae and adult insects, both corresponding to major feeding phases. Modeling of the AmyHha predicted protein uncovered striking structural similarities to the Tenebrio molitor α-amylase also displaying the same amino acid residues involved in enzyme catalysis (Asp184, Glu220 and Asp285). Since AmyHha gene was mostly transcribed in the intestinal tract of H. hampei larvae, the cognate α-amylase could be considered a high valuable target to coffee bean insect control by biotechnological strategies. PMID:25264343

  20. First microscopical and molecular-based characterization of Leishmania major within naturally infected Phlebotomus salehi (Diptera; Psychodidae) in Fars province, southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    DAVAMI, M H; MOTAZEDIAN, M H; KALANTARI, M; ASGARI, Q; BADZOHRE, A; MOHAMMADPOUR, I

    2011-01-01

    Zoonotoc cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in several parts of Iran. Jahrom district is one of the most important endemic foci of leishmaniasis located in Fars province, southern Iran. To identify the vectors of leishmaniasis in this area, a total of 349 sandflies were collected during May to August 2009. They were caught from outdoors in five regions of Jahrom district including villages of Mousavieh, Ghotb-Abad, Heydar-Abad, Fath-Abad and Jahrom County. Eleven species of Phlebotomine (three Phlebotomus spp. and eight Sergentomyia spp.) were detected. To determine the sandflies naturally infected by Leishmania spp., 122 female sandflies were dissected and evaluated microscopically using Giemsa-stained slides. Natural infection of 2 out of 38 (5.26%) P. papatasi and 1 out of 8 (12.5%) P. salehi to Leishmania major was confirmed in the region. Sequencing and nested polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Leishmania were carried out to confirm the microscopic findings. Five (13.16%) P. papatasi and two (25%) P. salehi were positive in nested polymerase chain reaction assay. All positive samples were shown 72–76% similarity with L. major Friedlin. On the basis of our knowledge, this is the first molecular detection of L. major within naturally infected P. salehi in this region in southern Iran. PMID:22185942

  1. First molecular identification and report of genetic diversity of Strongyloides stercoralis, a current major soil-transmitted helminth in humans from Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Laymanivong, Sakhone; Hangvanthong, Bouasy; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Vanisaveth, Viengxay; Laxachack, Pinnakhone; Jongthawin, Jurairat; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Phosuk, Issarapong; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2016-08-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) disease that affects people worldwide. We present updated data on prevalence in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) in 2015, arising from a community cross-sectional helminthiasis survey. Fecal samples were collected from 327 individuals across three provinces in Lao PDR (Luang Prabang in the north, Khammouane in the center, and Champasack in the south). Agar plate culture and Kato-Katz methods were used to examine duplicate stool samples from each participant to detect Strongyloides stercoralis and co-infecting helminths. Overall prevalences of S. strercoralis human hookworm, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Enterobius vermicularis were 41.0, 28.1, 4.9, 4.0, 1.5, and 0.9 %, respectively. The prevalence of miscellaneous trematodiases (including opisthorchiasis) was 37.9 % and of Schistosoma mekongi infection was 0.3 %. Strongyloidiasis is a current major STH disease in Lao PDR. We also report the molecular-phylogenetic identification of S. stercoralis adult males collected from 40 representative human strongyliodiasis fecal samples. DNA was extracted, amplified, and sequenced from a portion of the mitochondrial cox1 gene and the nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that all specimens sequenced belonged to S. stercoralis (Bavay, 1876) Stiles and Hassall, 1902. The cox1 sequences exhibited great diversity (24 haplotypes) in Lao PDR. This is the first molecular identification and report of genetic diversity of S. stercoralis in humans from Lao PDR. An effective parasite control program is needed to reduce the serious health impacts. PMID:27083185

  2. Hydration patterns of graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNMs) play a major role in the stability of a helical protein: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Lokesh; Balamurugan, Kanagasabai; Subramanian, Venkatesan; Dhawan, Alok

    2013-11-19

    Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNMs) [graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene] have been recognized as potential candidates for various biomedical applications ranging from biosensing platform to cellular delivery of proteins and peptides. However, GBNMs induced conformational changes in proteins are the major concerns in realizing their full potential in aforementioned applications. Despite several studies, the effect of GBNMs on the conformation of proteins is still not well understood. Therefore, an attempt was made to investigate the effect of GBNMs on the adsorption and conformation of positively charged cytoplasmic protein using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our study showed that the adsorption of protein on GO was highly selective and mediated through electrostatic interactions (hydrogen bond/salt bridge interactions), whereas the van der Waals and π-π stacking interactions were the major driving forces for the adsorption of protein on rGO and graphene. The secondary structure analysis showed the conformational stability of the protein on GO may be attributed to the extensive hydration of GO surface and the absence of tyrosine residues in π-π stacking with π regions of GO. The GO surface acts as a hydrogen bond acceptor similar to the protein's natural receptor present in a physiological environment. This computational study has also explored the artificial protein receptor like potential of GO.

  3. Formation of high-molecular-weight angiotensinogen during pregnancy is a result of competing redox reactions with the proform of eosinophil major basic protein.

    PubMed

    Kløverpris, Søren; Skov, Louise L; Glerup, Simon; Pihl, Kasper; Christiansen, Michael; Oxvig, Claus

    2013-01-01

    The plasma concentration of the placentally derived proMBP (proform of eosinophil major basic protein) increases in pregnancy, and three different complexes containing proMBP have been isolated from pregnancy plasma and serum: a 2:2 complex with the metalloproteinase, PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A), a 2:2 complex with AGT (angiotensinogen) and a 2:2:2 complex with AGT and complement C3dg. In the present study we show that during human pregnancy, all of the circulating proMBP exists in covalent complexes, bound to either PAPP-A or AGT. We also show that the proMBP-AGT complex constitutes the major fraction of circulating HMW (high-molecular weight) AGT in late pregnancy, and that this complex is able to further associate with complement C3 derivatives post-sampling. Clearance experiments in mice suggest that complement C3-based complexes are removed faster from the circulation compared to monomeric AGT and the proMBP-AGT complex. Furthermore, we have used recombinant proteins to analyse the formation of the proMBP-PAPP-A and the proMBP-AGT complexes, and we demonstrate that they are competing reactions, depending on the same cysteine residue of proMBP, but differentially on the redox potential, potentially important for the relative amounts of the complexes in vivo. These findings may be important physiologically, since the biochemical properties of the proteins change as a consequence of complex formation.

  4. Achievements and opportunities from ESF Research Networking Programme: Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes, and COST Action 639: Greenhouse gas budget of soils under changing climate and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckx, P.; Rasse, D.; Jandl, R.

    2009-04-01

    One of the activities of the European Science Foundation (ESF, www.esf.org) is developing European scale Research Networking Programmes (RNPs). RNPs lay the foundation for nationally funded research groups to address major scientific and research infrastructure issues, in order to advance the frontiers of existing science. MOLTER (www.esf.org/molter or www.molter.no) is such an RNP. MOLTER stands for "Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes" aims at stimulating the use of isotopic and organic chemistry to study carbon stabilization and biogeochemistry in terrestrial ecosystems and soils in particular. The understanding of the formation, stabilization and decomposition of complex organic compounds in the environment is currently being revolutionized by advanced techniques in identification, quantification, and origin tracing of functional groups and individual molecules. MOLTER focuses on five major research themes: - Molecular composition and turnover time of soil organic matter; - Plant molecular structures as drivers of C stabilisation in soils; - Fire transformations of plant and soil molecular structures - Molecular markers in soils; - Dissolved organic molecules in soils: origin, functionality and transport. These research themes are covered via the following activities: - Organisation of international conferences; - Organisation of specific topical workshops; - Organisation of summer schools for PhD students; - Short- and long-term exchange grants for scientists. MOLTER is supported by research funding or performing agencies from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The ESF is also the implementing agency of COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology, www.cost.esf.org), one of the longest-running European instruments supporting cooperation among scientists and researchers across Europe. COST Action 639 "Greenhouse gas budget of

  5. Molecular Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Intensive Care Units in Iran: ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 Emerges as the Major Clone

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Goudarzi, Hossein; Sá Figueiredo, Agnes Marie; Udo, Edet E.; Fazeli, Maryam; Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in different patient populations is a major public health concern. This study determined the prevalence and distribution of circulating molecular types of MRSA in hospitalized patients in ICU of hospitals in Tehran. Materials and Methods A total of 70 MRSA isolates were collected from patients in eight hospitals. Antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined using the disk diffusion method. The presence of toxin encoding genes and the vancomycin resistance gene were determined by PCR. The MRSA isolates were further analyzed using multi-locus sequence, spa, SCCmec, and agr typing. Results The MRSA prevalence was 93.3%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed a high resistance rate (97.1%) to ampicillin and penicillin. The rate of resistance to the majority of antibiotics tested was 30% to 71.4%. Two isolates belonging to the ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone (MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml) had intermediate resistance to vancomycin. The majority of MRSA isolates (24.3%) were associated with the ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone; the other MRSA clones were ST859-SCCmec IV/t969 (18.6%), ST239-SCCmec III/t037 (17.1%), and ST291-SCCmec IV/t030 (8.6%). Conclusions The circulating MRSA strains in Iranian hospitals were genetically diverse with a relatively high prevalence of the ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone. These findings support the need for future surveillance studies on MRSA to better elucidate the distribution of existing MRSA clones and detect emergence of new MRSA clones. PMID:27171373

  6. In silico prediction of peptide binding affinity to class I mouse major histocompatibility complexes: a comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) study.

    PubMed

    Hattotuwagama, Channa K; Doytchinova, Irini A; Flower, Darren R

    2005-01-01

    Current methods for the in silico identification of T cell epitopes (which form the basis of many vaccines, diagnostics, and reagents) rely on the accurate prediction of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) affinity. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) for the prediction of peptide binding to class I MHC molecules was established using the comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) method. Three MHC alleles were studied: H2-D(b), H2-K(b), and H2-K(k). Models were produced for each allele. Each model consisted of five physicochemical descriptors-steric bulk, electrostatic potentials, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrogen-bond donor and hydrogen-bond acceptor abilities. The models have an acceptable level of predictivity: cross-validation leave-one-out statistical terms q2 and SEP (standard error of prediction) ranged between 0.490 and 0.679 and between 0.525 and 0.889, respectively. The non-cross-validated statistical terms r2 and SEE (standard error of estimate) ranged between 0.913 and 0.979 and between 0.167 and 0.248, respectively. The use of coefficient contour maps, which indicate favored and disfavored areas for each position of the MHC-bound peptides, allowed the binding specificity of each allele to be identified, visualized, and understood. The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of CoMSIA as a method for studying peptide-MHC interactions. The peptides used in this study are available on the Internet (http://www.jenner.ac.uk/AntiJen). The partial least-squares method is available commercially in the SYBYL molecular modeling software package. PMID:16180918

  7. Molecular and immunogenetic analysis of major histocompatibility haplotypes in Northern Bobwhite enable direct identification of corresponding haplotypes in an endangered subspecies, the Masked Bobwhite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, B.M.; Goto, R.M.; Miller, M.M.; Gee, G.F.; Briles, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a group of genetic loci coding for haplotypes that have been associated with fitness traits in mammals and birds. Such associations suggest that MHC diversity may be an indicator of overall genetic fitness of endangered or threatened species. The MHC haplotypes of a captive population of 12 families of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) were identified using a combination of immunogenetic and molecular techniques. Alloantisera were produced within families of northern bobwhites and were then tested for differential agglutination of erythrocytes of all members of each family. The pattern of reactions determined from testing these alloantisera identified a single genetic system of alloantigens in the northern bobwhites, resulting in the assignment of a tentative genotype to each individual within the quail families. Restriction fragment patterns of the DNA of each bird were determined using the chicken MHC B-G cDNA probe bg11. The concordance between the restriction fragment patterns and the alloantisera reactions showed that the alloantisera had identified the MHC of the northern bobwhite and supported the tentative genotype assignments, identifying at least 12 northern bobwhite MHC haplotypes.

  8. Toward an understanding of the acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions by a pseudo-intramolecular process achieved by molecular recognition. A DFT study.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Aurell, M José; Arnó, Manuel; Saez, José A

    2007-05-25

    The pseudo-intramolecular Diels-Alder (DA) reaction between a 2-substituted furan (1) and a N-maleimide derivative (2) has been analyzed using DFT methods. Formation of two hydrogen bonds between the appendages on furan and maleimide derivatives favors thermodynamically the formation of a molecular complex (MC1) through an efficient molecular recognition process. The large enthalpy stabilization associated with the molecular recognition overcomes the unfavorable activation entropy associated with the bimolecular process. As a consequence, the subsequent DA reaction is clearly accelerated through a pseudo-intramolecular process.

  9. Resolution of sleepiness and fatigue: a comparison of bupropion and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in subjects with major depressive disorder achieving remission at doses approved in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Cooper, James A; Tucker, Vivian L; Papakostas, George I

    2014-02-01

    Unlike selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), bupropion may be classified as a dual noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, a difference with potential implications for the treatment of residual sleepiness and fatigue in major depressive disorder (MDD). Post-hoc analysis of subjects with remitted MDD was performed on data pooled from six double-blind, randomized trials comparing the European Union (EU)-approved dose of ≤300 mg/day bupropion with SSRIs (sertraline, paroxetine or escitalopram) for the resolution of sleepiness and fatigue. Hypersomnia score was defined as the sum of scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) items 22, 23, and 24; fatigue score as HDRS item 13 score; and remission as HDRS-17≤7. Similar proportions of bupropion- and SSRI-treated subjects achieved remission at study endpoint (169/343, 49.3% vs 324/656, 49.4%; last observation carried forward (LOCF), p=0.45). Fewer bupropion-treated remitters had residual symptoms of sleepiness (32/169, 18.9% vs 104/324, 32.1%; p<0.01) and fatigue (33/169, 19.5% vs 98/324, 30.2%; p<0.05). Bupropion-treated remitters also showed greater improvement (mean change from baseline) in sleepiness (p<0.05) and fatigue scores (p<0.01) at endpoint: benefits were evident from week 2 for sleepiness (p<0.01) and week 4 for fatigue (p<0.01). Bupropion treatment at the EU-approved dose of ≤300 mg/day may offer advantages over SSRIs in the resolution of sleepiness and fatigue in remitted MDD patients.

  10. Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier dysfunction for high molecular weight proteins in Alzheimer disease and major depression: indication for disease subsets.

    PubMed

    Hampel, H; Kötter, H U; Möller, H J

    1997-06-01

    There is a diversity of opinions concerning the function of the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) in Alzheimer disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. In this paper we investigate and review the evidence for BCB dysfunction in Alzheimer disease and major depression. The hypothetical roles of immunologically mediated mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) are discussed. Special consideration is given to methodological factors influencing BCB function and analysis. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 29 patients with major depression (MD) and 51 patients with "probable Alzheimer disease" (AD) were investigated. The AD patients were subdivided in two groups of 21 early-onset (EO) and 30 late-onset (LO) cases and assayed for concentrations of albumin and IgG. The results were compared with those for 11 age-matched healthy controls. The severity of dementia was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). AD and MD patients showed significantly lower serum albumin [AD: p < 0.05 (LO: p < 0.038); MD p < 0.01] and IgG (AD: p < 0.01; MD: p < 0.013) concentrations compared with controls. MD (p < 0.001) and LO-AD (p < 0.07) patients displayed significantly lower absolute serum albumin levels than did EO-AD patients. The CSF/serum ratio for albumin and IgG was used to evaluate BCB function. There were no significant group differences; however, subsets of MD (29%) and AD (16%) patients showed a higher frequency of a pathological albumin ratio than did control subjects. Furthermore, a subset of 24% of MD and18% of AD patients and none of the controls showed an elevated IgG ratio. Different mechanisms of alteration of IgG distribution are presented. The degree of cognitive impairment in AD did not correlate positively with protein and ratio parameters. The BCB is critical to the maintenance of homeostasis within nervous system tissue. We suggest that the altered function can result from immune-mediated events such as

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations on pars intercerebralis major peptide-C (PMP-C) reveal the role of glycosylation and disulfide bonds in its enhanced structural stability and function.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Sandeep; Mohanty, Debasisa; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2012-01-01

    Fucosylation of Thr 9 in pars intercerebralis major peptide-C (PMP-C) enhances its structural stability and functional ability as a serine protease inhibitor. In order to understand the role of disulfide bonds and glycosylation on the structure and function of PMP-C, we have carried out multiple explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on fucosylated and non-fucosylated forms of PMP-C, both in the presence and absence of the disulfide bonds. Our simulations revealed that there were no significant structural changes in the native disulfide bonded forms of PMP-C due to fucosylation. On the other hand, the non-fucosylated form of PMP-C without disulfide bonds showed larger deviations from the starting structure than the fucosylated form. However, the structural deviations were restricted to the terminal regions while core β-sheet retained its hydrogen bonded structure even in absence of disulfide bonds as well as fucosylation. Interestingly, fucosylation of disulfide bonded native PMP-C led to a decreased thermal flexibility in the residue stretch 29-32 which is known to interact with the active site of the target proteases. Our analysis revealed that disulfide bonds covalently connect the residue stretch 29-32 to the central β-sheet of PMP-C and using a novel network of side chain interactions and disulfide bonds fucosylation at Thr 9 is altering the flexibility of the stretch 29-32 located at a distal site. Thus, our simulations explain for the first time, how presence of disulfide bonds between conserved cysteines and fucosylation enhance the function of PMP-C as a protease inhibitor.

  12. A 37-kilodalton glycoprotein of Babesia divergens is a major component of a protective fraction containing low-molecular-mass culture-derived exoantigens.

    PubMed

    Carcy, B; Precigout, E; Valentin, A; Gorenflot, A; Schrevel, J

    1995-03-01

    The supernatants of in vitro cultures of Babesia divergens Rouen 1987 in human erythrocytes, obtained by using a semidefined medium based on human high-density lipoproteins, were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography into four fractions, F1 to F4. The crude supernatant as well as each fraction adjuvanted with Quil-A protected gerbils from mortality due to a homologous infectious challenge. Analysis of the humoral response of the 10 protected gerbils with fraction F4, containing major proteins with molecular masses lower than 50 kDa, showed that a few antigens (from 50 to 17 kDa) could be important candidates for an improved vaccine against B. divergens babesiosis. As an immunodominant response was directed against the 37-kDa antigen (Bd37) in two different B. divergens strains tested, a polyclonal antibody directed against Bd37 was produced in a rabbit. In an immunofluorescence assay, the anti-Bd37 antiserum strongly labelled small internal vesicles of the merozoites and the cell surface was diffusely labelled after fixation, whereas on live merozoites, this labelling was not observed. [3H]glucosamine-radiolabelling experiments demonstrate that Bd37 is a glycoprotein. The Bd37 protein can also be labelled with [14C]palmitate but not with [3H]myristic acid. In Triton X-114 temperature phase partitioning of B. divergens-infected erythrocyte extracts, Bd37 was exclusively found into the detergent phase, indicating that the palmitoylated Bd37 protein was in the membrane fraction. In the in vitro supernatant, the glycoprotein Bd37 was found in a nonpalmitoylated form, indicating excretion and/or release of the glycoprotein from the merozoite.

  13. [New achievements in the development and study of the mechanisms of action of the low molecular weight agonists of receptors of the thyroid-stimulating and the luteinizing hormones].

    PubMed

    Shpakov, A O

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary glycoprotein hormones, luteinizing (LH) and thyroid-stimulating (TSH), exert their regulatory effects on cells through the G protein-coupled receptors, specifically binding to their extracellular domain. There is an alternative way of activation of LH and TSH receptors, when low molecular weight organic molecules bind to an allosteric site of the receptors which is localized within their transmembrane channel. Low molecular weight agonists have many advantages over glycoprotein hormones, among them a high efficiency not only in the case of the parenteral but also in the oral administration, low immunogenicity, chemical stability, and a low cost. Unlike pituitary glycoprotein hormones with the agonistic activity, low molecular weight compounds may be either agonists or inverse agonists and neutral antagonists. Recently it was shown that low molecular weight agonists of LH receptor are able to stimulate its mutant forms by restoring the processing of receptor in a cell, and by increasing its sensitivity to LH, which is important for the treatment of reproductive dysfunctions caused by mutations in the LH receptor. This review summarizes the recent achievements that are linked with the development of low molecular weight regulators of TSH and LH receptors and the study of their mechanisms of action. It also presents the author' data concerning the creation of new low molecular weight agonists of LH receptor based on the thienopyrimidine structure, which are effective both in vitro, and in vivo in different ways of administration.

  14. Molecular genotyping and sub-genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. isolates from symptomatic individuals attending two major public hospitals in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    de Lucio, Aida; Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2016-01-01

    Infections by members of the protozoan genus Cryptosporidium are among the most common causes of human gastrointestinal illness worldwide. In Spain cryptosporidiosis is not a compulsory notifiable disease, so the actual burden of the infection in both clinical and general populations remains largely unknown. We present here data on the diversity and frequency of the Cryptosporidium species and sub-genotypes identified in symptomatic individuals seeking medical care in two major hospitals in Madrid, Spain, between December 2013 and January 2015. Initial detection of the parasite was conducted on a total of 122 stool samples collected from 120 patients by microscopy with modified Ziehl-Neelsen and/or immunochromatographic tests. We used immunofluorescence, PCR-based methods and sequence analyses of the 60-kDa (GP60) glycoprotein and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes for confirmatory purposes and to characterize Cryptosporidium isolates. A total of 110 patients were confirmed with cryptosporidiosis. Overall, 101 isolates were successfully sub-genotyped at the GP60 locus, and an additional seven at the SSU rRNA locus. The analyses of all amplicons defined 10 distinct sequence types representing the GP60 family sub-genotypes IbA10G2 (78.7%), IeA11G3T3 (3.7%) of C. hominis, and the GP60 family sub-types IIaA15G2R1 (5.6%), IIaA18G6R1 (0.9%), IIcA5G3a (0.9%), IIdA18G1 (0.9%), IIdA19G1 (0.9%), IIdA21G1 (0.9%), and IIdA22G1 (0.9%) of C. parvum. A single isolate was assigned to C. felis (0.9%), two C. parvum isolates (1.9%) could not be characterized at the sub-genotype level and an additional four isolates (3.7%) were not typable. These results strongly suggest that transmission of cryptosporidiosis is mostly anthroponotic in origin in the clinical sample under study. We expect that our molecular epidemiological data will make a significant contribution to unravel the actual epidemiological situation of cryptosporidiosis in Spain, providing health care and

  15. Molecular genotyping and sub-genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. isolates from symptomatic individuals attending two major public hospitals in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    de Lucio, Aida; Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2016-01-01

    Infections by members of the protozoan genus Cryptosporidium are among the most common causes of human gastrointestinal illness worldwide. In Spain cryptosporidiosis is not a compulsory notifiable disease, so the actual burden of the infection in both clinical and general populations remains largely unknown. We present here data on the diversity and frequency of the Cryptosporidium species and sub-genotypes identified in symptomatic individuals seeking medical care in two major hospitals in Madrid, Spain, between December 2013 and January 2015. Initial detection of the parasite was conducted on a total of 122 stool samples collected from 120 patients by microscopy with modified Ziehl-Neelsen and/or immunochromatographic tests. We used immunofluorescence, PCR-based methods and sequence analyses of the 60-kDa (GP60) glycoprotein and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes for confirmatory purposes and to characterize Cryptosporidium isolates. A total of 110 patients were confirmed with cryptosporidiosis. Overall, 101 isolates were successfully sub-genotyped at the GP60 locus, and an additional seven at the SSU rRNA locus. The analyses of all amplicons defined 10 distinct sequence types representing the GP60 family sub-genotypes IbA10G2 (78.7%), IeA11G3T3 (3.7%) of C. hominis, and the GP60 family sub-types IIaA15G2R1 (5.6%), IIaA18G6R1 (0.9%), IIcA5G3a (0.9%), IIdA18G1 (0.9%), IIdA19G1 (0.9%), IIdA21G1 (0.9%), and IIdA22G1 (0.9%) of C. parvum. A single isolate was assigned to C. felis (0.9%), two C. parvum isolates (1.9%) could not be characterized at the sub-genotype level and an additional four isolates (3.7%) were not typable. These results strongly suggest that transmission of cryptosporidiosis is mostly anthroponotic in origin in the clinical sample under study. We expect that our molecular epidemiological data will make a significant contribution to unravel the actual epidemiological situation of cryptosporidiosis in Spain, providing health care and

  16. A molecular model for the enzyme cytochrome P450(17 alpha), a major target for the chemotherapy of prostatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Laughton, C A; Neidle, S; Zvelebil, M J; Sternberg, M J

    1990-09-28

    The enzyme cytochrome P450(17 alpha) catalyses two key steps in the biosynthesis of the androgens from pregnanes: the 17 alpha hydroxylation step and the subsequent 17-20 lyase reaction. Using a variety of techniques, including sequence alignment, secondary structure prediction, molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics, we have constructed a model for the three-dimensional structure of P450(17 alpha) based on that of P450cam, the only cytochrome P450 enzyme for which the crystal structure is known. The model suggests the possibility of two modes of binding of steroid substrates at the active site, perhaps reflecting the dual functionality of the enzyme.

