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Sample records for achieved significant gains

  1. Full-Day Kindergarten Results in Significant Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskin, Candace F.; Haar, Jean M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, after an in-depth review of student achievement data for over 4,000 students, the administration of a school district in southern Minnesota identified the following challenges: (1) above-state-average number of special education students; (2) increasing number of English as Second Language (ESL) students; (3) increasing number of students…

  2. Classroom Composition and Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    Third-grade students in high ability groups in mathematics achieved greater gains than students in low ability groups. The opposite results occurred in reading achievement. Possible reasons for this difference include different instructional techniques for reading and math and the effect of home environment on learning. (IS)

  3. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks.

  4. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning. PMID:23936154

  5. Developmental Gains in Visuospatial Memory Predict Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning. PMID:23936154

  6. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  7. Competence with fractions predicts gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Drew H; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara; Geary, David C

    2012-11-01

    Competence with fractions predicts later mathematics achievement, but the codevelopmental pattern between fractions knowledge and mathematics achievement is not well understood. We assessed this codevelopment through examination of the cross-lagged relation between a measure of conceptual knowledge of fractions and mathematics achievement in sixth and seventh grades (N=212). The cross-lagged effects indicated that performance on the sixth grade fractions concepts measure predicted 1-year gains in mathematics achievement (ß=.14, p<.01), controlling for the central executive component of working memory and intelligence, but sixth grade mathematics achievement did not predict gains on the fractions concepts measure (ß=.03, p>.50). In a follow-up assessment, we demonstrated that measures of fluency with computational fractions significantly predicted seventh grade mathematics achievement above and beyond the influence of fluency in computational whole number arithmetic, performance on number fluency and number line tasks, central executive span, and intelligence. Results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that competence with fractions underlies, in part, subsequent gains in mathematics achievement. PMID:22832199

  8. Competence with fractions predicts gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Drew H; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara; Geary, David C

    2012-11-01

    Competence with fractions predicts later mathematics achievement, but the codevelopmental pattern between fractions knowledge and mathematics achievement is not well understood. We assessed this codevelopment through examination of the cross-lagged relation between a measure of conceptual knowledge of fractions and mathematics achievement in sixth and seventh grades (N=212). The cross-lagged effects indicated that performance on the sixth grade fractions concepts measure predicted 1-year gains in mathematics achievement (ß=.14, p<.01), controlling for the central executive component of working memory and intelligence, but sixth grade mathematics achievement did not predict gains on the fractions concepts measure (ß=.03, p>.50). In a follow-up assessment, we demonstrated that measures of fluency with computational fractions significantly predicted seventh grade mathematics achievement above and beyond the influence of fluency in computational whole number arithmetic, performance on number fluency and number line tasks, central executive span, and intelligence. Results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that competence with fractions underlies, in part, subsequent gains in mathematics achievement.

  9. Relationship of Teachers' Cognitive Styles to Pupils' Academic Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Dayton, C. Mitchell

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of teachers' cognitive styles and their pupils' achievement was examined for second and fifth graders. Results indicated significant effects due to teachers' cognitive styles, but there was no significant outcome (main or interaction effect) associated with the matching of teachers' and pupils' cognitive styles, or with grade…

  10. Effects of Collaborative Group Composition and Inquiry Instruction on Reasoning Gains and Achievement in Undergraduate Biology

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie Lee; Lawson, Anton

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of collaborative group composition and instructional method on reasoning gains and achievement in college biology. Based on initial student reasoning ability (i.e., low, medium, or high), students were assigned to either homogeneous or heterogeneous collaborative groups within either inquiry or didactic instruction. Achievement and reasoning gains were assessed at the end of the semester. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, led to significantly greater gains in reasoning ability and achievement. Inquiry instruction also led to greater confidence and more positive attitudes toward collaboration. Low-reasoning students made significantly greater reasoning gains within inquiry instruction when grouped with other low reasoners than when grouped with either medium or high reasoners. Results are consistent with equilibration theory, supporting the idea that students benefit from the opportunity for self-regulation without the guidance or direction of a more capable peer. PMID:21364101

  11. Competence with Fractions Predicts Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Drew H.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara; Geary, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Competence with fractions predicts later mathematics achievement, but the codevelopmental pattern between fractions knowledge and mathematics achievement is not well understood. We assessed this codevelopment through examination of the cross-lagged relation between a measure of conceptual knowledge of fractions and mathematics achievement in sixth…

  12. Explaining Mathematics Achievement Gains in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Arends, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test empirically whether and how classroom and school factors contribute to student mathematics learning gains in the border region of North West province, South Africa and Southeastern Botswana. Our results suggest that in both regions, improving teaching quality has an important impact on how much mathematics…

  13. Instructional Conditions in Charter Schools and Students' Mathematics Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark; Goldring, Ellen; Stein, Marc; Cravens, Xiu

    2010-01-01

    Since charter school research on student achievement is mixed, many researchers and policy makers advocate looking inside the "black box" of schools to better understand the conditions under which schools of choice may be effective. We begin to address this issue with data from charter schools and a comparison group of traditional public schools.…

  14. Focusing on Short-Term Achievement Gains Fails to Produce Long-Term Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term emphasis engendered by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has focused research predominantly on unraveling the complexities and uncertainties in assessing short-term results, rather than developing methods and assessing results over the longer term. In this paper we focus on estimating long-term gains and address questions important to…

  15. Exploring Rapid Achievement Gains in North Carolina and Texas. Lessons from the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David; Flanagan, Ann

    The National Education Goals Panel (NEGP) tracks and reports annually on 33 indicators linked to the 8 National Education Goals. The NEGP's 1997 report showed positive gains on the greatest number of indicators for North Carolina and Texas. These gains included significant gains on the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in…

  16. Students' Perceptions of Teachers' Abilities to Provide Certain Facilitative Conditions and Their Relationship to Language Arts Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward Hamilton

    This study sought to determine whether students who perceived their teachers as more effectively providing facilitative conditions (warmth, empathy, genuineness, and concreteness) achieved greater language arts gains than did students who perceived their teachers as being less facilitative. A statistically significant difference was found in…

  17. SOARing Into Strategic Planning: Engaging Nurses to Achieve Significant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Barbara; Felton, Fiona; Linus, Rita

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a new system chief nursing officer engaged the nursing leaders and staff in an Appreciative Inquiry process utilizing strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (SOAR), and a Journey of Excellence to assess and understand the current environment. The ultimate goal was to engage all nurses in strategic planning and goal setting to connect their patient care to the system strategic initiatives. This work led to the creation of a nursing vision, a revised professional practice model and greater council alignment, resulting in significant positive change and ongoing advancement throughout the system. The shared decision-making structure was key to the process with a direct connection of each council's goals, leading to the successful achievement of 34 of the 36 goals in 2 years. This article outlines the process, tools, and staff engagement strategies used to achieve system-wide success. This methodology has improved the outcomes across the organization in both small and system-wide work groups. This work can easily be replicated and adapted to help disparate staffs brought together through mergers or acquisitions to become aligned as a new team. This process, model, and framework, provides structure and results in significant outcomes that recognizes and celebrates the work of individual entities while aligning future strategies and goals.

  18. SOARing Into Strategic Planning: Engaging Nurses to Achieve Significant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Barbara; Felton, Fiona; Linus, Rita

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a new system chief nursing officer engaged the nursing leaders and staff in an Appreciative Inquiry process utilizing strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (SOAR), and a Journey of Excellence to assess and understand the current environment. The ultimate goal was to engage all nurses in strategic planning and goal setting to connect their patient care to the system strategic initiatives. This work led to the creation of a nursing vision, a revised professional practice model and greater council alignment, resulting in significant positive change and ongoing advancement throughout the system. The shared decision-making structure was key to the process with a direct connection of each council's goals, leading to the successful achievement of 34 of the 36 goals in 2 years. This article outlines the process, tools, and staff engagement strategies used to achieve system-wide success. This methodology has improved the outcomes across the organization in both small and system-wide work groups. This work can easily be replicated and adapted to help disparate staffs brought together through mergers or acquisitions to become aligned as a new team. This process, model, and framework, provides structure and results in significant outcomes that recognizes and celebrates the work of individual entities while aligning future strategies and goals. PMID:27584888

  19. Preschool Interpersonal Relationships Predict Kindergarten Achievement: Mediated by Gains in Emotion Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Marcela M.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, this study tested a model in which preschool interpersonal relationships promoted kindergarten achievement in a pathway mediated by growth in emotion knowledge. The sample included 164 children attending Head Start (14% Hispanic-American, 30% African-American, 56% Caucasian; 56% girls). Preschool interpersonal relationships were indexed by student-teacher relationship closeness and positive peer interactions. Two measures of emotion knowledge (identifying emotions in photographs, recognizing emotions in stories) were assessed at the start and end of the preschool year. Structural equation models revealed that positive interpersonal relationships (with teachers and peers) predicted gains in emotion knowledge (identification, recognition) during the preschool year. Positive interpersonal relationships in preschool also predicted kindergarten achievement (controlling for initial preschool achievement); however, this association was mediated by gains in emotion knowledge during the preschool year. Implications are discussed for school readiness programs serving economically-disadvantaged children. PMID:27630379

  20. Emotional Intelligence Skills: Significant Factors in Freshmen Achievement and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Darwin B.; Nelson, Kaye W.

    This study investigated the role of emotional skills in the academic achievement and retention of university freshmen. The research group was a randomly selected sample of first semester freshmen students (N=165), and cumulative grade point average was used as the criterion for academic success. The study was designed to investigate: (a) the…

  1. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  2. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million. This was accomplished after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  3. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  4. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  5. Executive function skills and academic achievement gains in prekindergarten: Contributions of learning-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-07-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-K) predict their learning-related behaviors in the classroom and whether these behaviors then mediate associations between children's executive function skills and their pre-K literacy, language, and mathematic gains. Learning-related behaviors were quantified in terms of (a) higher levels of involvement in learning opportunities; (b) greater frequency of participation in activities that require sequential steps; (c) more participation in social-learning interactions; and (d) less instances of being unoccupied, disruptive, or in time out. Results indicated that children's learning-related behaviors mediated associations between executive function skills and literacy and mathematics gains through children's level of involvement, sequential learning behaviors, and disengagement from the classroom. The implications of the findings for early childhood education are discussed.

  6. Executive function skills and academic achievement gains in prekindergarten: Contributions of learning-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-07-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-K) predict their learning-related behaviors in the classroom and whether these behaviors then mediate associations between children's executive function skills and their pre-K literacy, language, and mathematic gains. Learning-related behaviors were quantified in terms of (a) higher levels of involvement in learning opportunities; (b) greater frequency of participation in activities that require sequential steps; (c) more participation in social-learning interactions; and (d) less instances of being unoccupied, disruptive, or in time out. Results indicated that children's learning-related behaviors mediated associations between executive function skills and literacy and mathematics gains through children's level of involvement, sequential learning behaviors, and disengagement from the classroom. The implications of the findings for early childhood education are discussed. PMID:26010383

  7. Undergraduates achieve learning gains in plant genetics through peer teaching of secondary students.

    PubMed

    Chrispeels, H E; Klosterman, M L; Martin, J B; Lundy, S R; Watkins, J M; Gibson, C L; Muday, G K

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that undergraduates who peer teach genetics will have greater understanding of genetic and molecular biology concepts as a result of their teaching experiences. Undergraduates enrolled in a non-majors biology course participated in a service-learning program in which they led middle school (MS) or high school (HS) students through a case study curriculum to discover the cause of a green tomato variant. The curriculum explored plant reproduction and genetic principles, highlighting variation in heirloom tomato fruits to reinforce the concept of the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. HS students were taught additional activities related to mole-cular biology techniques not included in the MS curriculum. We measured undergraduates' learning outcomes using pre/postteaching content assessments and the course final exam. Undergraduates showed significant gains in understanding of topics related to the curriculum they taught, compared with other course content, on both types of assessments. Undergraduates who taught HS students scored higher on questions specific to the HS curriculum compared with undergraduates who taught MS students, despite identical lecture content, on both types of assessments. These results indicate the positive effect of service-learning peer-teaching experiences on undergraduates' content knowledge, even for non-science major students.

  8. The Relationship between Teacher-Licensure Level and Gains in the Student Academic Achievement in New Mexico Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Roxann Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose, scope, and method of study: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher-licensure level in the New Mexico Three Tiered Licensure (NM 3-TL) System and gains in student academic achievement in reading and mathematics in grades four and five. A secondary purpose was to determine whether student…

  9. Exploring Gains in Reading and Mathematics Achievement among Regular and Exceptional Students Using Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Tacksoo; Davison, Mark L.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Chan, Chi-Keung; Heistad, David

    2013-01-01

    Using four-wave longitudinal reading and mathematics data (4th to 7th grades) from a large urban school district, growth curve modeling was used as a tool for examining three research questions: Are achievement gaps closing in reading and mathematics? What are the associations between prior-achievement and growth across the reading and mathematics…

  10. The Groove of Growth: How Early Gains in Math Ability Influence Adolescent Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…

  11. Achievement Gains and Staff Perception of School Climate. Research Brief. Volume 0707

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Don

    2008-01-01

    The importance of the beliefs and attitudes of teachers and building-level administrators in achieving school reform has come to be widely acknowledged. As University of Wisconsin professor Kent Peterson put it: "You can implement a good-quality improvement plan and knowledgeable, data-driven decision making, but if the [staff] doesn't believe…

  12. Mathematics Course-Taking and Gains in Mathematics Achievement. Statistics in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Donald A.; Pollack, Judith M.

    This brief report documents growth in mathematics achievement during the high school years and its relationship to differential course taking in mathematics. Data are taken from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), which was designed to monitor the transition of the nation's 1988 eighth graders as they progress from junior…

  13. [English as a foreign language (EFL) homework diaries: evaluating gains and constraints for self-regulated learning and achievement].

    PubMed

    Rosário, Pedro; Mourão, Rosa; Trigo, Luisa; Suárez, Natalia; Fernández, Estrella; Tuero-Herrero, Ellián

    2011-11-01

    Although homework completion is said to be rather important to achievement, nowadays there is a growing concern of educators about the increasing number of students who do not engage properly on doing the homework tasks and the subsequent impact on school failure rates. Focusing on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and using a sample of 591 Portuguese fifth and sixth graders, the present study analyses the role played by a number of homework variables on students' achievement (proximal and distal), and their mediating role on the use of self-regulated learning strategies and perceived self-efficacy in the domain. Data confirm the indirect effect of homework on school achievement, by means of the referred cognitive and motivational variables (use of self-regulated learning strategies and self-efficacy). These findings are further discussed in order to highlight the significant role homework completion can play on fighting school failure. PMID:22047858

  14. [English as a foreign language (EFL) homework diaries: evaluating gains and constraints for self-regulated learning and achievement].

    PubMed

    Rosário, Pedro; Mourão, Rosa; Trigo, Luisa; Suárez, Natalia; Fernández, Estrella; Tuero-Herrero, Ellián

    2011-11-01

    Although homework completion is said to be rather important to achievement, nowadays there is a growing concern of educators about the increasing number of students who do not engage properly on doing the homework tasks and the subsequent impact on school failure rates. Focusing on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and using a sample of 591 Portuguese fifth and sixth graders, the present study analyses the role played by a number of homework variables on students' achievement (proximal and distal), and their mediating role on the use of self-regulated learning strategies and perceived self-efficacy in the domain. Data confirm the indirect effect of homework on school achievement, by means of the referred cognitive and motivational variables (use of self-regulated learning strategies and self-efficacy). These findings are further discussed in order to highlight the significant role homework completion can play on fighting school failure.

  15. New ultrahigh-speed CCD camera achieves sub-electron read noise using on-chip multiplication gain (EMCCD) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guntupalli, Ravi K.; Hagan, Vern; Cooper, Andrew; Simpson, Raymond W.

    2005-03-01

    The imaging performance of a high speed camera utilizing novel "on-chip electron multiplication gain CCD (EMCCD)" technology is presented. The EMCCD technology has become a popular choice for low-light, high-speed scientific imaging and spectroscopy applications. By amplifying the signal right on the CCD, the new technology overcomes the read noise limitation, typical of high speed CCD cameras. Using all solid-state technology, the EMCCDs alleviate the shortcomings of the traditional amplification technologies using external photocathode materials such as intensified CCD (ICCD) and electron-bombarded CCD (EBCCD) cameras. For example, the technology is not susceptible to burn-in or damage in high light conditions and does not suffer from potential loss of spatial resolution in the photocathode material. A new camera, Cascade:128+, was developed using back illuminated, frame transfer EMCCD with 128x128 pixels to achieve frame rates in excess of 510 full frames per second and the system read noise below one electron rms. Custom data acquisition hardware and software allow real time access to the image data. The camera is ideal for high-frame rate, low-light level imaging applications in physical and biological sciences including adaptive optics, plasma diagnostics, neural-imaging and single molecule tracking.

  16. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  17. Achieving high-resolution soft-tissue imaging with cone-beam CT: a two-pronged approach for modulation of x-ray fluence and detector gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, S. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Moseley, D. J.; Keller, H.; Shkumat, N. A.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2005-04-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) presents a highly promising and challenging advanced application of flat-panel detectors (FPDs). The great advantage of this adaptable technology is in the potential for sub-mm 3D spatial resolution in combination with soft-tissue detectability. While the former is achieved naturally by CBCT systems incorporating modern FPD designs (e.g., 200 - 400 um pixel pitch), the latter presents a significant challenge due to limitations in FPD dynamic range, large field of view, and elevated levels of x-ray scatter in typical CBCT configurations. We are investigating a two-pronged strategy to maximizing soft-tissue detectability in CBCT: 1) front-end solutions, including novel beam modulation designs (viz., spatially varying compensators) that alleviate detector dynamic range requirements, reduce x-ray scatter, and better distribute imaging dose in a manner suited to soft-tissue visualization throughout the field of view; and 2) back-end solutions, including implementation of an advanced FPD design (Varian PaxScan 4030CB) that features dual-gain and dynamic gain switching that effectively extends detector dynamic range to 18 bits. These strategies are explored quantitatively on CBCT imaging platforms developed in our laboratory, including a dedicated CBCT bench and a mobile isocentric C-arm (Siemens PowerMobil). Pre-clinical evaluation of improved soft-tissue visibility was carried out in phantom and patient imaging with the C-arm device. Incorporation of these strategies begin to reveal the full potential of CBCT for soft-tissue visualization, an essential step in realizing broad utility of this adaptable technology for diagnostic and image-guided procedures.

  18. Heifer body weight gain and reproductive achievement in response to protein and energy supplementation while grazing dormant range forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifers grazing winter range require supplemental nutrients to compliment dormant forage to achieve optimal growth and performance. A study was conducted to evaluate nutritional environment and effect of different supplementation strategies for developing heifers grazing dormant winter range. Eigh...

  19. The Direct Effects of Principal-Student Discussions upon Eighth Grade Students' Gains in Reading Achievement: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Jack P.

    2010-01-01

    School effectiveness and instructional leadership research over the past thirty years have largely concluded that principal effects on student achievement are small and indirect; it has been assumed that principal effect is important, but mediated through other school factors. To the contrary, this experimental study found that one-on-one…

  20. Milwaukee Independent Charter Schools Study: Final Report on Four-Year Achievement Gains. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Carlson, Deven; Dean, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The general purpose of this five-year evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of Milwaukee's independent charter schools in promoting student achievement growth. Independent charter schools are authorized by nonschool-district entities and are considered "independent" because they are not a part of the Milwaukee Public School District (MPS).…

  1. Third Phase: Achievement Gains Associated with Implementation of the Assistant Teacher Program in the First Three Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Herbert M.

    The effectiveness of Mississippi's Assistant Teacher Program (ATP) was evaluated after its third year of operation, determining: (1) whether first graders who were exposed to teachers and assistant teachers who had been in ATP for three years continued to make progress in academic achievement; (2) the effectiveness of ATP in fostering achievement…

  2. Helping Struggling Adolescent Readers: Is Implementation of Different Components of Scholastic's READ 180 Associated with Differences in Student Achievement Gains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Debra J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses data from the evaluation of a Striving Readers project to examine the associations between levels of implementation of different components of Scholastic's "READ 180" and student achievement as measured on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) reading assessment. The approach was hierarchical linear modeling using…

  3. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases.

  4. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  5. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  6. Factors significantly related to science achievement of Malaysian middle school students: An analysis of TIMSS 1999 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokshein, Siti Eshah

    The importance of science and technology in the global economy has led to growing emphasis on math and science achievement all over the world. In this study, I seek to identify variables at the student-level and school-level that account for the variation in science achievement of the eighth graders in Malaysia. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 for Malaysia, a series of HLM analysis was performed. Results indicate that (1) variation in overall science achievement is greater between schools than within schools; (2) both the selected student-level and school-level factors are Important in explaining the variation in the eight graders' achievement In science; (3) the selected student-level variables explain about 13% of the variation in students' achievement within schools, but as an aggregate, they account for a much larger proportion of the between-school variance; (4) the selected school-level variables account for about 55% of the variation between schools; (5) within schools, the effects of self-concept In science, awareness of the social implications of science, gender, and home educational resources are significantly related to achievement; (6) the effects of self-concept in science and awareness of social implications of science are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES; (7) between schools, the effects of the mean of home educational resources, mean of parents' education, mean of awareness of the social implications of science, and emphasis on conducting experiments are significantly related to achievement; (8) the effects of SES variables explain about 50% of the variation in the school means achievement; and (9) the effects of emphasis on conducting experiments on achievement are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES. Since it is hard to change the society, it is recommended that efforts to Improve science achievement be focused more at the school-level, concentrating on variables that

  7. Social, psychological and economic challenges faced by transgender individuals and their significant others: gaining insight through personal narratives.

    PubMed

    Lenning, Emily; Buist, Carrie L

    2013-01-01

    Using narrative analysis, this study uses survey data to explore the social, psychological and economic challenges faced by transgender individuals and their significant others. With over 300 participants, this study not only validates the findings of previous yet smaller scale studies surrounding the transgender experience, it adds greater context to our current understanding, specifically because of its inclusion of significant others. Findings include participants' reports of social stigma coupled with psychological pain and economic hardship. The authors discuss the intersectionality of these three variables and the possible implications for understanding the transgender experience and that of their partners.

  8. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over course of the preschool period.

    PubMed

    Clark, Caron A C; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Garza, John; Sheffield, Tiffany D; Wiebe, Sandra A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Early executive control (EC) predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and (2) determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households) completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively decoupled from

  9. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over course of the preschool period.