  17. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  18. Major Advisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatwin, Marshall

    This paper describes a computer program, Major Advisor (MA), which helps students identify college majors. Used in conjunction with career counseling and advising, MA provides information to students who are developing their educational plans. The program matches students' personal preferences and the requirements/characteristics of 130 common…

  19. Harnessing the influence of reactive edges and defects of graphene substrates for achieving complete cycle of room-temperature molecular sensing.

    PubMed

    Randeniya, Lakshman K; Shi, Hongqing; Barnard, Amanda S; Fang, Jinghua; Martin, Philip J; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2013-12-01

    Molecular doping and detection are at the forefront of graphene research, a topic of great interest in physical and materials science. Molecules adsorb strongly on graphene, leading to a change in electrical conductivity at room temperature. However, a common impediment for practical applications reported by all studies to date is the excessively slow rate of desorption of important reactive gases such as ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. Annealing at high temperatures, or exposure to strong ultraviolet light under vacuum, is employed to facilitate desorption of these gases. In this article, the molecules adsorbed on graphene nanoflakes and on chemically derived graphene-nanomesh flakes are displaced rapidly at room temperature in air by the use of gaseous polar molecules such as water and ethanol. The mechanism for desorption is proposed to arise from the electrostatic forces exerted by the polar molecules, which decouples the overlap between substrate defect states, molecule states, and graphene states near the Fermi level. Using chemiresistors prepared from water-based dispersions of single-layer graphene on mesoporous alumina membranes, the study further shows that the edges of the graphene flakes (showing p-type responses to NO₂ and NH₃) and the edges of graphene nanomesh structures (showing n-type responses to NO₂ and NH₃) have enhanced sensitivity. The measured responses towards gases are comparable to or better than those which have been obtained using devices that are more sophisticated. The higher sensitivity and rapid regeneration of the sensor at room temperature provides a clear advancement towards practical molecule detection using graphene-based materials.

  20. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  1. A Response to "BIO 2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists," from the Perspective of the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Major Program at Kenyon College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonczewski, Joan L.; Marusak, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    The National Research Council completed a major study of undergraduate biology education, "BIO 2010-Transforming Undergraduate Education For Future Research Biologists (BIO 2010)," funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the National Institutes of Health. The "BIO 2010" report recommends that biology pedagogy should use an…

  2. The molecular structures of major ampullate silk proteins of the wasp spider, Argiope bruennichi: a second blueprint for synthesizing de novo silk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Ai-Chun; Sima, Yang-Hu; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Nakagaki, Masao

    2013-03-01

    The dragline silk of orb-weaving spiders possesses extremely high tensile strength and elasticity. To date, full-length sequences of only two genes encoding major ampullate silk protein (MaSp) in Latrodectus hesperus have been determined. In order to further understand this gene family, we utilized in this study a variety of strategies to isolate full-length MaSp1 and MaSp2 cDNAs in the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi. A. bruennichi MaSp1 and MaSp2 are primarily composed of remarkably homogeneous ensemble repeats containing several complex motifs, and both have highly conserved C-termini and N-termini. Two novel amino acid motifs, GGF and SGR, were found in MaSp1 and MaSp2, respectively. Amino acid composition analysis of silk, luminal contents and predicted sequences indicates that MaSp1 and MaSp2 are two major components of major ampullate glands and that the ratio of MaSp1 to MaSp2 is approximately 3:2 in dragline silk. Furthermore, both the MaSp1:MaSp2 ratio and the conserved termini are closely linked with the production of high quality synthetic fibers. Our results make an important contribution to our understanding of major ampullate silk protein structure and provide a second blueprint for creating new composite silk which mimics natural spider dragline silk. PMID:23262065

  3. Molecular cloning, characterization, and sexually dimorphic expression of five major sex differentiation-related genes in a Scorpaeniform fish, sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria).

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth K; Guzmán, José M; Luckenbach, J Adam

    2013-06-01

    Regardless of how sex is determined, the gonadal genes expressed downstream that regulate sex differentiation are relatively conserved among vertebrates. The goal of this study was to clone and characterize five key sex differentiation-related genes in a Scorpaeniform fish, sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Complete mRNA sequences of foxl2, cyp19a1a, dmrt1, sox9a and amh were cloned, sequenced, and phylogenetically analyzed. The sablefish mRNA sequences exhibited the characteristic domains of each gene. The deduced amino sequences were highly conserved in some cases, such as Foxl2, whereas others, such as Amh, exhibited lower homology to corresponding sequences in other vertebrates. Using quantitative PCRs developed for each gene, we found that foxl2 and cyp19a1a mRNA levels were significantly elevated in juvenile sablefish ovaries compared to testes, whereas dmrt1, sox9a and amh mRNA levels were significantly elevated in testes relative to ovaries. These patterns were upheld in our tissue distribution analyses of adult fish, but overall four of the genes, foxl2, cyp19a1a, dmrt1 and amh, were robust markers of sex in sablefish. This study provides important molecular tools for ongoing work related to sex control in sablefish and exploration of the earliest period of molecular sex differentiation and its regulation. PMID:23507626

  4. Superbasicity of silylene derivatives achieved via non-covalent intramolecular cation···π interactions and exploited as molecular containers for CO2.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Abul Kalam; Lo, Rabindranath; Si, Mrinal Kanti; Ganguly, Bishwajit

    2014-06-28

    We have reported for the first time designed silylene superbases involving intramolecular H(+)···π interaction using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The non-covalent interactions augment the proton affinity values by 13 kcal mol−1 in the designed superbase (1) compared to the acyclic silylene, [:Si(NMe2)2]. These divalent Si(II) compounds can act as powerful neutral organic superbases in gas and solvent phases. The DFT calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311+G**//B3LYP/6-31+G* level of theory showed that the gas phase proton affinity of the paracyclophane based silylene superbase (8) reaches up to ~271.0 kcal mol(−1), which is the highest in paracyclophane Si(II) compounds. In tetrahydrofuran solvent medium, the calculated proton affinity of 8 was found to be 301.4 kcal mol(−1). The paracyclophane-based silylene systems are used for binding with small alkali metal ions. The calculated results showed that these systems selectively bind to lithium ions over sodium ions due to the small size of lithium ions which is well fitted in the space between the silicon atom and the phenyl ring. Furthermore, we have used the lithiated silylene 1 and 9 (which exhibits bis-protonation) for gas storage (CO and CO2). The calculated results showed both the lithiated silylene 1 and 9 bind preferentially to CO2 than CO. The calculated gravimetric density of CO2 is found to be 26.97 wt% for 9-Li2–(CO2)4. The energy decomposition analysis (EDA) has been performed to investigate the role of various contributing factors to the total binding strength of the CO2 or CO molecules with lithiated silylene superbases. EDA reveals that the electrostatic energy and polarization energy are the major driving force for higher total interaction energy of the lithiated-silylene–CO2 complex than the lithiated-silylene–CO complex. The lithiated silylene systems showed a higher binding energy with CO2 than the previously reported imidazopyridamine at the same level of

  5. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  6. Molecular and biological interaction between major histocompatibility complex class I antigens and luteinizing hormone receptors or beta-adrenergic receptors triggers cellular response in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Solano, A R; Cremaschi, G; Sánchez, M L; Borda, E; Sterin-Borda, L; Podestá, E J

    1988-01-01

    Purified IgG from BALB/c mouse anti-C3H serum exerts positive inotropic and chronotropic effects in C3H mouse atria and induces testosterone synthesis in C3H mouse Leydig cells. The effect depends on IgG concentration and can be abolished by beta-adrenergic-receptor and luteinizing hormone-receptor antagonists. IgG interferes with the binding of dihydroalprenolol and luteinizing hormone. Monoclonal antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class I antigens were active on the Leydig cells of C3H and BALB/c mice. There was a parallelism between the effect of each individual monoclonal antibody with specificity for a particular haplotype and the response of the target cell from the strains carrying such haplotypes. These antibodies could precipitate the soluble luteinizing hormone-receptor complex. The results suggested that bound hormone triggers the association of major histocompatibility class I antigen with the receptor, thereby activating the respective target cells. PMID:2839829

  7. The Molecular Dissection of mtDNA Haplogroup H Confirms That the Franco-Cantabrian Glacial Refuge Was a Major Source for the European Gene Pool

    PubMed Central

    Achilli, Alessandro; Rengo, Chiara; Magri, Chiara; Battaglia, Vincenza; Olivieri, Anna; Scozzari, Rosaria; Cruciani, Fulvio; Zeviani, Massimo; Briem, Egill; Carelli, Valerio; Moral, Pedro; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Roostalu, Urmas; Loogväli, Eva-Liis; Kivisild, Toomas; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Richards, Martin; Villems, Richard; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Silvana; Semino, Ornella; Torroni, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Complete sequencing of 62 mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) belonging (or very closely related) to haplogroup H revealed that this mtDNA haplogroup—by far the most common in Europe—is subdivided into numerous subhaplogroups, with at least 15 of them (H1–H15) identifiable by characteristic mutations. All the haplogroup H mtDNAs found in 5,743 subjects from 43 populations were then screened for diagnostic markers of subhaplogroups H1 and H3. This survey showed that both subhaplogroups display frequency peaks, centered in Iberia and surrounding areas, with distributions declining toward the northeast and southeast—a pattern extremely similar to that previously reported for mtDNA haplogroup V. Furthermore, the coalescence ages of H1 and H3 (∼11,000 years) are close to that previously reported for V. These findings have major implications for the origin of Europeans, since they attest that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area was indeed the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers that repopulated much of Central and Northern Europe from ∼15,000 years ago. This has also some implications for disease studies. For instance, the high occurrence of H1 and H3 in Iberia led us to re-evaluate the haplogroup distribution in 50 Spanish families affected by nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness due to the A1555G mutation. The survey revealed that the previously reported excess of H among these families is caused entirely by H3 and is due to a major, probably nonrecent, founder event. PMID:15382008

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a major egg antigen in Paragonimus westermani and its use in ELISA for the immunodiagnosis of paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Sik; Lee, Jongweon; Kim, Sun Hyun; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2007-03-01

    A recombinant protein of a Paragonimus westermani egg antigen was produced and tested as an antigen for the serologic diagnosis of P. westermani infection. The P. westermani egg antigen gene contains a single open reading frame of 966 base pairs encoding 322 amino acids from 5' methionine to the 3' stop codon. The predicted amino acid sequence of this egg antigen was 40, 38, and was 35% identical to heat shock proteins from Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Taenia saginata. The distribution this antigen was investigated in adult worms by indirect immunofluorescence assay, and found to be distributed in eggs and uteri. The specificity and sensitivity of the recombinant antigen were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sera from patients infected with different parasites, which included 41 patients with paragonimiasis, and negative controls. The diagnostic positive and negative predictive absorbance value was 0.24 and the sensitivity of ELISA using the recombinant antigen was 90.2%, and its specificity 100%. Our results suggest that the developed recombinant major egg antigen-based ELISA offers a highly sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of paragonimiasis.

  9. Cannabis smoke can be a major risk factor for early-age laryngeal cancer--a molecular signaling-based approach.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantan; Mandal, Syamsundar; Banerjee, Samir; Mandal, Gautam Kumar; Bhowmick, Anup Kumar; Murmu, Nabendu

    2015-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream elements are overexpressed in most cases of the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This study investigated the expression pattern of key proteins linked to the EGFR pathway in laryngeal carcinoma patients with a history of cannabis smoking. We selected 83 male glottic cancer patients, aged between 45 to 75 years with three distinct populations-nonsmoker, cigarette smoker, and cannabis smoker. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for EGFR, protein kinase B (PKB or Akt), nuclear factor kappa B p50 (NF-КB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) followed by boolean scoring for statistical analysis. Experimental data showed upregulation of the selected EGFR cascade in tumor cells, stromal expression of EGFR, and nuclear localization of COX-2 in metaplastic gland cells of laryngeal cancer tissue sample. Statistical analyses indicated that overexpression of the EGFR cascade is significantly correlated to cannabis smoking. Cannabis smokers had higher expression (p < 0.01) of these onco-proteins with respect to both nonsmokers as well as cigarette smokers. Risk factor analysis showed high risk of these proteins expression in age <60 years (odds ratio (OR) > 1.5) as the lower age group had relatively higher number of cannabis smokers. This study provides evidence for a direct association between cannabis smoking and increased risk of laryngeal cancer. Higher expression of the EGFR cascade in cannabis smokers revealed that cannabis smoking may be a major cause for the early onset of aggressive laryngeal cancer. PMID:25736926

  10. Cannabis smoke can be a major risk factor for early-age laryngeal cancer--a molecular signaling-based approach.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantan; Mandal, Syamsundar; Banerjee, Samir; Mandal, Gautam Kumar; Bhowmick, Anup Kumar; Murmu, Nabendu

    2015-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream elements are overexpressed in most cases of the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This study investigated the expression pattern of key proteins linked to the EGFR pathway in laryngeal carcinoma patients with a history of cannabis smoking. We selected 83 male glottic cancer patients, aged between 45 to 75 years with three distinct populations-nonsmoker, cigarette smoker, and cannabis smoker. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for EGFR, protein kinase B (PKB or Akt), nuclear factor kappa B p50 (NF-КB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) followed by boolean scoring for statistical analysis. Experimental data showed upregulation of the selected EGFR cascade in tumor cells, stromal expression of EGFR, and nuclear localization of COX-2 in metaplastic gland cells of laryngeal cancer tissue sample. Statistical analyses indicated that overexpression of the EGFR cascade is significantly correlated to cannabis smoking. Cannabis smokers had higher expression (p < 0.01) of these onco-proteins with respect to both nonsmokers as well as cigarette smokers. Risk factor analysis showed high risk of these proteins expression in age <60 years (odds ratio (OR) > 1.5) as the lower age group had relatively higher number of cannabis smokers. This study provides evidence for a direct association between cannabis smoking and increased risk of laryngeal cancer. Higher expression of the EGFR cascade in cannabis smokers revealed that cannabis smoking may be a major cause for the early onset of aggressive laryngeal cancer.

  11. Molecular modeling of a T-cell receptor bound to a major histocompatibility complex molecule: implications for T-cell recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, J. C.; Vargas-Madrazo, E.; Lara-Ochoa, F.; Horjales, E.

    1995-01-01

    The main functions of the T-cell receptor (TCR) involve its specific interaction with short and linear antigenic peptides bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. In the absence of a 3D structure for TCR and for the TCR/peptide/MHC complex, several attempts to characterize the structural components of the TCR/peptide/MHC interaction have been made. However, this subject is still troublesome. In this paper a computer-based 3D model for a TCR/peptide/MHC complex (5C.C7/moth cytochrome c [MCC] peptide 93-103/I-Ek) was obtained. The complex surface shows a high complementarity between the 5C.C7 structure and the peptide/I-Ek molecule. The mapping of residues involved in the TCR/peptide/MHC interaction shows close agreement with mutational experiments (Jorgensen JL, Reay PA, Ehrich EW, Davis MM, 1992b, Annu Rev Immunol 10:835-873). Moreover, the results are consistent with a recent variability analysis of TCR sequences using three variability indexes (Almagro JC, Zenteno-Cuevas R, Vargas-Madrazo E, Lara-Ochoa F, 1995b, Int J Pept Protein Res 45:180-186). Accordingly, the 3D model of the 5C.C7/MCC peptide 93-103/I-Ek complex provides a framework to generate testable hypotheses about TCR recognition. Thus, starting from this model, the role played by each loop that forms the peptide/MHC binding site of the TCR is discussed. PMID:8528069

  12. Novel Assays of Thrombogenic Pathogenicity in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome Based on the Detection of Molecular Oxidative Modification of the Major Autoantigen β2-Glycoprotein I

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Yiannis; Zhang, Jing-Yun; Qi, Miao; Gao, Lu; Qi, Jian Cheng; Yu, De-Min; Lau, Herman; Sturgess, Allan D; Vlachoyiannopoulos, Panayiotis G; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M; Rahman, Anisur; Pericleous, Charis; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Koike, Takao; Heritier, Stephane; Giannakopoulos, Bill; Krilis, Steven A

    2011-01-01

    Objective Beta-2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) constitutes the major autoantigen in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), a common acquired cause of arterial and venous thrombosis. We recently described the novel observation that β2GPI may exist in healthy individuals in a free thiol (biochemically reduced) form. The present study was undertaken to quantify the levels of total, reduced, and posttranslationally modified oxidized β2GPI in APS patients compared to various control groups. Methods In a retrospective multicenter analysis, the proportion of β2GPI with free thiols in serum from healthy volunteers was quantified. Assays for measurement of reduced as well as total circulating β2GPI were developed and tested in the following groups: APS (with thrombosis) (n = 139), autoimmune disease with or without persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) but without APS (n = 188), vascular thrombosis without APS or aPL (n = 38), and healthy volunteers (n = 91). Results Total β2GPI was significantly elevated in patients with APS (median 216.2 μg/ml [interquartile range 173.3–263.8]) as compared to healthy subjects (median 178.4 μg/ml [interquartile range 149.4–227.5] [P < 0.0002]) or control patients with autoimmune disease or vascular thrombosis (both P < 0.0001). The proportion of total β2GPI in an oxidized form (i.e., lacking free thiols) was significantly greater in the APS group than in each of the 3 control groups (all P < 0.0001). Conclusion This large retrospective multicenter study shows that posttranslational modification of β2GPI via thiol-exchange reactions is a highly specific phenomenon in the setting of APS thrombosis. Quantification of posttranslational modifications of β2GPI in conjunction with standard laboratory tests for APS may offer the potential to more accurately predict the risk of occurrence of a thrombotic event in the setting of APS. PMID:21618459

  13. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  14. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  15. Is NCLB Closing the Minority-Majority Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Tiffany; Loker, Troy; March, Amanda; Sockslager, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    In January of 2002, President George W. Bush signed into law the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001 (NCLB). NCLB, which passed through Congress with overwhelming support from both Republican and Democratic members, was predicated on four basic objectives to address pervasive problems within America's public schools: (1) school accountability for…

  16. Molecular characterization of Api g 1, the major allergen of celery (Apium graveolens), and its immunological and structural relationships to a group of 17-kDa tree pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Breiteneder, H; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; O'Riordain, G; Susani, M; Ahorn, H; Ebner, C; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1995-10-15

    Individuals suffering from immediate hypersensitivity (type-I allergy) to a particular pollen frequently display intolerance to several foods of plant origin. In this respect, individuals sensitized to birch pollen and/or mugwort pollen frequently display type-I allergic symptoms after ingestion of celery. In this study, we expressed the major allergenic protein of celery, Api g 1, which is responsible for the birch-celery syndrome, in the form of a non-fusion protein. The open reading frame of the cDNA of Api g 1 codes for a protein of 153 amino acids with a molecular mass of 16.2 kDa and 40% identity (60% similarity) to the major allergen of birch pollen, Bet v 1. Furthermore, Api g 1 exhibited similar characteristics to (a) two proteins in parsley induced by fungal infection, (b) the major tree pollen allergens and (c) pathogenesis-related and stress-induced proteins in other plant species. The reactivity of recombinant Api g 1 with IgE antibodies present in sera from celery intolerant patients was comparable to that of the natural celery allergen. Cross-reactivity with Bet v 1 was proven by cross-inhibition experiments, which provides further support for the existence of the birch-celery syndrome and for the suggestion that allergies to some vegetable foods are epiphenomena to allergies caused by inhalation of tree pollen.

  17. The major evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Szathmáry, E; Smith, J M

    1995-03-16

    There is no theoretical reason to expect evolutionary lineages to increase in complexity with time, and no empirical evidence that they do so. Nevertheless, eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic ones, animals and plants are more complex than protists, and so on. This increase in complexity may have been achieved as a result of a series of major evolutionary transitions. These involved changes in the way information is stored and transmitted.

  18. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp. PMID:26394146

  19. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    PubMed

    Josino Soares, Denise; Pignitter, Marc; Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  20. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  1. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  3. Molecular Electronics - Current Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vilan, Ayelet; Cahen, David

    2010-12-01

    Molecular electronics is a flourishing area of nano-science and -technology, with a promise for cheap electronics of novel functionality. Here we outline the major challenges for molecular electronics becoming an established scientific discipline, including models with predictive power.

  4. Arsenic(III, V) adsorption on a goethite-based adsorbent in the presence of major co-existing ions: Modeling competitive adsorption consistent with spectroscopic and molecular evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Young, Thomas M.; Fukushi, Keisuke; Green, Peter G.; Darby, Jeannie L.