    PubMed

    Clark, Caron A C; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Garza, John; Sheffield, Tiffany D; Wiebe, Sandra A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Early executive control (EC) predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and (2) determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households) completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively decoupled from

  10. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over course of the preschool period

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Caron A. C.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Garza, John; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Early executive control (EC) predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and (2) determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households) completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively decoupled from

  11. The negative influence of significant others on high academic achieving school pupils' choice of nursing as a career.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Gavin R; McNally, Jim

    2013-03-01

    The International Council of Nurses proposes that the shortage of nurses is global in scale and is expected to become much worse in the years ahead. A major factor impacting on the worldwide nursing shortage is the diminishing number of young people choosing nursing as a career (International Council of Nurses, 2008). One important dimension of the school pupils' career choice process is their interactions with significant others and the influence of these significant others (Hodkinson and Sparkes, 1997). As Schools/Departments of Nursing endeavour to attract more intellectual school leavers it is important to examine what advice and opinions are significant others giving regarding nursing as a career choice and how influential is this advice. This paper is based on interview data from 20 high academic achieving 5th and 6th year school pupils in Scotland, paradigmatic cases from a larger sample, who had considered nursing as a possible career choice within their career preference cluster, but then later disregarded nursing and decided to pursue medicine or another health care profession. The data was particularly striking in revealing the negative influence of significant others on high academic achieving school pupils' choice of nursing as a career. The influence of significant others, these being specifically parents, guardians, guidance teachers and career advisors was very apparent in the data in that they had a very negative view regarding nursing as a career choice for high academic achieving school pupils. PMID:22464633

  12. Using the Stress and Adversity Inventory as a Teaching Tool Leads to Significant Learning Gains in Two Courses on Stress and Health

    PubMed Central

    Slavich, George M.; Toussaint, Loren

    2015-01-01

    The ability to measure cumulative stress exposure is important for research and teaching in stress and health, but until recently, no structured system has existed for assessing exposure to stress over the lifespan. Here, we report the results of two experimental studies that examined the pedagogical efficacy of using an automated system for assessing life stress, called the Stress and Adversity Inventory (STRAIN), for teaching courses on stress and health. In Study 1, a randomized, wait-list controlled experiment was conducted with 20 college students to test whether the STRAIN, coupled with a related lecture and discussion, promoted learning about stress and health. Results showed that this experiential lesson led to significant learning gains. To disentangle the effects of completing the STRAIN from participating in the lecture and discussion, we subsequently conducted Study 2 on 144 students using a 2 (STRAIN versus control activity) by 2 (STRAIN-specific lecture versus general stress lecture) repeated-measures design. Although the STRAIN-specific lecture was sufficient for promoting learning, completing the STRAIN also generated significant learning gains when paired with only the general stress lecture. Together, these studies suggest that the STRAIN is an effective tool for promoting experiential learning and teaching students about stress and health. PMID:23955924

  13. Using the stress and adversity inventory as a teaching tool leads to significant learning gains in two courses on stress and health.

    PubMed

    Slavich, George M; Toussaint, Loren

    2014-10-01

    The ability to measure cumulative stress exposure is important for research and teaching in stress and health, but until recently, no structured system has existed for assessing exposure to stress over the lifespan. Here, we report the results of two experimental studies that examined the pedagogical efficacy of using an automated system for assessing life stress, called the Stress and Adversity Inventory (STRAIN), for teaching courses on stress and health. In Study 1, a randomized, wait-list controlled experiment was conducted with 20 college students to test whether the STRAIN, coupled with a related lecture and discussion, promoted learning about stress and health. Results showed that this experiential lesson led to significant learning gains. To disentangle the effects of completing the STRAIN from participating in the lecture and discussion, we subsequently conducted Study 2 on 144 students using a 2 (STRAIN versus control activity) by 2 (STRAIN-specific lecture versus general stress lecture) repeated-measures design. Although the STRAIN-specific lecture was sufficient for promoting learning, completing the STRAIN also generated significant learning gains when paired with only the general stress lecture. Together, these studies suggest that the STRAIN is an effective tool for promoting experiential learning and teaching students about stress and health.

  14. Clinical significance of PD-L1 and PD-L2 copy number gains in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Katsuhiro; Mori, Kazutaka; Kurabe, Nobuya; Kahyo, Tomoaki; Mori, Hiroki; Kawase, Akikazu; Tanahashi, Masayuki; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Inui, Naoki; Funai, Kazuhito; Shinmura, Kazuya; Niwa, Hiroshi; Suda, Takafumi; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    New reliable biomarkers are needed to predict the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors against programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), because PD-L1 expression on tumor cells has limited power for selecting patients who may benefit from such therapy. Here we investigated the significance of PD-L1 and PD-L2 gene copy number gains using fluorescence in situ hybridization as well as PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in 654 patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer. The prevalence of PD-L1 amplification and polysomy was 3.1% and 13.2%, respectively. The PD-L1 gene copy number status was in agreement with both the PD-L2 and Janus kinase 2 gene copy number statuses. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression was observed in 30.7% and 13.1%, respectively. Both PD-L1 copy number gains and expression were associated with smoking-related tumors. Tumor cells with PD-L1 genomic gains exhibited significantly higher levels of PD-L1 expression than those without, but PD-L2 copy number gains were not related to PD-L2 augmentation. PD-L1 gene amplification and polysomy were independently associated with PD-L1 expression, with high immune infiltrates and EGFR expression in a multivariate logistic regression model. Comparative analysis between primary tumors and synchronous regional lymph node metastases revealed that the PD-L1 gene copy number alterations were highly consistent and reproducible compared with the PD-L1 expression. Both PD-L1 amplification and level of protein expression were predictors of poor survival using Cox univariate analyses. Therefore, we conclude that an increase in PD-L1 gene copy number can be a feasible alternative biomarker for predicting response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. PMID:27050074

  15. Clinical significance of PD-L1 and PD-L2 copy number gains in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Katsuhiro; Mori, Kazutaka; Kurabe, Nobuya; Kahyo, Tomoaki; Mori, Hiroki; Kawase, Akikazu; Tanahashi, Masayuki; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Inui, Naoki; Funai, Kazuhito; Shinmura, Kazuya; Niwa, Hiroshi; Suda, Takafumi; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2016-05-31

    New reliable biomarkers are needed to predict the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors against programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), because PD-L1 expression on tumor cells has limited power for selecting patients who may benefit from such therapy. Here we investigated the significance of PD-L1 and PD-L2 gene copy number gains using fluorescence in situ hybridization as well as PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in 654 patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer. The prevalence of PD-L1 amplification and polysomy was 3.1% and 13.2%, respectively. The PD-L1 gene copy number status was in agreement with both the PD-L2 and Janus kinase 2 gene copy number statuses. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression was observed in 30.7% and 13.1%, respectively. Both PD-L1 copy number gains and expression were associated with smoking-related tumors. Tumor cells with PD-L1 genomic gains exhibited significantly higher levels of PD-L1 expression than those without, but PD-L2 copy number gains were not related to PD-L2 augmentation. PD-L1 gene amplification and polysomy were independently associated with PD-L1 expression, with high immune infiltrates and EGFR expression in a multivariate logistic regression model. Comparative analysis between primary tumors and synchronous regional lymph node metastases revealed that the PD-L1 gene copy number alterations were highly consistent and reproducible compared with the PD-L1 expression. Both PD-L1 amplification and level of protein expression were predictors of poor survival using Cox univariate analyses. Therefore, we conclude that an increase in PD-L1 gene copy number can be a feasible alternative biomarker for predicting response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. PMID:27050074

  16. Alabama's Education Report Card, 2000: Significant Predictors of Student Achievement at the District and School Level. Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Whitehead, Marie

    This paper examines Alabama's State Education Report Card for the year 2000. It identifies predictors for student academic achievement at both the district and school levels for 128 public school systems and 1,272 public schools. Separate analyses were conducted for 61 city and 67 county school systems. The variables included number of students,…

  17. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-01

    The U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, MN, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  18. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    This case study describes how the U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, Minnesota, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  19. [The major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries and their significance for the near future].

    PubMed

    Lisitsyn, Iu P; Zhuravleva, T V

    2012-01-01

    Among major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries considered as the most outstanding contribution are the development of theory of system of control of functions of organism and its integrity by I.P. Pavlov and his disciples and followers: the concept of psycho-somatic medicine by Z. Freud and social psychology; the theory of stress and general adaptive syndrome by H. Selye and the discovering of nature of many infectious and parasitic diseases. Then establishment of pathogenic impact of extra-environmental factors, decoding of gene chromosomal structure of organism, development of genetic engineering, effective pharmaceuticals, and techniques of treatment and prevention of various inherent and acquired diseases also can be put into this category. The achievements and discoveries in the area of public health, social medicine and hygiene and development of concept of healthy life-style are discussed too. PMID:23350086

  20. Elementary Principal Leadership Practices, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy about Teacher Evaluation in Title I Urban Schools Making Gains in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Karen Cohen

    2013-01-01

    Current school reform efforts aim to improve teaching and learning with emphasis on accountability for student achievement. The success of school reform depends on the motivation and capacities of school leaders. It is important to know what effective leadership practices look like to understand the direct impact to student achievement,…

  1. Capital Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    "Social capital" describes the strength of community as measured by the connections and levels of trust among its members. These connections are both formal and informal and the benefits include better health and better academic achievement. In this article, the author proposes two types of experiments to determine whether the relationship between…

  2. Sustaining Continued Acceleration in Reading Comprehension Achievement Following an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mei Kuin; McNaughton, Stuart; Timperley, Helen; Hsiao, Selena

    2009-01-01

    Schooling improvement initiatives have demonstrated that moderate but significant achievement gains are possible with well designed interventions, but there is little research into whether these gains can be sustained. The present study examines the extent to which acceleration in achievement made during a three-year literacy intervention and the…

  3. Modes of unstable resonators with a saturable gain guide.

    PubMed

    Denchev, O; Kurtev, S; Petrov, P

    2001-02-20

    We investigate theoretically gain-guided modes in unstable resonators with a uniformly reflective mirror in the area of highly efficient steady-state lasers, where the gain saturation is the main efficiency factorly. We achieved self-consistent Hermite-Gaussian modes at significant gain saturation as well as the connection of the mode's scaling factor and mode amplitude coefficients with the system parameters by using complex paraxial wave optics. A new stabilization mechanism, saturation guiding, works together with gain guiding in unstable resonators. We obtained more actual results for mode generation and selection by integrating the laser rate equation. PMID:18357074

  4. Effects of Relaxation and EMG Training on Academic Achievement of Educable Retarded Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, John L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Eight educable mentally retarded boys who participated in a ten-week electromyographic biofeedback training evidenced significant gains in cognition, reading achievement, coordination, memory, and handwriting. (CL)

  5. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  6. Gain-adaptive vector quantization for medium-rate speech coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.-H.; Gersho, A.

    A class of adaptive vector quantizers (VQs) that can dynamically adjust the 'gain' of codevectors according to the input signal level is introduced. The encoder uses a gain estimator to determine a suitable normalization of each input vector prior to VQ coding. The normalized vectors have reduced dynamic range and can then be more efficiently coded. At the receiver, the VQ decoder output is multiplied by the estimated gain. Both forward and backward adaptation are considered and several different gain estimators are compared and evaluated. An approach to optimizing the design of gain estimators is introduced. Some of the more obvious techniques for achieving gain adaptation are substantially less effective than the use of optimized gain estimators. A novel design technique that is needed to generate the appropriate gain-normalized codebook for the vector quantizer is introduced. Experimental results show that a significant gain in segmental SNR can be obtained over nonadaptive VQ with a negligible increase in complexity.

  7. Gain-adaptive vector quantization for medium-rate speech coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-H.; Gersho, A.

    1985-01-01

    A class of adaptive vector quantizers (VQs) that can dynamically adjust the 'gain' of codevectors according to the input signal level is introduced. The encoder uses a gain estimator to determine a suitable normalization of each input vector prior to VQ coding. The normalized vectors have reduced dynamic range and can then be more efficiently coded. At the receiver, the VQ decoder output is multiplied by the estimated gain. Both forward and backward adaptation are considered and several different gain estimators are compared and evaluated. An approach to optimizing the design of gain estimators is introduced. Some of the more obvious techniques for achieving gain adaptation are substantially less effective than the use of optimized gain estimators. A novel design technique that is needed to generate the appropriate gain-normalized codebook for the vector quantizer is introduced. Experimental results show that a significant gain in segmental SNR can be obtained over nonadaptive VQ with a negligible increase in complexity.

  8. Gain lever characterization in monolithically integrated diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocha, Michael; Bond, Tiziana; Welty, Rebecca; Vernon, Stephen; Kallman, Jeffrey; Behymer, Elaine

    2005-04-01

    Gain Lever, an effect for enhancing amplitude modulation (AM) efficiency in multisection laser diodes1, has been characterized in InGaAs DQW edge emitting lasers that are integrated with passive waveguides. Specifically designed structures which give a range of split ratios from 1:1 to 9:1 have been fabricated and measured to fully characterize the parameter space for operation in the gain lever mode. Additionally the experimental results are compared to a hybrid 3-D simulation involving effective index method (EIM) reduction to 2-D. Gains greater than 6 dB in the AM efficiency can be achieved within the appropriate operating range, but this gain drops rapidly as the parameter range is exceeded. High speed RF modulation with significant gain is, in principle, possible if proper biasing and modulation conditions are used. This phenomenon can also be useful for high-speed digital information transmission.

  9. Achieving significantly enhanced visible-light photocatalytic efficiency using a polyelectrolyte: the composites of exfoliated titania nanosheets, graphene, and poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; An, Qi; Luan, Xinglong; Huang, Hongwei; Li, Xiaowei; Meng, Zilin; Tong, Wangshu; Chen, Xiaodong; Chu, Paul K.; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-08-01

    A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency.A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03256c

  10. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced, and within 2 s, reductions below the detection limit (<10 CFU) were reached. Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit with only 1 s of treatment. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment was also applied on two different types of plastic modular conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high

  11. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced, and within 2 s, reductions below the detection limit (<10 CFU) were reached. Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit with only 1 s of treatment. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment was also applied on two different types of plastic modular conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high

  12. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planetary bodies, to techniques and instrument development for exploration.

  13. Sudden gains in behavioural activation for depression.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Ciara; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Richards, David; Toner-Clewes, Benjamin; McMillan, Dean

    2014-09-01

    Sudden gains have been linked to improved outcomes in cognitive behaviour therapy for depression. The relationship between sudden gains and outcome is less clear in other treatment modalities, including interpersonal psychotherapy and supportive expressive therapy, which may indicate different mechanisms of change between treatment modalities. The current study examined sudden gains in adults meeting diagnostic criteria for depression (N = 40) offered up to 12 sessions of behavioural activation treatment. Sudden gains were found in 42.5% of the sample. Sudden gains occurred early (median pre-gain session 2) and were related to outcome: those who experienced a sudden gain had significantly lower post-treatment scores on the PHQ-9. Furthermore, the proportion meeting the reliable and clinically significant change criteria at end of treatment was higher in the sudden gain group. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which sudden gains relate to therapy outcome in behavioural activation.

  14. Small signal gain in DPAL systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbally-Kinney, Kristin L.; Maser, Daniel L.; Kessler, William J.; Rawlins, Wilson T.; Davis, Steven J.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we describe a platform for small signal gain measurements for alkali atom laser systems based on the DPAL excitation method. We present initial results that clearly show the transition from absorption on the alkali atom D1 lines in Cs and Rb to optical transparency and positive gain. The achievement of optical gain is critically dependent upon alkali cell conditions and collision partners. We also present the first spatially resolved gain measurements in a DPAL system. The small signal gain methods described will be valuable tools for power scaling of these laser systems.

  15. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... as much as 25 to 30 pounds. This weight gain is not simply due to eating more. ... or a dietitian about how to make a healthy eating plan and set ... be causing the weight gain without talking with your provider.

  16. Antipsychotic induced weight gain in schizophrenia:mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Rege, Sanil

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present paper was to describe the mechanisms and management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients. A comprehensive literature review of all available articles on the mechanisms and management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain was done by searching databases PsychINFO and PubMed. A summary of the available guidelines for monitoring of antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic syndrome is also provided. There has been a substantial increase in the number of studies investigating the mechanisms and management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain after 2002. These include advances in the understanding of pharmacogenomics of weight gain and several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating pharmacological and psychological treatments to promote weight loss. The most effective strategy for prevention of weight gain is the choice of antipsychotic medication with low weight gain potential. In individuals with established weight gain and metabolic issues, switching to an antipsychotic agent with lower weight gain potential and/or lifestyle modifications with physical activity are most effective in promoting weight loss. Pharmacological agents such as orlistat and sibutramine are effective in general obesity but have not been sufficiently evaluated in antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The case to prescribe routine pharmacological treatment to promote weight loss is weak. Long-term, pragmatic studies are required to inform clinical practice. Weight gain in schizophrenia is associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Achieving an optimal trade-off between effectiveness and side-effects of antipsychotic agents, although difficult, is achievable. This should be based on three main principles: (i) a shared decision-making model between the patient, clinician and carer(s) when choosing an antipsychotic; (ii) a commitment to baseline and follow-up monitoring with explicit identification of the responsible

  17. Plasmonics: Loss and gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulton, Rupert F.

    2012-04-01

    Providing sufficient gain to overcome loss remains a fundamental challenge for light amplification in miniaturized plasmonic devices. Ongoing research gives hope for a cautious but optimistic outlook.

  18. The Effects of Ability Grouping upon Achievement in Eleventh Grade American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gerald Wayne

    1974-01-01

    Article sought to answer the question of whether pupils in comparable ability levels, taught in homogeneous and heterogeneous classes, differ significantly in achievement gain in 11th grade American history at the .05 alpha level. (Author/RK)

  19. The Gains from Vertical Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations…

  20. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  1. The Effects of Two Parent Counseling Programs on Rural Low-Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Peter; Levant, Ronald F.

    1983-01-01

    Compared two methods of parent counseling in enhancing the self-esteem and academic achievement of 33 low-achieving rural elementary school students. Results indicated both the Systematic Training for Effective Parenting and the Self-Esteem Method improved academic achievement, but the SEM resulted in more significant gains in self-esteem. (JAC)

  2. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy. PMID:10121318

  3. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy.

  4. The GOALS Program. Gaining Opportunities to Achieve Lifetime Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwich, Andy; Otto, Nonie

    Designed to support the development of well-rounded individuals, this resource guide integrates the World Cup and soccer into social studies, language arts, mathematics, science, and physical education. The objectives of the GOALS program are for students to: (1) recognize the importance of the World Cup and soccer throughout the world; (2)…

  5. What Are Achievement Gains Worth--to Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, New York City schools commenced a school-level pay-for-performance program for teachers and staff in about 200 schools. The authors found that the program didn't improve schools or student outcomes. Why? Because the program failed to create conditions that theory suggests are necessary for performance-based incentive programs to change…

  6. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, D.M.

    1996-11-05

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit. 5 figs.

  7. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, David M.

    1996-01-01

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit.

  8. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  9. Pedagogical Significance of Wikis: Towards Gaining Effective Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewege, Chandana Rathnasiri; Perera, Liyanage Chamila Roshani

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness and pedagogical implications of integrating wikis into the curriculum and the subsequent learning outcomes of a group of Net-Gens who enrolled in an International Marketing course. The research problem of the study is: "What are the learning outcomes and pedagogical implications…

  10. Gestational weight gain trajectories in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Lee-Baggley, Dayna; Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify gestational weight gain trajectories, stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), of women with singleton pregnancies who received prenatal care in a primary care setting, and to compare these trajectories with the 2009 Institute of Medicine gestational weight gain recommendations. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Halifax, NS. Participants Women who received prenatal care at the Dalhousie Family Medicine clinics in Halifax from 2009 to 2013. Main outcome measures For each prenatal visit, gestational age and weight measurements were obtained. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the gestational weight gain trajectories. The upper limit of the guideline-recommended weekly gestational weight gain was compared with the 95% CI of the observed mean weekly gestational weight gain for each prepregnancy BMI category. Results A total of 280 women were included in the analyses. There was a significant interaction between prepregnancy BMI category and gestational weight gain over time (P < .001), with gestational weight gain being significantly lower among women with prepregnancy BMI of 30.0 kg/m2 or greater compared with those with BMI of 18.5 to less than 25.0 kg/m2 and 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2. When comparing women’s weight gain with the recommendations, women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 had the most guideline discordance, deviating from the weight gain recommendations at 20 weeks’ gestation. Conclusion These results are relevant and of benefit to women and clinicians wishing to address excess gestational weight gain, and to researchers and policy makers developing interventions aimed at curbing gestational weight gain in primary care. Although our results showed women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 gained the most excess, guideline-discordant weight, interventions should target all women planning or experiencing a pregnancy.

  11. Gaining on the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    About three-quarters of the 2009 graduates of the highly diverse Arlington, Virginia, Public Schools completed one or more Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate courses during their high school careers. That figure serves as one indicator of a decade-long initiative to eliminate achievement gaps while raising achievement for all…

  12. Amoco technique gains support

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Amoco Corp.`s low-cost horizontal drilling technique and equipment are gaining acceptance in the oilpatch after five years of design and fine-tuning work. The system is purely mechanical, and it`s designed to operate with a workover rig instead of a drilling rig. It`s engineered to drill short-radius horizontal wells with lateral sup to 1,000 feet, so far.

  13. Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in Improving Achievement of Urban School Districts. Education Outlook. No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In one of the first large-scale analyses of urban trends on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Council of the Great City Schools and the American Institutes for Research identified urban school systems that demonstrated high achievement or significant achievement gains on the NAEP, and examined possible factors behind…

  14. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  15. Collapsible high gain antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cribb, H. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A lightweight small high gain antenna which is capable of being packaged in a collapsed form and automatically expanded when in use is described. The antenna includes a cylindrical housing having a rod with a piston adjacent to one end extending through it. Attached to the outer end of the rod in a normally collapsed state is a helical wire coil. When the gas producing means is activated the piston and rod are shifted outwardly to expand the wire coil. A latch is provided for holding the helical coil in the expanded position.

  16. Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)

  17. Gain/bandwidth predictions for travelling-wave gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, A. J.

    1980-10-01

    Small signal gain computations based on a Pierce description of the traveling-wave gyrotron have been performed for cases involving beam voltages in the range 70-300 kV. Interactions at both the first and the second harmonics of the cyclotron resonance frequency have been considered in order to identify a range of operating parameters for the gyro-traveling-wave amplifier configuration which will potentially produce gain and bandwidth figures of significance to radar and communication systems operating at millimeter-wave frequencies. It is shown that when operated fundamentally and well away from cutoff, the gyro-traveling-wave amplifier can be magnetically tuned over a wide frequency range, with instantaneous bandwidths in the range 4-8% depending on the beam voltage; at voltages in excess of 200 kV, instantaneous bandwidths approaching 10% can be achieved.

  18. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  19. Sudden Gains During Therapy of Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schulz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive–behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967 session-to-session intervals met criteria for sudden gains, which most frequently occurred in Session 5. Individuals with sudden gains showed similar improvements in the 2 treatment groups. Although cognitive–behavioral therapy was associated with more cognitive changes than exposure therapy, cognitive changes did not precede sudden gains. In general, the results of this study question the clinical significance of sudden gains in social phobia treatment. PMID:16881776

  20. Perceptually optimized gain function for cochlear implant signal-to-noise ratio based noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Stefan J; Dawson, Pam W; Hersbach, Adam A

    2012-01-01

    Noise reduction in cochlear implants has achieved significant speech perception improvements through spectral subtraction and signal-to-noise ratio based noise reduction techniques. Current methods use gain functions derived through mathematical optimization or motivated by normal listening psychoacoustic experiments. Although these gain functions have been able to improve speech perception, recent studies have indicated that they are not optimal for cochlear implant noise reduction. This study systematically investigates cochlear implant recipients' speech perception and listening preference of noise reduction with a range of gain functions. Results suggest an advantageous gain function and show that gain functions currently used for noise reduction are not optimal for cochlear implant recipients. Using the cochlear implant optimised gain function, a 27% improvement over the current advanced combination encoder (ACE) stimulation strategy in speech weighted noise and a 7% improvement over current noise reduction strategies were observed in babble noise conditions. The optimized gain function was also most preferred by cochlear implant recipients. The CI specific gain function derived from this study can be easily incorporated into existing noise reduction strategies, to further improve listening performance for CI recipients in challenging environments.

  1. Gain and energy storage in holmium YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E.; Deyst, John P.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated that Q-switched holmium lasers are capable of high-gain and high-energy operation at 300 K. Small-signal gain coefficients of 0.50 and 0.12/cm have been measured in YLF and YAG, respectively. Small-signal gains of 0.50/cm are comparable to those achievable in Nd:YAG and are not typical of low-gain materials. This large gain in the Ho:YLF material is made possible by operating the amplifier in the ground state depletion mode. The amplifier performance data and associated analysis presented demonstrate that efficient energy storage is possible with very high excited state ion densities of the Ho 5I7 upper laser level. This is an important result since upconversion can limit the 5I7 population. Although upconversion was still present in this experiment, it was possible to achieve efficient energy storage, demonstrating that the problem is manageable even at high excitation densities in YLF.