    2013-04-01

    Adsorption of the two oxyanions, arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)), on a common goethite-based granular porous adsorbent is studied in the presence of major co-existing ions in groundwater (i.e., phosphate, silicic acid, sulfate, carbonate, magnesium, and calcium) and predicted using the extended triple layer model (ETLM), a dipole modified single-site triple layer surface complexation model consistent with spectroscopic and molecular evidence. Surface species of all ions were selected according to the previous ETLM studies and published experimental spectroscopic/theoretical molecular information. The adsorption equilibrium constants for all ions were determined using adsorption data obtained in single-solute systems. The adsorption equilibrium constants referenced to the site-occupancy standard state (indicated by Kθ) were compared with those for goethite in the literature if available. The values of these constants for the goethite-based adsorbent are found to be close to the values for goethite previously studied. These "constrained" adsorption equilibrium constants determined in single-solute systems were used in the ETLM to predict the competitive interactions of As(III, V) with the co-existing ions in binary-solute systems. The ETLM is capable of predicting As(III, V) adsorption in the presence of oxyanions (phosphate, silicic acid, sulfate, and carbonate). This study presents the first successful and systematic prediction of the competitive interactions of As(III, V) with these oxyanions using the ETLM. The ETLM prediction of surface (and aqueous) speciation also provides insights into the distinct adsorption behavior of As(III, V) in the presence of the oxyanions. Magnesium and calcium significantly enhanced As(V) adsorption at higher pH values, while they had little effect on As(III) adsorption. The enhanced adsorption of As(V), however, could not be predicted by the ETLM using the surface species proposed in previous ETLM studies. Further studies

  5. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  6. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  7. Molecular Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Michael

    The prospects of using organic materials in electronics and optoelectronics applications have attracted scientists and technologists since the 1970s. This field has become known as molecular electronics. Some successes have already been achieved, for example the liquid-crystal display. Other products such as organic light-emitting displays, chemical sensors and plastic transistors are developing fast. There is also a keen interest in exploiting technologies at the molecular scale that might eventually replace silicon devices. This chapter provides some of the background physics and chemistry to the interdisciplinary subject of molecular electronics. A review of some of the possible application areas for organic materials is presented and some speculation is provided regarding future directions.

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nebraska made gains across the board at the proficient-and-above level for all major racial/ethnic subgroups and low-income students in reading and math. Achievement gaps also narrowed across the board for all subgroups analyzed at grades 4, 8, and 11.…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Montana, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Montana for 2010. In grade 8 reading (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Montana showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic subgroups and…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New York showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major subgroups with just a few exceptions. Achievement gaps in reading and math also narrowed at grades 4 and 8 for most…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oregon for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Oregon showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Ohio, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Ohio for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Ohio showed a clear trend of gains for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels, with one exception. In grade 8 reading,…

  13. Gifted Student Academic Achievement and Program Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Katrina Ann Woolsey

    2010-01-01

    Gifted academic achievement has been identified as a major area of interest for educational researchers. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there was a relation between the quality of gifted programs as perceived by teachers, coordinators and supervisors of the gifted and the achievement of the same gifted students in 6th and 7th…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  12. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  13. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  14. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  15. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  16. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  17. Molecular medicine: a path towards a personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Debora Marques de; Mamede, Marcelo; Souza, Bruno Rezende de; Almeida Barros, Alexandre Guimarães de; Magno, Luiz Alexandre; Alvim-Soares Jr, Antônio; Rosa, Daniela Valadão; Castro Jr, Célio José de; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Marco, Luiz Armando De; Correa, Humberto; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio

    2012-03-01

    Psychiatric disorders are among the most common human illnesses; still, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their complex pathophysiology remain to be fully elucidated. Over the past 10 years, our group has been investigating the molecular abnormalities in major signaling pathways involved in psychiatric disorders. Recent evidences obtained by the Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Medicina Molecular (National Institute of Science and Technology - Molecular Medicine, INCT-MM) and others using behavioral analysis of animal models provided valuable insights into the underlying molecular alterations responsible for many complex neuropsychiatric disorders, suggesting that "defects" in critical intracellular signaling pathways have an important role in regulating neurodevelopment, as well as in pathophysiology and treatment efficacy. Resources from the INCT have allowed us to start doing research in the field of molecular imaging. Molecular imaging is a research discipline that visualizes, characterizes, and quantifies the biologic processes taking place at cellular and molecular levels in humans and other living systems through the results of image within the reality of the physiological environment. In order to recognize targets, molecular imaging applies specific instruments (e.g., PET) that enable visualization and quantification in space and in real-time of signals from molecular imaging agents. The objective of molecular medicine is to individualize treatment and improve patient care. Thus, molecular imaging is an additional tool to achieve our ultimate goal.

  18. It's Major! College Major Selection & Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Jenny; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Springall, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the College Board National Forum, October 26, 2011. Choosing a college major is challenging enough, without stopping to consider the impact it has on a student's college experience and career choice. To provide support during this major decision, participants in this session will develop strategies to facilitate students in making an…

  19. Molecular genetics of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Singh, A K; Pandey, P; Chandra, S; Singh, K A; Gambhir, I S

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem in the developing as well as in developed countries due to its high prevalence and its association with coronary heart disease, renal disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and related disorders. Essential hypertension (EH) is the most common diagnosis in this disease, suggesting that a monocausal etiology has not been identified. However, a number of risk factors associated with EH have also been identified such as age, sex, demographic, environmental, genetic, and vascular factors. Recent advances in molecular biological research had achieved clarifying the molecular basis of Mendelian hypertensive disorders. Molecular genetic studies have now identified mutations in several genes that cause Mendelian forms of hypertension in humans. However, none of the single genetic variants has emerged from linkage or association analyses as consistently related to the blood pressure level in every sample and in all populations. Besides, a number of polymorphisms in candidate genes have been associated with differences in blood pressure. The most prominent candidate has been the polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In total, EH is likely to be a polygenic disorder that results from inheritance of a number of susceptibility genes and involves multiple environmental determinants. These determinants complicate the study of blood pressure variations in the general population. The complex nature of the hypertension phenotype makes large-scale studies indispensable, when screening of familial and genetic factors was intended. In this review, recent genetic studies exploring the molecular basis of EH, including different molecular pathways, are highlighted. PMID:27028574

  20. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  1. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  2. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  3. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  4. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  5. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  6. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  7. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  8. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  9. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  10. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  11. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  12. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  13. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  14. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  15. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  16. Research Results Ultra-fast Energy Transfer from Monomer to Dimer within a Trimeric Molecule New Progress in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Key Progress in Research on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in China A New Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Bio-Invasion New Findings in Anti-viral infection and Control of Inflammation Major Headway in Avian Origin Research New Progress in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Biochips Topological Insulator Research Made Important Progress Major Progress in Biodiversity Achieved New Developments of Direct Methods in Protein Crystallography Major Progress in China-UK Collaboration on the Causal Relationship between Volcanic Activity and Biological Distinction News in Brief: NSFC set up "Research Fund for Young Foreign Scholars" How Often Does Human DNA Mutate? Research Progress on Colossal Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-fast Energy Transfer from Monomer to Dimer within a Trimeric Molecule New Progress in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Key Progress in Research on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in China A New Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Bio-Invasion New Findings in Anti-viral infection and Control of Inflammation Major Headway in Avian Origin Research New Progress in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Biochips Topological Insulator Research Made Important Progress Major Progress in Biodiversity Achieved New Developments of Direct Methods in Protein Crystallography Major Progress in China-UK Collaboration on the Causal Relationship between Volcanic Activity and Biological Distinction News in Brief: NSFC set up "Research Fund for Young Foreign Scholars" How Often Does Human DNA Mutate? Research Progress on Colossal Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect

  17. Latest achievements in PET techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Belcari, Nicola; Motta, Alfonso; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Sabba, Nicola; Zavattini, Guido

    2003-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has moved from a distinguished research tool in physiology, cardiology and neurology to become a major tool for clinical investigation in oncology, in cardiac applications and in neurological disorders. Much of the PET accomplishments is due to the remarkable improvements in the last 10 years both in hardware and software aspects. Nowadays a similar effort is made by many research groups towards the construction of dedicated PET apparatus in new emerging fields such as molecular medicine, gene therapy, breast cancer imaging and combined modalities. This paper reports on some recent results we have obtained in small animal imaging and positron emission mammography, based on the use of advanced technology in the field of scintillators and photodetectors, such as Position-Sensitive Detectors coupled to crystal matrices, combined use of scintillating fibers and Hybrid-Photo-Diodes readout, and Hamamatsu flat panels. New ideas and future developments are discussed.

  18. The Age of Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    During the past 2 years state laws lowering the age of majority to 18 and other statutes that confer some majority rights on minors have considerably altered the status of young people in our society. In 7 states, the age of majority has been lowered in an effort to relieve young people of the minority disabilities originally intended to protect…

  19. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Chlamydia Species.

    PubMed

    Sixt, Barbara S; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2016-09-01

    Species of Chlamydia are the etiologic agent of endemic blinding trachoma, the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases, significant respiratory pathogens, and a zoonotic threat. Their dependence on an intracellular growth niche and their peculiar developmental cycle are major challenges to elucidating their biology and virulence traits. The last decade has seen tremendous advances in our ability to perform a molecular genetic analysis of Chlamydia species. Major achievements include the generation of large collections of mutant strains, now available for forward- and reverse-genetic applications, and the introduction of a system for plasmid-based transformation enabling complementation of mutations; expression of foreign, modified, or reporter genes; and even targeted gene disruptions. This review summarizes the current status of the molecular genetic toolbox for Chlamydia species and highlights new insights into their biology and new challenges in the nascent field of Chlamydia genetics. PMID:27607551

  20. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  1. The Young Achiever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2012-01-01

    The author profiles Kasey Dallman, a Wisconsin college junior who has overcome major obstacles and made even greater strides as she works to become a music educator. Skilled musician, published novelist, secretary of a NAfME collegiate chapter--this Wisconsin music educator-to-be is already making a name for herself. To scan Kasey Dallman's resume…

  2. Predicting genetics achievement in nonmajors college biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Angela; Lawson, Anton E.

    Students enrolled in a non-majors college biology course were pretested to determine their level of intellectual development, degree of field independence, mental capacity, amount of prior genetics knowledge, and amount of fluid intelligence. They were then taught a unit on Mendelian genetics. The only student variables found to not account for a significant amount of variance on a test of reading comprehension and/or a test of genetics achievement was amount of prior genetics knowledge. Developmental level was found to be the most consistent predictor of performance, suggesting that a lack of general hypothetico-deductive reasoning ability is a major factor limiting achievement among these students.

  3. [Molecular dating in the genomic era].

    PubMed

    Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Delsuc, Frédéric; Philippe, Hervé

    2006-04-01

    The comparison of DNA and protein sequences of extant species might be informative for reconstructing the chronology of evolutionary events on Earth. A phylogenetic tree inferred from molecular data directly depicts the evolutionary affinities of species and indirectly allows estimating the age of their origin and diversification. Molecular dating is achieved by assuming the molecular clock hypothesis, i.e., that the rate of change of nucleotide and amino acid sequences is on average constant over geological time. If paleontological calibrations are available, then absolute divergence times of species can be estimated. However, three major difficulties potentially hamper molecular dating : (1) a limited sample of genes and organisms, (2) a limited number of fossil references, and (3) pervasive variations of molecular evolutionary rates among genomes and species. To circumvent these problems, different solutions have been recently proposed. Larger data sets are built with more genes and more species sampled through the mining of an increasing number of genomes. Moreover, independent key fossils are identified to calibrate molecular clocks, and the uncertainty on their age is integrated in subsequent analyses. Finally, models of molecular rate variations are constructed, and incorporated in the so-called relaxed molecular clock approaches. As an illustration of these improvements, we mention that the debated age of the animal (bilaterian metazoans) diversification may have occurred between 642-761 million years ago (Mya), roughly 100 Ma before the Cambrian explosion. Among mammals, the initial diversification of major placental groups may have taken place around 100 Mya, well before the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary marking the extinction of dinosaurs.

  4. [Molecular dating in the genomic era].

    PubMed

    Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Delsuc, Frédéric; Philippe, Hervé

    2006-04-01

    The comparison of DNA and protein sequences of extant species might be informative for reconstructing the chronology of evolutionary events on Earth. A phylogenetic tree inferred from molecular data directly depicts the evolutionary affinities of species and indirectly allows estimating the age of their origin and diversification. Molecular dating is achieved by assuming the molecular clock hypothesis, i.e., that the rate of change of nucleotide and amino acid sequences is on average constant over geological time. If paleontological calibrations are available, then absolute divergence times of species can be estimated. However, three major difficulties potentially hamper molecular dating : (1) a limited sample of genes and organisms, (2) a limited number of fossil references, and (3) pervasive variations of molecular evolutionary rates among genomes and species. To circumvent these problems, different solutions have been recently proposed. Larger data sets are built with more genes and more species sampled through the mining of an increasing number of genomes. Moreover, independent key fossils are identified to calibrate molecular clocks, and the uncertainty on their age is integrated in subsequent analyses. Finally, models of molecular rate variations are constructed, and incorporated in the so-called relaxed molecular clock approaches. As an illustration of these improvements, we mention that the debated age of the animal (bilaterian metazoans) diversification may have occurred between 642-761 million years ago (Mya), roughly 100 Ma before the Cambrian explosion. Among mammals, the initial diversification of major placental groups may have taken place around 100 Mya, well before the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary marking the extinction of dinosaurs. PMID:16597406

  5. Biocrystallography in Switzerland: achievements and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Grütter, Markus G

    2014-01-01

    The first protein crystallography group in Switzerland was installed at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel approximately 40 years ago. Since then protein crystallography has grown and matured remarkably and is now established in the molecular biology, biochemistry or biological medicine departments of most major Swiss Universities as well as in the pharmaceutical industry and in biotech startup companies. Swiss X-ray biocrystallography groups have made remarkable contributions from the beginning and have brought Switzerland to the forefront in biostructural research during the last 5 to 10 years. Switzerland has now a leading position in the areas of supramolecular complexes, membrane proteins and structure-based drug design in pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Protein crystallography on the outer membrane protein ompF as well as the development of the lipidic cubic phase crystallization methodology has been pioneered at the Biozentrum. The latter found its somewhat late recognition through the recent explosion in structure determinations of the seven transmembrane helix G-coupled receptors. Highlights from Swiss structural biology groups in the field of supramolecular complexes include the structures of ribosomal particles, of the nucleosome and the pilus assembly complex of uropathogenic E. coli. On the membrane protein side advances in the field of ABC transporters and ion channels are world-recognized achievements of Swiss structural biology. Dedicated laboratories at many academic and industrial institutions, their current research programs, the availability of excellent infrastructure and the continuing efforts to build new facilities such as the SwissFEL indicate an even brighter future for structural biology in Switzerland.

  6. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  7. Recent achievements of OPEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbesser-Rastburg, Bertram; Turney, Owen

    1989-01-01

    A group of propagation researchers have joined to prepare for a major campaign of propagation experiments for fixed satellite services using the Olympus satellite. For several years, the receiving hardware and data processing procedures have been planned, now, with the launch of the Olympus satellite imminent, experimenters are eager to start the real work. A short review is given of the accomplishments made since the last NAPEX meeting.

  8. Major milestones in translational oncology.

    PubMed

    Dragani, Tommaso A; Castells, Antoni; Kulasingam, Vathany; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Earl, Helena; Iams, Wade T; Lovly, Christine M; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Schalken, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Translational oncology represents a bridge between basic research and clinical practice in cancer medicine. Today, translational research in oncology benefits from an abundance of knowledge resulting from genome-scale studies regarding the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis. In this Forum article, we highlight the state of the art of translational oncology in five major cancer types. We illustrate the use of molecular profiling to subtype colorectal cancer for both diagnosis and treatment, and summarize the results of a nationwide screening program for ovarian cancer based on detection of a tumor biomarker in serum. Additionally, we discuss how circulating tumor DNA can be assayed to safely monitor breast cancer over the course of treatment, and report on how therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors is proving effective in advanced lung cancer. Finally, we summarize efforts to use molecular profiling of prostate cancer biopsy specimens to support treatment decisions. Despite encouraging early successes, we cannot disregard the complex genetics of individual susceptibility to cancer nor the enormous complexity of the somatic changes observed in tumors, which urge particular attention to the development of personalized therapies. PMID:27469586

  9. Molecular and social regulation of worker division of labor in fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Division of labor is a major achievement of social regulation in insect societies. Despite the great interest for this theme, the molecular basis for the regulation of division of labor has been investigated in detail only in honey bees, while nothing is known about the regulatory mechanisms operati...

  10. The Emerging Minority Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baccus, R. Eileen

    The United States is experiencing a major demographic transformation. Some studies have projected that by the year 2020, whites will be in the minority as their number is surpassed by those of Indian, Asian, African, and Spanish descent, to name a few. Educators must make a major commitment to see that all students have the opportunity to perform…

  11. Cultural Influences on Gifted Gender Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Joan

    2004-01-01

    In Britain, and reflected in other countries, the academic achievements of gifted girls in school are surpassing those of gifted boys in almost all areas of study and at all ages. This is not true in every country. The British evidence suggests two major reasons for this surge by the gifted girls. Emotionally, British girls are now showing greater…

  12. The Methodological Nettle: ICT and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandra, Vinesh; Lloyd, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge for researchers and educators has been to discern the effect of ICT use on student learning outcomes. This paper maps the achievements in Year 10 Science of two cohorts of students over two years where students in the first year studied in a traditional environment while students in the second took part in a blended or e-learning…

  13. Age and Outstanding Occupational Achievement: Lehman Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the findings of Lehman's study of age and outstanding occupational achievement along with the explanations of why major contributions most likely occur in young adulthood. Proposes an alternative explanation based on the central developmental tasks facing individuals in young adulthood and middle age. (JAC)

  14. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  15. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  16. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  17. Molecular characterization of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), analysis of its inductive expression and associated down-stream signaling molecules following ligands exposure and bacterial infection in the Indian major carp, rohu (Labeo rohita).

    PubMed

    Samanta, Mrinal; Swain, Banikalyan; Basu, Madhubanti; Panda, Padmaja; Mohapatra, Girish B; Sahoo, Bikash R; Maiti, Nikhil K

    2012-03-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the key components of innate immunity. Among various TLR types, TLR2 is involved in recognizing specific microbial structures such as peptidoglycan (PGN), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), zymosan etc., and after binding them it triggers myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling pathway to induce various cytokines. In this report, TLR2 gene was cloned and characterized in rohu (Labeo rohita), which is highly commercially important fish species in the farming-industry of Indian subcontinent. Full-length rohu TLR2 (rTLR2) cDNA comprised of 2691 bp with a single open reading frame (ORF) of 2379 bp encoding a polypeptide of 792 amino acids (aa) with an estimated molecular mass of 90.74 kDa. Structurally, it comprised of one leucine-rich repeat region (LRR) each at N-terminal (LRR-NT; 44-55 aa) and C-terminal (LRR-CT; 574-590 aa), 21 LRRs in between C and N-terminal, one trans-membrane (TM) domain (595-612 aa), and one TIR domain (645-790 aa). Phylogenetically, rohu TLR2 was closely related to common carp and exhibited significant similarity (93.1%) and identity (88.1%) in their amino acids. During embryogenesis, rTLR2 expression was detected as early as ∼7 h post fertilization indicating its importance in embryonic innate immune defense system in fish. Basal expression analysis of rTLR2 showed its constitutive expression in all the tissues examined, highest was in the spleen and the lowest was in the eye. Inductive expression of TLR2 was observed following zymosan, PGN and LTA exposure and Streptococcus uberis and Edwardsiella tarda infections. Expression of immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8, in various organs was significantly enhanced by ligands exposure and bacterial infections, and was correlated with inductive expression of TLR2. In vitro studies showed that PGN treatment induced TLR2, MyD88 and TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6) expression, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B

  18. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  19. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  20. Molecular cloning, expression and catalytic activity of a human AKR7 member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily: evidence that the major 2-carboxybenzaldehyde reductase from human liver is a homologue of rat aflatoxin B1-aldehyde reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, L S; Harrison, D J; Neal, G E; Hayes, J D

    1998-01-01

    The masking of charged amino or carboxy groups by N-phthalidylation and O-phthalidylation has been used to improve the absorption of many drugs, including ampicillin and 5-fluorouracil. Following absorption of such prodrugs, the phthalidyl group is hydrolysed to release 2-carboxybenzaldehyde (2-CBA) and the pharmaceutically active compound; in humans, 2-CBA is further metabolized to 2-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid by reduction of the aldehyde group. In the present work, the enzyme responsible for the reduction of 2-CBA in humans is identified as a homologue of rat aflatoxin B1-aldehyde reductase (rAFAR). This novel human aldo-keto reductase (AKR) has been cloned from a liver cDNA library, and together with the rat protein, establishes the AKR7 family of the AKR superfamily. Unlike its rat homologue, human AFAR (hAFAR) appears to be constitutively expressed in human liver, and is widely expressed in extrahepatic tissues. The deduced human and rat protein sequences share 78% identity and 87% similarity. Although the two AKR7 proteins are predicted to possess distinct secondary structural features which distinguish them from the prototypic AKR1 family of AKRs, the catalytic- and NADPH-binding residues appear to be conserved in both families. Certain of the predicted structural features of the AKR7 family members are shared with the AKR6 beta-subunits of voltage-gated K+-channels. In addition to reducing the dialdehydic form of aflatoxin B1-8,9-dihydrodiol, hAFAR shows high affinity for the gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolite succinic semialdehyde (SSA) which is structurally related to 2-CBA, suggesting that hAFAR could function as both a SSA reductase and a 2-CBA reductase in vivo. This hypothesis is supported in part by the finding that the major peak of 2-CBA reductase activity in human liver co-purifies with hAFAR protein. PMID:9576847

  1. [Analysis and outlook on teaching status of Molecular Pharmacognosy].

    PubMed

    Bi, Yu-xia; Xu, Hai-yu; Tong, Yan; Cui, Shu-zhen; Li, Hai-yan; Liu, Chang-xiao

    2015-09-01

    The teaching status of Molecular Pharmacognosy in 28 institutions in China was investigated by questionnaire and the survey data was analyzed by SPSS. Research contents included course beginning years, majors, class hours, characteristics of the course, teaching ways, the theory and practice contents, evaluation modes, selection of teaching material, teaching achievements, teachers and so on for undergraduates and graduates. Research results showed that with 20 years' development, Molecular Pharmacognosy had been offered for both undergraduate and graduate students in at least 20 colleges and universities and Molecular Pharmacognosy education in China showed good development momentum. At the same time, to promote the development of Molecular Pharmacognosy further, investment for it should be increased and practical teaching condition should be improved.

  2. Achieving molecular selectivity in imaging using multiphoton Raman spectroscopy techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Holtom, Gary R. ); Thrall, Brian D. ); Chin, Beek Yoke ); Wiley, H Steven ); Colson, Steven D. )

    2000-12-01

    In the case of most imaging methods, contrast is generated either by physical properties of the sample (Differential Image Contrast, Phase Contrast), or by fluorescent labels that are localized to a particular protein or organelle. Standard Raman and infrared methods for obtaining images are based upon the intrinsic vibrational properties of molecules, and thus obviate the need for attached flurophores. Unfortunately, they have significant limitations for live-cell imaging. However, an active Raman method, called Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), is well suited for microscopy, and provides a new means for imaging specific molecules. Vibrational imaging techniques, such as CARS, avoid problems associated with photobleaching and photo-induced toxicity often associated with the use of fluorescent labels with live cells. Because the laser configuration needed to implement CARS technology is similar to that used in other multiphoton microscopy methods, such as two -photon fluorescence and harmonic generation, it is possible to combine imaging modalities, thus generating simultaneous CARS and fluorescence images. A particularly powerful aspect of CARS microscopy is its ability to selectively image deuterated compounds, thus allowing the visualization of molecules, such as lipids, that are chemically indistinguishable from the native species.

  3. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  4. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  5. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  6. [Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad].