  2. Adolescent drug addiction treatment and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, Candace C; Cahill, Kevin S; Seraphine, Anne E; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Gold, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release in the nucleus accumbens use has been linked to self-administration and learning following drug use. This endogenous reward system is also activated following food intake or sex. Therefore, rebound hyperphagia following abstinence may be a mechanism to replenish the release of neurotransmitters in this reward system, leading to increased weight gain and a rise in body mass index during recovery from substance abuse. In this report, we examined the relationship between supervised drug abstinence and increased weight gain among adolescents at a residential substance abuse treatment center. Mean weight change over time was followed by repeated analysis of weight and body mass index. Significant weight gain and body mass index increase was observed during supervised and confirmed abstinence from drug use. Furthermore, significant interactions between tobacco use and primary substance use disorder with weight gain was demonstrated by multivariate analysis of variance.

  3. Comparison of gradient methods for gain tuning of a PD controller applied on a quadrotor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinho; Wilkerson, Stephen A.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Many mechanical and electrical systems have utilized the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control strategy. The concept of PID control is a classical approach but it is easy to implement and yields a very good tracking performance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently experiencing a significant growth in popularity. Due to the advantages of PID controllers, UAVs are implementing PID controllers for improved stability and performance. An important consideration for the system is the selection of PID gain values in order to achieve a safe flight and successful mission. There are a number of different algorithms that can be used for real-time tuning of gains. This paper presents two algorithms for gain tuning, and are based on the method of steepest descent and Newton's minimization of an objective function. This paper compares the results of applying these two gain tuning algorithms in conjunction with a PD controller on a quadrotor system.

  4. Gain competition induced mode evolution and resonance control in erbium-doped whispering-gallery microresonators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Fei; Lei, Fuchuan; Gao, Ming; Yang, Xu; Wang, Chuan; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Yang, Lan; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-05-01

    Precise control of resonance features in microcavities is of significant importance both for researches and applications. By exploiting gain provided by the doped rare earth ions or Raman gain, this can be achieved through changing the pump. Here we propose and experimentally show that by using gain competition, one can also control the evolution of resonance for the probe signal while the pump is kept unchanged. The transition of Lorentz peak, Fano-like resonance and Lorentz dip can be observed from the transmission spectra of the probe signal through tuning the auxiliary control signal. The theory based on coupled-mode theory and laser rate equations by setting the optical gains as time-dependent was constructed. This method can be used in the precise control of transmission spectra and the coupling regime between the waveguide and microcavities. PMID:27137568

  5. Investigation of gain enhancement of electrically small antennas using double-negative, single-negative, and double-positive materials.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, B; Ghosh, S; Kakade, A B

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, it is shown that a double-negative or a mu-negative shell can be used to achieve a very high gain for an electrically small loop. It is also seen that together with the high gain, the metamaterial shell can be used to achieve a very uniform gain characteristic with respect to the shell dimensions. This is accomplished by a proper choice of the media parameters of the metamaterial shell and the region surrounding the antenna. This significantly eases the fabrication constraints and the close tolerances on the shell which was a major drawback towards the practical realization of the shell. Also, significant power gain can be obtained when the radiated power from the metamaterial shell is compared to the power radiated by a loop of the same radius as the outer radius of the shell. In addition, it is also found that a double-positive shell of the same dimensions as the metamaterial shell can be used to significantly increase the gain of the infinitesimal antenna. The power gain characteristics show distinct resonant peaks in this case. Excellent matching characteristics are observed corresponding to the radiated power gain.

  6. Nova Upgrade: A proposed ICF facility to demonstrate ignition and gain, revision 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-07-01

    The present objective of the national Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is to determine the scientific feasibility of compressing and heating a small mass of mixed deuterium and tritium (DT) to conditions at which fusion occurs and significant energy is released. The potential applications of ICF will be determined by the resulting fusion energy yield (amount of energy produced) and gain (ratio of energy released to energy required to heat and compress the DT fuel). Important defense and civilian applications, including weapons physics, weapons effects simulation, and ultimately the generation of electric power will become possible if yields of 100 to 1,000 MJ and gains exceeding approximately 50 can be achieved. Once ignition and propagating bum producing modest gain (2 to 10) at moderate drive energy (1 to 2 MJ) has been achieved, the extension to high gain (greater than 50) is straightforward. Therefore, the demonstration of ignition and modest gain is the final step in establishing the scientific feasibility of ICF. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes the Nova Upgrade Facility to achieve this demonstration by the end of the decade. This facility would be constructed within the existing Nova building at LLNL for a total cost of approximately $400 M over the proposed FY 1995-1999 construction period. This report discusses this facility.

  7. Acting to gain information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  8. On Comparing Transition Rate Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    This report is about the problem of making transition or enrollment rate gains comparable. It is shown that measures based on the proportions themselves, i.e. the difference between proportions, the proportion ratio and the residual gain ratio do not make the gains comparable. Instead a non-linear transformation has to be done. Two such…

  9. Cascade amps for increased subsystem gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galla, Timothy J.

    1990-05-01

    Selecting cascadable TO-8 amplifiers integrated onto microstrip circuit boards is considered from the point of view of cascaded circuit design techniques and performance characteristics. Cascaded assemblies and circuit boards used in cascaded-amplifier applications are presented. It is noted that TO-8 package constrains allow as many as three transistor stages per housing, utilizing either passive or active biasing with choke decoupling; these configurations can achieve broadband performance with small-signal gain of 15 to 20 dB. Where higher gain levels are required, TO-8 amplifiers can be cascaded as gain blocks and assembled into aluminum housing with connectors. Increased reflection losses resulting in a higher voltage standing wave ratio are analyzed, along with noise minimization techniques. A model showing how to find a TO-8 amplifier's noise figure, input power, and third-order intercept point is described.

  10. Airflow models gaining clout

    SciTech Connect

    Post, N.M.

    1994-10-10

    Move over, mock-ups. So long, smoke bombs. Take a walk, wind tunnels. Computational fluid dynamics, a spaceage simulation technique, is gaining velocity in the building community. And the design of inner spaces may never be the same. CFD is an equation-intensive computer modeling method that can simulate transient and steady-state airflow patterns and temperature gradients, indoors or out. CFD is used to downsize heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, locate air outlets, and in general, create spaces that offer creature comfort, provide quality air and use less energy. The method is good for new construction, retrofits and forensic work, for example to investigate a building fire or a contaminant. In a room, CFD helps engineers consider, over a period of time, the combined impacts of ventilation, size, shape, contents, weather, even fenestration. For its first decade or two, CFD stayed the near-exclusive domain of aerospace, defense and electronics. With few exceptions, the building community could not afford the supercomputers that were needed to run the tens of thousands of equations involved. However, in the past few years, thanks to the increasing power and decreasing cost of computers, CFD simulation became practical. Curtain wall designers are even using it, though not without some controversy. Indoor air quality specialists, smoke and fire-spread researchers, laboratory designers, energy engineers, code writers, architects, and plant and building engineers are uncharacteristically upbeat about the tool. {open_quotes}CFD modeling is so many light years ahead of design tools that exist,{close_quotes} says Mariano Rodriguez, director of research and development for architect The Hillier Group, Princeton, N.J. {open_quotes}It`s the next step up from a wind tunnel test, and you don`t need a $300,000 wind tunnel.{close_quotes}

  11. Design of a high linearity and high gain accuracy analog baseband circuit for DAB receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ma; Zhigong, Wang; Jian, Xu; Yiqiang, Wu; Junliang, Wang; Mi, Tian; Jianping, Chen

    2015-02-01

    An analog baseband circuit of high linearity and high gain accuracy for a digital audio broadcasting receiver is implemented in a 0.18-μm RFCMOS process. The circuit comprises a 3rd-order active-RC complex filter (CF) and a programmable gain amplifier (PGA). An automatic tuning circuit is also designed to tune the CF's pass band. Instead of the class-A fully differential operational amplifier (FDOPA) adopted in the conventional CF and PGA design, a class-AB FDOPA is specially employed in this circuit to achieve a higher linearity and gain accuracy for its large current swing capability with lower static current consumption. In the PGA circuit, a novel DC offset cancellation technique based on the MOS resistor is introduced to reduce the settling time significantly. A reformative switching network is proposed, which can eliminate the switch resistor's influence on the gain accuracy of the PGA. The measurement result shows the gain range of the circuit is 10-50 dB with a 1-dB step size, and the gain accuracy is less than ±0.3 dB. The OIP3 is 23.3 dBm at the gain of 10 dB. Simulation results show that the settling time is reduced from 100 to 1 ms. The image band rejection is about 40 dB. It only draws 4.5 mA current from a 1.8 V supply voltage.

  12. Optical properties of nanowire metamaterials with gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Joaquim; Adam, Jost; Rego, Davi; Esquerre, Vitaly; Bordo, Vladimir

    2016-11-01

    The transmittance, reflectance and absorption of a nanowire metamaterial with optical gain are numerically simulated and investigated. It is assumed that the metamaterial is represented by aligned silver nanowires embedded into a semiconductor matrix, made of either silicon or gallium phosphide. The gain in the matrix is modeled by adding a negative imaginary part to the dielectric function of the semiconductor. It is found that the optical coefficients of the metamaterial depend on the gain magnitude in a non-trivial way: they can both increase and decrease with gain depending on the lattice constant of the metamaterial. This peculiar behavior is explained by the field redistribution between the lossy metal nanowires and the amplifying matrix material. These findings are significant for a proper design of nanowire metamaterials with low optical losses for diverse applications.

  13. Temporal evolution of "automatic gain-scaling".

    PubMed

    Pruszynski, J Andrew; Kurtzer, Isaac; Lillicrap, Timothy P; Scott, Stephen H

    2009-08-01

    The earliest neural response to a mechanical perturbation, the short-latency stretch response (R1: 20-45 ms), is known to exhibit "automatic gain-scaling" whereby its magnitude is proportional to preperturbation muscle activity. Because gain-scaling likely reflects an intrinsic property of the motoneuron pool (via the size-recruitment principle), counteracting this property poses a fundamental challenge for the nervous system, which must ultimately counter the absolute change in load regardless of the initial muscle activity (i.e., show no gain-scaling). Here we explore the temporal evolution of gain-scaling in a simple behavioral task where subjects stabilize their arm against different background loads and randomly occurring torque perturbations. We quantified gain-scaling in four elbow muscles (brachioradialis, biceps long, triceps lateral, triceps long) over the entire sequence of muscle activity following perturbation onset-the short-latency response, long-latency response (R2: 50-75 ms; R3: 75-105 ms), early voluntary corrections (120-180 ms), and steady-state activity (750-1250 ms). In agreement with previous observations, we found that the short-latency response demonstrated substantial gain-scaling with a threefold increase in background load resulting in an approximately twofold increase in muscle activity for the same perturbation. Following the short-latency response, we found a rapid decrease in gain-scaling starting in the long-latency epoch ( approximately 75-ms postperturbation) such that no significant gain-scaling was observed for the early voluntary corrections or steady-state activity. The rapid decrease in gain-scaling supports our recent suggestion that long-latency responses and voluntary control are inherently linked as part of an evolving sensorimotor control process through similar neural circuitry.

  14. Noise gain and operating temperature of quantum well infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. C.

    1992-11-01

    The difference between the noise gain associated with dark current and the photoconductive gain in quantum well infrared photodetectors is discussed in light of recent experiments. The theoretical model is based on a single key parameter: the electron trapping probability. An empirical expression for the trapping probability or, alternatively, the electron escape probability is proposed. Using the dark current, the gain, the trapping probability expressions, and the device operating temperature for achieving background limited infrared performance is discussed.

  15. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416....910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for...

  16. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.141 Substantial gainful...

  17. Assessment of Learning Gains in a Flipped Biochemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of…

  18. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.141 Substantial gainful...

  19. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416....910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for...

  20. Rate and gain limitations of MSGCs and MGCs combined with GEM and other preamplification structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonte, P.; Peskov, V.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1998-12-01

    We have studied the rate and gain limits of diamond-coated Microstrip Gas Counters (MSGCs) and Micro-Gap Counters (MGCs) when combined with various preamplification structures: Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM), Parallel-Plate Avalanche Chamber (PPAC) or a MICROMEGAS-type structure. Measurements were done both with X-rays and alpha particles with various detector geometries and in different gas mixtures at pressures from 0.05 to 10 atm. The results obtained varied significantly with detector design, gas mixture and pressure, but some general features can be identified. We found that in all cases, bare MSGCs, MGCs, PPACs and MICROMEGAS, the maximum achievable gain drops with rate. The addition of preamplification structures significantly increases the gain of MSGCs and MGCs, but this gain is still rate dependent. There would seem to be a general rate-dependant effect governing the usable gain of all these detectors. We speculate on possible mechanisms for this effect, and identify a safe, spark-free, operation zone for each system (detector + preamplification structure) in the rate-gain coordinate plane.

  1. Rate and Gain Limitations of MSGC's and MGC's Combined with GEM and other Preamplification Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonte, P.; Peskov, V.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the rate and gain limits of diamond-coated Microstrip Gas Counters (MSGC's) and Micro-Gap Counters (MGC's) when combined with various preamplification structures: Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM), Parallel-Plate Avalanche Chamber (PPAC) or a MICROMEGAS-type structure. Measurements were done both with X rays and alpha particles with various detector geometries and in different gas mixtures at pressures from 0.05 to 10 atm. The results obtained varied significantly with detector design, gas mixture and pressure, but some general features can be identified. We found that in all cases, bare MSGC'S, MGC'S, PPAC's and MICROMEGAS, the maximum achievable gain drops with rate. The addition of preamplification structures significantly increases the gain of MSGC's and MGC'S, but this gain is still rate dependent. There would seem to be a general rate-dependent effect governing the usable gain of all these detectors. We speculate on possible mechanisms for this effect, and identify a safe, spark-free, operation zone for each system (detector + preamplification structure) in the rate-gain coordinate plane.

  2. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  3. Assessment of learning gains in a flipped biochemistry classroom.

    PubMed

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of learning gains did differ and indicates a higher level of satisfaction with the flipped lecture format.

  4. Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2011-03-01

    Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the Ni-H system were reported to yield energy gains of over 100. Neither of these reports has been adequately verified or reproduced. However, the question in the title still deserves consideration. If, as thought by many, it is possible to trigger nuclear reactions that yield MeV energies with chemical energies of the order of eV, then the most optimistic expectation is that LENR gains could approach one million. Hence, the very tentative answer to the question above is yes. However, if LENR could be initiated with some energy cost, and then continue to ``burn,'' very high energy gains might be realized. Consider a match and a pile of dry logs. The phenomenon termed ``heat after death'' will be examined to see if it might be the initial evidence for nuclear ``burning.''

  5. Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion.

    PubMed

    Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Casey, D T; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Kline, J L; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacPhee, A G; Milovich, J L; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R

    2014-02-20

    Ignition is needed to make fusion energy a viable alternative energy source, but has yet to be achieved. A key step on the way to ignition is to have the energy generated through fusion reactions in an inertially confined fusion plasma exceed the amount of energy deposited into the deuterium-tritium fusion fuel and hotspot during the implosion process, resulting in a fuel gain greater than unity. Here we report the achievement of fusion fuel gains exceeding unity on the US National Ignition Facility using a 'high-foot' implosion method, which is a manipulation of the laser pulse shape in a way that reduces instability in the implosion. These experiments show an order-of-magnitude improvement in yield performance over past deuterium-tritium implosion experiments. We also see a significant contribution to the yield from α-particle self-heating and evidence for the 'bootstrapping' required to accelerate the deuterium-tritium fusion burn to eventually 'run away' and ignite.

  6. Gain and noise properties of InAs/InP quantum dash semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilenca, A.; Hadass, D.; Alizon, R.; Dery, H.; Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G.; Somers, A.; Kaiser, W.; Deubert, S.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Forchel, A.; Calligaro, M.; Bansropun, S.; Krakowski, M.

    2005-10-01

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) based on nanostructure gain media such as quantum dots (QD) and quantum dashes (QDASH) have several basic characteristics which offer significant performance improvements over commonly used quantum well (QW) or bulk amplifiers. Among these are broadband optical gain bandwidth (which is two to three times broader than that of QW/bulk gain media), fast gain dynamics, large saturation powers, and low α parameter and population inversion factor. Originally, these properties have been demonstrated for QD/QDASH SOAs operating at 1000 nm and 1300 nm. However, it is imperative that QD/QDASH SOAs operating at 1550 nm be materialized in order for them to have the expected impact on fiber-optic communication. Operation at 1550 nm has been achieved using InAs / InP QD and QDASH laser structures. In this paper the unique gain and noise properties of InAs / InP QDASH SOAs operating at 1550 nm will be presented. Specifically, cross-gain-modulation, four-wave-mixing and chirp measurements which explore the complex spectral cross relaxation dynamics of these SOAs will be described and highlighted in the context of simultaneous, distortionless, high bit-rate multiwavelength data amplification, as well as wideband / high-speed optical signal processing applications. Also, an experimental study of the gain and noise in saturated QDASH SOAs will be described together with a theoretical analysis comprising both coherent and incoherent gain phenomena. The impact of the partially inhomogeneously broadened gain spectrum, fast population pulsation dynamics, α parameter and wetting layer density of states on the noise characteristics will be discussed.

  7. Studies on pressure-gain combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutomi, Yu

    Various aspects of the pressure-gain combustion engine are investigated analytically and experimentally in the current study. A lumped parameter model is developed to characterize the operation of a valveless pulse detonation engine. The model identified the function of flame quenching process through gas dynamic process. By adjusting fuel manifold pressure and geometries, the duration of the air buffer can be effectively varied. The parametric study with the lumped parameter model has shown that engine frequency of up to approximately 15 Hz is attainable. However, requirements for upstream air pressure increases significantly with higher engine frequency. The higher pressure requirement indicates pressure loss in the system and lower overall engine performance. The loss of performance due to the pressure loss is a critical issue for the integrated pressure-gain combustors. Two types of transitional methods are examined using entropy-based models. An accumulator based transition has obvious loss due to sudden area expansion, but it can be minimized by utilizing the gas dynamics in the combustion tube. An ejector type transition has potential to achieve performance beyond the limit specified by a single flow path Humphrey cycle. The performance of an ejector was discussed in terms of apparent entropy and mixed flow entropy. Through an ideal ejector, the apparent part of entropy increases due to the reduction in flow unsteadiness, but entropy of the mixed flow remains constant. The method is applied to a CFD simulation with a simple manifold for qualitative evaluation. The operation of the wave rotor constant volume combustion rig is experimentally examined. The rig has shown versatility of operation for wide range of conditions. Large pressure rise in the rotor channel and in a section of the exhaust duct are observed even with relatively large leakage gaps on the rotor. The simplified analysis indicated that inconsistent combustion is likely due to insufficient

  8. Weight Gain Through Self-Control Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulanick, Nancy; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Underweight subjects were assigned to either a self-reinforcement condition, a self-punishment condition, or to a discussion/reflection control condition. The subjects received one treatment session per week over a five-week period. After treatment, the self-reinforcement groups gained significantly more pounds (kilograms) than either of the other…

  9. Optical antenna gain. III - The effect of secondary element support struts on transmitter gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of a secondary-element spider support structure on optical antenna transmitter gain is analyzed. An expression describing the influence of the struts on the axial gain, in both the near and far fields, is derived as a function of the number of struts and their width. It is found that, for typical systems, the struts degrade the on-axis gain by less than 0.4 dB, and the first side-lobe level is not increased significantly. Contour plots have also been included to show the symmetry of the far-field distributions for three- and four-support members.

  10. Optimum Reliability of Gain Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, K. K.; Gupta, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a mathematical treatment to findings of Zimmerman and Williams and establishes a minimum reliability for gain scores when the pretest and posttest have equal reliabilities and equal standard deviations. It discusses the behavior of the reliability of gain scores in terms of variations in other test parameters. (Author/LMO)

  11. Computer algorithm for coding gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Colorado students showed gains in reading at the proficient level for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were slight declines or flat trends for almost all subgroups at the advanced level in reading. In math, gains were…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Connecticut students showed gains across the board in math--at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In reading, there were gains at the basic and proficient levels, but a slight…

  14. Analytic gain in probabilistic decompression sickness models.

    PubMed

    Howle, Laurens E

    2013-11-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a disease known to be related to inert gas bubble formation originating from gases dissolved in body tissues. Probabilistic DCS models, which employ survival and hazard functions, are optimized by fitting model parameters to experimental dive data. In the work reported here, I develop methods to find the survival function gain parameter analytically, thus removing it from the fitting process. I show that the number of iterations required for model optimization is significantly reduced. The analytic gain method substantially improves the condition number of the Hessian matrix which reduces the model confidence intervals by more than an order of magnitude. PMID:24209920

  15. Analytic gain in probabilistic decompression sickness models.

    PubMed

    Howle, Laurens E

    2013-11-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a disease known to be related to inert gas bubble formation originating from gases dissolved in body tissues. Probabilistic DCS models, which employ survival and hazard functions, are optimized by fitting model parameters to experimental dive data. In the work reported here, I develop methods to find the survival function gain parameter analytically, thus removing it from the fitting process. I show that the number of iterations required for model optimization is significantly reduced. The analytic gain method substantially improves the condition number of the Hessian matrix which reduces the model confidence intervals by more than an order of magnitude.

  16. Aromatic Gain in a Supramolecular Polymer.

    PubMed

    Saez Talens, Victorio; Englebienne, Pablo; Trinh, Thuat T; Noteborn, Willem E M; Voets, Ilja K; Kieltyka, Roxanne E

    2015-09-01

    The synergy of aromatic gain and hydrogen bonding in a supramolecular polymer is explored. Partially aromatic bis(squaramide) bolaamphiphiles were designed to self-assemble through a combination of hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, and aromatic effects into stiff, high-aspect-ratio fibers. UV and IR spectroscopy show electron delocalization and geometric changes within the squaramide ring indicative of strong hydrogen bonding and aromatic gain of the monomer units. The aromatic contribution to the interaction energy was further supported computationally by nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) and harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) indices, demonstrating greater aromatic character upon polymerization: at least 30% in a pentamer. The aromatic gain-hydrogen bonding synergy results in a significant increase in thermodynamic stability and a striking difference in aggregate morphology of the bis(squaramide) bolamphiphile compared to isosteres that cannot engage in this effect. PMID:26179942

  17. Voyager high gain antenna calibration and pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahanshahi, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical description of the data reduction technique used in analyzing Voyager calibration data is presented. To achieve the required telecommunication link performance, highly accurate pointing of the Voyager high gain antenna boresight relative to earth is necessary. To provide the optimum pointing, in-flight calibrations of the high gain antenna pointing mechanism are regularly made, and the design of the calibration and the antenna error models is delineated. It is shown that due to the use of wide angle sun sensors for celestial attitude control, the Voyager antenna error model differs from those of previous missions. Results of the in-flight calibrations and their implementation in improving the antenna pointing are also presented.

  18. Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALGains): An Online Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gayle; Atwong, Catherine; Fuller, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALGains) is a Web-based instrument for measuring student perception of their learning in a variety of courses. The authors adapted this instrument to measure students' achieved proficiency in analyzing cases in an advanced business communication class. The instrument showed that students did achieve a high…

  19. Intron loss and gain in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Majewski, Jacek

    2007-12-01

    Although introns were first discovered almost 30 years ago, their evolutionary origin remains elusive. In this work, we used multispecies whole-genome alignments to map Drosophila melanogaster introns onto 10 other fully sequenced Drosophila genomes. We were able to find 1,944 sites where an intron was missing in one or more species. We show that for most (>80%) of these cases, there is no leftover intronic sequence or any missing exonic sequence, indicating exact intron loss or gain events. We used parsimony to classify these differences as 1,754 intron loss events and 213 gain events. We show that lost and gained introns are significantly shorter than average and flanked by longer than average exons. They also display quite distinct phase distributions and show greater than average similarity between the 5' splice site and its 3' partner splice site. Introns that have been lost in one or more species evolve faster than other introns, occur in slowly evolving genes, and are found adjacent to each other more often than would be expected for independent single losses. Our results support the cDNA recombination mechanism of intron loss, suggest that selective pressures affect site-specific loss rates, and show conclusively that intron gain has occurred within the Drosophila lineage, solidifying the "introns-middle" hypothesis and providing some hints about the gain mechanism.