    PubMed

    Hvattum, Mari

    2016-07-01

    The psychiatrist Herman Wedel Major planned Gaustad asylum in collaboration with his brother-in-law, the architect Heinrich Ernst Schirmer. The planning of Gaustad took place in parallel with the preparation of the first Norwegian Mental Health Act, adopted by the Storting on 30 July 1848, and Gaustad's architecture provides a good illustration of the ideals behind the mental health reform of the 19th century. In particular, Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad represents a break with Frederik Holst's ideal of the panoptic institution. Whereas Holst and his architect Christian Heinrich Grosch promoted a radial plan institution based on the type used for penitentiaries, Schirmer and Major designed a modern, pavilion-style hospital with wards placed independently in the landscape. PMID:27381794

  7. Leadership Strategies: Achieving Personal and Professional Success.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Physicians and allied health staff in healthcare are finding themselves in situations characterized by uncertainty, chaos, and ambiguity, with high levels of burnout. A major influence is an aging U.S. population, resulting in increasing cost and reimbursement pressures. Medical group practices need leaders who have the capability to thrive in this environment. This article presents an integrated leadership model offering strategies and insights gained from keeping a journal for 40 years. Strategies to be shared include leading self through learning, leading others by developing relationships, leading organizations by achieving excellence, and achieving work-life integration and synergy. PMID:27443052

  8. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  9. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  10. Today's "Neglected Majority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

  11. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  12. Attracting Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors…

  13. [MAJOR DEPRESSION AND PERSONALIZED MEDICINE].

    PubMed

    Pitchot, W

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major public health problem. According to the World Health Organization (OMS), depression is currently the second cause of disability in developing countries. Depression is also one of the most frequent mental illnesses. When treating depression, the main objective is to achieve complete remission and to prevent recurrence. Unfor-tunately, in clinical practice, this aim is particularly difficult to reach. Indeed, in clinical trials and in naturalistic studies, remission levels are rather low. The challenge is to individualize the treatment of depression taking account clinical specificities, but also advances in the field of biological and genetic research. Today, intense psychiatric research tries to discover biomarkers to predict treatment response. Because individuals are highly different from a biological, psychological and sociological point of view, more personalized therapeutic approaches are recommended. PMID:26285462

  14. The Neglected Majority--20th Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony E.; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    It is the 20th anniversary of the release of Dale Parnell's landmark book "The Neglected Majority". In this book, Parnell pointed out that for too long America's educational system has focused on the highest and lowest achievers. He made the case that most of those students in the middle two high school quartiles neither prepare for nor aspire to…

  15. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  16. Rethinking the Astronomy Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, S.

    2001-12-01

    The Five College Astronomy Department has designed several curricular offerings that use the discipline of Astronomy to provide project-based classes that enhance critical thinking and quantitative reasoning and emphasize development of both oral and written communication skills. We incorporate these classes with more traditional lecture-format astrophysics courses to offer a science major that will provide a firm foundation in a quantitative discipline that could lead to many career paths.

  17. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  18. Molecular assembly of superquenchers in signaling molecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chaoyong James; Lin, Hui; Tan, Weihong

    2005-09-21

    We have designed a novel molecular assembly of quencher molecules to form superquenchers with excellent quenching efficiency. The superquencher can be engineered as desired by assembling different types and different numbers of quencher molecules. By labeling a superquencher to a molecular beacon, a 320-fold enhancement of fluorescent signal was achieved, compared to about 14-fold from a molecular beacon prepared with the same monomer quencher. Our molecular assembly approach can effectively improve the sensitivity of a variety of fluorescent assays and can be widely useful for molecular interaction studies.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Two Major Dengue Outbreaks in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Garita, Claudio; Somogyi, Teresita; Vicente-Santos, Amanda; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) is a reemerging arthropod-borne virus with a worldwide circulation, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Since the first detection of its main transmitting vector in 1992 and the invasion of DENV-1 in 1993, Costa Rica has faced dengue outbreaks yearly. In 2007 and 2013, Costa Rica experienced two of the largest outbreaks in terms of total and severe cases. To provide genetic information about the etiologic agents producing these outbreaks, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of viruses isolated from human samples. A total of 23 DENV-1 and DENV-2 sequences were characterized. These analyses signaled that DENV-1 genotype V and DENV-2 American/Asian genotype were circulating in those outbreaks. Our results suggest that the 2007 and 2013 outbreak viral strains of DENV-1 and DENV-2 originated from nearby countries and underwent in situ microevolution. PMID:27139442

  20. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  1. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  2. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2012.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Kim, Kidong; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Ten topics were chosen among major clinical research achievements in gynecologic oncology in 2012. For ovarian cancer, comprehensive review of the history of bevacizumab studies was followed by poly adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and other molecular targeted agents such as epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and AMG 386. For the development of genomic study in gynecologic cancers, BRCA and DICER1 mutations were covered in epithelial and nonepithelial ovarian cancer, respectively. For endometrial cancer, targeted agents including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and bevacizumab were discussed. Radiation therapy "sandwiched" between combination chemotherapy schedules for the treatment of uterine papillary serous carcinoma was also reviewed. Preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis, definition of low-risk group, and recurrence and survival outcomes of laparoscopic approaches were addressed. For cervical cancer, we reviewed long-term benefit of human papillomavirus test and efficacy of paclitaxel/carboplatin versus paclitaxel/cisplatin in stage IVB, persistent or recurrent disease. In addition, the effect of three dimensional image-based high-dose rate brachytherapy was also reviewed. For vulvar cancer, the diagnostic value of sentinel lymph node biopsy was discussed. For breast cancer, positive results of three outstanding phase III randomized clinical trials, CLEOPATRA, EMILIA, and BOLERO-2 were introduced. Lastly, updates of major practice guidelines were summarized.

  3. The Ten Outstanding Engineering Achievements of the Past 50 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, George

    1984-01-01

    Describes the outstanding achievement in each of 10 major engineering categories. These categories include synthetic fibers, nuclear energy, computers, solid state electronics, jet aircraft, biomedical engineering, lasers, communications satellites, the United States space program, and automation and control systems. (JN)

  4. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  5. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  6. Majorization entropic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Rudnicki, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2013-07-01

    Entropic uncertainty relations in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space are investigated. Making use of the majorization technique we derive explicit lower bounds for the sum of Rényi entropies describing probability distributions associated with a given pure state expanded in eigenbases of two observables. Obtained bounds are expressed in terms of the largest singular values of submatrices of the unitary rotation matrix. Numerical simulations show that for a generic unitary matrix of size N = 5, our bound is stronger than the well-known result of Maassen and Uffink (MU) with a probability larger than 98%. We also show that the bounds investigated are invariant under the dephasing and permutation operations. Finally, we derive a classical analogue of the MU uncertainty relation, which is formulated for stochastic transition matrices. Dedicated to Iwo Białynicki-Birula on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  7. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  8. Molecular Momentum Transport at Fluid-Solid Interfaces in MEMS/NEMS: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bing-Yang; Sun, Jun; Chen, Min; Guo, Zeng-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    This review is focused on molecular momentum transport at fluid-solid interfaces mainly related to microfluidics and nanofluidics in micro-/nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). This broad subject covers molecular dynamics behaviors, boundary conditions, molecular momentum accommodations, theoretical and phenomenological models in terms of gas-solid and liquid-solid interfaces affected by various physical factors, such as fluid and solid species, surface roughness, surface patterns, wettability, temperature, pressure, fluid viscosity and polarity. This review offers an overview of the major achievements, including experiments, theories and molecular dynamics simulations, in the field with particular emphasis on the effects on microfluidics and nanofluidics in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In Section 1 we present a brief introduction on the backgrounds, history and concepts. Sections 2 and 3 are focused on molecular momentum transport at gas-solid and liquid-solid interfaces, respectively. Summary and conclusions are finally presented in Section 4. PMID:20087458

  9. Magnetismo Molecular (Molecular Magentism)

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Mario S; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F

    2010-07-01

    The new synthesis processes in chemistry open a new world of research, new and surprising materials never before found in nature can now be synthesized and, as a wonderful result, observed a series of physical phenomena never before imagined. Among these are many new materials the molecular magnets, the subject of this book and magnetic properties that are often reflections of the quantum behavior of these materials. Aside from the wonderful experience of exploring something new, the theoretical models that describe the behavior these magnetic materials are, in most cases, soluble analytically, which allows us to know in detail the physical mechanisms governing these materials. Still, the academic interest in parallel this subject, these materials have a number of properties that are promising to be used in technological devices, such as in computers quantum magnetic recording, magnetocaloric effect, spintronics and many other devices. This volume will journey through the world of molecular magnets, from the structural description of these materials to state of the art research.

  10. [Molecular bases of α-thalassemia in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Scheps, Karen G; Francipane, Liliana; Nash, Abigail; Cerrone, Gloria E; Copelli, Silvia B; Varela, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The α-thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders worldwide. Currently, molecular diagnostics is the only available tool to achieve an accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular bases of these syndromes in our environment and to establish genotype-phenotype associations. Through a combination of different molecular techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH),we were able to find α-thalassemic mutations in 145 of the 184 patients (78.8%) studied with hematological parameters compatible with α-thalassemia. Deletions of the α-globin genes resulted the major molecular cause of the disease, and the most frequent mutation was -α(3.7), found in homozygous and heterozygous genotypes. In patients with α° phenotypes, other prevalent mutations were( _MED) and (_CAL/CAMP). The description of a sub-telomeric deletion in a patient with α-thalassemia and mental retardation was also achieved. β-thalassemic mutations in heterozygous state were found in 7.6% of the patients, who presented α-thalassemic clinical features (microcytosis and Hb A₂levels below 3.5%). Hematologic profiles for the α+ and α° genotypes were established for adult and pediatric patients. Hopefully, this work will provide guidelines for the detection of possible α-thalassemic carriers. It also highlights the collaborative work of hematologists, the biochemical and molecular biology laboratory and genetists, in order to provide appropriate genetic counseling.

  11. [Molecular bases of α-thalassemia in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Scheps, Karen G; Francipane, Liliana; Nash, Abigail; Cerrone, Gloria E; Copelli, Silvia B; Varela, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The α-thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders worldwide. Currently, molecular diagnostics is the only available tool to achieve an accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular bases of these syndromes in our environment and to establish genotype-phenotype associations. Through a combination of different molecular techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH),we were able to find α-thalassemic mutations in 145 of the 184 patients (78.8%) studied with hematological parameters compatible with α-thalassemia. Deletions of the α-globin genes resulted the major molecular cause of the disease, and the most frequent mutation was -α(3.7), found in homozygous and heterozygous genotypes. In patients with α° phenotypes, other prevalent mutations were( _MED) and (_CAL/CAMP). The description of a sub-telomeric deletion in a patient with α-thalassemia and mental retardation was also achieved. β-thalassemic mutations in heterozygous state were found in 7.6% of the patients, who presented α-thalassemic clinical features (microcytosis and Hb A₂levels below 3.5%). Hematologic profiles for the α+ and α° genotypes were established for adult and pediatric patients. Hopefully, this work will provide guidelines for the detection of possible α-thalassemic carriers. It also highlights the collaborative work of hematologists, the biochemical and molecular biology laboratory and genetists, in order to provide appropriate genetic counseling. PMID:25919868

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: North Dakota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in North Dakota for 2010. In grade 8 reading and math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), North Dakota showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: North Carolina, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in North Carolina for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), North Carolina made gains across the board for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels. Progress in narrowing…

  14. Comments on the NAE Evaluation of the NAGB Achievement Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael

    The National Academy of Education (NAE) Panel has drawn two major conclusions in its evaluation of the National Assessment Governing Board's (NAGB) efforts to set achievement levels for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). They are that the Angoff procedure is fundamentally flawed for the setting of achievement levels, and that…

  15. Superintendents' Responses to the Achievement Gap: An Ethical Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.; Grogan, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Uses multidimensional ethical framework to critique 15 Virginia superintendents' responses to the achievement gap as measured by the Standards of Learning (SOL) tests. Questions majority of superintendents' readiness to deal with moral and ethical issues related to achievement gap. (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  16. What Matters, What Works: Advancing Achievement after School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public/Private Ventures, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brief provides highlights from "Advancing Achievement: Findings from an Independent Evaluation of a Major After-School Initiative." The brief underscores the potential of after-school programs in the ongoing drive to advance children's academic achievement. It shines a light on some of the issues that matter most for programs striving to…

  17. Achievement Gaps in Pre-Service Teachers in Urban Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Kim H.; Christiansen, Faith

    The preparation of preservice teachers plays a major role in closing the achievement gap in the education of urban children. Urban teachers often do not understand how their low expectations and deficit assumptions influence their instructional practices and contribute to a widening achievement gap between urban and non-urban students. Many…

  18. The "Strategies-for-Achievement" Approach for Teaching Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    An educational psychology-based study skills program called Strategies for Achievement was developed to teach learning and motivation strategies to college students. It involved teaching student four major achievement strategies: take reasonable risk, take responsibility for outcomes, search the environment (for information), and use feedback.…

  19. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  20. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  1. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  2. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  3. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  5. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  6. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. Classroom Composition and Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    Third-grade students in high ability groups in mathematics achieved greater gains than students in low ability groups. The opposite results occurred in reading achievement. Possible reasons for this difference include different instructional techniques for reading and math and the effect of home environment on learning. (IS)

  8. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  9. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  10. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  11. EFRC CMSNF Major Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hurley; Todd R. Allen

    2014-09-01

    The mission of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) has been to develop a first-principles-based understanding of thermal transport in the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2, in the presence of defect microstructure associated with radiation environments. The overarching goal within this mission was to develop an experimentally validated multiscale modeling capability directed toward a predictive understanding of the impact of radiation and fission-product induced defects and microstructure on thermal transport in nuclear fuel. Implementation of the mission was accomplished by integrating the physics of thermal transport in crystalline solids with microstructure science under irradiation through multi institutional experimental and computational materials theory teams from Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Purdue University, the University of Florida, the University of Wisconsin, and the Colorado School of Mines. The Center’s research focused on five major areas: (i) The fundamental aspects of anharmonicity in UO2 crystals and its impact on thermal transport; (ii) The effects of radiation microstructure on thermal transport in UO2; (iii) The mechanisms of defect clustering in UO2 under irradiation; (iv) The effect of temperature and oxygen environment on the stoichiometry of UO2; and (v) The mechanisms of growth of dislocation loops and voids under irradiation. The Center has made important progress in each of these areas, as summarized below.

  12. [Major salmonellosis in Benin].

    PubMed

    Dovonou, A; Adoukonou, T; Sanni, A; Gandaho, P

    2011-12-01

    Although salmonellosis is a common endemo-epidemic disease in Benin, there is a paucity of data about it. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the incidence of major salmonellosis requiring hospitalizaton and to describe its epidemiological, clinical, and serologic features as well as treatment and outcome. Consecutive cases observed at the Medical Department of Parakou University Hospital in Benin between January 1, 2005 and December 31 2007 were included. Salmonellosis was defined on the basis of clinical and serological criteria. Among the 2,520 patients hospitalized during the study period, salmonellosis was diagnosed in 135 (5.4% [95% CI 4.5%-6.3%]). Highest incidences were observed in January, July, October and November. The main symptoms were headache, fever, fatigue and abdominal pain. The Salmonella typhi serotype was identified in 94.8% of patients. Two patients presented co-infection, i.e., Salmonella typhi with paratyphi A in one case and Salmonella typhi with paratyphi B in the other. Fluoroquinolones were used for treatment in 79.3% of patients. Outcome was favorable in 62.2%. The main complications were,typhoid digestive perforation in 11.1%, and gastrointestinal bleeding in 8.1%. The mortality rate was 4.4% (n=6). These data are consistent with previous reports in the literature and confirm the frequency and severity of salmonellosis in Benin. PMID:22393642

  13. Major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Otte, Christian; Gold, Stefan M; Penninx, Brenda W; Pariante, Carmine M; Etkin, Amit; Fava, Maurizio; Mohr, David C; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disease that is characterized by depressed mood, diminished interests, impaired cognitive function and vegetative symptoms, such as disturbed sleep or appetite. MDD occurs about twice as often in women than it does in men and affects one in six adults in their lifetime. The aetiology of MDD is multifactorial and its heritability is estimated to be approximately 35%. In addition, environmental factors, such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse during childhood, are strongly associated with the risk of developing MDD. No established mechanism can explain all aspects of the disease. However, MDD is associated with alterations in regional brain volumes, particularly the hippocampus, and with functional changes in brain circuits, such as the cognitive control network and the affective-salience network. Furthermore, disturbances in the main neurobiological stress-responsive systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system, occur in MDD. Management primarily comprises psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment. For treatment-resistant patients who have not responded to several augmentation or combination treatment attempts, electroconvulsive therapy is the treatment with the best empirical evidence. In this Primer, we provide an overview of the current evidence of MDD, including its epidemiology, aetiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27629598

  14. Major natural disaster afteraction assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    In recent years, a wide variety of natural disasters has disrupted energy supplies. Some incidents occurred in the continental US, others in offshore US territory, and still others in foreign countries. Each locale provided a unique backdrop against which energy emergency activities were conducted. Minimizing the consequences of these incidents is considered to be both good business and in national interest. It is often achieved through a combination of emergency preparedness and emergency response activities, usually taken in coordination and as appropriate, by industry, State and local government and Federal agencies. This project was undertaken to capture the experience gained during recent natural disasters, subject it to careful scrutiny, and thereby improve future energy emergency preparedness, response, and recovery activities. It considered the emergency activities actually undertaken, the level and effectiveness of coordination between the various agents engaged in the response, and the appropriateness of established roles and responsibilities of each. The material forming the basis for this assessment was obtained through numerous in-depth interviews with personnel involved at all levels of response activities, afteraction reports by others, and articles in the technical and general press. Energy types considered were electricity, natural gas and petroleum products. Major attention was focused on telecommunications and military interdependencies with the energy supply infrastructure.

  15. CAPS and INMS Major Accomplishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Cassini INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) have provided "discovery" science at Titan, Enceladus, Rhea/Dione, and throughout the magnetosphere of Saturn during the course of the mission. In this talk we will review some of the major scientific achievements: 1) the discovery of an extremely complex ion neutral organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere that forms the building blocks for aerosol processes below, 2) the discovery of gases and grains emanating from Enceladus' cryo-geysers that tell us about chemical processes in an interior sea, 3) the first direct compositional measurements of sputtered icy moon surfaces, 4) the clearest example to date of the complex plasma interchange processes that occur in rapidly rotating magnetospheres of gas giants, initiating global dynamic processes that enable Saturn to shed the plasma from Enceladus' plume, and complete with a myriad of longitudinal and solar local-time variations, and 5) the dominance of Enceladus water outgassing as a source of magnetospheric plasma that stretches out to Titan and provides oxygen that can convert Titan's rich nitrile populations into amino acids.

  16. Predicting Major Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are two examples of major explosions from the surface of the Sun but theyre not the same thing, and they dont have to happen at the same time. A recent study examines whether we can predict which solar flares will be closely followed by larger-scale CMEs.Image of a solar flare from May 2013, as captured by NASAs Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]Flares as a Precursor?A solar flare is a localized burst of energy and X-rays, whereas a CME is an enormous cloud of magnetic flux and plasma released from the Sun. We know that some magnetic activity on the surface of the Sun triggers both a flare and a CME, whereas other activity only triggers a confined flare with no CME.But what makes the difference? Understanding this can help us learn about the underlying physical drivers of flares and CMEs. It also might help us to better predict when a CME which can pose a risk to astronauts, disrupt radio transmissions, and cause damage to satellites might occur.In a recent study, Monica Bobra and Stathis Ilonidis (Stanford University) attempt to improve our ability to make these predictions by using a machine-learning algorithm.Classification by ComputerUsing a combination of 6 or more features results in a much better predictive success (measured by the True Skill Statistic; higher positive value = better prediction) for whether a flare will be accompanied by a CME. [Bobra Ilonidis 2016]Bobra and Ilonidis used magnetic-field data from an instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory to build a catalog of solar flares, 56 of which were accompanied by a CME and 364 of which were not. The catalog includes information about 18 different features associated with the photospheric magnetic field of each flaring active region (for example, the mean gradient of the horizontal magnetic field).The authors apply a machine-learning algorithm known as a binary classifier to this catalog. This algorithm tries to predict, given a set of features

  17. A multicenter clinical study evaluating the confirmed complete molecular response rate in imatinib-treated patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia by using the international scale of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Naoto; Nishiwaki, Kaichi; Hino, Masayuki; Kashimura, Makoto; Wakita, Hisashi; Hatano, Yoshiaki; Hirasawa, Akira; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Itoh, Kuniaki; Masuoka, Hidekazu; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Matsuura, Yasuhiro; Takahara, Sinobu; Sano, Koji; Kuroki, Jun; Hata, Tomoko; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Mugitani, Atsuko; Nakane, Takahiko; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Niioka, Takenori; Miura, Masatomo; Sawada, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Achievement of complete molecular response in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia has been recognized as an important milestone in therapy cessation and treatment-free remission; the identification of predictors of complete molecular response in these patients is, therefore, important. This study evaluated complete molecular response rates in imatinib-treated chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with major molecular response by using the international standardization for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the breakpoint cluster region-Abelson1 gene. The correlation of complete molecular response with various clinical, pharmacokinetic, and immunological parameters was determined. Complete molecular response was observed in 75/152 patients (49.3%). In the univariate analysis, Sokal score, median time to major molecular response, ABCG2 421C>A, and regulatory T cells were significantly lower in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with complete molecular response than in those without complete molecular response. In the multivariate analysis, duration of imatinib treatment (odds ratio: 1.0287, P=0.0003), time to major molecular response from imatinib therapy (odds ratio: 0.9652, P=0.0020), and ABCG2 421C/C genotype (odds ratio: 0.3953, P=0.0284) were independent predictors of complete molecular response. In contrast, number of natural killer cells, BIM deletion polymorphisms, and plasma trough imatinib concentration were not significantly associated with achieving a complete molecular response. Several predictive markers for achieving complete molecular response were identified in this study. According to our findings, some chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib may benefit from a switch to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ClinicalTrials.gov, UMIN000004935). PMID:23716542

  18. A multicenter clinical study evaluating the confirmed complete molecular response rate in imatinib-treated patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia by using the international scale of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Naoto; Nishiwaki, Kaichi; Hino, Masayuki; Kashimura, Makoto; Wakita, Hisashi; Hatano, Yoshiaki; Hirasawa, Akira; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Itoh, Kuniaki; Masuoka, Hidekazu; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Matsuura, Yasuhiro; Takahara, Sinobu; Sano, Koji; Kuroki, Jun; Hata, Tomoko; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Mugitani, Atsuko; Nakane, Takahiko; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Niioka, Takenori; Miura, Masatomo; Sawada, Kenichi

    2013-09-01

    Achievement of complete molecular response in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia has been recognized as an important milestone in therapy cessation and treatment-free remission; the identification of predictors of complete molecular response in these patients is, therefore, important. This study evaluated complete molecular response rates in imatinib-treated chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with major molecular response by using the international standardization for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the breakpoint cluster region-Abelson1 gene. The correlation of complete molecular response with various clinical, pharmacokinetic, and immunological parameters was determined. Complete molecular response was observed in 75/152 patients (49.3%). In the univariate analysis, Sokal score, median time to major molecular response, ABCG2 421C>A, and regulatory T cells were significantly lower in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with complete molecular response than in those without complete molecular response. In the multivariate analysis, duration of imatinib treatment (odds ratio: 1.0287, P=0.0003), time to major molecular response from imatinib therapy (odds ratio: 0.9652, P=0.0020), and ABCG2 421C/C genotype (odds ratio: 0.3953, P=0.0284) were independent predictors of complete molecular response. In contrast, number of natural killer cells, BIM deletion polymorphisms, and plasma trough imatinib concentration were not significantly associated with achieving a complete molecular response. Several predictive markers for achieving complete molecular response were identified in this study. According to our findings, some chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib may benefit from a switch to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ClinicalTrials.gov, UMIN000004935).