  20. Gaining approval for clinical research.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Vanessa; Srinivasan, Neil; Lambiase, Pier

    2016-07-01

    Set-up and delivery of a clinical research project can be complicated and difficult. This article introduces the regulatory processes involved in gaining approval for clinical research and discusses the obstacles that may be encountered. PMID:27388381

  1. Intracavity gain shaping in millijoule-level, high gain Ho:YLF regenerative amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Murari, Krishna; Cankaya, Huseyin; Kroetz, Peter; Cirmi, Giovanni; Li, Peng; Ruehl, Axel; Hartl, Ingmar; Kärtner, Franz X

    2016-03-15

    We demonstrate intracavity gain shaping inside a 2 μm Ho:YLF regenerative amplifier with a spectral bandwidth of 2.9 nm broadened to 5.4 nm, corresponding to Fourier-limited pulses of 1 ps duration. The intracavity gain shaping is achieved by using a simple etalon, which acts as a frequency-selective filter. The output of the regenerative amplifier is amplified by a single-pass amplifier, and we achieve total energy of 2.2 mJ and pulse duration of 2.4 ps at 1 kHz with pulse fluctuations <1%. The amplifier chain is seeded by a home-built mode-locked holmium-doped fiber oscillator. PMID:26977647

  2. Adaptive allocation of attentional gain

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g. for a surgeon or air traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g. color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counter-intuitively suggest that in many cases attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these ‘ideal observer’ models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not simply to enhance the representation of target features, but to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities. PMID:19776279

  3. Biological determinants of pregnancy weight gain in a Filipino population.

    PubMed

    Siega-Riz, A M; Adair, L S

    1993-03-01

    Patterns of pregnancy weight gain and predictors of first trimester and total weight gain were investigated in a sample of 1367 women from Cebu, Philippines, with pregnancy intervals of < 2 y. The mean total weight gain based on actual measurements of prepregnant weight was 8.4 kg. Controlling for gestational week when weight was measured, multivariate-regression models predicted higher first trimester weight gain with higher parity, lower prepregnant body mass index (BMI), and longer nonpregnant intervals. Higher total weight gain was associated with longer nonpregnant intervals, lower prepregnant BMI, taller maternal stature, and relatively high dietary energy intakes. Lactation into the third trimester of pregnancy and maternal age over 35 y had significant negative effects on total weight gain. Given the importance of maternal weight gain in predicting birth outcome, this study provides information on modifiable risk factors that should be considered when developing maternal-infant health policy and programs.

  4. Significant photoinduced Kerr rotation achieved in semiconductor microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherbunin, R. V.; Vladimirova, M.; Kavokin, K. V.; Mikhailov, A. V.; Kopteva, N. E.; Lagoudakis, P. G.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Giant Kerr rotation and ellipticity are observed and investigated in an asymmetric planar microcavity with a quantum well in the active region. Rotation angle of the polarization plane as well as ellipticity were determined from time- and frequency-resolved measurements of the Stokes vector components of reflected light. It was found that in a small range of the cavity mode detunings the polarized pump pulse creates a large splitting of the lower polariton branch while leaving its linewidth almost the same. This fact gives a possibility to observe at such detunings the Kerr rotation angle and ellipticity, close to their extremes. A theoretical analysis shows that the decisive role in reaching extreme polarization rotation angles is played by the structure asymmetry. Comprehensive analysis of the polarization state of the light in this regime shows that both renormalization of the exciton energy and the saturation of the excitonic resonance contribute to the observed optical nonlinearities.

  5. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  6. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1980 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution and comparative planetology to geologic processes active on other planetary bodies.

  7. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1975 - 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Developments in planetology research as reported at the 1976 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators' meeting are summarized. Topics range from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  8. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  9. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, H.E.

    1981-09-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  10. Significant achievements in the planetary program, 1976 - 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1977 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  11. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  12. Diverse women's beliefs about weight gain in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Groth, Susan W; Kearney, Margaret H

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to describe ethnically diverse new mothers' perceptions of gestational weight gain. Forty-nine low-income women of diverse racial and ethnic origins who birthed an infant within the past year completed a semistructured interview in a pediatric clinic waiting room. The interviews were designed to elicit views on gestational weight gain, including expectations and perceived consequences. Data were analyzed using content analysis techniques. Women believed that others like themselves were concerned about pregnancy weight gain. Many focused on the effects of insufficient pregnancy weight gain on the infant but were not aware of the infant risks of excessive gain. Several had inaccurate knowledge of appropriate gestational weight gain, and many suggested an amount below the current recommendations. One-third of the women believed women will weigh more following pregnancy, yet others assumed that even with excessive weight gain there would be a return to prepregnant weight following pregnancy. Pregnancy-related weight gain is disturbing to women. Health care providers have the opportunity to intervene by acknowledging these concerns and providing information and support to help women make positive choices and achieve appropriate weight gain. PMID:19879517

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Rhode Island showed gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for most racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and boys and girls. Achievement gaps between students narrowed in most cases at grades 4 and 8.…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Minnesota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Minnesota for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Minnesota showed mostly gains in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math,…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nebraska made gains across the board at the proficient-and-above level for all major racial/ethnic subgroups and low-income students in reading and math. Achievement gaps also narrowed across the board for all subgroups analyzed at grades 4, 8, and 11.…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Montana, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Montana for 2010. In grade 8 reading (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Montana showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic subgroups and…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Virginia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Virginia for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Virginia showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the proficient-and-above and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Tennessee, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Tennessee for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Tennessee showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  20. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Massachusetts, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Massachusetts for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Massachusetts showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wisconsin, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wisconsin for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Wisconsin showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Missouri showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Utah, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Utah for 2010. Utah implemented new standards and cut scores in math so trend data that include 2009 are not available. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Utah showed across-the-board gains in reading at the basic,…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kentucky, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kentucky for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kentucky showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls.…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New York showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major subgroups with just a few exceptions. Achievement gaps in reading and math also narrowed at grades 4 and 8 for most…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oregon for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Oregon showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Washington, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Washington for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Washington showed across-the-board gains in math--improvements at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Texas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Texas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Texas showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Ohio, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Ohio for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Ohio showed a clear trend of gains for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels, with one exception. In grade 8 reading,…

  12. Education Watch: Achievement Gap Summary Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    These summary tables focus on the state-by-state academic achievement of African American, Hispanic American, American Indian, Asian American, and white students. Data are presented on achievement gains by state (4th grade reading scale scores, 1992-1998; 8th grade science and scale scores, 1996-2000; 4th grade math scale scores, 1992-2000; and…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), California students made gains across the board in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math, there were some declines at the basic achievement level. In terms of…

  14. High current gain transistor laser.

    PubMed

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-10

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge.

  15. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  16. High current gain transistor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge.

  17. High current gain transistor laser

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge. PMID:27282466

  18. X chromosome gain in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Oto, Enrico; Monti, Valentina; Cucchi, Maria C; Masetti, Riccardo; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Foschini, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon disease whose molecular profile is not well known. X chromosome gain has been described as a marker of aggressive behavior in female breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the X chromosome in male breast cancer. Twenty cases of male breast invasive ductal carcinoma were retrieved and compared with 10 cases of gynecomastia. Cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess a cytogenetic profile for the X chromosome. The X chromosome status was compared with histopathologic features and stage at presentation. All MBC cases harbored an X chromosome gain (100%) in a variable percentage of neoplastic cells, ranging from 31% to 85% (mean, 59%). On the contrary, all cases of gynecomastia showed wild X chromosome asset. The patients' age at surgery and tumor grading showed a statistically significant correlation (P = .0188-.04), with the percentages of neoplastic cells showing an X chromosome gain. These data suggest that this X chromosome gain plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of male breast epithelial cells.

  19. Broadband gain in poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric-acid-methyl-ester photodetectors enabled by a semicontinuous gold interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Melancon, Justin M.; Živanović, Sandra R.

    2014-10-20

    Substantial broadband photoconductive gain has been realized for organic, thin-film photodetectors with a poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (P3HT:PCBM) active layer at low bias voltages. External quantum efficiencies upwards of 1500% were achieved when a semicontinuous gold layer was introduced at the anode interface. Significant gain was also observed in the sub-band gap, near infrared region where the external quantum efficiency approached 100% despite the lack of a sensitizer. The gain response was highly dependent on the thickness of the active layer of the photodetector with the best results achieved with the thinnest devices. The gain is the result of the injection of secondary electrons due to hole charge trapping at the semicontinuous gold layer.

  20. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

  1. High gain photoconductive semiconductor switching

    SciTech Connect

    Zutavern, F.J.; Loubriel, G.M.; O'Malley, M.W.; Helgeson, W.D.; McLaughlin, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Switching properties are reported for high gain photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS). A 200 ps pulse width laser was used in tests to examine the relations between electric field, rise time, delay, and minimum optical trigger energy for switches which reached 80 kV in a 50 {Omega} transmission line with rise times as short as 600 ps. Infrared photoluminescence was imaged during high gain switching providing direct evidence for current filamentation. Implications of these measurements for the theoretical understanding and practical development of these switches are discussed. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  3. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  4. LPV Controller Interpolation for Improved Gain-Scheduling Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new gain-scheduling control design approach is proposed by combining LPV (linear parameter-varying) control theory with interpolation techniques. The improvement of gain-scheduled controllers can be achieved from local synthesis of Lyapunov functions and continuous construction of a global Lyapunov function by interpolation. It has been shown that this combined LPV control design scheme is capable of improving closed-loop performance derived from local performance improvement. The gain of the LPV controller will also change continuously across parameter space. The advantages of the newly proposed LPV control is demonstrated through a detailed AMB controller design example.

  5. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  6. Math Scores Add Up for Hispanic Students: States and School Districts Notable for Recent Gains by Hispanic Students in Mathematics. Publication#2014-59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pane, Natalia E.

    2014-01-01

    This report shows significant gains in math achievement by Hispanic fourth- and eighth-graders across the nation--the equivalent of one grade level in the last ten years (2003-3013). Using data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, Child Trends reviewed and compared fourth and eighth grade math scores in the nation, states, large…

  7. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  8. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  9. Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, Angela L; York, Robbie Lynn; Livesay, Jake

    2012-03-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity

  10. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  11. Cassegrain-Antenna Gain Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo, V.; Cha, A. G.; Mittra, R.

    1986-01-01

    Modified antenna feed with dual-shaped subreflectors yields 10-to20-percent improvement in efficiency of existing large-aperture paraboloidal or Cassegrainian antennas. Such offset dual-shaped subreflector (DSS) feed brings gain of existing paraboloid or Cassegrain antennas up to that of reflector antennas of more recent design at cost considerably lower than for reshaping existing reflecting surfaces. Mathematical procedures developed for synthesizing nearly optimum shapes for DSS elements of new feeds.

  12. Room temperature broadband terahertz gains in graphene heterostructures based on inter-layer radiative transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Linlong; Du, Jinglei; Shi, Haofei Wei, Dongshan; Du, Chunlei

    2014-10-15

    We exploit inter-layer radiative transitions to provide gains to amplify terahertz waves in graphene heterostructures. This is achieved by properly doping graphene sheets and aligning their energy bands so that the processes of stimulated emissions can overwhelm absorptions. We derive an expression for the gain estimation and show the gain is insensitive to temperature variation. Moreover, the gain is broadband and can be strong enough to compensate the free carrier loss, indicating graphene based room temperature terahertz lasers are feasible.

  13. Approximate reversibility in the context of entropy gain, information gain, and complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscemi, Francesco; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.

    2016-06-01

    There are several inequalities in physics which limit how well we can process physical systems to achieve some intended goal, including the second law of thermodynamics, entropy bounds in quantum information theory, and the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. Recent results provide physically meaningful enhancements of these limiting statements, determining how well one can attempt to reverse an irreversible process. In this paper, we apply and extend these results to give strong enhancements to several entropy inequalities, having to do with entropy gain, information gain, entropic disturbance, and complete positivity of open quantum systems dynamics. Our first result is a remainder term for the entropy gain of a quantum channel. This result implies that a small increase in entropy under the action of a subunital channel is a witness to the fact that the channel's adjoint can be used as a recovery map to undo the action of the original channel. We apply this result to pure-loss, quantum-limited amplifier, and phase-insensitive quantum Gaussian channels, showing how a quantum-limited amplifier can serve as a recovery from a pure-loss channel and vice versa. Our second result regards the information gain of a quantum measurement, both without and with quantum side information. We find here that a small information gain implies that it is possible to undo the action of the original measurement if it is efficient. The result also has operational ramifications for the information-theoretic tasks known as measurement compression without and with quantum side information. Our third result shows that the loss of Holevo information caused by the action of a noisy channel on an input ensemble of quantum states is small if and only if the noise can be approximately corrected on average. We finally establish that the reduced dynamics of a system-environment interaction are approximately completely positive and trace preserving if and only if the data processing

  14. Predicting FCI gain with a nonverbal intelligence test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semak, M. R.; Dietz, R. D.; Pearson, R. H.; Willis, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    We have administered both a commercial, nonverbal intelligence test (the GAMA) and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning to students in two introductory physics classes to determine if either test can successfully predict normalized gains on the Force Concept Inventory. Since gain on the FCI is known to be related to gender, we adopted a linear model with gain on the FCI as the dependent variable and gender and a test score as the independent variables. We found that the GAMA score did not predict a significant amount of variation beyond gender. Lawson's test, however, did predict a small but significant variation beyond gender. When simple linear regressions were run separately for males and females with the Lawson score as a predictor, we found that the Lawson score did not significantly predict gains for females but was a marginally significant predictor for males.

  15. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance. PMID:7567003

  16. Fun and Gains with Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.

    1979-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted with fourteen learning-disabled elementary students to determine the growth of achievement and conservation abilities after using the "Sink or Float" unit of the Elementary Science Study. (MK)

  17. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  18. Modest Visceral Fat Gain Causes Endothelial Dysfunction In Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Orban, Marek; Gami, Apoor; Davison, Diane; Singh, Prachi; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Huyber, Christine; Votruba, Susanne; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Jensen, Michael D.; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine the impact of fat gain and its distribution on endothelial function in lean healthy humans. Background Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Whether fat gain impairs endothelial function is unknown. Methods A randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on endothelial function. We recruited 43 normal weight healthy volunteers (mean age 29 years; 18 women). Subjects were assigned to gain weight (approximately 4 kg) (n=35) or to maintain weight (n=8). Endothelial function (brachial artery flow mediated dilation -FMD) was measured at baseline, after fat gain (8 weeks) and after weight loss (16 weeks) for fat-gainers and at baseline and follow-up (8 weeks) for weight-maintainers. Body composition was measured by DXA and abdominal CT scans. Results After an average weight gain of 4.1 kg, fat-gainers significantly increased their total, visceral and subcutaneous fat. Blood pressure and overnight polysomnography did not change after fat gain or loss. FMD remained unchanged in weight-maintainers. FMD decreased in fat-gainers (9.1 ± 3% vs. 7.8 ± 3.2%, p =0.003), but recovered to baseline when subjects shed the gained weight. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in FMD and the increase in visceral fat gain (rho = −0.42, p=0.004), but not with subcutaneous fat gain (rho = −0.22, p=0.15). Conclusions In normal weight healthy young subjects, modest fat gain results in impaired endothelial function, even in the absence of changes in blood pressure. Endothelial function recovers after weight loss. Increased visceral rather than subcutaneous fat predicts endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20705223

  19. High-Stakes Testing Hasn't Brought Education Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianis, Judith Browne; Jackson, John H.; Noguera, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The only thing that more testing will tell us is what we already know: The schools that disadvantaged children attend are not being given the supports necessary to produce achievement gains. Students cannot be tested out of poverty, and while NCLB did take us a step forward by requiring schools to produce evidence that students were learning, it…

  20. An Assessment of Potential Efficiency Gains through Online Content Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creaser, Claire; Hamblin, Yvonne; Davies, J. Eric

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Online content has largely replaced traditional print-based resources as the primary tool for literature searching throughout much of the academic and research community. This paper presents the results of a small-scale study, commissioned by the JISC in 2004, to assess the potential efficiency gains that may be achieved through the use…

  1. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  2. Scalar gain interpretation of large order filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Paul A. C.; Mook, D. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    A technique is developed which demonstrates how to interpret a large fully-populated filter gain matrix as a set of scalar gains. The inverse problem is also solved, namely, how to develop a large-order filter gain matrix from a specified set of scalar gains. Examples are given to illustrate the method.

  3. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  4. Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Z. L. Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J.

    2014-06-30

    We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20 Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5 GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80 Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5 GHz.

  5. High-Current Gain Two-Dimensional MoS₂-Base Hot-Electron Transistors.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos M; Lan, Yann-Wen; Zeng, Caifu; Chen, Jyun-Hong; Kou, Xufeng; Navabi, Aryan; Tang, Jianshi; Montazeri, Mohammad; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Zhong, Yuan-Liang; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Chii-Dong; Wang, Kang L

    2015-12-01

    The vertical transport of nonequilibrium charge carriers through semiconductor heterostructures has led to milestones in electronics with the development of the hot-electron transistor. Recently, significant advances have been made with atomically sharp heterostructures implementing various two-dimensional materials. Although graphene-base hot-electron transistors show great promise for electronic switching at high frequencies, they are limited by their low current gain. Here we show that, by choosing MoS2 and HfO2 for the filter barrier interface and using a noncrystalline semiconductor such as ITO for the collector, we can achieve an unprecedentedly high-current gain (α ∼ 0.95) in our hot-electron transistors operating at room temperature. Furthermore, the current gain can be tuned over 2 orders of magnitude with the collector-base voltage albeit this feature currently presents a drawback in the transistor performance metrics such as poor output resistance and poor intrinsic voltage gain. We anticipate our transistors will pave the way toward the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density, low-energy, and high-frequency hot-carrier electronic applications. PMID:26524388

  6. Possible energy gain for a plasma-liner-driven magneto-inertial fusion concept

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C. E.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.

    2014-07-15

    A one-dimensional parameter study of a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) concept indicates that significant gain may be achievable. This concept uses a dynamically formed plasma shell with inwardly directed momentum to drive a magnetized fuel to ignition, which in turn partially burns an intermediate layer of unmagnetized fuel. The concept is referred to as Plasma Jet MIF or PJMIF. The results of an adaptive mesh refinement Eulerian code (Crestone) are compared to those of a Lagrangian code (LASNEX). These are the first published results using the Crestone and LASNEX codes on the PJMIF concept.

  7. Weight gain associated with taking psychotropic medication: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim

    2011-06-01

    People with serious mental illness have higher morbidity and mortality rates than general populations, and overweight/obesity-related conditions are prevalent. Psychotropic medications are a primary factor in significant weight gain. Adolescents and young adults, particularly those with first-episode psychoses taking atypical antipsychotics, are susceptible to weight gain. This paper reports findings from an integrative review of research investigating the impact and treatment of psychotropic-induced weight gain. Four databases were searched, yielding 522 papers. From these and hand-searched papers, 36 research reports were systematically classified and analysed. The review revealed people experiencing psychotropic-induced weight gain perceive it as distressing. It impacts on quality of life and contributes to treatment non-adherence. Weight management and prevention strategies have primarily targeted adults with existing/chronic illness rather than those with first-episode psychoses and/or drug naiveté. Single and multimodal interventions to prevent or manage weight gain produced comparable, modest results. This review highlights that the effectiveness of weight management interventions is not fully known, and there is a lack of information regarding weight gain prevention for young people taking psychotropics. Future research directions include exploring the needs of young people regarding psychotropic-related weight gain and long-term, follow-up studies of lifestyle interventions to prevent psychotropic-related weight gain.

  8. A variable-gain output feedback control design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Moerder, Daniel D.; Broussard, John R.; Taylor, Deborah B.

    1989-01-01

    A digital control system design technique is developed in which the control system gain matrix varies with the plant operating point parameters. The design technique is obtained by formulating the problem as an optimal stochastic output feedback control law with variable gains. This approach provides a control theory framework within which the operating range of a control law can be significantly extended. Furthermore, the approach avoids the major shortcomings of the conventional gain-scheduling techniques. The optimal variable gain output feedback control problem is solved by embedding the Multi-Configuration Control (MCC) problem, previously solved at ICS. An algorithm to compute the optimal variable gain output feedback control gain matrices is developed. The algorithm is a modified version of the MCC algorithm improved so as to handle the large dimensionality which arises particularly in variable-gain control problems. The design methodology developed is applied to a reconfigurable aircraft control problem. A variable-gain output feedback control problem was formulated to design a flight control law for an AFTI F-16 aircraft which can automatically reconfigure its control strategy to accommodate failures in the horizontal tail control surface. Simulations of the closed-loop reconfigurable system show that the approach produces a control design which can accommodate such failures with relative ease. The technique can be applied to many other problems including sensor failure accommodation, mode switching control laws and super agility.

  9. Effect of gonadectomy on AgRP-induced weight gain in rats.

    PubMed

    Goodin, Sean Z; Kiechler, Alicia R; Keichler, Alicia R; Smith, Marissa; Wendt, Donna; Strader, April D

    2008-12-01

    Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), the endogenous antagonist to the melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors, elicits robust hyperphagia and weight gain in rodents when administered directly into the central nervous system. The relative influence of AgRP to cause weight gain in rodents partially depends on the activity level of the melanocortin agonist-producing proopiomelanocortin neurons. Both proopiomelanocortin and AgRP neurons within the arcuate nucleus receive energy storage information from circulating peripheral signals such as leptin and insulin. Another modulator of AgRP activity includes the cell surface molecule syndecan-3. Because leptin and insulin affect food intake in a sexually dimorphic way in rodents and syndecan-3-deficient mice regulate adiposity levels through distinct physiological mechanisms, we hypothesized that AgRP-induced weight gain would also be sexually dimorphic in rats. In the present study, the behavioral and physiological effects of centrally-administered AgRP in male and female were investigated. In male rats, AgRP (1 nmol) induced 5 days (P < 0.0001) of significantly elevated feeding compared with vehicle-treated controls, while females displayed 3 days of hyperphagia (P < 0.05). However, 1 wk after the injection, both male and female rats gained the same percent body weight (6%). Interestingly, female rats exhibited a greater reduction in energy expenditure (Vo2) following AgRP compared with male rats (P < 0.05). Removal of the gonads did not alter cumulative food intake in male or female rats but did attenuate the dramatic reduction in Vo2 exhibited by females. Both intact and gonadectomized rats demonstrated significantly increased respiratory quotient supporting the anabolic action of AgRP (P < 0.01). These findings are novel in that they reveal sex-specific underlying physiology used to achieve weight gain following central AgRP in rats.

  10. Small-signal gain in a gas-loaded FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Goloviznin, V.V.; Amersfoort, P.W. van

    1995-12-31

    At present, existing FEL facilities operate in the infrared and visible ranges of wavelengths. Generation of shorter waves (in the VUV and X-ray region) is of great scientific interest, but this would require a very expensive accelerator which could provide a high-current electron beam in the GeV-range of energies. A promising way to relax requirements on electron energy by introduction of a gas into the optical cavity was proposed nearly ten years ago. For small deviations from the vacuum wavelength, the idea was confirmed in experiments performed in Stanford; however, a detailed theory of such a device is still not developed. We present an analysis of the small-signal gain in a gas-loaded free-electron laser. Multiple scattering of electrons by the atoms of the gas inside the optical cavity is shown to lead to two additional effects, as compared to the case of a vacuum FEL: a loss of coherence between different parts of the electron trajectory and an enhancement of the phase {open_quotes}jitter{close_quotes}. Both effects become increasingly important at short wavelengths and significantly reduce the small-signal gain per pass. In 1D approximation analytical expressions are obtained and numerical calculations are made to estimate beam and undulator parameters necessary for lasing in the vacuum ultraviolet. Hydrogen-filled FELs are shown to have good prospects for this at today`s technological level. To operate in the range of wavelengths 125-140 nm, an electron beam should have an energy above 50 MeV and a good quality: a normalised emittance of the order of 5{pi} mm-mrad and an energy spread below 10{sup -3}. All these parameters are achieveable with modern linacs and photoinjectors.

  11. Unidirectional high gain brake stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, David J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

  12. High-gain antenna & terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Areas of rocky Martian terrain are seen in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 2. Portions of a lander petal and deflated airbag are at lower left. The dark disk at center is the high-gain antenna, and the silver cylindrical objects at upper right are part of the antenna's mechanism. An area of relatively smooth terrain is seen at upper right, which may offer clues to how this area was formed, and may be a future target for Sojourner's studies. The black area at lower right and small strip at top center is missing data.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  13. Gain fixed-pattern-noise correction via optical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, SukHwan; El Gamal, Abbas

    2002-04-01

    Fixed pattern noise (FPN) or nonuniformity caused by device and interconnect parameter variations across an image sensor is a major source of image quality degradation especially in CMOS image sensors. In a CMOS image sensor, pixels are read out through different chains of amplifiers each with different gain and offset. Whereas offset variations can be significantly reduced using correlated double sampling (CDS), no widely used method exists for reducing gain FPN. In this paper, we propose to use a video sequence and its optical flow to estimate gain FPN for each pixel. This scheme can be used in a digital video or still camera by taking any video sequence with motion prior to capture and using it to estimate gain FPN. Our method assumes that brightness along the motion trajectory is constant over time. The pixels are grouped in blocks and each block's pixel gains are estimated by iteratively minimizing the sum of the squared brightness variations along the motion trajectories. We tested this method on synthetically generated sequences with gain FPN and obtained results that demonstrate significant reduction in gain FPN with modest computations.

  14. High gain, wide field of view concentrator for optical communications.

    PubMed

    Collins, Steve; O'Brien, Dominic C; Watt, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    The field of view and gain of optical concentrators used within free space optical communications systems are constrained by conservation of etendue. In this Letter, consideration of the processes in a fluorescent concentrator leads to a simple design strategy for these concentrators for this application. Significantly, because fluorescent concentrators do not conserve etendue, this can lead to concentrators with wider fields of view and higher gains. A model of a fluorescent concentrator containing a quantum dot material suggests that it could have a gain 50 times higher than an etendue conserving concentrator with the same field of view.

  15. Effect of surfactants on weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Kaneene, J B; Ross, R W

    1986-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine if four surfactants can induce increased weight gain in the mouse. Basic-H, Triton X-100, Amway All Purpose Adjuvant and X-77 were put in water and fed to various groups of ICR 21 day old female mice for a period of 43 days. All the mice were clinically normal throughout the study period. Pathological examination of a random sample of the mice revealed no gross pathological changes. Similarly, histopathological examination of the lungs, livers and intestines did not reveal any visible lesions. Basic-H and Amway surfactants induced weight gain, though not significantly, better at 0.1% (V/V) concentration while X-77 and Triton X-100 induced weight gain better at 0.4% (V/V) concentration. Overall results show that none of the surfactants tested induced significant weight gain.

  16. Gain saturation in InGaN superluminescent diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafar, Anna; Stanczyk, Szymon; Targowski, Grzegorz; Suski, Tadek; Perlin, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    The gain saturation is a crucial factor limiting achievable output power of superluminescent diodes (SLD), as it exponentially depends on optical gain value. Contrary to laser diodes, in SLDs gain is increasing with the increasing current even much above the transparency conditions. Therefore, SLDs provide us with an unique possibility to examine gain under high current densities (high carrier injection). In our work we examined SLDs fabricated in a "j-shape" ridge-waveguide geometry having chips of the length of 700 μm and 1000 μm, emitting in the blue-violet region. By comparing the amplified spontaneous emission measured along the device waveguide with true spontaneous emission measured in perpendicular direction, we are able to extract optical gain as a function of injected current. We show, that in our devices spontaneous emission exhibits a square-root-like dependence on current which is commonly associated with the presence of "droop" in case of nitride light emitting diodes. However, along the waveguide axis, fast processes of stimulated recombination dominate which eliminates the efficiency reduction. Calculated optical gain shows a substantial saturation for current densities above 8 kA/cm2.

  17. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Asian and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Gains in math tended to be larger than in reading. Trends in closing achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were available from 2007 through 2009. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on…

  20. Effects of Ability Grouping on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, James A.; Kulik, Chen-Lin C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the effect of within-class and between-class ability groupings on the academic achievement of gifted elementary and secondary level students. Results showed that gifted students gained more academically than they would have if they had been taught in heterogeneous classes. (PS)

  1. Effects of collaboration and inquiry on reasoning and achievement in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jamie Lee

    The primary purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two collaborative grouping strategies and two instructional methods in terms of gains in reasoning ability and achievement in college biology. In order to do so, a quasi-experimental study was performed in which students were placed in one of four treatment conditions: heterogeneous grouping within inquiry instruction, homogeneous grouping within inquiry instruction, heterogeneous grouping within non-inquiry instruction, and homogeneous grouping within non-inquiry instruction. Students were placed in groups based on initial reasoning level. Reasoning levels and achievement gains were assessed at the end of the study. Results showed that within non-inquiry instruction, heterogeneous mean group scores were higher in both reasoning and achievement than homogeneous groups. In contrast, within inquiry instruction, homogeneous mean group scores were higher in both reasoning and achievement. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, significantly outperformed non-inquiry instruction in the development of reasoning ability. Within inquiry instruction, low-ability students had significantly greater reasoning gains when grouped homogeneously. These results support Piaget's developmental theory and contradict Vygotsky's developmental theory. These results also suggest that the success of one grouping strategy over another is highly dependent upon the nature of instruction, which may be a cause for such conflicting views on grouping strategies within the educational literature. In addition, inquiry instruction led to students having greater confidence in their reasoning ability as well as a more positive attitude toward collaboration. Instructional implications are discussed.

  2. Neural function, injury, and stroke subtype predict treatment gains after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Erin Burke; Dodakian, Lucy; See, Jill; McKenzie, Alison; Le, Vu; Wojnowicz, Mike; Shahbaba, Babak; Cramer, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To better understand the high variability in response seen when treating human subjects with restorative therapies post-stroke. Preclinical studies suggest that neural function, neural injury, and clinical status each influence treatment gains, therefore the current study hypothesized that a multivariate approach incorporating these three measures would have the greatest predictive value. Methods Patients 3-6 months post-stroke underwent a battery of assessments before receiving 3-weeks of standardized upper extremity robotic therapy. Candidate predictors included measures of brain injury (including to gray and white matter), neural function (cortical function and cortical connectivity), and clinical status (demographics/medical history, cognitive/mood, and impairment). Results Among all 29 patients, predictors of treatment gains identified measures of brain injury (smaller corticospinal tract (CST) injury), cortical function (greater ipsilesional motor cortex (M1) activation), and cortical connectivity (greater inter-hemispheric M1-M1 connectivity). Multivariate modeling found that best prediction was achieved using both CST injury and M1-M1 connectivity (r2=0.44, p=0.002), a result confirmed using Lasso regression. A threshold was defined whereby no subject with >63% CST injury achieved clinically significant gains. Results differed according to stroke subtype: gains in patients with lacunar stroke were exclusively predicted by a measure of intra-hemispheric connectivity. Interpretation Response to a restorative therapy after stroke is best predicted by a model that includes measures of both neural injury and function. Neuroimaging measures were the best predictors and may have an ascendant role in clinical decision-making for post-stroke rehabilitation, which remains largely reliant on behavioral assessments. Results differed across stroke subtypes, suggesting utility of lesion-specific strategies. PMID:25382315

  3. Forward ramp & low gain antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this color image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower part of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At center, a lander petal is visible.

    spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  4. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-06-10

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities.

  5. Electrical and Optical Gain Lever Effects in InGaAs Double Quantum Well Diode Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M D; Goddard, L L; Bond, T C; Nikolic, R J; Vernon, S P; Kallman, J S; Behymer, E M

    2007-01-03

    In multisection laser diodes, the amplitude or frequency modulation (AM or FM) efficiency can be improved using the gain lever effect. To study gain lever, InGaAs double quantum well (DQW) edge emitting lasers have been fabricated with integrated passive waveguides and dual sections providing a range of split ratios from 1:1 to 9:1. Both the electrical and the optical gain lever have been examined. An electrical gain lever with greater than 7 dB enhancement of AM efficiency was achieved within the range of appropriate DC biasing currents, but this gain dropped rapidly outside this range. We observed a 4 dB gain in the optical AM efficiency under non-ideal biasing conditions. This value agreed with the measured gain for the electrical AM efficiency under similar conditions. We also examined the gain lever effect under large signal modulation for digital logic switching applications. To get a useful gain lever for optical gain quenched logic, a long control section is needed to preserve the gain lever strength and a long interaction length between the input optical signal and the lasing field of the diode must be provided. The gain lever parameter space has been fully characterized and validated against numerical simulations of a semi-3D hybrid beam propagation method (BPM) model for the coupled electron-photon rate equation. We find that the optical gain lever can be treated using the electrical injection model, once the absorption in the sample is known.

  6. Nicotine Replacement: Effects on Postcessation Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined nicotine replacement effects on postcessation weight gain in smoking cessation volunteers. Randomly assigned abstinent subjects to active nicotine or placebo gum conditions for 10 weeks. Analyses revealed strong evidence for gum effect on weight gain, with active gum users gaining mean total of 3.8 pounds compared with 7.8 pounds for…

  7. STADAN antenna gain calibration using radio stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    An antenna gain measurement method was developed which utilizes a signal emitted from a radio star to determine absolute antenna gain at 136 MHz and 400 MHz for antennas in the STADAN network. An error analysis of the radio star method shows that the overall standard deviation uncertainty in antenna gain is + or - 0.6 db (1 sigma).

  8. Determination of optimal gains for constrained controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, C.M.; Mestha, L.K.

    1993-08-01

    In this report, we consider the determination of optimal gains, with respect to a certain performance index, for state feedback controllers where some elements in the gain matrix are constrained to be zero. Two iterative schemes for systematically finding the constrained gain matrix are presented. An example is included to demonstrate the procedures.

  9. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  10. Ethereal and material gain: unanticipated opportunity with illness or disability.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Seamus; Shanahan, Fergus

    2014-02-01

    When caregivers address the positive aspects of illness or disability, there is a risk of patronising the sufferer. It is equally problematic when secondary gain is judged in a negative light and impedes an effective doctor-patient relationship. Changing attitudes, and particularly the negative perception of a patient's gain from illness, are reflected in biographies of artists, philosophers and other creative individuals. In contrast, some memoirs about illness feature a retrospective discussion of the positive features of the experience - from one who is now free from the ordeal. The experience of continual sufferers may be more instructive. We examine contemporary examples of unanticipated advantage or gain arising from ongoing disability or illness. The contribution of disability/illness to remarkable achievement promotes enhanced self-appreciation for patients and may foster in others a better understanding of what it means to suffer and live with disability. PMID:24532744

  11. Optofluidic lasers with a single molecular layer of gain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiushu; Ritt, Michael; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Sun, Yuze; Fan, Xudong

    2014-12-21

    We achieve optofluidic lasers with a single molecular layer of gain, in which green fluorescent protein, dye-labeled bovine serum albumin, and dye-labeled DNA, are used as the gain medium and attached to the surface of a ring resonator via surface immobilization biochemical methods. It is estimated that the surface density of the gain molecules is on the order of 10(12) cm(-2), sufficient for lasing under pulsed optical excitation. It is further shown that the optofluidic laser can be tuned by energy transfer mechanisms through biomolecular interactions. This work not only opens a door to novel photonic devices that can be controlled at the level of a single molecular layer but also provides a promising sensing platform to analyze biochemical processes at the solid-liquid interface.

  12. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  13. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  14. Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain.

  15. Gain enhancement in a V-shaped plasmonic slot waveguide for efficient loss compensation at the subwavelength scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yusheng; Zheng, Zheng; Zhao, Xin; Yang, Pengfei; Liu, Lei; Zhu, Jinsong; Zhou, Tao

    2013-05-01

    An active plasmonic slot waveguide comprising an inverted triangular metal wedge incorporated inside a V-shaped plasmonic groove with a low-index gain medium embedded between them is presented, and its guiding properties are investigated numerically at the wavelength of 1550 nm. The presented waveguide is shown to be capable of supporting two fundamental plasmonic slot modes with high field localization to the V-shaped low-index slot region. Due to such strong optical confinement and significant field enhancement, the introduced gain in the slot could effectively compensate the propagation loss of the supported plasmonic modes. It is revealed that for the studied channel plasmonic slot and wedge plasmonic slot modes, notable gain enhancements are observable within a wide range of geometric parameters. For the considered structure with a 10-40 nm-wide slot, the enhancements of gain can be as large as 11%-159% for the CPS mode while 43%-174% for the WPS mode. These values could be further improved by adopting even narrower slots. It is shown that, by introducing a gain medium with coefficients around hundreds of cm-1, the modal loss can be largely or even fully compensated, with a subwavelength mode area achievable simultaneously. These unique features of the studied V-shaped plasmonic slot waveguide might be useful for its potential applications in compact, active plasmonic components.

  16. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  17. Gain Control Network Conditions in Early Sensory Coding

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Eduardo; Nowotny, Thomas; Levi, Rafael; Smith, Brian H.; Huerta, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Gain control is essential for the proper function of any sensory system. However, the precise mechanisms for achieving effective gain control in the brain are unknown. Based on our understanding of the existence and strength of connections in the insect olfactory system, we analyze the conditions that lead to controlled gain in a randomly connected network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We consider two scenarios for the variation of input into the system. In the first case, the intensity of the sensory input controls the input currents to a fixed proportion of neurons of the excitatory and inhibitory populations. In the second case, increasing intensity of the sensory stimulus will both, recruit an increasing number of neurons that receive input and change the input current that they receive. Using a mean field approximation for the network activity we derive relationships between the parameters of the network that ensure that the overall level of activity of the excitatory population remains unchanged for increasing intensity of the external stimulation. We find that, first, the main parameters that regulate network gain are the probabilities of connections from the inhibitory population to the excitatory population and of the connections within the inhibitory population. Second, we show that strict gain control is not achievable in a random network in the second case, when the input recruits an increasing number of neurons. Finally, we confirm that the gain control conditions derived from the mean field approximation are valid in simulations of firing rate models and Hodgkin-Huxley conductance based models. PMID:23874176

  18. Review of health and productivity gains from better IEQ

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-08-01

    The available scientific data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  19. Gas gain stabilisation in the ATLAS TRT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindur, B.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonov, A.; Arslan, O.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Bault, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Bocci, A.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Brock, I.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Catinaccio, A.; Celebi, E.; Cetin, S. A.; Choi, K.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Davis, D.; Degeorge, C.; Derendarz, D.; Desch, K.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dressnandt, N.; Dubinin, F. A.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Froidevaux, D.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gecse, Z.; Godlewski, J.; Grefe, C.; Gurbuz, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, P. H.; Hawkins, A. D.; Heim, S.; Holway, K.; Kantserov, V. A.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kisielewski, B.; Klopov, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korotkova, N. A.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kramarenko, V.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Kruse, M.; Kudin, L. G.; Lichard, P.; Loginov, A.; Martinez, N. Lorenzo; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lytken, E.; Maleev, V. P.; Maevskiy, A. S.; Manjarres Ramos, J.; Mashinistov, R. Y.; Meyer, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mistry, K.; Mitsou, V. A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Newcomer, F. M.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Palacino, G.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; RØhne, O.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Ricken, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Ryjov, V.; Sasmaz, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Shmeleva, A. P.; Shulga, E.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnov, Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Soldatov, E.; Sulin, V. V.; Tartarelli, G.; Taylor, W.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vasquez, J.; Vasilyeva, L. F.; Vlazlo, O.; Weinert, B.; Williams, H. H.; Wong, V.; Zhukov, K. I.; Zieminska, D.

    2016-04-01

    The ATLAS (one of two general purpose detectors at the LHC) Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three tracking subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector. It is a large straw-based detector and contains about 350,000 electronics channels. The performance of the TRT as tracking and particularly particle identification detector strongly depends on stability of the operation parameters with most important parameter being the gas gain which must be kept constant across the detector volume. The gas gain in the straws can vary significantly with atmospheric pressure, temperature, and gas mixture composition changes. This paper presents a concept of the gas gain stabilisation in the TRT and describes in detail the Gas Gain Stabilisation System (GGSS) integrated into the Detector Control System (DCS). Operation stability of the GGSS during Run-1 is demonstrated.

  20. Stability in High Gain Plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E. A.; Hong, R. M.; Navratil, G. A.; Sabbagh, S.; Strait, E. J.; Rice, B. W.; Ferron, J. R.; Greenfield, C. M.; Austin, M. E.; Chan, V. S.; DeBoo, J. C.; Doyle, E. J.; Forest, C. B.; Leonard, A. W.; Schissel, D. P.; Whyte, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    Fusion power gain has been increased by a factor of 3 in DIII-D plasmas through the use of strong discharge shaping and tailoring of the pressure and current density profiles. H-mode plasmas with weak or negative central magnetic shear are found to have neoclassical ion confinement throughout most of the plasma volume. Improved MHD stability is achieved by controlling the plasma pressure profile width. The highest fusion power gain Q (ratio of fusion power to input power) in deuterium plasmas was 0.0015. which extrapolates to an equivalent Q of 0.32 in a deuterium-tritium plasma and is similar to values achieved in tokamaks of larger size and magnetic fields.

  1. Stability in high gain plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Murakami, M.; Wade, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    Fusion power gain has been increased by a factor of 3 in DIII-D plasmas through the use of strong discharge shaping and tailoring of the pressure and current density profiles. H-mode plasmas with weak or negative central magnetic shear are found to have neoclassical ion confinement throughout most of the plasma volume. Improved MHD stability is achieved by controlling the plasma pressure profile width. The highest fusion power gain Q (ratio of fusion power to input power) in deuterium plasmas was 0.0015, which extrapolates to an equivalent Q of 0.32 in a deuterium-tritium plasma and is similar to values achieved in tokamaks of larger size and magnetic fields.

  2. Progress toward high-gain laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, E.

    1988-09-28

    A 1985-1986 Review of the US inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (/approximately/1--10% of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (/approximately/10%, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an /approximately/100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (/approximately/1%), and can we control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Achieving science, math and reading literacy for all: The role of inquiry-based science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Man

    With the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, educators and policy makers have been seeking effective strategies to improve students' science, mathematics and reading achievement. One of the primary teaching strategies recommended by reform-oriented organizations, such as the National Research Council (1996), is to utilize inquiry-based science instruction. In this study, I examined the effects of inquiry-based science instruction and traditional science instruction on student achievement across science, mathematics and reading. I also compared the effects of inquiry-based science instruction and traditional science instruction on student achievement. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999---a large, national data sample---a series of structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicated that inquiry-based science instruction was associated with significant, positive gains not only in science achievement, but also in mathematics and reading achievement. The positive relationship between inquiry instruction and student achievement was found above and beyond the contributions of traditional science instruction, which generally showed no significant relationship to student achievement. Findings support the theoretical position that inquiry-based science instruction can have robust benefits across the curriculum. This study contributes to the dialogue on effective instructional methods to achieve science, mathematics and reading literacy for all. Overall, this study provides cautious support for the idea that student achievement can be promoted by supporting and encouraging teachers to implement inquiry-based science instruction.

  4. High-Achieving Middle Schools for Latino Students in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesse, Dan; Davis, Alan; Pokorny, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the characteristics of middle schools in which Latino students from low-income families made substantial achievement gains. Nine schools in Texas were selected where Latino students had shown strong gains in the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills. Data from onsite interviews, focus groups, and documents were…

  5. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. Your work may be... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity... Activity § 416.972 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is...

  6. Red, green, and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films

    DOEpatents

    Nurmikko, Arto V.; Dang, Cuong

    2016-06-21

    The methods and materials described herein contemplate the use films of colloidal quantum dots as a gain medium in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser. The present disclosure demonstrates a laser with single-exciton gain in the red, green, and blue wavelengths. Leveraging this nanocomposite gain, the results realize a significant step toward full-color single-material lasers.

  7. Indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Hunt, Dylan C.; Tanioka, Kenkichi; Rowlands, John A.

    2004-05-01

    A new concept - an indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain - for low dose x-ray imaging has been proposed. The detector consists of an amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor optically coupled to a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. Under an electric field ESe, the a-Se is sensitive to light and converts the optical photons emitted from CsI into electronic signal. These signals can be stored and read out in the same fashion as in existing flat-panel detectors. When ESe is increased to > 90 V/μm, avalanche multiplication occurs. The avalanche gain ranges between 1-800 depending on ESe and the thickness of the a-Se layer dSe. The avalanche a-Se photoconductor is referred to as HARP (High-gain Avalanche Rushing amorphous Photoconductor). A cascaded linear system model for the proposed detector was developed in order to determine the optimal CsI properties and avalanche gain for different x-ray imaging applications. Our results showed that x-ray quantum noise limited performance can be achieved at the lowest exposure level necessary for fluoroscopy (0.1 μR) and mammography (0.1 mR) with a moderate avalanche gain of 20 (d = 1-2 μm). A laboratory test system using an existing HARP tube optically coupled (through a lens) to a CsI layer was built and the advantage of avalanche gain in overcoming electronic noise was demonstrated experimentally. One of the advantages of the avalanche gain is that it will permit the use of high resolution (HR) CsI (which due to its low light output has not previously been used in flat-panel detectors) to improve DQE at high spatial frequencies.

  8. Gain-compensated sinusoidal scanning of a galvanometer mirror in proportional-integral-differential control using the pre-emphasis technique for motion-blur compensation.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Takanoshin; Senoo, Taku; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2016-07-20

    We propose a method to achieve precise sine-wave path tracking for real-time motion-blur compensation to extend the corresponding frequency spectrum in proportional-integral-differential (PID) control by using a pre-emphasis technique. We calculate pre-emphasis coefficients in advance to follow a sine wave with a gain of 0 dB and multiply the input signal by these pre-emphasis coefficients. In experiments, we were thus able to extend the greatest frequency from 100 to 500 Hz and achieve gain improvement of approximately 3 dB at 400 and 500 Hz. For the application of inspection, we confirmed that motion blur is significantly reduced when the system operates at high frequency, and we achieved a responsiveness 3.3 times higher than that of our previous system.