  19. Building blocks for n-type molecular and polymeric electronics. Perfluoroalkyl- versus alkyl-functionalized oligothiophenes (nT; n = 2-6). Systematics of thin film microstructure, semiconductor performance, and modeling of majority charge injection in field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Facchetti, Antonio; Mushrush, Melissa; Yoon, Myung-Han; Hutchison, Geoffrey R; Ratner, Mark A; Marks, Tobin J

    2004-10-27

    The solid-state properties and FET electrical behavior of several series of alpha,omega- and beta,beta'-fluorocarbon- and alkyl-substituted and unsubstituted oligothiophenes nTs (n = 2-6) are compared and contrasted. The thin films were grown by slow vacuum deposition over a range of substrate temperatures and/or by casting from solution and were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate that vacuum deposition at 60-80 degrees C affords films with remarkably similar microstructures despite the extensive H --> F substitution. Trends in observed d spacing versus molecular core extension provide quantitative information on molecular orientation. Field-effect transistor measurements performed for all systems and having the same device structure, components, and fabrication conditions demonstrate that all nTs functionalized with fluorocarbon chains at the thiophene termini are n-type semiconductors, in contrast to the p-type activity of the remaining systems. One of these systems, alpha,omega-diperfluorohexyl-4T, exhibits a mobility of 0.22 cm2/(V s) and an Ion:Ioff ratio of 10(6), one of the highest so far reported for an n-type organic semiconductor. The effect of substitution regiochemistry on FET majority charge carrier was additionally studied, in the case of a 6T core, by shifting the fluorocarbon substituents from the terminal to the central thiophene units. Finally, we propose a simple theoretical model for electrode/organic interfacial carrier injection. The results suggest why modest substituent-induced changes in the injection barrier can produce working n-type materials.

  20. Mars and Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Taking advantage of Mars's closest approach to Earth in eight years, astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have taken the space- based observatory's sharpest views yet of the Red Planet. The telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 snapped these images between April 27 and May 6, when Mars was 54 million miles (87 million kilometers) from Earth. From this distance the telescope could see Martian features as small as 12 miles (19 kilometers) wide. The telescope obtained four images, which, together, show the entire planet. Each view depicts the planet as it completes one quarter of its daily rotation. In these views the north polar cap is tilted toward the Earth and is visible prominently at the top of each picture. The images were taken in the middle of the Martian northern summer, when the polar cap had shrunk to its smallest size. During this season the Sun shines continuously on the polar cap. Previous telescopic and spacecraft observations have shown that this summertime 'residual' polar cap is composed of water ice, just like Earth's polar caps. These Hubble telescope snapshots reveal that substantial changes in the bright and dark markings on Mars have occurred in the 20 years since the NASA Viking spacecraft missions first mapped the planet. The Martian surface is dynamic and ever changing. Some regions that were dark 20 years ago are now bright red; some areas that were bright red are now dark. Winds move sand and dust from region to region, often in spectacular dust storms. Over long timescales many of the larger bright and dark markings remain stable, but smaller details come and go as they are covered and then uncovered by sand and dust. The dark feature known as Syrtis Major was first seen telescopically by the astronomer Christiaan Huygens in the 17th century. Many small, dark, circular impact craters can be seen in this region, attesting to the Hubble telescope's ability to reveal fine detail on the planet's surface. To the south of

  1. Advancing Achievement: Findings from an Independent Evaluation of a Major After-School Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbreton, Amy; Sheldon, Jessica; Bradshaw, Molly; Goldsmith, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This report presents outcomes from Public/Private Ventures research on CORAL, an eight-year, $58 million after-school initiative of The James Irvine Foundation. Findings described in the report demonstrate the relationship between high-quality literacy programming and academic gains and underscore the potential role that quality programs may play…

  2. The CRC 20 Years: An Overview of Some of the Major Achievements and Remaining Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doek, Jaap E.

    2009-01-01

    On 20 November 1989, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). It entered into force on 2 September 1990 and has by now been ratified by 193 States, making the most universally ratified human rights treaty. This overview will present and discuss the impact of this treaty both at the…

  3. Major Replicated Dimensions of Adjustment and Achievement: Cross-Cultural, Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Earl S.

    This paper reports the development of a Classroom Behavior Inventory and a series of studies which have developed and refined methods for collecting teacher ratings of children's social, emotional and task-oriented behavior from preschool through high school. Findings suggest that the Classroom Behavior Inventory is a relatively economical,…

  4. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  5. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  6. Mastery Achievement of Intellectual Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, Richard J.; White, Richard T.

    1979-01-01

    Mastery learning techniques were improved through mathematics instruction based on a validated learning hierarchy, presenting tasks in a sequence consistent with the requirements of the hierarchy, and requiring learners to demonstrate achievement before being allowed to proceed. (Author/GDC)

  7. Achieving Standards through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Most states do not have the time or resources to develop environmental education standards from scratch. Highlights the role that environmental education and its interdisciplinary nature can play in helping students achieve. (DDR)

  8. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  9. Interventional Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Stephen B; Cornelis, Francois

    2016-04-01

    Although molecular imaging has had a dramatic impact on diagnostic imaging, it has only recently begun to be integrated into interventional procedures. Its significant impact is attributed to its ability to provide noninvasive, physiologic information that supplements conventional morphologic imaging. The four major interventional opportunities for molecular imaging are, first, to provide guidance to localize a target; second, to provide tissue analysis to confirm that the target has been reached; third, to provide in-room, posttherapy assessment; and fourth, to deliver targeted therapeutics. With improved understanding and application of(18)F-FDG, as well as the addition of new molecular probes beyond(18)F-FDG, the future holds significant promise for the expansion of molecular imaging into the realm of interventional procedures. PMID:26912443

  10. Pectoralis Major Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Frank A.; Degen, Ryan; Mahony, Gregory Thomas; Tsouris, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic reviews of the literature have identified 365 reported cases of Pectoralis Major Tendon (PMT) injuries. While surgical treatment has demonstrated improved outcomes compared to non-operative treatment, there is still relatively limited data on the functional outcome, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in athletes following PMT repair. This study comprises the largest series of athletes following PMT repair reported to date. The Objective is to report on the functional outcomes, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in a consecutive series of PMT tears. Methods: From 2009, 81 patients with PMT tears were enrolled in this prospective series. Baseline evaluation included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, physical examination and PMT specific MRI for confirmation of the diagnosis and analysis of the extent of injury. Each patient underwent surgical repair by the senior author utilizing a previously published surgical technique. Patients were then followed at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months and further follow-up was conducted annually thereafter with functional outcome scores and adduction strength testing. The return to sport and incidence of 2nd surgery data were recorded. This study includes the first 40 athletes to reach the 2-year post-operative period. Results: All athletes were male, with an average age of 34.4 years (range 23-59). The patient cohort consisted of 4 professional NFL players and 36 recreational athletes. Average follow-up duration was 2.5 years (range 2 - 6.0 years). The most common mechanisms of injury occurred during the bench press (n=26) and contact sport participation (n=14). Sixteen injuries were complete avulsions involving both the clavicular and sternocostal heads, while 24 were isolated sternocostal head avulsions. Average pre-injury bench press of 396 lbs (range 170-500 lbs) was restored to 241 lbs post-operatively (range 140-550 lbs). Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores

  11. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... States and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) estimate that cultivation in Helmand... objectives are achieved through U.S. support for Mexico's drug control policies and programs under the Merida... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Presidential Determination on Major Illicit...

  12. Molecular Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew J; Willets, Katherine A

    2016-06-12

    In this review, we survey recent advances in the field of molecular plasmonics beyond the traditional sensing modality. Molecular plasmonics is explored in the context of the complex interaction between plasmon resonances and molecules and the ability of molecules to support plasmons self-consistently. First, spectroscopic changes induced by the interaction between molecular and plasmonic resonances are discussed, followed by examples of how tuning molecular properties leads to active molecular plasmonic systems. Next, the role of the position and polarizability of a molecular adsorbate on surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals is examined experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we introduce recent research focused on using molecules as plasmonic materials. Each of these examples is intended to highlight the role of molecules as integral components in coupled molecule-plasmon systems, as well as to show the diversity of applications in molecular plasmonics.

  13. Molecular Plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Andrew J.; Willets, Katherine A.

    2016-06-01

    In this review, we survey recent advances in the field of molecular plasmonics beyond the traditional sensing modality. Molecular plasmonics is explored in the context of the complex interaction between plasmon resonances and molecules and the ability of molecules to support plasmons self-consistently. First, spectroscopic changes induced by the interaction between molecular and plasmonic resonances are discussed, followed by examples of how tuning molecular properties leads to active molecular plasmonic systems. Next, the role of the position and polarizability of a molecular adsorbate on surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals is examined experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we introduce recent research focused on using molecules as plasmonic materials. Each of these examples is intended to highlight the role of molecules as integral components in coupled molecule-plasmon systems, as well as to show the diversity of applications in molecular plasmonics.

  14. Muscle assembly: a titanic achievement?

    PubMed

    Gregorio, C C; Granzier, H; Sorimachi, H; Labeit, S

    1999-02-01

    The formation of perfectly aligned myofibrils in striated muscle represents a dramatic example of supramolecular assembly in eukaryotic cells. Recently, considerable progress has been made in deciphering the roles that titin, the third most abundant protein in muscle, has in this process. An increasing number of sarcomeric proteins (ligands) are being identified that bind to specific titin domains. Titin may serve as a molecular blueprint for sarcomere assembly and turnover by specifying the precise position of its ligands within each half-sarcomere in addition to functioning as a molecular spring that maintains the structural integrity of the contracting myofibrils.

  15. Fragment oriented molecular shapes.

    PubMed

    Hain, Ethan; Camacho, Carlos J; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-05-01

    Molecular shape is an important concept in drug design and virtual screening. Shape similarity typically uses either alignment methods, which dynamically optimize molecular poses with respect to the query molecular shape, or feature vector methods, which are computationally less demanding but less accurate. The computational cost of alignment can be reduced by pre-aligning shapes, as is done with the Volumetric-Aligned Molecular Shapes (VAMS) method. Here, we introduce and evaluate fragment oriented molecular shapes (FOMS), where shapes are aligned based on molecular fragments. FOMS enables the use of shape constraints, a novel method for precisely specifying molecular shape queries that provides the ability to perform partial shape matching and supports search algorithms that function on an interactive time scale. When evaluated using the challenging Maximum Unbiased Validation dataset, shape constraints were able to extract significantly enriched subsets of compounds for the majority of targets, and FOMS matched or exceeded the performance of both VAMS and an optimizing alignment method of shape similarity search. PMID:27085751

  16. Elementary Education Majors Performance on a Basic Mathematics Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Carol Novillis; Choroszy, Melisa N.

    Described is the mathematics achievement of 391 elementary education majors at the University of Arizona. Students were administered two subtests of the California Achievement Test: the Mathematics Computation Subtest and the Mathematics Concepts and Application Subtest. The CAT was administered in a non-standard manner. Students were allowed…

  17. Structure of Black Male Students Academic Achievement in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascoe, Barbara

    Educational policies and practices have been largely unsuccessful in closing the achievement gap between Black and White students "Schwartz, 2001". This achievement gap is especially problematic for Black students in science "Maton, Hrabrowski, - Schmitt, 2000. Given the fact that the Black-White achievement gap is still an enigma, the purpose of this article is to address the Black female-Black male academic achievement gap in science majors. Addressing barriers that Black male students may experience as college science and engineering majors, this article presents marketing strategies relative to politics, emotional intelligence, and issues with respect to how science teaching, and Black male students' responses to it, are different. Many Black male students may need to experience a paradigm shift, which structures and enhances their science achievement. Paradigm shifts are necessary because exceptional academic ability and motivation are not enough to get Black males from their first year in a science, technology, education, and mathematics "STEM" major to a bachelor's degree in science and engineering. The conclusions focus on the balance of truth-slippery slopes concerning the confluence of science teachers' further ado and Black male students' theories, methods, and values that position their academic achievement in science and engineering majors.

  18. Molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Tan, Weihong; Wang, Kemim; Drake, Timothy J

    2004-10-01

    This opinion covers the field of molecular beacons (MBs), in which nucleic acids are molecularly engineered to have unique functions for the investigation of biomolecules. Molecular beacons have been used in a variety of formats, and this review discusses four: first, in vitro RNA and DNA monitoring; second, biosensors and biochips based on MBs; third, real-time monitoring of genes and gene expression in living systems; and finally, the next generation of molecular beacons that will be highly useful for studies with proteins, molecular beacon aptamers. These unique applications have shown that MBs holds great potential in genomics and proteomics where real-time molecular recognition with high sensitivity and excellent specificity is critical.

  19. Molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, A.J.C.

    1988-08-01

    The basic methodology of equilibrium molecular dynamics is described. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate how molecular dynamics has been used to resolve theoretical controversies, provide data to test theories, and occasionally to discover new phenomena. The emphasis is on the application of molecular dynamics to an understanding of the microscopic physics underlying the transport properties of simple fluids. 98 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  1. Molecular Pathology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somak

    2015-06-01

    Molecular informatics (MI) is an evolving discipline that will support the dynamic landscape of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. MI provides a fertile ground for development of clinical solutions to bridge the gap between clinical informatics and bioinformatics. Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical arena has triggered major endeavors in MI that are expected to bring a paradigm shift in the practice of pathology. This brief review presents a broad overview of various aspects of MI, particularly in the context of NGS based testing. PMID:26065793

  2. Imatinib withdrawal syndrome and longer duration of imatinib have a close association with a lower molecular relapse after treatment discontinuation: the KID study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Eun; Choi, Soo Young; Song, Hye-Young; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Choi, Mi-Yeon; Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Zang, Dae Young; Oh, Sukjoong; Kim, Hawk; Do, Young Rok; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jeong-A; Kim, Dae-Young; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Lee, Won Sik; Chang, Myung Hee; Park, Jinny; Kwon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the Korean Imatinib Discontinuation Study was to identify predictors for safe and successful imatinib discontinuation. A total of 90 patients with a follow-up of ≥12 months were analyzed. After a median follow-up of 26.6 months after imatinib discontinuation, 37 patients lost the major molecular response. The probability of sustained major molecular response at 12 months and 24 months was 62.2% and 58.5%, respectively. All 37 patients who lost major molecular response were retreated with imatinib therapy for a median of 16.9 months, and all achieved major molecular response again at a median of 3.9 months after resuming imatinib therapy. We observed newly developed or worsened musculoskeletal pain and pruritus in 27 (30%) patients after imatinib discontinuation. Imatinib withdrawal syndrome was associated with a higher probability of sustained major molecular response (P=0.003) and showed a trend for a longer time to major molecular response loss (P=0.098). Positivity (defined as ≥ 17 positive chambers) of digital polymerase chain reaction at screening and longer imatinib duration before imatinib discontinuation were associated with a higher probability of sustained major molecular response. Our data demonstrated that the occurrence of imatinib withdrawal syndrome after imatinib discontinuation and longer duration of imatinib were associated with a lower rate of molecular relapse. In addition, minimal residual leukemia measured by digital polymerase chain reaction had a trend for a higher molecular relapse. (Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01564836). PMID:26888022

  3. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  4. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  5. Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

  6. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  7. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  8. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  9. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  10. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  11. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  12. Achieving Results in MBA Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Rice University's Jones Graduate School of Management achieves their mission for the communication program. Discusses three keys to the success of the program: individual coaching, integrated team instruction, and constant assessment of the students and the program. Presents an overview of the program. (SG)

  13. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  14. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  15. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  16. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  17. Achievement in Two School Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borth, Audrey M.

    The purpose of the study was to assess non-intellective correlates of achievement in a lower-class, all black, urban elementary school. These students were compared with a University school population which was different in many dimensions. There were residual similarities relative to the general role of the elementary school student. In neither…

  18. Literacy Achievement in Nongraded Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreide, Anita Therese

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal quantitative study compared literacy achievement of students from second through sixth grade based on two organizational systems: graded (traditional) and nongraded (multiage) classrooms. The California Standards Test (CST) scaled and proficiency scores for English-Language Arts (ELA) were used as the study's independent variable…

  19. PREDICTING ACHIEVEMENT FOR DEAF CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BONHAM, S.J., JR.

    THIS STUDY WAS DONE TO DETERMINE THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACHIEVEMENT TESTS WHEN USED TO EVALUATE DEAF CHILDREN. THE 36 CHILDREN SELECTED FOR THIS STUDY WERE IN GRADES 2, 4, AND 6 IN THE KENNEDY SCHOOL IN DAYTON, OHIO. ALL HAD SEVERE AUDITORY HANDICAPS AND WERE 10 TO 16 YEARS OLD. FOUR PSYCHOLOGISTS ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING…

  20. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  1. Perlman receives Sustained Achievement Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Charles; Perlman, David

    David Perlman was awarded the Sustained Achievement Award at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 10, 1997, in San Francisco, California. The award recognizes a journalist who has made significant, lasting, and consistent contributions to accurate reporting or writing on the geophysical sciences for the general public.

  2. Great achievements by dedicated nurses.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Alison

    2016-04-27

    Like many nurses, those featured here are motivated by a desire to do everything they can to give high quality care to their patients. Nurses are often reluctant to seek recognition for their achievements, but by talking publicly about the difference they have made, Gillian Elwood, Anja Templin and Sandra Wood are helping to share good practice. PMID:27191295

  3. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  4. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  5. Helping Rural Schools Achieve Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Senator Collins of Maine plans to fight for proper federal funding of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that allows rural schools to combine federal funding sources. Collins, and Senator Dianne Feinstein, will soon introduce legislation that will eliminate inequities in the current Social Security law that penalize teachers and other…

  6. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  7. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  8. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  9. Weaving History through the Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  10. Molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  11. Molecular pathophysiology of hepatic glucose production.

    PubMed

    Sharabi, Kfir; Tavares, Clint D J; Rines, Amy K; Puigserver, Pere

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining blood glucose concentration within a relatively narrow range through periods of fasting or excess nutrient availability is essential to the survival of the organism. This is achieved through an intricate balance between glucose uptake and endogenous glucose production to maintain constant glucose concentrations. The liver plays a major role in maintaining normal whole body glucose levels by regulating the processes of de novo glucose production (gluconeogenesis) and glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis), thus controlling the levels of hepatic glucose release. Aberrant regulation of hepatic glucose production (HGP) can result in deleterious clinical outcomes, and excessive HGP is a major contributor to the hyperglycemia observed in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Indeed, adjusting glycemia as close as possible to a non-diabetic range is the foremost objective in the medical treatment of patients with T2DM and is currently achieved in the clinic primarily through suppression of HGP. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms controlling HGP in response to nutritional and hormonal signals and discuss how these signals are altered in T2DM.

  12. Followup review of major system aquisitions and major projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-21

    In 1985, we reviewed the Department's procedures and practices for managing and controlling its major acquisition program, both for major systems and major projects. The 1985 review resulted in the identification of significant deficiencies. We found, for example, deficiencies relating to documentation and reporting requirements for major acquisitions. The purpose of this review was to determine if this condition had been corrected. The review included an examination of applicable laws, Executive Orders, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars, and Department policies. We examined key documents prepared for major acquisitions and reviewed reports used by senior Departmental officials to monitor these projects. Our audit was based primarily on a limited review of documentation available at Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. We did not extend our review of the issues raised in this report because we concluded that the management of major acquisitions was of such importance to the Department at this time that expedited reporting was needed.

  13. Classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie

    2011-12-01

    Classroom context and school engagement are significant predictors of academic achievement. These factors are especially important for academically at-risk students. Grounded in an ecological systems perspective, this study examined links between classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement among early adolescents. We took a multidimensional approach to the measurement of classroom context and school engagement, incorporating both observational and self-reported assessments of various dimensions of classroom context (instruction quality, social/emotional climate, and student-teacher relationship) and school engagement (psychological and behavioral engagement). Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we tested whether school engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement among 5th grade students, and whether these pathways were the same for students with previous achievement difficulties identified in 3rd grade. Participants included 1,014 children (50% female) in 5th grade (mean age = 11). The majority of the participants were white (77%) and 23% were children of color. Results indicated that psychological and behavioral engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement for students without previous achievement difficulties. However, for students with previous achievement difficulties psychological and behavioral engagement did not mediate the link between classroom context and academic achievement. These results suggest that improving classroom quality may not be sufficient to improve student engagement and achievement for students with previous achievement difficulties. Additional strategies may be needed for these students.

  14. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  15. Assessment of Molecular Modeling & Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    2002-01-03

    This report reviews the development and applications of molecular and materials modeling in Europe and Japan in comparison to those in the United States. Topics covered include computational quantum chemistry, molecular simulations by molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods, mesoscale modeling of material domains, molecular-structure/macroscale property correlations like QSARs and QSPRs, and related information technologies like informatics and special-purpose molecular-modeling computers. The panel's findings include the following: The United States leads this field in many scientific areas. However, Canada has particular strengths in DFT methods and homogeneous catalysis; Europe in heterogeneous catalysis, mesoscale, and materials modeling; and Japan in materials modeling and special-purpose computing. Major government-industry initiatives are underway in Europe and Japan, notably in multi-scale materials modeling and in development of chemistry-capable ab-initio molecular dynamics codes.