  9. Gain-compensated sinusoidal scanning of a galvanometer mirror in proportional-integral-differential control using the pre-emphasis technique for motion-blur compensation.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Takanoshin; Senoo, Taku; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2016-07-20

    We propose a method to achieve precise sine-wave path tracking for real-time motion-blur compensation to extend the corresponding frequency spectrum in proportional-integral-differential (PID) control by using a pre-emphasis technique. We calculate pre-emphasis coefficients in advance to follow a sine wave with a gain of 0 dB and multiply the input signal by these pre-emphasis coefficients. In experiments, we were thus able to extend the greatest frequency from 100 to 500 Hz and achieve gain improvement of approximately 3 dB at 400 and 500 Hz. For the application of inspection, we confirmed that motion blur is significantly reduced when the system operates at high frequency, and we achieved a responsiveness 3.3 times higher than that of our previous system. PMID:27463919

  10. Muscle mass gain after resistance training is inversely correlated with trunk adiposity gain in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Orsatti, Fábio L; Nahas, Eliana A P; Orsatti, Cláudio L; de Oliveira, Erick P; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; da Mota, Gustavo R; Burini, Roberto C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in trunk adiposity (TA) over 9 months of resistance training (RT) and associate these changes with the hypertrophy of muscle mass (MM) in postmenopausal women (PW). The investigation used a sample that consisted of 22 PW (44-69 years old). The group was subjected to RT (60-80% of 1 repetition maximum) for the total body 3 d · wk(-1). Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), follicle-stimulating hormone, E2 (Immulite system), and interleukin-6 (IL-6; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were assessed at the beginning and end of the experiment. After RT, only women who acquired up to 5% TA gained MM, whereas women who acquired >5% TA exhibited increased IL-6 and no MM gain (p < 0.05). The ΔMM was negatively associated with time of menopause (r = -0.45, p < 0.05) and positively associated with baseline IGF-1 (r = 0.47, p < 0.05). Only ΔLE (leg extension) was negatively associated with baseline IL-6 (p < 0.05). Trunk adiposity growth (ΔTF, kilograms) was positively correlated with changes in IL-6 (r = 0.68, p < 0.05). The MM gain was negatively correlated with ΔTF (r = -0.63, p < 0.05) and changes in IL-6 (r = -0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting all of the confounding variables, only baseline IGF-1 (positively) and changes in IL-6 (negatively) influenced MM, and only the increase in TA influenced IL-6. Our study suggests that increased levels of TA during RT increase IL-6 concentrations, which is a significant negative predictor of MM gain in PW.

  11. Weight gain in smokers after quitting cigarettes: meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Amanda; Lycett, Deborah; Lahmek, Pierre; Aveyard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe weight gain and its variation in smokers who achieve prolonged abstinence for up to 12 months and who quit without treatment or use drugs to assist cessation. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and trials listed in Cochrane reviews of smoking cessation interventions (nicotine replacement therapy, nicotinic partial agonists, antidepressants, and exercise) for randomised trials of first line treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline) and exercise that reported weight change. We also searched CENTRAL for trials of interventions for weight gain after cessation. Review methods Trials were included if they recorded weight change from baseline to follow-up in abstinent smokers. We used a random effects inverse variance model to calculate the mean and 95% confidence intervals and the mean of the standard deviation for weight change from baseline to one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting. We explored subgroup differences using random effects meta-regression. Results 62 studies were included. In untreated quitters, mean weight gain was 1.12 kg (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.47), 2.26 kg (1.98 to 2.54), 2.85 kg (2.42 to 3.28), 4.23 kg (3.69 to 4.77), and 4.67 kg (3.96 to 5.38) at one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting, respectively. Using the means and weighted standard deviations, we calculated that at 12 months after cessation, 16%, 37%, 34%, and 13% of untreated quitters lost weight, and gained less than 5 kg, gained 5-10 kg, and gained more than 10 kg, respectively. Estimates of weight gain were similar for people using different pharmacotherapies to support cessation. Estimates were also similar between people especially concerned about weight gain and those not concerned. Conclusion Smoking cessation is associated with a mean increase of 4-5 kg in body weight after 12 months of abstinence, and most weight gain occurs within three

  12. Economies Gained by Sharing Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uxer, John E.

    Education Service Centers do now or can constitute a significant delivery vehicle to help solve one of the stickiest issues facing the Texas Legislature--the equalization of educational opportunity. Remoteness, size of school districts, and taxable valuation all impact the individual district's ability to provide equal educational opportunity.…

  13. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  14. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  15. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain: strategies and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2015-03-01

    Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.

  16. Large-Scale High-Resolution Simulations of High Gain Direct-Drive ICF targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Andrew J.

    2003-10-01

    High gain directly-driven targets have been designed using new concepts that mitigate the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. Two-dimensional simulations of pellets using these techniques (e.g., "picket" laser pulses) show that high (>100) gain can survive in the face of the hydro instabilities seeded by laser and pellet imperfections. These new designs appear to be substantially more robust than earlier designs. We are using the highly-parallelized sliding-zone Eulerian FAST radiation hydrocode to study yield degradation in these designs. The special challenge in performing these simulations for direct-drive laser ICF is that both high resolution and large dynamic range are needed. High resolution of the whole target is needed to represent all of the scales important during the implosion. A large dynamic range is required to resolve the initially tiny surface and imprint perturbations that grow exponentially during acceleration. We find that the rapid growth of the shell perturbations during the acceleration phase is in good agreement with simple RT modeling before significant nonlinearity occurs. However, the Richtmyer-Meshkov growth during the early pellet compression phase poses a challenge particularly for multimode simulations because of the extremely small initial amplitude for each mode. We will present the results from large-scale pellet implosion simulations, and discuss the challenges and progress achieved in the numerical modeling of these high gain designs.

  17. Interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Muktabhant, Benja; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with multiple maternal and neonatal complications. However, interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy have not been adequately evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and associated pregnancy complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (20 October 2011) and MEDLINE (1966 to 20 October 2011). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed for inclusion all potential studies we identified as a result of the search strategy. At least two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We have presented results using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference for continuous data. We analysed data using a fixed-effect model. Main results We included 28 studies involving 3976 women; 27 of these studies with 3964 women contributed data to the analyses. Interventions focused on a broad range of interventions. However, for most outcomes we could not combine data in a meta-analysis, and where we did pool data, no more than two or three studies could be combined for a particular intervention and outcome. Overall, results from this review were mainly not statistically significant, and where there did appear to be differences between intervention and control groups, results were not consistent. For women in general clinic populations one (behavioural counselling versus standard care) of three interventions examined was associated with a reduction in the rate of excessive weight gain (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.95); for women in high-risk groups no intervention appeared to reduce excess weight gain. There were

  18. Relation of Instruction and Poverty to Mathematics Achievement Gains during Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georges, Annie

    2009-01-01

    Background: Policy discussion to change the nature of teaching practices overshadows how social and economic inequalities contribute to unequal education outcomes. Research on how teaching practices contribute to the variance in test scores on a broad scale or on whether the relation of instruction to test scores is moderated by social and…

  19. A Procedural Guide for Validation Achievement Gains in Educational Projects. (Revised). RMC Report No. UR-240.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallmadge, G. Kasten; Horst, Donald P.

    The orientation of this report is that of identifying educational projects which can be considered truly exemplary. The bulk of the report consists of a 23-step procedure for validating the effectiveness of educational programs using existing evaluation data. It is not intended as a guide for conducting evaluations but rather for interpreting data…

  20. A Procedural Guide For Validating Achievement Gains in Educational Projects. RMC Report No. UR-240.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallmadge, G. Kasten; Horst, Donald P.

    The orientation of this report is that of identifying educational projects which can be considered truly exemplary. The bulk of the report consists of a 23-step procedure for validating the effectiveness of educational programs using existing evaluation data. It is not intended as a guide for conducting evaluations but rather for interpreting data…

  1. Strategies To Boost Maternal Immunization To Achieve Further Gains In Improved Maternal And Newborn Health.

    PubMed

    Steedman, Mark R; Kampmann, Beate; Schillings, Egbert; Al Kuwari, Hanan; Darzi, Ara

    2016-02-01

    Despite the indisputable successes of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, which include goals on improving maternal health and reducing child mortality, millions of mothers and newborns still die tragically and unnecessarily each year. Many of these deaths result from vaccine-preventable diseases, since obstacles such as cost and accessibility have hampered efforts to deliver efficacious vaccines to those most in need. Additionally, many vaccines given to mothers and children under age five are not suitable for newborns, since their maturing immune systems do not respond optimally during the first few months of life. Maternal immunization-the process by which a pregnant woman's immune system is fortified against a particular disease and the protection is then transferred to her unborn child-has emerged as a strategy to prevent many unnecessary maternal and newborn deaths. We review vaccines that are already used for maternal immunization, analyze vaccines under development that could be used for maternal immunization strategies in the future, and recommend that policy makers use maternal immunization for improved maternal and newborn health. PMID:26858385

  2. The Role of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate in Evaluating Behavior for Achieving Gains and Avoiding Losses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Elena; Simoes-Franklin, Cristina; Robertson, Ian H.; Garavan, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Effective goal-directed behavior relies on a network of regions including anterior cingulate cortex and ventral striatum to learn from negative outcomes in order to improve performance. We employed fMRI to determine if this frontal-striatal system is also involved in instances of behavior that do not presume negative circumstances. Participants…

  3. Summarizing the Results of Title I Evaluations--the Comparability of Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonehill, Robert M.; Fishbein, Ronald L.

    The Title I Evaluation and Reporting System (TIERS) was mandated to meet the requirements of the 1974 amendments to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. It was hoped that TIERS would lead to a clear report of the effectiveness of Title I programs, based upon a synthesis of nationwide data. It has been extremely difficult to compare…

  4. Strategies To Boost Maternal Immunization To Achieve Further Gains In Improved Maternal And Newborn Health.

    PubMed

    Steedman, Mark R; Kampmann, Beate; Schillings, Egbert; Al Kuwari, Hanan; Darzi, Ara

    2016-02-01

    Despite the indisputable successes of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, which include goals on improving maternal health and reducing child mortality, millions of mothers and newborns still die tragically and unnecessarily each year. Many of these deaths result from vaccine-preventable diseases, since obstacles such as cost and accessibility have hampered efforts to deliver efficacious vaccines to those most in need. Additionally, many vaccines given to mothers and children under age five are not suitable for newborns, since their maturing immune systems do not respond optimally during the first few months of life. Maternal immunization-the process by which a pregnant woman's immune system is fortified against a particular disease and the protection is then transferred to her unborn child-has emerged as a strategy to prevent many unnecessary maternal and newborn deaths. We review vaccines that are already used for maternal immunization, analyze vaccines under development that could be used for maternal immunization strategies in the future, and recommend that policy makers use maternal immunization for improved maternal and newborn health.

  5. Instructional Conditions in Charter Schools and Students' Mathematics Achievement Gains. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark; Goldring, Ellen; Stein, Marc; Cravens, Xiu

    2010-01-01

    When examining school choice in the United States, one is struck by the variety of options available as well as the bitter controversies surrounding these choices. Nevertheless, the school choice movement is gathering steam, and research on choice is expanding to assess whether or not the movement is doing what it aims to do: advance educational…

  6. School and Home Connections and Children's Kindergarten Achievement Gains: The Mediating Role of Family Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindo, Claudia; Sheldon, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Children's home and school are the most influential contexts in which learning and development occur, especially during early childhood. This paper builds on Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory and Epstein's theory of overlapping spheres of influence to examine school and family connections and their relationships to family involvement and…

  7. Undergraduates Achieve Learning Gains in Plant Genetics through Peer Teaching of Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrispeels, H. E.; Klosterman, M. L.; Martin, J. B.; Lundy, S. R.; Watkins, J. M.; Gibson, C. L.; Muday, G. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that undergraduates who peer teach genetics will have greater understanding of genetic and molecular biology concepts as a result of their teaching experiences. Undergraduates enrolled in a non-majors biology course participated in a service-learning program in which they led middle school (MS) or high school (HS)…

  8. Optical antenna gain. I - Transmitting antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM-00 mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  9. Random lasing with spatially nonuniform gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ting; Lü, Jiantao

    2016-07-01

    Spatial and spectral properties of random lasing with spatially nonuniform gain were investigated in two-dimensional (2D) disordered medium. The pumping light was described by an individual electric field and coupled into the rate equations by using the polarization equation. The spatially nonuniform gain comes from the multiple scattering of this pumping light. Numerical simulation of the random system with uniform and nonuniform gain were performed both in weak and strong scattering regime. In weak scattering sample, all the lasing modes correspond to those of the passive system whether the nonuniform gain is considered. However, in strong scattering regime, new lasing modes appear with nonuniform gain as the localization area changes. Our results show that it is more accurate to describe the random lasing behavior with introducing the nonuniform gain origins from the multiple light scattering.

  10. Streamflow gain and loss of selected streams in northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freiwald, David A.

    1987-01-01

    This map shows streamflow gain and loss measurements (seepage runs) on the Crooked, Osage, and Spavinaw Creeks, and Illinois, Kings, Mulberry, Spring, and Strawberry Rivers during the low-flow conditions from September 1982 to October 1984. Data indicated that streamflow gains and losses resulted from differences in lithology of the predominately carbonate rocks and from the presence of faults. The Kings and Strawberry Rivers and Osage Creek were gaining streams throughout their length, however wastewater discharges precluded an accurate determination on Osage Creek. Crooked and Spavinaw Creeks and the Illinois, Spring, and Mulberry Rivers generally were gaining streams throughout most of their lengths although short losing reaches were identified. The largest gains in streamflow generally occurred were Mississippian formation predominated near the streams. Faults that intersected the stream channels primarily were responsible for streamflow losses. The specific conductance of water increased in the stream reaches that had the most significant streamflow gains. The specific conductance of water in tributaries was generally higher than that in larger streams. (Author 's abstract)

  11. The influence of gain nonlinearities on distortion in semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysak, Vladimir V.; Schatz, Richard; Shulika, Aleksey V.; Sukhoivanov, Igor A.; Kjebon, O.

    2004-09-01

    The semiconductor laser is commonly used as a light source in fiber-optical telecommunication systems. In order to send as much information as possible in a short time, it is important that the laser has a large modulation bandwidth, i.e., the turn-on and turn-off time should be as short as possible. In analogue fiber optic systems for transmission of radio or television signals, it is also important that the light from the laser increases linearly with driving current even at high modulation frequencies. Otherwise, the transmitted signal will become distorted. The modulation bandwidth and the modulation distortion are dependent both on the laser structure and the gain characteristics of the active material. One of the most useful approaches for the time-domain description of the response of optoelectronic devices is the so-called "rate equation model," which has been widely used to describe laser performance. Commonly, laser models with simple gain expressions are used for simulation of laser dynamics. In these models the small-signal dynamic parameters like the differential gain and gain saturation parameter are extracted from modulation response measurements. However, we show that in order to correctly calculate distortion, an accurate model of the dependence of gain on carrier density, n, and photon density, s, is needed. Commonly used gain models, fitted to give exactly the same modulation response can give significantly different distortion behavior.

  12. New recommended heat gains for commercial cooking equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1998-12-31

    Radiant heat gain from cooking equipment can significantly impact the air-conditioning load and/or human comfort in a commercial kitchen. This paper presents and discusses updated heat gain data for several types of commercial cooking equipment based on recent testing by gas and electric utility research organizations. The cooking equipment was tested under exhaust-only, wall-canopy hoods. The fundamentals of appliance heat gain are reviewed and the new data are compared with data published in the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 26, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. These updated data are now incorporated in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 28, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. The paper also discusses appliance heat gain with respect to sizing air-conditioning systems for commercial kitchens and presents representative radiant factors that may be used to estimate heat gain from other sizes or types of gas and electric cooking equipment when appliance specific heat gain data are not avoidable.

  13. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  14. Perlman receives Sustained Achievement Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Charles; Perlman, David

    David Perlman was awarded the Sustained Achievement Award at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 10, 1997, in San Francisco, California. The award recognizes a journalist who has made significant, lasting, and consistent contributions to accurate reporting or writing on the geophysical sciences for the general public.

  15. Unstable resonators with a distributed focusing gain.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T R

    1994-08-20

    The geometrical optics approximation is used to form a model of axisymmetric unstable resonators having distributed focus, gain, and loss. A tapered reflectivity feedback mirror is included. The rate equations for propagation through the focusing gain medium are derived. A unique grid is found for propagation without interpolation along eigenrays in each direction. Numerical examples show the effects of distributed gain and focus on the axial and transverse intensity distributions. PMID:20935986

  16. Pharmacological management of atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Trino; ElFakih, Yamily; Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Sandia, Ignacio; Tálamo, Eduardo; Araujo de Baptista, Enma; Beaulieu, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Excessive bodyweight gain was reported during the 1950s as an adverse effect of typical antipsychotic drug treatment, but the magnitude of bodyweight gain was found to be higher with the atypical antipsychotic drugs that were introduced after 1990. Clozapine and olanzapine produce the greatest bodyweight gain, ziprasidone and aripiprazole have a neutral influence, and quetiapine and risperidone cause an intermediate effect. In the CATIE study, the percentage of patients with bodyweight gain of >7% compared with baseline differed significantly between the antipsychotic drugs, i.e. 30%, 16%, 14%, 12% and 7% for olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, perphenazine (a typical antipsychotic) and ziprasidone, respectively (p<0.001). Appetite stimulation is probably a key cause of bodyweight gain, but genetic polymorphisms modify the bodyweight response during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. In addition to nutritional advice, programmed physical activity, cognitive-behavioural training and atypical antipsychotic switching, pharmacological adjunctive treatments have been assessed to counteract excessive bodyweight gain. In some clinical trials, nizatidine, amantadine, reboxetine, topiramate, sibutramine and metformin proved effective in preventing or reversing atypical antipsychotic-induced bodyweight gain; however, the results are inconclusive since few randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have been conducted. Indeed, most studies were short-term trials without adequate statistical power and, in the case of metformin, nizatidine and sibutramine, the results are contradictory. The tolerability profile of these agents is adequate. More studies are needed before formal recommendations on the use of these drugs can be made. Meanwhile, clinicians are advised to use any of these adjunctive treatments according to their individual pharmacological and tolerability profiles, and the patient's personal and family history of bodyweight gain and metabolic dysfunction.

  17. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  18. Error margin for antenna gain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, V.

    2002-01-01

    The specification of measured antenna gain is incomplete without knowing the error of the measurement. Also, unless gain is measured many times for a single antenna or over many identical antennas, the uncertainty or error in a single measurement is only an estimate. In this paper, we will examine in detail a typical error budget for common antenna gain measurements. We will also compute the gain uncertainty for a specific UHF horn test that was recently performed on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) antenna range. The paper concludes with comments on these results and how they compare with the 'unofficial' JPL range standard of +/- ?.

  19. Very high gain Nd:YLF amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Knights, M.G.; Thomas, M.D.; Chicklis, E.P.; Rines, G.A.; Seka, W.

    1988-05-01

    The authors report on high gain Nd:YLF rod amplifiers in which single-pass, small signal gains of over 1700 have been obtained along with stored energy densitiesgreater than or equal to0.4J/cm/sup 3/. The ability of Nd:YLF amplifiers to support such gains is a result of high parasitic oscillation thresholds, due primarily to the low refractive index of the material. These results suggest that Nd:YLF is an excellent candidate for amplifiers where high specific stored energies and/or very high gains are required.

  20. Verbal Final Exam in Introductory Biology Yields Gains in Student Content Knowledge and Longitudinal Performance

    PubMed Central

    Luckie, Douglas B.; Rivkin, Aaron M.; Aubry, Jacob R.; Marengo, Benjamin J.; Creech, Leah R.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge, students who passed the VF outscored their peers on the medical assessment test (MAT), an exam built with 40 Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) questions (66.4% [n = 160] and 62% [n = 285], respectively; p < 0.001);. The higher-achieving students performed better on MCAT questions in all topic categories tested; the greatest gain occurred on the topic of cellular respiration. Because the VF focused on a conceptually parallel topic, photosynthesis, there may have been authentic knowledge transfer. In longitudinal tracking studies, passing the VF also correlated with higher performance in a range of upper-level science courses, with greatest significance in physiology, biochemistry, and organic chemistry. Participation had a wide range but not equal representation in academic standing, gender, and ethnicity. Yet students nearly unanimously (92%) valued the option. Our findings suggest oral exams at the introductory level may allow instructors to assess and aid students striving to achieve higher-level learning. PMID:24006399

  1. Student achievement outcomes in a scaling urban standards-based science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Robert R.

    This work examines the effects on achievement of a multifaceted reform supporting standards based science teaching in urban middle schools. Several project-based inquiry science curriculum units were introduced to the Detroit public schools, supported by aligned professional development, learning technologies, and administrative policy. The units scaled to over 20,000 students in 26 schools over 6 years, producing unique large-scale longitudinal achievement data on curriculum reform. Chapters include a review of achievement studies on scaling reforms, an examination of the impact of the inquiry curriculum units on state standardized test results, and an investigation of the effect of scaling and teacher experience on student learning. Two cohorts of 7th and 8th graders that participated in the curricula are compared with the remainder of the district population using state standardized test results. Both the initial (n = 760) and scaled up (n = 1,043) cohorts show higher science content understanding and process skills, and significantly higher pass rates. The effect does not attenuate with scaling, is greater for students who experience an inquiry curriculum in both 7th and 8th grade, and reduces the gender gap in achievement for urban African-American boys. Scaling effects as the curriculum innovation matured over 4--6 years are examined using pretest/posttest assessments for two curricula involving 6,396 and 5,043 students respectively. There is no attenuation in student achievement as the innovation scales and outside support fades. Student achievement shows significant gains in the first two years of curriculum enactment, before reaching a stable plateau. By contrast, individual teachers show yearly improvement in student achievement on average as they gain experience with curricula. The absence of a plateau suggests that stability of teacher staffing and administrative support for reform are important for maintaining and improving achievement. Together, the

  2. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  20. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  1. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  2. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  3. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  4. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  5. Maternal Prenatal Weight Gain and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Viskochil, Joseph; Clark, Erin A.S.; Botts, Elizabeth L.; Smith, Ken R.; Pimentel, Richard; McMahon, William M.; Coon, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rising population of individuals identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) calls for further investigation of its underlying etiology. A disturbance in the fetal steroid hormone environment may be a mechanism in which environmental and genetic risk factors interact. The mother, fetus, and placenta collectively create the fetal steroid environment. Prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain have served as markers for fetal steroid hormone exposure in other disease states. This study’s objective is to determine whether prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain are associated with increased ASD risk across study designs and cohorts while controlling for important confounding variables. METHODS: A population-based Utah ASD cohort (n = 128) was ascertained in a 3-county surveillance area and gender- and age-matched to 10 920 control subjects. A second, research-based ASD cohort of Utah children (n = 288) and their unaffected siblings (n = 493) were ascertained through participation in an ASD genetics study. Prenatal variables were obtained from birth certificate records. RESULTS: ASD risk was significantly associated with pregnancy weight gain (adjusted odds ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 1.17; adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.35 for each 5 pounds of weight gained), but not prepregnancy BMI, in population and research-based cohorts, respectively. When analyses were restricted to ASD cases with normal IQ, these associations remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: ASD risk associated with a modest yet consistent increase in pregnancy weight gain suggests that pregnancy weight gain may serve as an important marker for autism’s underlying gestational etiology. This justifies an investigation into phenomena that link pregnancy weight gain and ASD independent of prepregnancy BMI. PMID:24167172

  6. PDGFRA gain in low-grade diffuse gliomas.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Kazuya; Mittelbronn, Michel; Paulus, Werner; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Keyvani, Kathy; Sure, Ulrich; Wrede, Karsten; Nakazato, Yoichi; Tanaka, Yuko; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Pierscianek, Daniela; Kim, Young-Ho; Mariani, Luigi; Vital, Anne; Perry, Arie; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas with a proneural expression signature are characterized by frequent IDH1 mutations (i.e. genetic hallmarks of secondary glioblastomas) and PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α) amplification. Mutations in IDH1/2 are frequent and early genetic events in diffuse astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade II), precursor to secondary glioblastomas, but little is known about the role and timing of PDGFRA amplification in these tumors. We assessed PDGFRA gain in 342 low-grade diffuse gliomas by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gain in PDGFRA was detected in 27 (16.3%) of 166 diffuse astrocytomas, significantly more frequent than in oligodendrogliomas (3 [2.6%] of 115, p < 0.0001). Analyses using previously published data from our laboratory showed an inverse correlation between PDGFRA gain and IDH1/2 mutations (p = 0.018) or 1p/19q loss (p < 0.0001). The vast majority of diffuse astrocytomas showed IDH1/2 mutations and/or PDGFRA gain (154 [93%] of 166). Mean survival of diffuse astrocytoma patients with PDGFRA gain was 8.8 ± 1.6 years, similar to that with IDH1/2 mutations (7.8 ± 0.5 years) or TP53 mutations (7.6 ± 0.6 years) but significantly longer than those with MET gain (4.4 ± 0.7 years). Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization in 6 diffuse astrocytomas with PDGFRA/MET co-gain identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that PDGFRA and MET were typically amplified in different tumor cell populations. Tumor cells with coamplification were also focally observed, suggesting intratumoral heterogeneity, even in diffuse astrocytomas.