  16. Molecular Descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto

    In the last decades, several scientific researches have been focused on studying how to encompass and convert - by a theoretical pathway - the information encoded in the molecular structure into one or more numbers used to establish quantitative relationships between structures and properties, biological activities, or other experimental properties. Molecular descriptors are formally mathematical representations of a molecule obtained by a well-specified algorithm applied to a defined molecular representation or a well-specified experimental procedure. They play a fundamental role in chemistry, pharmaceutical sciences, environmental protection policy, toxicology, ecotoxicology, health research, and quality control. Evidence of the interest of the scientific community in the molecular descriptors is provided by the huge number of descriptors proposed up today: more than 5000 descriptors derived from different theories and approaches are defined in the literature and most of them can be calculated by means of dedicated software applications. Molecular descriptors are of outstanding importance in the research fields of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) and quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs), where they are the independent chemical information used to predict the properties of interest. Along with the definition of appropriate molecular descriptors, the molecular structure representation and the mathematical tools for deriving and assessing models are other fundamental components of the QSAR/QSPR approach. The remarkable progress during the last few years in chemometrics and chemoinformatics has led to new strategies for finding mathematical meaningful relationships between the molecular structure and biological activities, physico-chemical, toxicological, and environmental properties of chemicals. Different approaches for deriving molecular descriptors here reviewed and some of the most relevant descriptors are presented in

  17. Molecular Haeckel.

    PubMed

    Elinson, Richard P; Kezmoh, Lorren

    2010-07-01

    More than a century ago, Ernst Haeckel created embryo drawings to illustrate the morphological similarity of vertebrate early embryos. These drawings have been both widely presented and frequently criticized. At the same time that the idea of morphological similarity was recently attacked, there has been a growing realization of molecular similarities in the development of tissues and organs. We have surveyed genes expressed in vertebrate embryos, and we have used them to construct drawings that we call Molecular Haeckels. The Molecular Haeckels emphasize that, based on gene expression, there is a greater similarity among vertebrate embryos than even Haeckel might have imagined. PMID:20549737

  18. Research advances in major cereal crops for adaptation to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Maiti, R K; Satya, Pratik

    2014-01-01

    With devastating increase in population there is a great necessity to increase crop productivity of staple crops but the productivity is greatly affected by various abiotic stress factors such as drought, salinity. An attempt has been made a brief account on abiotic stress resistance of major cereal crops viz. In spite of good successes obtained on physiological and use molecular biology, the benefits of this high cost technology are beyond the reach of developing countries. This review discusses several morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of major cereal crops related to the adaptation of these crop to abiotic stress factors. It discusses the effect of abiotic stresses on physiological processes such as flowering, grain filling and maturation and plant metabolisms viz. photosynthesis, enzyme activity, mineral nutrition, and respiration. Though significant progress has been attained on the physiological, biochemical basis of resistance to abiotic stress factors, very little progress has been achieved to increase productivity under sustainable agriculture. Therefore, there is a great necessity of inter-disciplinary research to address this issue and to evolve efficient technology and its transfer to the farmers' fields. PMID:25523172

  19. Research advances in major cereal crops for adaptation to abiotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, RK; Satya, Pratik

    2014-01-01

    With devastating increase in population there is a great necessity to increase crop productivity of staple crops but the productivity is greatly affected by various abiotic stress factors such as drought, salinity. An attempt has been made a brief account on abiotic stress resistance of major cereal crops viz. In spite of good successes obtained on physiological and use molecular biology, the benefits of this high cost technology are beyond the reach of developing countries. This review discusses several morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of major cereal crops related to the adaptation of these crop to abiotic stress factors. It discusses the effect of abiotic stresses on physiological processes such as flowering, grain filling and maturation and plant metabolisms viz. photosynthesis, enzyme activity, mineral nutrition, and respiration. Though significant progress has been attained on the physiological, biochemical basis of resistance to abiotic stress factors, very little progress has been achieved to increase productivity under sustainable agriculture. Therefore, there is a great necessity of inter-disciplinary research to address this issue and to evolve efficient technology and its transfer to the farmers’ fields. PMID:25523172

  20. Research advances in major cereal crops for adaptation to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Maiti, R K; Satya, Pratik

    2014-01-01

    With devastating increase in population there is a great necessity to increase crop productivity of staple crops but the productivity is greatly affected by various abiotic stress factors such as drought, salinity. An attempt has been made a brief account on abiotic stress resistance of major cereal crops viz. In spite of good successes obtained on physiological and use molecular biology, the benefits of this high cost technology are beyond the reach of developing countries. This review discusses several morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of major cereal crops related to the adaptation of these crop to abiotic stress factors. It discusses the effect of abiotic stresses on physiological processes such as flowering, grain filling and maturation and plant metabolisms viz. photosynthesis, enzyme activity, mineral nutrition, and respiration. Though significant progress has been attained on the physiological, biochemical basis of resistance to abiotic stress factors, very little progress has been achieved to increase productivity under sustainable agriculture. Therefore, there is a great necessity of inter-disciplinary research to address this issue and to evolve efficient technology and its transfer to the farmers' fields.

  1. Education and Training for Major Incidents Through Medical Response to Major Incidents-MRMI course.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Josip; Hreckovski, Boris; Hasukic, Ismar

    2015-06-01

    Incidence of major incidents nowadays is in constant growth, especially in last decade. Main goal of all health systems is to minimize and prevent tragic outcomes of major incidents, thus reducing morbidity and mortality and psychological and physical suffering. Lessons learned from Major Incidents throughout the World point out that tragical outcomes could be avoided through adequate preparation and planning. Necessity to plan and to educate to response to Major incident is greater than ever. Finally it is legal obligation that every hospital has plan in case of Major Incident. Effective planning must incorporate: identification of risks, methods of prevention, identification of all recourses, anticipation of errors and detailed protocol of response for each participant. Knowledge and skills needed for Major incident situations must be adopted through interactive training and practical exercise ("learning by doing"). That can be achieved by field exercises and by simulation model. Simulation model has many advantages and enables simultaneous education and training of all participants; scene, transport, hospitals, communication and command which than can be evaluated through objective outcomes. The goal is to train medical staff in real time, on position they are assigned to, with available resources in conditions of Major incident.

  2. Education and Training for Major Incidents Through Medical Response to Major Incidents–MRMI course

    PubMed Central

    Samardzic, Josip; Hreckovski, Boris; Hasukic, Ismar

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of major incidents nowadays is in constant growth, especially in last decade. Main goal of all health systems is to minimize and prevent tragic outcomes of major incidents, thus reducing morbidity and mortality and psychological and physical suffering. Lessons learned from Major Incidents throughout the World point out that tragical outcomes could be avoided through adequate preparation and planning. Necessity to plan and to educate to response to Major incident is greater than ever. Finally it is legal obligation that every hospital has plan in case of Major Incident. Effective planning must incorporate: identification of risks, methods of prevention, identification of all recourses, anticipation of errors and detailed protocol of response for each participant. Knowledge and skills needed for Major incident situations must be adopted through interactive training and practical exercise („learning by doing„). That can be achieved by field exercises and by simulation model. Simulation model has many advantages and enables simultaneous education and training of all participants; scene, transport, hospitals, communication and command which than can be evaluated through objective outcomes. The goal is to train medical staff in real time, on position they are assigned to, with available resources in conditions of Major incident. PMID:26236085

  3. A Year of Exceptional Achievements FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    devore, L; Chrzanowski, P

    2008-11-06

    2008 highlights: (1) Stockpile Stewardship and Complex Transformation - LLNL achieved scientific breakthroughs that explain some of the key 'unknowns' in nuclear weapons performance and are critical to developing the predictive science needed to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. In addition, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) passed 99 percent completion, an LLNL supercomputer simulation won the 2007 Gordon Bell Prize, and a significant fraction of our inventory of special nuclear material was shipped to other sites in support of complex transformation. (2) National and Global Security - Laboratory researchers delivered insights, technologies, and operational capabilities that are helping to ensure national security and global stability. Of particular note, they developed advanced detection instruments that provide increased speed, accuracy, specificity, and resolution for identifying and characterizing biological, chemical, nuclear, and high-explosive threats. (3) Exceptional Science and Technology - The Laboratory continued its tradition of scientific excellence and technical innovation. LLNL scientists made significant contributions to Nobel Prize-winning work on climate change. LLNL also received three R&D 100 awards and six Nanotech 50 awards, and dozens of Laboratory scientists and engineers were recognized with professional awards. These honors provide valuable confirmation that peers and outside experts recognize the quality of our staff and our work. (4) Enhanced Business and Operations - A major thrust under LLNS is to make the Laboratory more efficient and cost competitive. We achieved roughly $75 million in cost savings for support activities through organizational changes, consolidation of services, improved governance structures and work processes, technology upgrades, and systems shared with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We realized nonlabor cost savings of $23 million. Severe

  4. Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid, polymerase chain reaction–based detection of bacterial genes, and metabolomic determination of responses to orthopaedic infection. PMID:25808967

  5. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  6. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  7. Planning for the Neglected Majority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony E.

    2007-01-01

    The "Neglected Majority" represents that 70 to 80 percent of our nation's population who, for a myriad of reasons, do not hold baccalaureate degrees. In 1985, Dale Parnell, Ed.D., described this "Neglected Majority" for the first time in one of the most influential works in the history of the community college movement. This article presents some…

  8. The Neglected Majority--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Dale Parnell's "The Neglected Majority" is one of the most influential works by a community college leader in the history of the community college movement. This essay explores the impact of "The Neglected Majority" since publication in 1985 and includes an interview with Parnell that assesses his perspective of the nearly 20 years following his…

  9. Achieving urinary continence in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsi-Yang

    2010-07-01

    Achievement of urinary continence is an important developmental step that most children attain with the assistance of their parents and caregivers. Debate continues as to the best time to toilet train; in some Asian and African cultures children are trained as infants, while training at age 2-3 years is more typical in Western cultures. Infant voiding is not merely a spinal reflex, as the sensation of bladder filling is relayed to the brain. However, the ability of the brain to inhibit bladder contractions, and to achieve coordinated bladder contraction with sphincter relaxation, matures over time. While there is a concern that later toilet training may be responsible for an increase in urinary incontinence in children, no controlled studies on early versus late toilet training exist to evaluate this hypothesis. A number of medical conditions such as spina bifida, posterior urethral valves, cerebral palsy and autism can cause incontinence and difficulties in toilet training. The decision to start toilet training a child should take into account both the parents' expectation of how independent the child will be in terms of toileting, and the child's developmental readiness, so that a realistic time course for toilet training can be implemented.

  10. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency.

  11. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  12. Molecular imaging in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Reyners, A K L; Broekman, K E; Glaudemans, A W J M; Brouwers, A H; Arts, H J G; van der Zee, A G J; de Vries, E G E; Jalving, M

    2016-04-01

    Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and novel-targeted treatment strategies have not resulted in breakthroughs for this disease. Insight into the molecular characteristics of ovarian tumors may improve diagnosis and selection of patients for treatment with targeted therapies. A potential way to achieve this is by means of molecular imaging. Generic tumor processes, such as glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) and DNA synthesis ((18)F-fluorodeoxythymidine), can be visualized non-invasively. More specific targets, such as hormone receptors, growth factor receptors, growth factors and targets of immunotherapy, can also be visualized. Molecular imaging can capture data on intra-patient tumor heterogeneity and is of potential value for individualized, target-guided treatment selection. Early changes in molecular characteristics during therapy may serve as early predictors of response. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on molecular imaging in the diagnosis and as an upfront or early predictive biomarker in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:27141066

  13. Discovering new genetic and psychosocial pathways in Major Depressive Disorder: the NewMood project.

    PubMed

    Freeborough, Annabel; Kimpton, Jessica

    2011-09-01

    The World Health Organisation predicts that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) will be the second greatest contributor to the global burden of disease by 2020, however, the neurobiological mechanisms behind the disease and the risk factors for it are yet unknown. NewMood (New Molecules for Mood Disorders) was a research project funded by the EU, collaborating work from 10 European countries with the aim of finding new molecular mechanisms behind MDD to develop more effective treatment options. This review explains the aims and objectives of NewMood and how it intends to achieve them with regards to the current literature. It also outlines two of its most recent projects: genome wide association replication study for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) increasing susceptibility to MDD and stress related pathways in depression using the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Both of these studies had significant results and could further contribute to our current understanding of MDD.

  14. Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District (AISD) office of Research and Evaluation presents Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82 (BSA). The BSA answers the following questions: (1) How does AISD student achievement compare to student achievement nationwide? (2) How does AISD's 1981-82 student achievement compare to the achievement of students in past…

  15. Superlubricity achieved with mixtures of polyhydroxy alcohols and acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Luo, Jianbin

    2013-04-30

    In the present work, we show that the superlubricity can be achieved when the polyhydroxy alcohol solutions are mixed with acid solutions. The lowest friction coefficients between 0.003 and 0.006 are obtained on a traditional tribometer with a high pressure under the lubrication of these mixtures. Experimental results indicate that the superlubricity mechanism is in accordance with that under the lubrication of the mixture of glycerol and acid solutions in the study by Li et al. (Li , J. J.; Zhang, C. H.; Ma, L. R.; Liu, Y. H.; Luo, J. B. Superlubricity achieved with mixtures of acids and glycerol. Langmuir 2013, 29, 271-275). It is also found that the superlubricity is closely dependent upon the concentration of polyhydroxy alcohol and the number of hydroxyl groups in the molecular structure of polyhydroxy alcohol. However, the number of carbon atoms and the arrangement of hydroxyl groups in the molecular structure almost have no effect on superlubricity.

  16. Achieving Interoperability through Data Virtualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Data Interoperability is a challenging problem. Different approaches exist.In this presentation, we would like to share our experienceon webification science (w10n-sci), an information technology thatvirtualizes arbitrary data resources and makes them directly usablevia a simple and uniform application programmable interface.W10n-sci has been successfully applied to all major NASA scientificdisciplines and used by an increasing number of missions and projects.We will provide an overview of w10n-sci and elaborate onhow it can help data users in a data world that diversity always prevails.

  17. Molecular fountain.

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-09-01

    A molecular fountain directs slowly moving molecules against gravity to further slow them to translational energies that they can be trapped and studied. If the molecules are initially slow enough they will return some time later to the position from which they were launched. Because this round trip time can be on the order of a second a single molecule can be observed for times sufficient to perform Hz level spectroscopy. The goal of this LDRD proposal was to construct a novel Molecular Fountain apparatus capable of producing dilute samples of molecules at near zero temperatures in well-defined user-selectable, quantum states. The slowly moving molecules used in this research are produced by the previously developed Kinematic Cooling technique, which uses a crossed atomic and molecular beam apparatus to generate single rotational level molecular samples moving slowly in the laboratory reference frame. The Kinematic Cooling technique produces cold molecules from a supersonic molecular beam via single collisions with a supersonic atomic beam. A single collision of an atom with a molecule occurring at the correct energy and relative velocity can cause a small fraction of the molecules to move very slowly vertically against gravity in the laboratory. These slowly moving molecules are captured by an electrostatic hexapole guiding field that both orients and focuses the molecules. The molecules are focused into the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and are ionized by laser radiation. The new molecular fountain apparatus was built utilizing a new design for molecular beam apparatus that has allowed us to miniaturize the apparatus. This new design minimizes the volumes and surface area of the machine allowing smaller pumps to maintain the necessary background pressures needed for these experiments.

  18. The Longitudinal Link between Student Health and Math Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for…

  19. Women and Mathematics: Research vs. Achievement in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Theodora Mead; And Others

    Many educators and researchers who believe that girls have less mathematical ability than boys associate this deficiency with girls' inferior spatial ability. This generally accepted belief that spatial skills are a major prerequisite for math achievement was tested through a study of the visual-spatial skills of a sample of 32 professional…

  20. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion (TWI) programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in TWI programs outperformed their peers…

  1. Project Achieve Evaluation Report: Year One, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speas, Carol

    This report is an evaluation of the pilot year of Project Achieve, a major local instructional initiative at six elementary schools and two middle schools in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina, that was designed to help reach the WCPSS goal of 95% of students at or above grade level. Participating schools had a higher…

  2. Early Childhood Education in Europe. Achievements: Challenges and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    This document is the report of a study commissioned by Education International. The aim of this study is to present key characteristics of ECE systems, to highlight strengths and successful approaches and to identify major challenges and areas where urgent action is needed. To achieve this aim, the report comprises two main sections. The first…

  3. UNEP: Two Decades of Achievement and Challenge. 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Hinnawi, Essam

    This publication highlights major achievements of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) activities over the period 1970 to 1990. Chapter 1, "The Stockholm Conference and the Establishment of UNEP," describes the establishment of UNEP. Chapter 2, "The Role of UNEP," covers program development, environment and development, and UNEP's…

  4. Relationships among Selected Practice Behaviours and Achievement in Jazz Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the practice strategies that collegiate music majors chose to employ in preparing for a jazz improvisation performance, and the relationships among selected practice behaviours and achievement in instrumental jazz improvisation. Participants for the study (N = 62) were enrolled as music majors…

  5. Sex, Income, and Achievement: Reward-Dualism in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Mary Frank

    A report is presented on an analysis of sex factors in academic income variation as determined by achieved, ascribed, and university location characteristics. The study group consisted of 5450 individuals at a major midwestern university as of June 1971. The subjects included 4541 men and 908 women research assistants and associates, deans and…

  6. Music training and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Cheek, J M; Smith, L R

    1999-01-01

    Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) mathematics scores of eighth graders who had received music instruction were compared according to whether the students were given private lessons. Comparisons also were made between students whose lessons were on the keyboard versus other music lessons. Analyses indicated that students who had private lessons for two or more years performed significantly better on the composite mathematics portion of the ITBS than did students who did not have private lessons. In addition, students who received lessons on the keyboard had significantly higher ITBS mathematics scores than did students whose lessons did not involve the keyboard. These results are discussed in relation to previous research on music training and mathematics achievement.

  7. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  8. 40 CFR 63.42 - Program requirements governing construction or reconstruction of major sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... construction or reconstruction of major sources. 63.42 Section 63.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in... achievable control technology emission limitation for new sources....

  9. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  10. Plasma Medicine: Current Achievements and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, Mounir

    2012-10-01

    Research on the biomedical applications of low temperature plasmas started with small scale experiments that were simply aimed at discovering what happens to biological cells when exposed to the chemically rich environment of plasma. These early experiments took place in the mid to late 1990s. As interest in this multidisciplinary field dramatically rose, various engineering and physics groups collaborated with biologists and medical experts to investigate the use of plasma technology as a basis for innovative medical approaches to cure various diseases. However, many questions concerning the fundamental mechanisms involved in cell-plasma interaction remained unanswered. As a result various workshops were organized to gather the diverse research community in the field of plasma medicine in order to have a fruitful exchange of ideas regarding the scientific challenges that needed to be surmounted to advance and expand the field's knowledge base. The present GEC workshop continues this important tradition of scientific cooperation since there is still a significant lack of understanding of many of the biochemical and molecular pathways that come into play when biological cells are exposed to plasmas. In this talk, first background information on the various plasma devices developed in our institute will be presented. This will be followed by a summary of our work on the effects of plasmas on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The talk will be concluded by presenting our vision of the future of the field and an outline of the main challenges that need to be overcome if practical medical applications are to be achieved.

  11. Major Directions in Creativity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatena, Joe

    Reviewed are major directions in creativity research in the following areas: theories of creativity; definitions; instruments to measure creativity; nurturing creativity; the disabled, disturbed, and disadvantaged; cross cultural patterns; creative imagination imagery; and measuring creative imagination imagery. (LS)

  12. Major depression with psychotic features

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major ...

  13. Osteochondral Lesions of Major Joints

    PubMed Central

    Durur-Subasi, Irmak; Durur-Karakaya, Afak; Yildirim, Omer Selim

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides information about osteochondral lesions (OCL) and example cases of OCL occurring in major joints, some of which are rarely seen. This simple tutorial is presented in question and answer format. PMID:26180500

  14. Achievement Goal Theory: The Relationship of Accounting Students' Goal Orientations with Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, Richard B.; Schleifer, Lydia L. F.; McMillan, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Students' goal orientations are examined using two major frameworks for learning: achievement goal theory (AGT) and students' approaches to learning (SAL). Previous student success research is extended, by examining goal constructs from the AGT framework to determine if they help explain the learning process in accounting. Data were gathered using…

  15. Expressing International Educational Achievement in Terms of U.S. Performance Standards: Linking NAEP Achievement Levels to TIMSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    Educators, researchers, and policymakers have considerable interest in how the American educational system compares to those in other countries. One major index for comparison is student academic achievement. This paper links the scale of the "National Assessment of Educational Progress" ("NAEP") to the scale of the "Third International…

  16. Molecular Force Spectroscopy on Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoyu; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Molecular force spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to study how mechanics regulates biology, especially the mechanical regulation of molecular interactions and its impact on cellular functions. This force-driven methodology has uncovered a wealth of new information of the physical chemistry of molecular bonds for various biological systems. The new concepts, qualitative and quantitative measures describing bond behavior under force, and structural bases underlying these phenomena have substantially advanced our fundamental understanding of the inner workings of biological systems from the nanoscale (molecule) to the microscale (cell), elucidated basic molecular mechanisms of a wide range of important biological processes, and provided opportunities for engineering applications. Here, we review major force spectroscopic assays, conceptual developments of mechanically regulated kinetics of molecular interactions, and their biological relevance. We also present current challenges and highlight future directions.

  17. EVOLUTIONARY FOUNDATIONS FOR MOLECULAR MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T. Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but many major advances in evolutionary biology from the 20th century are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the distinction between proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are further transforming evolutionary biology and creating yet more opportunities for progress at the interface of evolution with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and others to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine. PMID:22544168

  18. Identification of the major allergens of Indian scad (Decapterus russelli).

    PubMed

    Misnan, Rosmilah; Murad, Shahnaz; Jones, Meinir; Taylor, Graham; Rahman, Dinah; Arip, Masita; Abdullah, Noormalin; Mohamed, Jamaluddin

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize major allergens of Indian scad (Decapterus russelli) which is among the most commonly consumed fish in Malaysia. Raw and cooked extracts of the fish were prepared. Protein profiles and IgE binding patterns were produced by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from subjects with fish allergy. The major allergens of the fish were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of the raw extract revealed 27 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while the cooked extract demonstrated only six protein fractions. The 1-DE immunoblotting detected 14 IgE-binding proteins, with a molecular weight range from 90 to < 6.5 kDa. Three protein fractions with molecular weights of approximately 51, 46 and 12 kDa were identified as the major allergens of this fish. The approximately 12 kDa band was a heat-resistant protein while the approximately 51 and 46 kDa proteins were sensitive to heat. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated > 100 distinct protein spots and immunoblotting detected at least 10 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses as expected and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. A comparison of the major allergenic spot sequences of the 12 kDa proteins with known protein sequences in databases revealed extensive similarity with fish parvalbumin. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a parvalbumin which is similar to Gad c 1 is the major allergen of Indian scad. Interestingly, we also detected heat-sensitive proteins as major allergenic components in our fish allergy patients. PMID:19317337

  19. The Relation among Parental Factors and Achievement of African American Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Clancie Mavello

    2009-01-01

    Research has suggested that low socioeconomic status is a major factor in diminishing academic achievement of African American urban youth; however, there are other factors influencing students' achievement. To examine the other factors that contribute to academic achievement, this study investigated a sample of 60 low-resource middle school…

  20. Race, School Achievement, and Educational Inequality: Toward a Student-Based Inquiry Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggan, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Over the past four decades, there have been numerous discussions on student achievement and school failure. Within this time, the debate over the causes and consequences of racial differences in achievement has been at the heart of the nation's social and political life. The author discusses the major developments in achievement research over the…

  1. Effects of Peer Academic Reputation on Achievement in Academically At-Risk Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Dyer, Nicole; Luo, Wen; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2009-01-01

    664 relatively low achieving first grade children were recruited into a longitudinal study. Measures of peer academic reputation (PAR), peer acceptance, teacher-rated academic engagement and achievement, and reading and math achievement were obtained in Year 2, when the majority of students were in second grade, and 1 year later. Measures of…

  2. Precision in chromosome identification with leads in molecular cytogenetics: An illustrated review

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Usha R.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are a major cause of human genetic diseases. Conventional cytogenetic banding techniques are the method of identification for both numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities but with limited resolution. However, precise identification and characterization of the chromosomal abnormalities can only be achieved by advanced molecular cytogenetic techniques. These techniques are based mainly on fluorescence in situ hybridization, which have become an invaluable tool in the field of diagnostics. The advent of these molecular cytogenetic techniques has helped in the identification of chromosomal abnormalities to its minutest level. Apparently, the leads in molecular cytogenetic techniques have paved way for advanced molecular diagnosis, which now plays a significant role in both diagnostics and clinical research. These advances have led to the increased knowledge of the possible molecular mechanism involved in the chromosomal rearrangements and the genotype-phenotype correlation thus helping the patients towards better diagnosis and genetic counseling. This article highlights the advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques emphasizing the precision in identification of chromosomal rearrangements, and also illustrates few chromosomal abnormalities pediatric cases identified using these molecular cytogenetic techniques. PMID:27625861

  3. Precision in chromosome identification with leads in molecular cytogenetics: An illustrated review.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Usha R

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are a major cause of human genetic diseases. Conventional cytogenetic banding techniques are the method of identification for both numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities but with limited resolution. However, precise identification and characterization of the chromosomal abnormalities can only be achieved by advanced molecular cytogenetic techniques. These techniques are based mainly on fluorescence in situ hybridization, which have become an invaluable tool in the field of diagnostics. The advent of these molecular cytogenetic techniques has helped in the identification of chromosomal abnormalities to its minutest level. Apparently, the leads in molecular cytogenetic techniques have paved way for advanced molecular diagnosis, which now plays a significant role in both diagnostics and clinical research. These advances have led to the increased knowledge of the possible molecular mechanism involved in the chromosomal rearrangements and the genotype-phenotype correlation thus helping the patients towards better diagnosis and genetic counseling. This article highlights the advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques emphasizing the precision in identification of chromosomal rearrangements, and also illustrates few chromosomal abnormalities pediatric cases identified using these molecular cytogenetic techniques. PMID:27625861

  4. Competency-Based Achievement System

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Shelley; Poth, Cheryl N.; Donoff, Michel; Humphries, Paul; Steiner, Ivan; Schipper, Shirley; Janke, Fred; Nichols, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residency programs require innovative means to assess residents’ competence in “soft” skills (eg, patient-centred care, communication, and professionalism) and to identify residents who are having difficulty early enough in their residency to provide remedial training. Objective of program To develop a method to assess residents’ competence in various skills and to identify residents who are having difficulty. Program description The Competency-Based Achievement System (CBAS) was designed to measure competence using 3 main principles: formative feedback, guided self-assessment, and regular face-to-face meetings. The CBAS is resident driven and provides a framework for meaningful interactions between residents and advisors. Residents use the CBAS to organize and review their feedback, to guide their own assessment of their progress, and to discern their future learning needs. Advisors use the CBAS to monitor, guide, and verify residents’ knowledge of and competence in important skills. Conclusion By focusing on specific skills and behaviour, the CBAS enables residents and advisors to make formative assessments and to communicate their findings. Feedback indicates that the CBAS is a user-friendly and helpful system to assess competence. PMID:21918129

  5. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks.

  6. Supported Molecular Matrix Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Yu-Ki; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Mucins are difficult to separate using conventional gel electrophoresis methods such as SDS-PAGE and agarose gel electrophoresis, owing to their large size and heterogeneity. On the other hand, cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis can separate these molecules, but is not compatible with glycan analysis. Here, we describe a novel membrane electrophoresis technique, termed "supported molecular matrix electrophoresis" (SMME), in which a porous polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane filter is used to achieve separation. This description includes the separation, visualization, and glycan analysis of mucins with the SMME technique. PMID:26139278

  7. Switchable molecular magnets.

    PubMed

    Sato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Various molecular magnetic compounds whose magnetic properties can be controlled by external stimuli have been developed, including electrochemically, photochemically, and chemically tunable bulk magnets as well as a phototunable antiferromagnetic phase of single chain magnet. In addition, we present tunable paramagnetic mononuclear complexes ranging from spin crossover complexes and valence tautomeric complexes to Co complexes in which orbital angular momentum can be switched. Furthermore, we recently developed several switchable clusters and one-dimensional coordination polymers. The switching of magnetic properties can be achieved by modulating metals, ligands, and molecules/ions in the second sphere of the complexes.

  8. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    PubMed

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  9. Sensitivity and noise in GC-MS: Achieving low limits of detection for difficult analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialkov, Alexander B.; Steiner, Urs; Lehotay, Steven J.; Amirav, Aviv

    2007-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument limit of detection (LOD) is typically listed by major vendors as that of octafluoronaphthalene (OFN). Most current GC-MS instruments can achieve LODs in the low femtogram range. However, GC-MS LODs for realistic analytes in actual samples are often a few orders of magnitude higher than OFN's. Users seldom encounter 1 pg LOD in the single ion monitoring mode in their applications. We define this detectability difference as the "OFN gap." In this paper, we demonstrate and discuss how the OFN gap can be significantly reduced by the use of GC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (SMB). Experimental results were obtained with a recently developed GC-MS with SMB named 1200-SMB, that is based on the conversion of the Varian 1200 system into a GC-MS-MS with SMB. With this 1200-SMB system, the LOD of all types of analytes, including OFN, in real samples is significantly improved through the combination of: (a) enhanced molecular ion; (b) elimination of vacuum background noise; (c) elimination of mass independent noise; (d) elimination of ion source peak tailing and degradation; (e) significantly increased range of thermally labile and low volatility compounds that are amenable for analysis through lower sample elution temperatures; (f) reduced column bleed and ghost peaks through sample elution at lower temperatures; (g) improved compatibility with large volume injections; and (h) reduced matrix interferences through the combination of enhanced molecular ion and MS-MS. As a result, the 1200-SMB LODs of common and/or difficult compounds are much closer to its OFN LOD, even in complex matrices. We crossed the <1 fg OFN LOD milestone to achieve the lowest LOD to date using GC-MS, but more importantly, we attained LOD of 2 fg for diazinon, a common pesticide analyte. In another example, we achieved an LOD of 10 fg for underivatized testosterone, which is not amenable in traditional GC-MS analysis, and conducted many analyses

  10. Molecular gastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    For centuries, cooks have been applying recipes without looking for the mechanisms of the culinary transformations. A scientific discipline that explores these changes from raw ingredients to eating the final dish, is developing into its own field, termed molecular gastronomy. Here, one of the founders of the discipline discusses its aims and importance.

  11. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology. PMID:24150836

  12. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  13. Molecular beacon lighting up on graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Liu, Juewen

    2012-05-01

    A molecular beacon (MB) is comprised of a fluorophore and a quencher linked by a DNA hairpin. MBs have been widely used for homogeneous DNA detection. In addition to molecular quenchers, many nanomaterials such as graphene oxide (GO) also possess excellent quenching efficiency. Most reported fluorescent sensors relied on DNA probes physisorbed by GO, which may suffer from nonspecific probe displacement and false positive signal. In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of a MB using graphene oxide (GO) as quencher, where an amino and FAM (6-carboxyfluorescein) dual labeled DNA was covalently attached to GO via an amide linkage. A major challenge was to remove noncovalently attached probes due to strong DNA adsorption by GO. While DNA desorption was favored at low salt, high pH, high temperature, and by using organic solvents, the cDNA was required to achieve complete desorption of noncovalently linked DNA probes. The DNA adsorption energy was measured using isothermal titration calorimetry, revealing the heterogeneous nature of GO. The covalent probe has a detection limit of 2.2 nM using a sample volume of 0.05 mL. With a 2 mL sample, the detection limit can reach 150 pM. The covalent probe is highly resistant to nonspecific probe displacement and will find applications in serum and cellular samples where high probe stability is demanded.

  14. Crustal growth: Some major problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arculus, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Fundamental problems with models currently used to explain the genesis and evolution of continental crust were raised. These problems focus around the difficulty of generating the upper continental crust from a lower crustal or mantle protolith without leaving a very large, and so far undetected, volume of restite. No conclusive resolution to the problems was achieved.

  15. Molecular machines: Molecules bearing robotic arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprahamian, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Mass production at the nanoscale requires molecular machines that can control, with high fidelity, the spatial orientation of other reactive species. The demonstration of a synthetic system in which a molecular robotic arm can be used to manipulate the position of a chemical cargo is a significant step towards achieving this goal.

  16. Implementation of the Second Major Requirement for Teacher Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polen, Deborah A.; And Others

    An exploratory study was conducted in North Carolina to examine the impact on teacher education programs of improved academic preparation for undergraduate teacher education majors. This report describes one such approach--the requirement that in addition to general college and teacher preparation courses, undergraduate education students complete…

  17. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a…

  18. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    PubMed Central

    West, Stuart A.; Fisher, Roberta M.; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  19. Engineering imaging probes and molecular machines for nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Tong, Sheng; Cradick, Thomas J; Ma, Yan; Dai, Zhifei; Bao, Gang

    2012-10-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field that integrates nanotechnology, biomolecular engineering, life sciences and medicine; it is expected to produce major breakthroughs in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Due to the size-compatibility of nano-scale structures and devices with proteins and nucleic acids, the design, synthesis and application of nanoprobes, nanocarriers and nanomachines provide unprecedented opportunities for achieving a better control of biological processes, and drastic improvements in disease detection, therapy, and prevention. Recent advances in nanomedicine include the development of functional nanoparticle based molecular imaging probes, nano-structured materials as drug/gene carriers for in vivo delivery, and engineered molecular machines for treating single-gene disorders. This review focuses on the development of molecular imaging probes and engineered nucleases for nanomedicine, including quantum dot bioconjugates, quantum dot-fluorescent protein FRET probes, molecular beacons, magnetic and gold nanoparticle based imaging contrast agents, and the design and validation of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) for gene targeting. The challenges in translating nanomedicine approaches to clinical applications are discussed.

  20. Molecular contributions to conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular technology have opened a new chapter in species conservation efforts, as well as population biology. DNA sequencing, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), minisatellite, microsatellite, and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) procedures allow for identification of parentage, more distant relatives, founders to new populations, unidentified individuals, population structure, effective population size, population-specific markers, etc. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, ribosomal DNA, chloroplast DNA, and other systems provide for more sophisticated analyses of metapopulation structure, hybridization events, and delineation of species, subspecies, and races, all of which aid in setting species recovery priorities. Each technique can be powerful in its own right but is most credible when used in conjunction with other molecular techniques and, most importantly, with ecological and demographic data collected from the field. Surprisingly few taxa of concern have been assayed with any molecular technique. Thus, rather than showcasing exhaustive details from a few well-known examples, this paper attempts to present a broad range of cases in which molecular techniques have been used to provide insight into conservation efforts.

  1. Achieving and sustaining full employment.

    PubMed

    Rosen, S M

    1995-01-01

    Human rights and public health considerations provide strong support for policies that maximize employment. Ample historical and conceptual evidence supports the feasibility of full employment policies. New factors affecting the labor force, the rate of technological change, and the globalization of economic activity require appropriate policies--international as well as national--but do not invalidate the ability of modern states to apply the measures needed. Among these the most important include: (I) systematic reduction in working time with no loss of income, (2) active labor market policies, (3) use of fiscal and monetary measures to sustain the needed level of aggregate demand, (4) restoration of equal bargaining power between labor and capital, (5) social investment in neglected and outmoded infrastructure, (6) accountability of corporations for decisions to shift or reduce capital investment, (7) major reductions in military spending, to be replaced by socially needed and economically productive expenditures, (8) direct public sector job creation, (9) reform of monetary policy to restore emphasis on minimizing unemployment and promoting full employment. None are without precedent in modern economies. The obstacles are ideological and political. To overcome them will require intellectual clarity and effective advocacy. PMID:7499512

  2. Achievements and Lessons from Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider was the centerpiece of the world's high energy physics program - beginning operation in December of 1985 until it was overtaken by LHC in 2011. The aim of the this unique scientific instrument was to explore the elementary particle physics reactions with center of mass collision energies of up to 1.96 TeV. The initial design luminosity of the Tevatron was 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, however as a result of two decades of upgrades, the accelerator has been able to deliver 430 times higher luminosities to each of two high luminosity experiments, CDF and D0. Tevatron will be shut off September 30, 2011. The collider was arguably one of the most complex research instruments ever to reach the operation stage and is widely recognized for many technological breakthroughs and numerous physics discoveries. Below we briefly present the history of the Tevatron, major advances in accelerator physics, and technology implemented during the long quest for better and better performance. We also discuss some lessons learned from our experience.

  3. Molecular Aspects of Mucoadhesive Carrier Development for Drug Delivery and Improved Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Peppas, Nicholas A; Thomas, J. Brock; McGinity, James

    2011-01-01

    Although the oral route remains the most favored route of drug administration, major scientific obstacles prevent the effective and efficient delivery of low-molecular-mass drugs, peptides and proteins that exhibit poor solubility and permeability. Mucoadhesive dosage forms and the associated drug carriers have the ability to interact at a molecular level with the mucus gel layer that lines the epithelial surfaces of the major absorptive regions of the body. This interaction provides an increased residence time of the therapeutic formulation while localizing the drug at the site of administration. Such local, non-specific targeting leads to an increase in both oral absorption and bioavailability. Fundamental understanding of the biological processes encountered along the gastrointestinal tract can provide a sufficient engineer of carriers that are capable to provide this increase in residence time. Here we discuss the theoretical framework for achieving mucoadhesive systems as related to biomaterials science and the structure of the biomaterials used. PMID:19105897

  4. [Molecular biology and childhood leukemia: E2A-PBX1 and central nervous system relapse].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children. The inclusion of molecular biology techniques in the diagnosis and prognostic stratification of these patients has allowed major treatment achievements in developed countries. One of the best studied gene rearrangements is E2A-PBX1, which predicts isolated central nervous system relapse in patients with ALL. However, further research on the search for new molecular markers related to prognosis of patients with childhood leukemia is required. Such studies need the integration of different disciplines, including epidemiology. Epidemiological studies are needed not only to accelerate the discovery of new molecular markers and new biological signals as to the etiology and pathophysiology of cancer, but also to evaluate the clinical impact of these findings in well-defined populations.

  5. [Molecular biology and childhood leukemia: E2A-PBX1 and central nervous system relapse].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children. The inclusion of molecular biology techniques in the diagnosis and prognostic stratification of these patients has allowed major treatment achievements in developed countries. One of the best studied gene rearrangements is E2A-PBX1, which predicts isolated central nervous system relapse in patients with ALL. However, further research on the search for new molecular markers related to prognosis of patients with childhood leukemia is required. Such studies need the integration of different disciplines, including epidemiology. Epidemiological studies are needed not only to accelerate the discovery of new molecular markers and new biological signals as to the etiology and pathophysiology of cancer, but also to evaluate the clinical impact of these findings in well-defined populations. PMID:26509298

  6. Management of Major Limb Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Management of major limb injuries is a daunting challenge, especially as many of these patients have severe associated injuries. In trying to save life, often the limb is sacrificed. The existing guidelines on managing such trauma are often confusing. There is scope to lay down such protocols along with the need for urgent transfer of such patients to a multispecialty center equipped to salvage life and limb for maximizing outcome. This review article comprehensively deals with the issue of managing such major injuries. PMID:24511296

  7. Redefining the major peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2013-03-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are "major" allergens and allergens of less importance. "Major allergens" have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract results in

  8. Molecular Pathology and Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ha, Patrick K; Stenman, Göran

    2016-01-01

    The field of salivary gland tumor biology is quite broad, given the numerous subtypes of both benign and malignant tumors originating from the major and minor salivary glands. Knowledge about the molecular pathology of these lesions is still limited, and there are few clinically useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. However, recent discoveries of certain key genomic alterations, such as chromosome translocations, copy number alterations, and mutations, provide new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of these lesions and may help to better define them. It is also hoped that this new knowledge can help to guide therapy, but this translation has been somewhat slow to develop, perhaps due to the rarity of these tumors and the lack of large, randomized studies. However, because of the limitations inherent in what surgery and radiation can provide, there is an urgent need for understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in these tumors individually, so that chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy can be rationally selected.

  9. Hands-on science and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Allen Michael

    From the late 1950s through today, hands-on science has been promoted as a method of science instruction. Currently, recent national science reform efforts seek to temper its role. However, no consensus has been reached on the relationship of hands-on science to student achievement though this topic has been researched since the turn of the 20th century using various methods. To improve upon the literature, this work addresses three major limitations of past research---the lack of data on performance assessments of student achievement, the need to control for factors affecting both hands-on science and test scores, and the potential for a differential relationship by student ability. This work focuses on three research questions: (1) whether hands-on science is positively related to student achievement as measured by standardized test scores using both multiple choice and performance tests, (2) whether this relationship is stronger when using performance tests, and (3) whether this relationship differs by student ability. We apply regression analysis to two data sources. The primary data set is the 1994 RAND Survey of 1400 8th grade students and their teachers in Southern California which includes multiple choice and performance test scores. A second data source is the nationally representative NELS:88 with a focus on the 8th grade student sample. The initial findings vary by source of report, student or teacher, on the level of hands-on science. When accounting for the quality of the reports, the results show an association between the level of handson science and student test scores for both multiple choice and performance tests. The results find little difference for this relationship by type of test. Nor do they show strong evidence for a differential relationship due to student ability. These findings support the promotion of hands-on science at the middle school/junior high level while raising a concern about current science reform attempts to reduce and

  10. Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Ted R.; Brady, Seán G.

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is a specialized form of symbiosis that is known to have evolved in only four animal groups: humans, bark beetles, termites, and ants. Here, we reconstruct the major evolutionary transitions that produced the five distinct agricultural systems of the fungus-growing ants, the most well studied of the nonhuman agriculturalists. We do so with reference to the first fossil-calibrated, multiple-gene, molecular phylogeny that incorporates the full range of taxonomic diversity within the fungus-growing ant tribe Attini. Our analyses indicate that the original form of ant agriculture, the cultivation of a diverse subset of fungal species in the tribe Leucocoprineae, evolved ≈50 million years ago in the Neotropics, coincident with the early Eocene climatic optimum. During the past 30 million years, three known ant agricultural systems, each involving a phylogenetically distinct set of derived fungal cultivars, have separately arisen from the original agricultural system. One of these derived systems subsequently gave rise to the fifth known system of agriculture, in which a single fungal species is cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Leaf-cutter ants evolved remarkably recently (≈8–12 million years ago) to become the dominant herbivores of the New World tropics. Our analyses identify relict, extant attine ant species that occupy phylogenetic positions that are transitional between the agricultural systems. Intensive study of those species holds particular promise for clarifying the sequential accretion of ecological and behavioral characters that produced each of the major ant agricultural systems. PMID:18362345

  11. Molecular Modeling of Estrogen Receptor Using Molecular Operating Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Urmi; Luck, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular modeling is pervasive in the pharmaceutical industry that employs many of our students from Biology, Chemistry and the interdisciplinary majors. To expose our students to this important aspect of their education we have incorporated a set of tutorials in our Biochemistry class. The present article describes one of our tutorials where…

  12. Catalysts Encapsulated in Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tiezheng; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-06-17

    Smart catalysts offer the control of chemical processes and sequences of transformations, and catalysts with unique catalytic behavior can afford chiral products or promote successive polymerization. To meet advanced demands, the key to constructing smart catalysts is to incorporate traditional catalytic functional groups with trigger-induced factors. Molecular machines with dynamic properties and particular topological structures have typical stimulus-responsive features. In recent years, scientists have made efforts to utilize molecular machines (molecular switches, rotaxanes, motors, etc.) as scaffolds to develop smart catalysts. This Minireview focuses on the achievements of developing catalysts encapsulated in molecular machines and their remarkable specialties. This strategy is believed to provide more potential applications in switchable reactions, asymmetric synthesis, and processive catalysis.

  13. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  14. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  15. Managemant of NASA's major projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches used to manage major projects are studied and the existing documents on NASA management are reviewed. The work consists of: (1) the project manager's role, (2) request for proposal, (3) project plan, (4) management information system, (5) project organizational thinking, (6) management disciplines, (7) important decisions, and (8) low cost approach.

  16. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  17. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431528

  18. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'.

  19. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  20. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as ‘major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These ‘synthetic’ transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431528

  1. Molecular thermometry.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Kevin M; Hernandez, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Conventional temperature measurements rely on material responses to heat, which can be detected visually. When Galileo developed an air expansion based device to detect temperature changes, Santorio, a contemporary physician, added a scale to create the first thermometer. With this instrument, patients' temperatures could be measured, recorded, and related to changing health conditions. Today, advances in materials science and bioengineering provide new ways to report temperature at the molecular level in real time. In this review, the scientific foundations and history of thermometry underpin a discussion of the discoveries emerging from the field of molecular thermometry. Intracellular nanogels and heat sensing biomolecules have been shown to accurately report temperature changes at the nanoscale. Various systems will soon provide the ability to accurately measure temperature changes at the tissue, cellular, and even subcellular level, allowing for detection and monitoring of very small changes in local temperature. In the clinic, this will lead to enhanced detection of tumors and localized infection, and accurate and precise monitoring of hyperthermia-based therapies. Some nanomaterial systems have even demonstrated a theranostic capacity for heat-sensitive, local delivery of chemotherapeutics. Just as early thermometry rapidly moved into the clinic, so too will these molecular thermometers.

  2. Molecular Imprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaud, V.; Bonneviot, L.

    Our senses of smell and taste are able to recognise molecules selectively, to the point where they can even discriminate between different chiral states. This property, called molecular recognition, is essential to all forms of life [1]. It is based on the principle of a specific interaction between a receptor or host and a target molecule, which will be identified among a multitude of others, then selectively adsorbed. If the host is endowed with reactive functions, the attached molecule may be transported or transformed. Enzymes are the archetypal host molecules exploiting the idea of molecular recognition. Their complexation sites comprise a hydrophobic pocket with definite shape within which amino acid residues are located in a precisely defined way. The combined effect of these different characteristics underlies not only the affinity for some specific substrate, but also the transformation of this substrate into the desired product [2]. In fact, the phenomena actually brought into play are much more involved, being made up of an ensemble of physicochemical events that act together in a cooperative way, either simultaneously or sequentially, and in which the molecular processes are difficult to follow in detail.

  3. Molecular Thermometry

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Kevin M.; Hernandez, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Conventional temperature measurements rely on material responses to heat, which can be detected visually. When Galileo developed an air expansion based device to detect temperature changes, Santorio, a contemporary physician, added a scale to create the first thermometer. With this instrument, patients’ temperatures could be measured, recorded and related to changing health conditions. Today, advances in materials science and bioengineering provide new ways to report temperature at the molecular level in real time. In this review the scientific foundations and history of thermometry underpin a discussion of the discoveries emerging from the field of molecular thermometry. Intracellular nanogels and heat sensing biomolecules have been shown to accurately report temperature changes at the nano-scale. Various systems will soon provide the ability to accurately measure temperature changes at the tissue, cellular, and even sub-cellular level, allowing for detection and monitoring of very small changes in local temperature. In the clinic this will lead to enhanced detection of tumors and localized infection, and accurate and precise monitoring of hyperthermia based therapies. Some nanomaterial systems have even demonstrated a theranostic capacity for heat-sensitive, local delivery of chemotherapeutics. Just as early thermometry moved into the clinic, so too will these molecular thermometers. PMID:20139796

  4. Achievement motivation and competition: perceptions and responses.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, T K; Ragan, J T

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of achievement motivation (Nach) on how individuals perceive an evaluative competition situation, whether they prefer to perform in this type of setting, and whether they seek the inherent appraisal information regarding their motoric competence. Specifically, perceived threat to self esteem was examined as indicated by state anxiety responses and measured by the Competitive Short Form of the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. State anxiety was assessed at rest, while performing a motor task alone in a nonevaluative setting, and during competition against an equal ability opponent. Situation perference and information seeking behavior were assessed at the conclusion of the closely paced competition. Subjects were asked whether they had perferred performing in the noncompetition or competition situation and were given the opportunity to select the relative ability level of a future opponent. As predicted, the major findings indicated that high Nach males experienced less threat during competition than low Nach males. Further, more high than low Nach individuals perferred the competition situation to the noncompetition situation and sought the evaluative ability information to a greater extent by choosing opponents of equal or greater relative ability for a future hypothetical competition.