  7. Preventing weight gain in adults: the pound of prevention study.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, R W; French, S A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether weight gain with age could be prevented through the use of a low-intensity intervention. METHODS: Participants, 228 men and 998 women recruited from diverse sources, were randomized to one of the following groups: (1) no-contact control, (2) education through monthly newsletters, or (3) education plus incentives for participation. All participants were weighed and completed questionnaires about behaviors and attitudes related to weight at baseline and annually for 3 years thereafter. RESULTS: Individuals in intervention groups reported favorable changes over time in frequency of weighting and healthy dieting practices relative to those in the control group. These behavior changes were in turn related to a reduced rate of weight gain over time. However, weight gain over 3 years did not differ significantly by treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: This low-intensity educational approach to weight gain prevention sustained interest over a lengthy time period and was associated positively with behavior change, but it was not strong enough to significantly reduce weight gain with age. PMID:10224988

  8. A 1 to 18 GHz high gain ultra-broadband amplifier with temperature compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariel, D.; Thibout, T.; Lacombe, J. L.

    1989-05-01

    Design and performance of a high gain ultra-broadband hybrid amplifier with temperature compensation are presented. The amplifier consists of six distributed amplifier stages using GaAs FETs. Design emphasis was on minimizing gain variations with temperature; this was achieved by biasing the gates of the FETs with a temperature varying voltage. The amplifier exhibits a gain of 35 dB with a maximum deviation of + or - 4 dB over the frequency range from 1 to 18 GHz and the temperature range from -55 to +85 C. The gain flatness and temperature stability performance of this amplifier make it useful for EW subsystem applications.

  9. Polygenic scores associated with educational attainment in adults predict educational achievement and ADHD symptoms in children.

    PubMed

    de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Glasner, Tina J; Bartels, M; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; Hudziak, James J; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-09-01

    The American Psychiatric Association estimates that 3 to 7 per cent of all school aged children are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Even after correcting for general cognitive ability, numerous studies report a negative association between ADHD and educational achievement. With polygenic scores we examined whether genetic variants that have a positive influence on educational attainment have a protective effect against ADHD. The effect sizes from a large GWA meta-analysis of educational attainment in adults were used to calculate polygenic scores in an independent sample of 12-year-old children from the Netherlands Twin Register. Linear mixed models showed that the polygenic scores significantly predicted educational achievement, school performance, ADHD symptoms and attention problems in children. These results confirm the genetic overlap between ADHD and educational achievement, indicating that one way to gain insight into genetic variants responsible for variation in ADHD is to include data on educational achievement, which are available at a larger scale.

  10. Increase in federal match associated with significant gains in coverage for children through Medicaid and CHIP.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Stephen W; Choi, Hwajung; Davis, Matthew M

    2012-08-01

    As the number of children living in poverty has increased steadily over the past decade, Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) have enrolled millions of additional youths. Federal and state governments jointly finance both programs, with the federal portion determined by the Federal Medical Assistance Percentage, commonly known as the "federal match." The federal government has used intermittent increases in the federal match as a way to provide fiscal relief to states during economic downturns. The most recent broad increase ended in June 2011, but the precise impact on Medicaid and CHIP enrollment for children is not known. No previous study has evaluated the association of the federal match with children's enrollment in state Medicaid or CHIP programs in the context of other state factors. To shed light on the degree to which public coverage for children varies with differences in the federal match, we examined publicly available data from all fifty states from 1999 to 2009. We found that a ten-percentage-point increase in the federal match was associated with a 1.9 percent increase in Medicaid and CHIP enrollment, equivalent to approximately 500,000 children. This association persisted when adjusted for multiple state-level factors, including the proportion of children living in poverty. This analysis underscores the central role of the federal match in supporting expansion of Medicaid and CHIP coverage for children.

  11. The effects of tiered lessons on learning gain in a secondary freshmen earth science course, as measured by assessment performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Mary-Anne R. E.

    The purpose of this study was to examine one method of curriculum differentiation, tiered instruction, for effectiveness in improvement of academic achievement in a secondary science course. Generating the research question Q1: did the use of tiered instruction effect the degree of academic achievement of learners in a mixed ability classroom? The study was designed with seven classrooms of mid-range instruction as the control group and seven classrooms with the treatment, tiered instruction, with a total of 293 ninth grade students. The use of grouping of students for a unit of study based on their prior skills and subject background knowledge for instruction was most academically useful for the lower skill and background knowledge learners. The learners in the treatment group of those with lower background knowledge as a group achieved as well as the learners in the treatment group mid-range learners and better than the control group mid-range learners. The control group's lower background learners (C1) scores remained in the same score range on the post-instruction assessment. The higher background learners in both groups overall made equal gains. The higher background learners in the treatment group exhibited time management deficiencies as their curriculum demanded more independence than they were use to. This research demonstrates that significant achievement gains can occur when curriculum is differentiated according to the readiness level of the learners.

  12. Training Children in Pedestrian Safety: Distinguishing Gains in Knowledge from Gains in Safe Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children’s street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7–8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps < 0.01). Correlations between pedestrian safety knowledge and pedestrian behavior were mostly non-significant. Correlations between change in knowledge and change in behavior from pre- to post-intervention also were non-significant, both for the full sample and within conditions. Children trained using videos/software/internet gained knowledge but did not change their behavior. Children trained individually gained in both knowledge and safer behavior. Children trained virtually gained in safer behavior but not knowledge. If VR is used

  13. Optimal Weight Gain During Pregnancy in Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to examine the optimal weight gain during pregnancy in Japanese women, we analyzed the perinatal outcomes in Japanese women with the optimal range of weight gain during pregnancy according to the Japanese (the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare: JMHLW and the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity: JASSO) guidelines compared with those according to the USA (the Institute of Medicine: IOM) guideline. Methods We compared the obstetric outcomes in two groups of gestational weight gain within the optimal range based on the IOM and Japanese guidelines in women of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) categories of underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Results In the underweight and normal-weight women, the incidences of preterm delivery and low-birth-weight infant in the JMHLW group were significantly higher than those in the IOM group; however, the incidence of some other perinatal complications in the JMHLW group was significantly lower than that in the IOM group. In the overweight women, the incidences of preterm delivery and low-birth-weight infant in the JSSO group were significantly higher than those in the IOM group; however, there were no significant differences in the obstetric outcomes between the obese women in the JSSO and IOM groups. Conclusion Based on the current results, we should be more tolerant for the weight gain during pregnancy in Japanese woman than ever, especially in overweight women.

  14. Rectangular-bore, high-gain laser plasma tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollo, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    Rectangular-bore tube improves population inversion obtained from upper and terminal laser states, resulting in a significant increase in unsaturated gain factor. Radial field produces efficient pumping of upper laser state. Narrow tube dimensions cause increased diffusion flow of neon is metastable states to tube walls.

  15. Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2010-01-01

    The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered after…

  16. Leadership Strategies: Achieving Personal and Professional Success.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Physicians and allied health staff in healthcare are finding themselves in situations characterized by uncertainty, chaos, and ambiguity, with high levels of burnout. A major influence is an aging U.S. population, resulting in increasing cost and reimbursement pressures. Medical group practices need leaders who have the capability to thrive in this environment. This article presents an integrated leadership model offering strategies and insights gained from keeping a journal for 40 years. Strategies to be shared include leading self through learning, leading others by developing relationships, leading organizations by achieving excellence, and achieving work-life integration and synergy. PMID:27443052

  17. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  18. Robust Optimal Adaptive Control Method with Large Adaptive Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly. However, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient stability robustness. Simulations were conducted for a damaged generic transport aircraft with both standard adaptive control and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model while maintaining a sufficient time delay margin.

  19. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  20. Gain-switched holmium-doped fibre laser.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ka S; Ottaway, David; Munch, Jesper; Lancaster, David G; Bennetts, Shayne; Jackson, Stuart D

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate the first gain-switched, singly doped, single-mode holmium-doped silicate glass fibre laser that operates at 2.106 microm. Using a gain-switched 1.909-microm thulium-doped fibre laser as the pump source, output pulses of energy 3.2 microJ and pulse duration of 150 ns were generated at 80 kHz and slope efficiency of 44%. Pulse stacking within the holmium-doped fibre laser resulted in significantly shorter 70 ns pulses.

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: North Dakota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in North Dakota for 2010. In grade 8 reading and math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), North Dakota showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: North Carolina, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in North Carolina for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), North Carolina made gains across the board for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels. Progress in narrowing…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: District of Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The District's demographics are such that achievement trends could only be determined for African American, male and female, and low income subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Washington, DC students showed gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels…

  4. Community College Faculty Development Program and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Aaron M.; McShannon, Judy; Hynes, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Community college administrators look for strategies to help students. GRASP (Gaining Retention and Achievement for Students Program) is a semester-long faculty development program that coaches community college instructors about simple, effective teaching strategies that promote student academic achievement. GRASP is founded on the belief that…

  5. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    PubMed Central

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management. Results: The sample consisted of 376 participants (94 males, 282 females) between the ages of 18 years and 88 years (mean age = 43.25, SD = 13.64). The range and nature of the belief dimensions identified suggest that the Australian public have an understanding of the interaction between internal and external factors that impact on weight gain but also prevent successful weight management. Beliefs about prevention strategies and barriers to effective weight management were found to predict the participants’ actual body mass, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions: The general public have a good understanding of the multiple contributing factors to weight gain and successful weight management. However, this understanding may not necessarily lead to individuals adopting the required lifestyle changes that result in achievement or maintenance of healthy weight levels. PMID:25750768

  6. High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Simakov, Nikita; Li, Zhihong; Jung, Yongmin; Daniel, Jae M O; Barua, Pranabesh; Shardlow, Peter C; Liang, Sijing; Sahu, Jayanta K; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W Andrew; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Richardson, David J

    2016-06-27

    We investigate the operation of holmium-doped fibre amplifiers (HDFAs) in the 2.1 µm spectral region. For the first time we demonstrate a diode-pumped HDFA. This amplifier provides a peak gain of 25 dB at 2040 nm with a 15 dB gain window spanning the wavelength range 2030 - 2100 nm with an external noise figure (NF) of 4-6 dB. We also compare the operation of HDFAs when pumped at 1950 nm and 2008 nm. The 1950 nm pumped HDFA provides 41 dB peak gain at 2060 nm with 15 dB of gain spanning the wavelength range 2050 - 2120 nm and an external NF of 7-10 dB. By pumping at the longer wavelength of 2008 nm the gain bandwidth of the amplifier is shifted to longer wavelengths and using this architecture a HDFA was demonstrated with a peak gain of 39 dB at 2090 nm and 15 dB of gain spanning the wavelength range 2050 - 2150 nm. The external NF over this wavelength range was 8-14 dB. PMID:27410557

  7. Gain modulation by graphene plasmons in aperiodic lattice lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Marshall, O. P.; Folland, T. G.; Kim, Y.-J.; Grigorenko, A. N.; Novoselov, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphene plasmon-based technologies will enable the development of fast, compact, and inexpensive active photonic elements because, unlike plasmons in other materials, graphene plasmons can be tuned via the doping level. Such tuning is harnessed within terahertz quantum cascade lasers to reversibly alter their emission. This is achieved in two key steps: first, by exciting graphene plasmons within an aperiodic lattice laser and, second, by engineering photon lifetimes, linking graphene’s Fermi energy with the round-trip gain. Modal gain and hence laser spectra are highly sensitive to the doping of an integrated, electrically controllable, graphene layer. Demonstration of the integrated graphene plasmon laser principle lays the foundation for a new generation of active, programmable plasmonic metamaterials with major implications across photonics, material sciences, and nanotechnology.

  8. Application of small-signal fusion energy gain

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The measured burnup fraction of the 1-MeV tritons produced in a deuterium tokamak plasma, multiplied by 17.5, is essentially the small-signal fusion energy gain g/sub T/ for an ideal 1-MeV triton beam injected into the deuterium plasma. The measured g/sub T/ can be converted directly into the two-component fusion energy gain that would be realized if a lower energy tritium beam were injected into the plasma, or if a deuterium beam were injected into a tritium target plasma having the same parameters as the acutal deuterium plasma. Under certain conditions, g/sub T/ greater than or equal to 1 can be obtained by injection of a low-current 225-keV tritium beam into a hot deuterium plasma, thereby verifying that the plasma has the essential characteristics needed for achieving macroscopic fusion energy ''break-even.''

  9. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme.

    PubMed

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W; Wilcove, David S

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households. PMID:27598524

  10. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households. PMID:27598524

  11. Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Doshi, Sapna D; Katterman, Shawn N; Feig, Emily H

    2013-09-02

    Research in normal weight individuals paradoxically suggests that measures of attempted eating restriction might represent robust predictors of weight gain. This review examined the extent to which measures of dieting (e.g., self-reported weight loss dieting in the past year) and dietary restraint (e.g., the Cognitive Restraint scale from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) have prospectively predicted weight change. We located and reviewed 25 prospective studies containing 40 relevant comparisons. Studies were limited to those in which participants were non-obese (with a mean BMI between 18.5 and 30) and averaged at least 12 years old. Neither measure predicted future weight loss. Fifteen of the 20 comparisons (75%) that examined measures of dieting significantly predicted future weight gain whereas only 1 of 20 (5%) that examined restrained eating measures did so. Two plausible explanations for these findings are that: (1) dieters and restrained eaters do not differ in terms of an underlying proneness toward weight gain, but restrained eating represents a more effective means of preventing it; and (2) normal weight individuals who diet do so because they are resisting a powerful predisposition toward weight gain which dieting ultimately fails to prevent. Recent dieting in non-obese individuals may be a valuable proxy of susceptibility to weight gain. This easily assessed characteristic could identify individuals for whom obesity prevention interventions would be particularly appropriate.

  12. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  13. Emotional eating as a mediator between depression and weight gain.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Tatjana; Konttinen, Hanna; Homberg, Judith R; Engels, Rutger C M E; Winkens, Laura H H

    2016-05-01

    Depression is often associated with weight gain but underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study assessed whether three psychological eating styles (emotional eating, external eating and restrained eating) act as mediators between depression and weight gain. We used structural equation modelling to test the hypothesized mediation models in a sample of 298 fathers and 294 mothers by assessing self-reported eating styles (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive feelings (Depressive Mood List) and body mass index (BMI) at baseline and BMI after five years. In the model with emotional eating we also assessed the moderation effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype in a sub-sample of 520 Caucasians. All analyses were performed separately for the two sexes. Although the overall effect of depression on weight gain was statistically non-significant in both sexes, there was a causal chain between depression, emotional eating and weight gain in the mothers. Depressive symptoms were related to higher emotional eating and emotional eating predicted greater increases in BMI independently of depression. Moreover, the indirect effect (via emotional eating) of depression on BMI change was significant (Beta = 0.18, P = 0.026). This mediation effect was found to be independent of 5-HTTLPR genotype. No such mediation effect was found for the fathers. Further, external eating and restrained eating did not act as mediators between depression and weight gain in either sex. The finding that emotional eating acted as mediator between depression and weight gain in the mothers suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional eating into account. PMID:26911261

  14. Evaluation of chromosome 1q gain in intracranial ependymomas.

    PubMed

    Rajeshwari, Madhu; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Kakkar, Aanchal; Nambirajan, Aruna; Suri, Vaishali; Sarkar, Chitra; Singh, Manmohan; Saran, Ravindra Kumar; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Ependymomas are relatively uncommon gliomas with poor prognosis despite recent advances in neurooncology. Molecular pathogenesis of ependymomas is not extensively studied. Lack of correlation of histological grade with patient outcome has directed attention towards identification of molecular alterations as novel prognostic markers. Recently, 1q gain has emerged as a potential prognostic marker, associated with decreased survival, especially in posterior fossa, high grade tumors. Cases of intracranial ependymomas were retrieved. Tumors were graded using objective criteria to supplement WHO grading. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for 1q gain was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded sections. Eighty-one intracranial ependymomas were analyzed. Pediatric (76%) and infratentorial (70%) ependymomas constituted the majority. 1q gain was seen in 27 cases (33%), was equally frequent in children (34%) and adults (32%), supratentorial (37%) and infratentorial (32%) location, grade II (33%) and III (25%) tumors. Recurrence was noted in 24 cases and death in 7 cases with 5-year progression-free and overall-survival rates of 37% and 80%, respectively. Grade II tumors had a better survival than grade III tumors; histopathological grade was the only prognostically significant marker. 1q gain had no prognostic significance. 1q gain is frequent in ependymomas in Indian patients, seen across all ages, sites and grades, and thus is likely an early event in pathogenesis. The prognostic value of 1q gain, remains uncertain, and multicentric pooling of data is required. A histopathological grading system using objective criteria correlates well with patient outcome and can serve as an economical option for prognostication of ependymomas. PMID:26725097

  15. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  16. Provider advice about pregnancy weight gain and adequacy of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Renée M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2013-02-01

    To explore the association between health care provider advice about weight gain and gestational weight gain. Using data from a prospective cohort study, we explored the association between provider advice about weight gain in pregnancy with weight gain adequacy among 1,454 pregnant women. Provider advice was measured by maternal self-report at 27-30 weeks' gestation. Linear and Poisson regression were used to explore associations. Seventy-eight percent of the women gained outside current recommendations. Fifty-one percent reported receiving weight gain advice from a health care provider. Adjusted Generalized Linear Model (GLM) estimates showed weak effect of provider advice on inadequate or excessive gain (Relative Risk (RR) 0.96, 95% CI 0.74, 1.26 for inadequate gain and RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.06 for excessive gain). There is a need for more women to hear about their targeted weight gains during pregnancy and the present advice that exists does little to influence actual gains. Further studies are warranted to find better strategies for providers to motivate their patients to gain weight within the appropriate ranges.

  17. TCAD simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Ranjeet; Jain, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, detailed simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool, Silvaco for non-irradiated and irradiated LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) devices has been carried out. The effects of different design parameters and proton irradiation on LGAD operation are discussed in detail. An already published effective two trap bulk damage model is used to simulate the radiation damage without implementing any acceptor removal term. The TCAD simulation for irradiated LGAD devices produce decreasing gain with increasing fluence, similar to the measurement results. The space charge density and electric field distribution are used to illustrate the possible reasons for the degradation of gain of the irradiated LGAD devices.

  18. Estimating the Frequency of Horizontal Gene Transfer Using Phylogenetic Models of Gene Gain and Loss.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Dahaj, Seyed Alireza; Okasha, Mohamed; Kosakowski, Jakub; Higgs, Paul G

    2016-07-01

    We analyze patterns of gene presence and absence in a maximum likelihood framework with rate parameters for gene gain and loss. Standard methods allow independent gains and losses in different parts of a tree. While losses of the same gene are likely to be frequent, multiple gains need to be considered carefully. A gene gain could occur by horizontal transfer or by origin of a gene within the lineage being studied. If a gene is gained more than once, then at least one of these gains must be a horizontal transfer. A key parameter is the ratio of gain to loss rates, a/v We consider the limiting case known as the infinitely many genes model, where a/v tends to zero and a gene cannot be gained more than once. The infinitely many genes model is used as a null model in comparison to models that allow multiple gains. Using genome data from cyanobacteria and archaea, it is found that the likelihood is significantly improved by allowing for multiple gains, but the average a/v is very small. The fraction of genes whose presence/absence pattern is best explained by multiple gains is only 15% in the cyanobacteria and 20% and 39% in two data sets of archaea. The distribution of rates of gene loss is very broad, which explains why many genes follow a treelike pattern of vertical inheritance, despite the presence of a significant minority of genes that undergo horizontal transfer.

  19. Observation of polarized gain from aligned colloidal nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuan; Ta, Van Duong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rui; Mutlugun, Evren; Fong, Kah Ee; Tan, Swee Tiam; Dang, Cuong; Sun, Xiao Wei; Sun, Handong; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, colloidal semiconductor nanorods have attracted great interest for polarized spontaneous emission. However, their polarized gain has not been possible to achieve so far. In this work we show the highly polarized stimulated emission from the densely packed ensembles of core-seeded nanorods in a cylindrical cavity. Here CdSe/CdS dot-in-rods were coated and aligned on the inner wall of a capillary tube, providing optical feedback for the nanorod gain medium. Results show that the polarized gain originates intrinsically from the aligned nanorods and not from the cavity and that the optical anisotropy of the nanorod ensemble was amplified with the capillary tube, resulting in highly polarized whispering gallery mode lasing. The highly polarized emission and lasing, together with easy fabrication and flexible incorporation, make this microlaser a promising candidate for important color conversion and enrichment applications including liquid crystal display backlighting and laser lighting.In recent years, colloidal semiconductor nanorods have attracted great interest for polarized spontaneous emission. However, their polarized gain has not been possible to achieve so far. In this work we show the highly polarized stimulated emission from the densely packed ensembles of core-seeded nanorods in a cylindrical cavity. Here CdSe/CdS dot-in-rods were coated and aligned on the inner wall of a capillary tube, providing optical feedback for the nanorod gain medium. Results show that the polarized gain originates intrinsically from the aligned nanorods and not from the cavity and that the optical anisotropy of the nanorod ensemble was amplified with the capillary tube, resulting in highly polarized whispering gallery mode lasing. The highly polarized emission and lasing, together with easy fabrication and flexible incorporation, make this microlaser a promising candidate for important color conversion and enrichment applications including liquid crystal display

  20. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  1. Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity Page Content ... as children, before they became heavy. Still other organic factors partly determine which kids can eat anything ...

  2. Stacked Transformer for Driver Gain and Receive Signal Splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    In a high-speed signal transmission system that uses transformer coupling, there is a need to provide increased transmitted signal strength without adding active components. This invention uses additional transformers to achieve the needed gain. The prior art uses stronger drivers (which require an IC redesign and a higher power supply voltage), or the addition of another active component (which can decrease reliability, increase power consumption, reduce the beneficial effect of serializer/deserializer preemphasis or deemphasis, and/or interfere with fault containment mechanisms), or uses a different transformer winding ratio (which requires redesign of the transformer and may not be feasible with high-speed signals that require a 1:1 winding ratio). This invention achieves the required gain by connecting the secondaries of multiple transformers in series. The primaries of these transformers are currently either connected in parallel or are connected to multiple drivers. There is also a need to split a receive signal to multiple destinations with minimal signal loss. Additional transformers can achieve the split. The prior art uses impedance-matching series resistors that cause a loss of signal. Instead of causing a loss, most instantiations of this invention would actually provide gain. Multiple transformers are used instead of multiple windings on a single transformer because multiple windings on the same transformer would require a redesign of the transformer, and may not be feasible with high-speed transformers that usually require a bifilar winding with a 1:1 ratio. This invention creates the split by connecting the primaries of multiple transformers in series. The secondary of each transformer is connected to one of the intended destinations without the use of impedance-matching series resistors.

  3. The Galileo high gain antenna deployment anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    On April 11, 1991, the Galileo spacecraft executed a sequence that would open the spacecraft's High Gain Antenna. The Antenna's launch restraint had been released just after deployment sequence, the antenna, which opens like an umbrella, never reached the fully deployed position. The analyses and tests that followed allowed a conclusive determination of the likely failure mechanisms and pointed to some strategies to use for recovery of the high gain antenna.