  5. Achieving energy efficiency during collective communications

    SciTech Connect

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav; Sosonkina, Masha; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-09-13

    Energy consumption has become a major design constraint in modern computing systems. With the advent of petaflops architectures, power-efficient software stacks have become imperative for scalability. Techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (called DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (called throttling) are often used to reduce the power consumption of the compute nodes. To avoid significant performance losses, these techniques should be used judiciously during parallel application execution. For example, its communication phases may be good candidates to apply the DVFS and CPU throttling without incurring a considerable performance loss. They are often considered as indivisible operations although little attention is being devoted to the energy saving potential of their algorithmic steps. In this work, two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather, are investigated as to their augmentation with energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. The experiments prove the viability of such a fine-grain approach. They also validate a theoretical power consumption estimate for multicore nodes proposed here. While keeping the performance loss low, the obtained energy savings were always significantly higher than those achieved when DVFS or throttling were switched on across the entire application run

  6. Temperament-based learning styles as moderators of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Horton, C B; Oakland, T

    1997-01-01

    Considerable interest in applications of temperament theory has led to proposals of four temperament-related learning styles. The hypothesis that achievement is higher when instructional strategies utilize methods consistent with students' preferred learning styles was tested using 417 seventh graders, the majority of whom were from minority and low SES families. The hypothesis was not supported; instead, student achievement was significantly higher with instructional strategies designed to promote personalized learning. The need to extend temperament-based learning styles by considering additional qualities that are important to learning is discussed. PMID:9105497

  7. High Pressure Materials Research: Novel Extended Phases of Molecular Triatomics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C

    2004-05-26

    Application of high pressure significantly alters the interatomic distance and thus the nature of intermolecular interaction, chemical bonding, molecular configuration, crystal structure, and stability of solid [1]. With modern advances in high-pressure technologies [2], it is feasible to achieve a large (often up to a several-fold) compression of lattice, at which condition material can be easily forced into a new physical and chemical configuration [3]. The high-pressure thus offers enhanced opportunities to discover new phases, both stable and metastable ones, and to tune exotic properties in a wide-range of atomistic length scale, substantially greater than (often being several orders of) those achieved by other thermal (varying temperatures) and chemical (varying composition or making alloys) means. Simple molecular solids like H{sub 2}, C, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, NH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4} are bounded by strong covalent intramolecular bonds, yet relatively weak intermolecular bonds of van der Waals and/or hydrogen bonds. The weak intermolecular bonds make these solids highly compressible (i.e., low bulk moduli typically less than 10 GPa), while the strong covalent bonds make them chemically inert at least initially at low pressures. Carbon-carbon single bonds, carbon-oxygen double bonds and nitrogen-nitrogen triple bonds, for example, are among the strongest. These molecular forms are, thus, often considered to remain stable in an extended region of high pressures and high temperatures. High stabilities of these covalent molecules are also the basis of which their mixtures are often presumed to be the major detonation products of energetic materials as well as the major constituents of giant planets. However, their physical/chemical stabilities are not truly understood at those extreme pressure-temperature conditions. In fact, an increasing amount of experimental evidences contradict the assumed stability of these materials at high

  8. Molecular fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Bartelle, Benjamin B.; Barandov, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of brain function depends on understanding the dynamics of diverse neural signaling processes over large tissue volumes in intact animals and humans. Most existing approaches to measuring brain signaling suffer from limited tissue penetration, poor resolution, or lack of specificity for well-defined neural events. Here we discuss a new brain activity mapping method that overcomes some of these problems by combining MRI with contrast agents sensitive to neural signaling. The goal of this “molecular fMRI” approach is to permit noninvasive whole-brain neuroimaging with specificity and resolution approaching current optical neuroimaging methods. In this article, we describe the context and need for molecular fMRI as well as the state of the technology today. We explain how major types of MRI probes work and how they can be sensitized to neurobiological processes, such as neurotransmitter release, calcium signaling, and gene expression changes. We comment both on past work in the field and on challenges and promising avenues for future development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brain researchers currently have a choice between measuring neural activity using cellular-level recording techniques, such as electrophysiology and optical imaging, or whole-brain imaging methods, such as fMRI. Cellular level methods are precise but only address a small portion of mammalian brains; on the other hand, whole-brain neuroimaging techniques provide very little specificity for neural pathways or signaling components of interest. The molecular fMRI techniques we discuss have particular potential to combine the specificity of cellular-level measurements with the noninvasive whole-brain coverage of fMRI. On the other hand, molecular fMRI is only just getting off the ground. This article aims to offer a snapshot of the status and future prospects for development of molecular fMRI techniques. PMID:27076413

  9. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  10. Analyzing Educational Testing Service Graduate Major Field Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    The Educational Testing Service (ETS) created the Graduate Major Field Test in Business (GMFT-B) for MBA students. This test is administered to all MBA classes at Jacksonville University for the purpose of measuring student academic achievement and growth, as well as to assess educational outcomes. The test is given in the capstone course,…

  11. Differential Gender Performance on the Major Field Test-Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William

    2013-01-01

    The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. Many previous studies analyzing scores on the MFT-B report gender differences on the exam even after controlling for student's aptitude, general intellectual…

  12. Fluvoxamine treatment of major depression associated with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Campori, Euridice; Colombo, Cristina; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    Fluvoxamine 200 mg was administered for 3 months to a group of 43 interferon beta-1b treated patients affected by major depression associated with multiple sclerosis. Despite a 16.3% attrition rate, 79% of patients achieved response. The drug was well tolerated.

  13. Distance majorization and its applications.

    PubMed

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton's method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications.

  14. Major transitions in human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert A.; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of ‘origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’ throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation—genes, phenotypes and behaviour—integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298461

  15. Major transitions in human evolution.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert A; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of 'origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution' throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation-genes, phenotypes and behaviour-integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298461

  16. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  17. Morocco's policy choices to achieve Universal health coverage

    PubMed Central

    Tinasti, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Morocco's health system remains weak in spite of the improvement of other development indicators in the last ten years. Health remains one of the major challenges to lower the social disparities that are the priority for the authorities. Despite the goodwill of all stakeholders, significant reforms implemented respond only partially to the needs of the population. Morocco established several public insurance schemes, of which one focuses on the poorest, to achieve financial-risk protection for its population. Nevertheless, achieving universal health coverage through one of its dimensions is not sufficient, and all the effort being concentrated in one area has shown the deterioration of equity in access to and quality of health services. Moreover, the insurance schemes did not reach their objectives of protecting a majority of Moroccans from financial hardship. PMID:26405489

  18. Morocco's policy choices to achieve Universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Tinasti, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Morocco's health system remains weak in spite of the improvement of other development indicators in the last ten years. Health remains one of the major challenges to lower the social disparities that are the priority for the authorities. Despite the goodwill of all stakeholders, significant reforms implemented respond only partially to the needs of the population. Morocco established several public insurance schemes, of which one focuses on the poorest, to achieve financial-risk protection for its population. Nevertheless, achieving universal health coverage through one of its dimensions is not sufficient, and all the effort being concentrated in one area has shown the deterioration of equity in access to and quality of health services. Moreover, the insurance schemes did not reach their objectives of protecting a majority of Moroccans from financial hardship. PMID:26405489

  19. Using molecular beacons to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms with real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Mhlanga, M M; Malmberg, L

    2001-12-01

    Detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in high-throughput studies promises to be an expanding field of molecular medicine in the near future. Highly specific, simple, and accessible methods are needed to meet the rigorous requirements of single-nucleotide detection needed in pharmacogenomic studies, linkage analysis, and the detection of pathogens. Molecular beacons present such a solution for the high-throughput screening of SNPs in homogeneous assays using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular beacons are probes that fluoresce on hybridization to their perfectly complementary targets. In recent years they have emerged as a leading genetic analysis tool in a wide range of contexts from quantification of RNA transcripts, to probes on microarrays, to single-nucleotide polymorphism detection. The majority of these methods use PCR to obtain sufficient amounts of sample to analyze. The use of molecular beacons with other amplification schemes has been reliably demonstrated, though PCR remains the method of choice. Here we discuss and present how to design and use molecular beacons to achieve reliable SNP genotyping and allele discrimination in real-time PCR. In addition, we provide a new means of analyzing data outputs from such real-time PCR assays that compensates for differences between sample condition, assay conditions, variations in fluorescent signal, and amplification efficiency. The mechanisms by which molecular beacons are able to have extraordinary specificity are also presented. PMID:11846616

  20. Quantum dot molecular beacons for DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Cady, Nathaniel C

    2009-01-01

    Molecular beacons have become an important fluorescent probe for sequence-specific DNA detection. To improve the sensitivity and robustness of molecular beacon assays, fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are now being used as the fluorescent moiety for molecular beacon synthesis. Multiple linkage strategies can be used for attaching molecular beacon DNA to QDs, and multiple quenchers, including gold particles, can be used for fluorescence quenching. Covalent attachment of QDs to DNA can be achieved through amide linkage, and affinity-based attachment can be achieved with streptavidin-biotin linkage. We have shown that these linkage strategies can be used to successfully create quantum dot molecular beacons that can be used in DNA detection assays with high specificity.

  1. Molecular clocks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael S Y; Ho, Simon Y W

    2016-05-23

    In the 1960s, several groups of scientists, including Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling, had noted that proteins experience amino acid replacements at a surprisingly consistent rate across very different species. This presumed single, uniform rate of genetic evolution was subsequently described using the term 'molecular clock'. Biologists quickly realised that such a universal pacemaker could be used as a yardstick for measuring the timescale of evolutionary divergences: estimating the rate of amino acid exchanges per unit of time and applying it to protein differences across a range of organisms would allow deduction of the divergence times of their respective lineages (Figure 1). PMID:27218841

  2. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Vermont, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Vermont for 2010. Vermont's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white, low-income,…

  5. Reducing Measurement Error in Student Achievement Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero; Gori, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The achievement level is a variable measured with error, that can be estimated by means of the Rasch model. Teacher grades also measure the achievement level but they are expressed on a different scale. This paper proposes a method for combining these two scores to obtain a synthetic measure of the achievement level based on the theory developed…

  6. The Influence of Poverty on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt, poverty has a negative influence on student achievement, especially when achievement is measured by state-mandated standardized tests. However, some bureaucrats, such as state commissioners of education and even state governors, continue to downplay the influence of poverty on student achievement. New Jersey's Governor Chris…

  7. Self-Beliefs and Student Goal Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caroline J.; Derrer-Rendall, Nicola M.

    2011-01-01

    Two preliminary studies are presented investigating the self-beliefs that may affect goal achievement in a student population. In Study 1, goal achievement on an abstract task, where goals are externally set by others, is considered in relation to students' levels of optimism. In Study 2, goal achievement on academic performance, where goals are…

  8. The Intersection of Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbull, Elise; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background. The…

  9. Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-01-01

    Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P<0.05), whereas 10 partly overlapping markers differed significantly between rMDD cases and controls. Antidepressant medication use and comorbid anxiety status did not substantially impact on these findings. Sixteen of the cMDD-related markers had been assayed in the pooled validation cohorts, of which seven were associated with MDD. The analytes prominently associated with cMDD related to diverse cell communication and signal transduction processes (pancreatic polypeptide, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, ENRAGE, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tenascin-C), immune response (growth-regulated alpha protein) and protein metabolism (von Willebrand factor). Several proteins were implicated in depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology. PMID:26171980

  10. Polygenic dissection of major depression clinical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Milaneschi, Y; Lamers, F; Peyrot, W J; Abdellaoui, A; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Jansen, R; Mbarek, H; Dehghan, A; Lu, C; Boomsma, D I; Penninx, B W J H

    2016-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) are largely unknown. Limited success of previous genetics studies may be attributable to heterogeneity of MDD, aggregating biologically different subtypes. We examined the polygenic features of MDD and two common clinical subtypes (typical and atypical) defined by symptom profiles in a large sample of adults with established diagnoses. Data were from 1530 patients of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and 1700 controls mainly from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Diagnoses of MDD and its subtypes were based on DSM-IV symptoms. Genetic overlap of MDD and subtypes with psychiatric (MDD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia) and metabolic (body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein, triglycerides) traits was evaluated via genomic profile risk scores (GPRS) generated from meta-analysis results of large international consortia. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-heritability of MDD and subtypes was also estimated. MDD was associated with psychiatric GPRS, while no association was found for GPRS of metabolic traits. MDD subtypes had differential polygenic signatures: typical was strongly associated with schizophrenia GPRS (odds ratio (OR)=1.54, P=7.8e-9), while atypical was additionally associated with BMI (OR=1.29, P=2.7e-4) and triglycerides (OR=1.21, P=0.006) GPRS. Similar results were found when only the highly discriminatory symptoms of appetite/weight were used to define subtypes. SNP-heritability was 32% for MDD, 38% and 43% for subtypes with, respectively, decreased (typical) and increased (atypical) appetite/weight. In conclusion, MDD subtypes are characterized by partially distinct polygenic liabilities and may represent more homogeneous phenotypes. Disentangling MDD heterogeneity may help the psychiatric field moving forward in the search for molecular roots of depression.

  11. Polygenic dissection of major depression clinical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Milaneschi, Y; Lamers, F; Peyrot, W J; Abdellaoui, A; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Jansen, R; Mbarek, H; Dehghan, A; Lu, C; Boomsma, D I; Penninx, B W J H

    2016-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) are largely unknown. Limited success of previous genetics studies may be attributable to heterogeneity of MDD, aggregating biologically different subtypes. We examined the polygenic features of MDD and two common clinical subtypes (typical and atypical) defined by symptom profiles in a large sample of adults with established diagnoses. Data were from 1530 patients of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and 1700 controls mainly from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Diagnoses of MDD and its subtypes were based on DSM-IV symptoms. Genetic overlap of MDD and subtypes with psychiatric (MDD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia) and metabolic (body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein, triglycerides) traits was evaluated via genomic profile risk scores (GPRS) generated from meta-analysis results of large international consortia. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-heritability of MDD and subtypes was also estimated. MDD was associated with psychiatric GPRS, while no association was found for GPRS of metabolic traits. MDD subtypes had differential polygenic signatures: typical was strongly associated with schizophrenia GPRS (odds ratio (OR)=1.54, P=7.8e-9), while atypical was additionally associated with BMI (OR=1.29, P=2.7e-4) and triglycerides (OR=1.21, P=0.006) GPRS. Similar results were found when only the highly discriminatory symptoms of appetite/weight were used to define subtypes. SNP-heritability was 32% for MDD, 38% and 43% for subtypes with, respectively, decreased (typical) and increased (atypical) appetite/weight. In conclusion, MDD subtypes are characterized by partially distinct polygenic liabilities and may represent more homogeneous phenotypes. Disentangling MDD heterogeneity may help the psychiatric field moving forward in the search for molecular roots of depression. PMID:26122587

  12. Molecular spintronics.

    PubMed

    Sanvito, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    The electron spin made its debut in the device world only two decades ago but today our ability of detecting the spin state of a moving electron underpins the entire magnetic data storage industry. This technological revolution has been driven by a constant improvement in our understanding on how spins can be injected, manipulated and detected in the solid state, a field which is collectively named Spintronics. Recently a number of pioneering experiments and theoretical works suggest that organic materials can offer similar and perhaps superior performances in making spin-devices than the more conventional inorganic metals and semiconductors. Furthermore they can pave the way for radically new device concepts. This is Molecular Spintronics, a blossoming research area aimed at exploring how the unique properties of the organic world can marry the requirements of spin-devices. Importantly, after a first phase, where most of the research was focussed on exporting the concepts of inorganic spintronics to organic materials, the field has moved to a more mature age, where the exploitation of the unique properties of molecules has begun to emerge. Molecular spintronics now collects a diverse and interdisciplinary community ranging from device physicists to synthetic chemists to surface scientists. In this critical review, I will survey this fascinating, rapidly evolving, field with a particular eye on new directions and opportunities. The main differences and challenges with respect to standard spintronics will be discussed and so will be the potential cross-fertilization with other fields (177 references).

  13. Molecular paleontology.

    PubMed

    Marota, I; Rollo, F

    2002-01-01

    Molecular paleontology, i.e., the recovery of DNA from ancient human, animal, and plant remains is an innovative research field that has received progressively more attention from the scientific community since the 1980s. In the last decade, the field was punctuated by claims which aroused great interest but eventually turned out to be fakes--the most famous being the sequence of dinosaur DNA later shown to be of human origin. At present, the discipline is characterized by some certainties and many doubts. We know, for example, that we have reasonable chances to recover authentic DNA from a mammoth carcass, while our chances are negligible (or nonexistent) in the case of a dynastic mummy from Egypt. On the other hand, though we are developing convincing models of DNA decay in bone, we are not yet able to predict whether a certain paleontological or archeological site will yield material amenable to DNA analysis. This article reviews some of the most important and promising investigations using molecular paleontology approaches, such as studies on the conservation of DNA in human bone, the quest for ancient DNA in permafrost-frozen fauna, the Tyrolean iceman, and the Neandertals.

  14. Molecular Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Lauchner, Adam; Schlather, Andrea E; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Cui, Yao; McClain, Michael J; Stec, Grant J; García de Abajo, F Javier; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2015-09-01

    Graphene supports surface plasmons that have been observed to be both electrically and geometrically tunable in the mid- to far-infrared spectral regions. In particular, it has been demonstrated that graphene plasmons can be tuned across a wide spectral range spanning from the mid-infrared to the terahertz. The identification of a general class of plasmonic excitations in systems containing only a few dozen atoms permits us to extend this versatility into the visible and ultraviolet. As appealing as this extension might be for active nanoscale manipulation of visible light, its realization constitutes a formidable technical challenge. We experimentally demonstrate the existence of molecular plasmon resonances in the visible for ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which we reversibly switch by adding, then removing, a single electron from the molecule. The charged PAHs display intense absorption in the visible regime with electrical and geometrical tunability analogous to the plasmonic resonances of much larger nanographene systems. Finally, we also use the switchable molecular plasmon in anthracene to demonstrate a proof-of-concept low-voltage electrochromic device.

  15. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  16. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Anthony D.; Pfleger, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. This paper describes the burden of four major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. Osteoarthritis, which is characterized by loss of joint cartilage that leads to pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged > 60 years. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make osteoarthritis the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Joint replacement surgery, where available, provides effective relief. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that usually affects multiple joints. It affects 0.3-1.0% of the general population and is more prevalent among women and in developed countries. Persistent inflammation leads to joint destruction, but the disease can be controlled with drugs. The incidence may be on the decline, but the increase in the number of older people in some regions makes it difficult to estimate future prevalence. Osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, is a major risk factor for fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and distal forearm. Hip fracture is the most detrimental fracture, being associated with 20% mortality and 50% permanent loss in function. Low back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions; it affects nearly everyone at some point in time and about 4-33% of the population at any given point. Cultural factors greatly influence the prevalence and prognosis of low back pain. PMID:14710506

  17. Strong majorization entropic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-05-01

    We analyze entropic uncertainty relations in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space and derive several strong bounds for the sum of two entropies obtained in projective measurements with respect to any two orthogonal bases. We improve the recent bounds by Coles and Piani [P. Coles and M. Piani, Phys. Rev. A 89, 022112 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.022112], which are known to be stronger than the well-known result of Maassen and Uffink [H. Maassen and J. B. M. Uffink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1103 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.60.1103]. Furthermore, we find a bound based on majorization techniques, which also happens to be stronger than the recent results involving the largest singular values of submatrices of the unitary matrix connecting both bases. The first set of bounds gives better results for unitary matrices close to the Fourier matrix, while the second one provides a significant improvement in the opposite sectors. Some results derived admit generalization to arbitrary mixed states, so that corresponding bounds are increased by the von Neumann entropy of the measured state. The majorization approach is finally extended to the case of several measurements.

  18. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R.N.; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H.; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

  19. Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-06-01

    Molecular modeling has trickled down from the realm of pharmaceutical and research laboratories into the realm of undergraduate chemistry instruction. It has opened avenues for the visualization of chemical concepts that previously were difficult or impossible to convey. I am sure that many of you have developed exercises using the various molecular modeling tools. It is the desire of this Journal to become an avenue for you to share these exercises among your colleagues. It is to this end that Ron Starkey has agreed to edit such a column and to publish not only the description of such exercises, but also the software documents they use. The WWW is the obvious medium to distribute this combination and so accepted submissions will appear online as a feature of JCE Internet. Typical molecular modeling exercise: finding conformation energies. Molecular Modeling Exercises and Experiments is the latest feature column of JCE Internet, joining Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Hal's Picks, and Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum. JCE Internet continues to seek submissions in these areas of interest and submissions of general interest. If you have developed materials and would like to submit them, please see our Guide to Submissions for more information. The Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Equipment Buyers Guide, and WWW Site Review would also like to hear about chemistry textbooks and software, equipment, and WWW sites, respectively. Please consult JCE Internet Features to learn more about these resources at JCE Online. Email Announcements Would you like to be informed by email when the latest issue of the Journal is available online? when a new JCE Software title is shipping? when a new JCE Internet article has been published or is available for Open Review? when your subscription is about to expire? A new feature of JCE Online makes this possible. Visit our Guestbook to learn how. When

  20. Pediatric oncology in Morocco: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hessissen, Laila; Madani, Abdellah

    2012-03-01

    Cancer in children is quickly becoming one of the leading causes of non traumatic death among children. In pediatric oncology, palliative care is a primary component of the cancer control plan. In low income countries also known as emerging nations or developing countries access to adequate care remains a challenge for most pediatric oncology patients. In Morocco the situation has dramatically improved in the last few years as both the government and NGOs have become more aware of the importance and urgency of the issue. The incidence of cancer in patients under 15 years of age in Morocco is estimated to be 1000 new cases per year and the incidence of leukemia to be 100 new cases diagnosed per year. Pediatric cancer patients are mostly managed by public hospitals. Thus they are highly influenced by the Moroccan public health system, which is now considering cancer management a priority. Since health cover is very limited, most chemotherapy drugs were purchased by local parent associations. Recently, a new large Moroccan NGO (ALSC) provides anti-cancer drugs to all government-run oncology units. Despite all the progress, Morocco has witnessed in the pediatric oncology field, the palliative aspect of the care is not yet organized. Pediatric oncology is supported by the work of the National Society of Pediatric Oncolgy. The opioide therapy is available. However its use is strongly limited by the current restrictive and obsolete legislation which represents a major barrier to care. Despite the latest progress, pediatric oncology in Morocco still needs to improve in order to achieve performances comparable to those of the developed world. These improvements include better survival rates, less treatment abandonment, developing new techniques, improving quality of life and creating data collection teams. In order for this action to succeed all the stakeholders (government, NGOs, medical societies, oncology teams) must work together and coordinate their efforts.