  4. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P.

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  5. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  6. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gain) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. The present study examined this phenomenon of context-specific adaptationfor horizontal saccades, using a variety of contexts. Our overall goal was to assess the efficacy of different context cues in switching between adapted states. A standard double-step paradigm was used to adapt saccade gain. In each experiment, we asked for a simultaneous gain decrease in one context and gain increase in another context, and then determined if a change in the context would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal eye position worked well as a context cue: saccades with the eyes deviated to the right could be made to have higher gains while saccades with the eyes deviated to the left could be made to have lower gains. Vertical eye position was less effective. This suggests that the more closely related a context cue is to the response being adapted, the more effective it is. Roll tilt of the head, and upright versus supine orientations, were somewhat effective in context switching; these paradigms contain orientation of gravity with respect to the head as part of the context.

  7. High resolution BPMS with integrated gain correction system

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, M.; Briegel, C.; Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Gianfelice, E.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Voy, D.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2009-08-01

    High resolution beam position monitors (BPM) are an essential tool to achieve and reproduce a low vertical beam emittance at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring. The ATF damping ring (DR) BPMs are currently upgraded with new high resolution read-out electronics. Based on analog and digital down-conversion techniques, the upgrade includes an automatic gain calibration system to correct for slow drift effects and ensure high reproducible beam position readings. The concept and its technical realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

  8. Simplified ASE correction algorithm for variable gain-flattened erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Sheih, Shou-Jong; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd

    2009-06-01

    We demonstrate a simplified algorithm to manifest the contribution of amplified spontaneous emission in variable gain-flattened Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The detected signal power at the input and output ports of EDFA comprises of both signal and noise. The generated amplified spontaneous emission from EDFA cannot be differentiated by photodetector which leads to underestimation of the targeted gain value. This gain penalty must be taken into consideration in order to obtain the accurate gain level. By taking the average gain penalty within the dynamic gain range, the targeted output power is set higher than the desired level. Thus, the errors are significantly reduced to less than 0.15 dB from 15 dB to 30 dB desired gain values.

  9. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  10. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  11. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  12. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  13. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  14. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  15. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  16. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  17. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  18. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  19. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  20. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  1. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  2. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  3. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  4. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  5. Nonlinear optomechanics with gain and loss: amplifying higher-order sideband and group delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Y.; Lü, H.; Qian, J.; Li, Y.; Jing, H.

    2016-08-01

    We study the nonlinear optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) with gain and loss. We find that (i) for a single active cavity, significant enhancement can be achieved for the higher-order sidebands, including the transmission rate and the group delay; (ii) for active-passive-coupled cavities, hundreds of microsecond of optical delay or advance are attainable for the nonlinear sideband pulses in the parity-time-symmetric regime. The active higher-order OMIT effects, as firstly revealed here, open up the way to make a low-power optomechaical amplifier, which can amplify both the strength and group delay of not only the probe light but also its higher-order sidebands.

  6. A Temperature-Based Gain Calibration Technique for Precision Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashare, Chaitali Ravindra

    temperature which varies significantly with different climatic conditions. The model used to correct for gain variations is presented. We describe the measurements performed to verify the model. RFI is a major issue at low frequencies, which makes these kind of measurements extremely challenging. We discuss the careful measures required to mitigate the errors due to the unwanted interference. In the case of the laboratory measurements, the model follows closely with the measured power, and shows an improvement in the gain stability by a factor of ˜ 46, when the corrections are applied. The gain stability (rms to mean) improves from 1 part in 32 to 1 part in 1500. The field measurements suggest that correcting for cable temperature variations is challenging. The improvement in the gain stability is by a factor of ˜ 4.3, when the RF front end components are situated out in the field. The results are analyzed using the statistical methods such as the standard error of the mean, the run test, skewness, and kurtosis. These tests demonstrate the normal distribution of the process when the corrections are applied and confirm an effective gain bias removal. The results obtained from the sky observation using a single antenna element are compared before and after applying the corrections. Several days data verify that the power fluctuations are significantly reduced after the gain corrections are applied.

  7. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study.

    PubMed

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target. PMID:27070317

  8. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target. PMID:27070317

  9. Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

  10. Worst-case analysis and linear parameter-varying gain-scheduled control of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob

    In this thesis, two main subjects are discussed. The first is a worst-case performance analysis, the second is a linear parameter varying (LPV) synthesis using a blending approach. On the first subject, a linear fractional transformation (LFT) model of the linearized X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) has been developed to facilitate the analysis of its flight control system. The LFT model represents uncertainty in nine aerodynamic stability derivatives at a given flight condition. The X-38 LFT model, combined with a controller at specific flight conditions, is used to determine the aerodynamic coefficients within a predefined set that result in the worst-case performance and worst-case gain/phase margins of the closed-loop system. LPV and mu controllers are synthesized for the X-38 CRV lateral-directional axes over the candidate flight envelope and compared with the baseline gain-scheduled classical control design. Worst-case analysis of the LPV and mu controllers are compared with the baseline gain-scheduled classical control design. Analysis and time simulations show that the LPV controller achieves significant performance and robustness improvements when compared to a linear mu controller and the baseline gain-scheduled controller. On the second subject, a quasi-LPV model of the F-16 longitudinal axes was developed using three methods: Jacobian linearization, state transformation and function substitution. Time simulations of quasi-LPV models show that the quasi-LPV models developed using state transformation and function substitution accurately represent the nonlinear dynamics of the F-16 longitudinal axes. In designing an LPV controller for the F-16 longitudinal axes, the function substitution quasi-LPV models are used since these quasi-LPV models can represent the nonlinear dynamics at non-trim points. Two LPV controllers are synthesized for the F-16 longitudinal axes for two separated flight envelopes: low and high altitude regions. Blending these controllers

  11. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  12. High gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches: Switch longevity

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Mar, A.

    1998-07-01

    Optically activated, high gain GaAs switches are being tested for many different pulsed power applications that require long lifetime (longevity). The switches have p and n contact metallization (with intentional or unintentional dopants) configured in such a way as to produce p-i-n or n-i-n switches. The longevity of the switches is determined by circuit parameters and by the ability of the contacts to resist erosion. This paper will describe how the switches performed in test-beds designed to measure switch longevity. The best longevity was achieved with switches made with diffused contacts, achieving over 50 million pulses at 10 A and over 2 million pulses at 80 A.

  13. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  14. Unidirectional Cloaking Based on Metasurfaces with Balanced Loss and Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sounas, Dimitrios L.; Fleury, Romain; Alù, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    We prove that balanced loss-gain distributions provide an elegant path towards realizing loss-free unidirectional cloaks for objects much larger than the wavelength. By coating a scatterer with an ultrathin metasurface with balanced loss and gain, such as a parity-time (P T )-symmetric metasurface in the special case of a symmetric scatterer, we show that it is possible to ideally cloak the scatterer from a particular direction. The passive portion of the cloak ensures that the incident power on the illuminated side of the object is fully absorbed, while the active portion radiates the required pattern on the opposite side, automatically synchronized with the impinging signal, eliminating shadows and making the object invisible. The proposed approach substitutes complex metamaterial cloaks and achieves cloaking with relaxed limitations on size, and in an ultrathin, loss-free, and stable design. Beyond introducing a new venue to cloaking of large objects, our paper shows the unique potential for scattering manipulation introduced by structures with balanced loss and gain, pointing to a new direction in the field of P T -symmetric systems.

  15. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema.

  16. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  17. Analysis of Gain and Absorption Spectra of Gallium Nitride-based Laser Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Thiago

    Laser diodes (LDs) based on the III-Nitride material system, (Al,In,Ga)N, stand to satisfy a number of application needs, and their huge market segment has been further growing with the use of LDs for full color laser projection. All commercially available GaN-based devices are based on the conventional c-plane (polar) orientation of this material. However, strong polarization fields caused by strained quantum-well (QW) layers on c-plane induce the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE), which leads to reduced radiative recombination rate and are aggravated when more indium is added into the QW(s) in order to achieve longer wavelengths. A promising solution for this is the use of nonpolar and semipolar crystal growth orientations. Elimination or mitigation of polarization-related fields within the QWs grown along these novel orientations is observed and one expects increased radiative recombination rate and stabilization of the wavelength emission with respect to the injection current. In order to have more insights on the advantages of using the novel crystal orientations of the III-Nitride material system, we compare the gain of LD structures fabricated from c-plane, nonpolar and semipolar GaN substrates. Using thesegmented contact method, single-pass gain spectra of LD epitaxial structures at wafer level are compared for the different crystal orientations as well as the single-pass absorption coefficient spectrum of the active region material and its dependence on reversed bias. Experimental gain spectra under continuous-wave (CW) operation of actual industry LDs fabricated from c-plane and nonpolar/semipolar GaN-based materials emitting wavelengths in the visible are then presented, using the Hakki-Paoli technique at high resolution. Measurements of the transparency current density, total losses and differential modal gain curves up to threshold are analyzed and compared between nonpolar/semipolar and c-plane LDs in violet and blue spectral regions regions. In a

  18. The impact of a Classroom Performance System on learning gains in a biology course for science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Nilo Eric

    This study was conducted to determine if the use of the technology known as Classroom Performance System (CPS), specifically referred to as "Clickers", improves the learning gains of students enrolled in a biology course for science majors. CPS is one of a group of developing technologies adapted for providing feedback in the classroom using a learner-centered approach. It supports and facilitates discussion among students and between them and teachers, and provides for participation by passive students. Advocates, influenced by constructivist theories, claim increased academic achievement. In science teaching, the results have been mixed, but there is some evidence of improvements in conceptual understanding. The study employed a pretest-posttest, non-equivalent groups experimental design. The sample consisted of 226 participants in six sections of a college biology course at a large community college in South Florida with two instructors trained in the use of clickers. Each instructor randomly selected their sections into CPS (treatment) and non-CPS (control) groups. All participants filled out a survey that included demographic data at the beginning of the semester. The treatment group used clicker questions throughout, with discussions as necessary, whereas the control groups answered the same questions as quizzes, similarly engaging in discussion where necessary. The learning gains were assessed on a pre/post-test basis. The average learning gains, defined as the actual gain divided by the possible gain, were slightly better in the treatment group than in the control group, but the difference was statistically non-significant. An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) statistic with pretest scores as the covariate was conducted to test for significant differences between the treatment and control groups on the posttest. A second ANCOVA was used to determine the significance of differences between the treatment and control groups on the posttest scores, after

  19. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  20. A route to high gain photodetectors through suppressed recombination in disordered films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippa, Bronson; White, Ron; Pivrikas, Almantas

    2016-10-01

    Secondary photocurrents offer an alternative mechanism to photomultiplier tubes and avalanche diodes for making high gain photodetectors that are able to operate even at extremely low light conditions. While in the past secondary currents were studied mainly in ordered crystalline semiconductors, disordered systems offer some key advantages such as a potentially lower leakage current and typically longer photocarrier lifetimes due to trapping. In this work, we use numerical simulations to identify the critical device and material parameters required to achieve high photocurrent and gain in steady state. We find that imbalanced mobilities and suppressed, non-Langevin-type charge carrier recombination will produce the highest gain. A low light intensity, strong electric field, and a large single carrier space charge limited current are also beneficial for reaching high gains. These results would be useful for practical photodetector fabrication when aiming to maximize the gain.

  1. Radiation cooling and gain calculation for C VI 182 A line in C/Se plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, C.H.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.; Feldman, U.

    1986-04-01

    A model is developed which is capable of describing the evolution of gain resulting from both rapid radiative and expansion cooling of a recombining, freely expanding plasma. It is demonstrated for the particular case of a carbon/selenium plasma that the cooling rate which leads to optimal gain can be achieved by adjusting the admixture of an efficiently radiating material (selenium) in the gain medium (carbon). Comparison is made to a recent observation of gain in a recent NRL/Rochester experiment with carbon/selenium plasma for the n = 3 ..-->.. 2 transition in C VI occurring at 182 A. The predicted maximum gain is approx.10 cm/sup -1/, as compared to observation of 2 to 3 cm/sup -1/.

  2. Developing high-power hybrid resonant gain-switched thulium fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuo; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Nan; Li, Yue; Tang, Yulong; Xu, Jianqiu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose hybrid-pumped resonant gain-switched thulium fiber lasers to realize high-average-power and high-pulse-energy 2-μm laser emissions. Based on numerical simulation, laser dynamics (pulse peak power, pulse energy, pulse duration, etc.) of this kind of laser system are investigated in detail. By taking advantages of the 793 nm continuous wave pump and the 1900 nm pulsed pump, performance of the laser emission can be significantly improved, with the highest average power of 28 W, peak power of 3.5 kW, pulse energy of 281 μJ, and narrowest pulse duration of 92 ns, all of which can be further optimized through designing the cavity parameters and the pumping circumstance. Compared with the pump pulses, two times improvement in pulse energy and average power has been achieved. This hybrid resonant gain-switched system has an all-fiber configuration and high efficiency (low heat load), and can be steadily extended into the cladding pump scheme, thus paving a new way to realize high power (>100 W average power) and high pulse energy (>1 mJ) 2 μm thulium fiber lasers. PMID:26480083

  3. FIFE in 1992 - Results, scientific gains, and future research directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the more significant findings of the science teams and science staff of FIFE, emphasizing scientific gains, and outlining some future research directions. Attention is given to interactions between surface and boudary layer heat fluxes, momentum fluxes, and correlations between near-surface heat and CO2 fluxes and satellite data. Consideration is given to improved understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere at the local scale.

  4. FIFE in 1992 - Results, scientific gains, and future research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, P.J.; Hall, F.G. )

    1992-11-01

    A summary is presented of some of the more significant findings of the science teams and science staff of FIFE, emphasizing scientific gains, and outlining some future research directions. Attention is given to interactions between surface and boudary layer heat fluxes, momentum fluxes, and correlations between near-surface heat and CO2 fluxes and satellite data. Consideration is given to improved understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere at the local scale. 59 refs.

  5. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  6. Cognitive gains from gist reasoning training in adolescents with chronic-stage traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lori G; Chapman, Sandra B; Elliott, Alan C; Evenson, Nellie N; Vinton, Kami

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically demonstrate good recovery of previously acquired skills. However, higher-order and later emergent cognitive functions are often impaired and linked to poor outcomes in academic and social/behavioral domains. Few control trials exist that test cognitive treatment effectiveness at chronic recovery stages. The current pilot study compared the effects of two forms of cognitive training, gist reasoning (top-down) versus rote memory learning (bottom-up), on ability to abstract meanings, recall facts, and utilize core executive functions (i.e., working memory, inhibition) in 20 adolescents (ages 12-20) who were 6 months or longer post-TBI. Participants completed eight 45-min sessions over 1 month. After training, the gist reasoning group (n = 10) exhibited significant improvement in ability to abstract meanings and increased fact recall. This group also showed significant generalizations to untrained executive functions of working memory and inhibition. The memory training group (n = 10) failed to show significant gains in ability to abstract meaning or on other untrained specialized executive functions, although improved fact recall approached significance. These preliminary results suggest that relatively short-term training (6 h) utilizing a top-down reasoning approach is more effective than a bottom-up rote learning approach in achieving gains in higher-order cognitive abilities in adolescents at chronic stages of TBI. These findings need to be replicated in a larger study; nonetheless, the preliminary data suggest that traditional cognitive intervention schedules need to extend to later-stage training opportunities. Chronic-stage, higher-order cognitive trainings may serve to elevate levels of cognitive performance in adolescents with TBI. PMID:24966850

  7. Cognitive Gains from Gist Reasoning Training in Adolescents with Chronic-Stage Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Lori G.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Elliott, Alan C.; Evenson, Nellie N.; Vinton, Kami

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically demonstrate good recovery of previously acquired skills. However, higher-order and later emergent cognitive functions are often impaired and linked to poor outcomes in academic and social/behavioral domains. Few control trials exist that test cognitive treatment effectiveness at chronic recovery stages. The current pilot study compared the effects of two forms of cognitive training, gist reasoning (top-down) versus rote memory learning (bottom-up), on ability to abstract meanings, recall facts, and utilize core executive functions (i.e., working memory, inhibition) in 20 adolescents (ages 12–20) who were 6 months or longer post-TBI. Participants completed eight 45-min sessions over 1 month. After training, the gist reasoning group (n = 10) exhibited significant improvement in ability to abstract meanings and increased fact recall. This group also showed significant generalizations to untrained executive functions of working memory and inhibition. The memory training group (n = 10) failed to show significant gains in ability to abstract meaning or on other untrained specialized executive functions, although improved fact recall approached significance. These preliminary results suggest that relatively short-term training (6 h) utilizing a top-down reasoning approach is more effective than a bottom-up rote learning approach in achieving gains in higher-order cognitive abilities in adolescents at chronic stages of TBI. These findings need to be replicated in a larger study; nonetheless, the preliminary data suggest that traditional cognitive intervention schedules need to extend to later-stage training opportunities. Chronic-stage, higher-order cognitive trainings may serve to elevate levels of cognitive performance in adolescents with TBI. PMID:24966850

  8. High fat diet causes rebound weight gain.

    PubMed

    McNay, David E G; Speakman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is at epidemic proportions but treatment options remain limited. Treatment of obesity by calorie restriction (CR) despite having initial success often fails due to rebound weight gain. One possibility is that this reflects an increased body weight (BW) set-point. Indeed, high fat diets (HFD) reduce adult neurogenesis altering hypothalamic neuroarchitecture. However, it is uncertain if these changes are associated with weight rebound or if long-term weight management is associated with reversing this. Here we show that obese mice have an increased BW set-point and lowering this set-point is associated with rescuing hypothalamic remodelling. Treating obesity by CR using HFD causes weight loss, but not rescued remodelling resulting in rebound weight gain. However, treating obesity by CR using non-HFD causes weight loss, rescued remodelling and attenuates rebound weight gain. We propose that these phenomena may explain why successful short-term weight loss improves obesity in some people but not in others.

  9. Image formation using stimulated raman scattering gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, V. G.; Makarov, E. A.; Stasel'ko, D. I.

    2016-07-01

    Theoretical analysis of the spatial, noise, and energy characteristics of an amplifier has been performed in the mode of spectral and time selection using subnanosecond stimulated Raman Scattering gain of weak echo signals in crystalline active media that are known for high (up to 10-1 cm/MW) gain coefficients. The possibility to reach high gain values has been demonstrated for weak signals from objects at acceptable angular sizes of the field of vision of an amplifier. To provide a signal-to-noise ratio that exceeds unity over the entire field of vision, the number of photons at the input to an amplifier that is required has to exceed the number of its resolution elements. Accurate determination of the possibilities of recording of weak echo signals and quality of images of targets that are obtained using amplifiers under stimulated Raman Scattering requires additional special experiments.

  10. Acoustics of fish shelters: frequency response and gain properties.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Marco

    2012-11-01

    Many teleosts emit sounds from cavities beneath stones and other types of submerged objects, yet the acoustical properties of fish shelters are virtually unexplored. This study examines the gain properties of shelters commonly used by Mediterranean gobies as hiding places and/or nest sites in the field (flat stones, shells belonging to five bivalve species), or within aquarium tanks (tunnel-shaped plastic covers, concrete blocks, concrete cylinder pipe, halves of terracotta flower pots). All shelters were acoustically stimulated using a small underwater buzzer, placed inside or around the shelter to mimic a fish calling from the nest site, and different types of driving stimuli (white noise, pure tones, and artificial pulse trains). Results showed the presence of significant amplitude gain (3-18 dB) at frequencies in the range 100-150 Hz in all types of natural shelters but one (Mytilus), terracotta flower pots, and concrete blocks. Gain was higher for stones and artificial shelters than for shells. Gain peak amplitude increased with the weight of stones and shells. Conclusions were verified by performing analogous acoustical tests on flat stones in the stream. Results draw attention to the use of suitable shelters for proper recording of sounds produced by fishes kept within laboratory aquaria.

  11. Cognitive Adaptation of Sonar Gain Control in the Bottlenose Dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Kloepper, Laura N.; Smith, Adam B.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Buck, John R.; Simmons, James A.; Pacini, Aude F.

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating animals adjust the transmit intensity and receive sensitivity of their sonar in order to regulate the sensation level of their echoes; this process is often termed automatic gain control. Gain control is considered not to be under the animal's cognitive control, but previous investigations studied animals ensonifying targets or hydrophone arrays at predictable distances. To test whether animals maintain gain control at a fixed level in uncertain conditions, we measured changes in signal intensity for a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detecting a target at three target distances (2.5, 4 and 7 m) in two types of sessions: predictable and unpredictable. Predictable sessions presented the target at a constant distance; unpredictable sessions moved the target randomly between the three target positions. In the predictable sessions the dolphin demonstrated intensity distance compensation, increasing the emitted click intensity as the target distance increased. Additionally, as trials within sessions progressed, the animal adjusted its click intensity even from the first click in a click train, which is consistent with the animal expecting a target at a certain range. In the unpredictable sessions there was no significant difference of intensity with target distance until after the 7th click in a click train. Together, these results demonstrate that the bottlenose dolphin uses learning and expectation for sonar gain control. PMID:25153530

  12. Cognitive adaptation of sonar gain control in the bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Kloepper, Laura N; Smith, Adam B; Nachtigall, Paul E; Buck, John R; Simmons, James A; Pacini, Aude F

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating animals adjust the transmit intensity and receive sensitivity of their sonar in order to regulate the sensation level of their echoes; this process is often termed automatic gain control. Gain control is considered not to be under the animal's cognitive control, but previous investigations studied animals ensonifying targets or hydrophone arrays at predictable distances. To test whether animals maintain gain control at a fixed level in uncertain conditions, we measured changes in signal intensity for a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detecting a target at three target distances (2.5, 4 and 7 m) in two types of sessions: predictable and unpredictable. Predictable sessions presented the target at a constant distance; unpredictable sessions moved the target randomly between the three target positions. In the predictable sessions the dolphin demonstrated intensity distance compensation, increasing the emitted click intensity as the target distance increased. Additionally, as trials within sessions progressed, the animal adjusted its click intensity even from the first click in a click train, which is consistent with the animal expecting a target at a certain range. In the unpredictable sessions there was no significant difference of intensity with target distance until after the 7th click in a click train. Together, these results demonstrate that the bottlenose dolphin uses learning and expectation for sonar gain control.

  13. Parenting Style and Parental Involvement: Relations with Adolescent Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…

  14. Relating weight gain and feed:gain of male and female broilers to rearing temperature.

    PubMed

    May, J D; Lott, B D

    2001-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on growth and feed:gain were studied in three trials each for male and female broilers. Chicks were reared in a common environment to 21 d of age. At 21 d, they were randomly allocated to 10 environmental chambers. Each chamber was maintained at a constant temperature; the chambers ranged from 12 to 30 C in two-degree increments. The dewpoint was maintained at 18 C, except that relative humidity was not permitted to exceed 82.9%. Body weight was determined at 21 d. Weight gain and feed:gain were determined at 28, 35, 42, and 49 d. The data were analyzed statistically, and regression equations were obtained for weight gain and feed:gain for each sex. Equations were based on body weight and temperature, and the body weight equations were plotted as grams gained per bird per day. Feed:gain increased with increasing weight. The temperature that resulted in the most favorable feed:gain decreased with increasing weight. These results support lower rearing temperatures for optimum growth and feed:gain by large broilers than those of other reports in the literature.

  15. Incentive payments are not related to expected health gain in the pay for performance scheme for UK primary care: cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The General Medical Services primary care contract for the United Kingdom financially rewards performance in 19 clinical areas, through the Quality and Outcomes Framework. Little is known about how best to determine the size of financial incentives in pay for performance schemes. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that performance indicators with larger population health benefits receive larger financial incentives. Methods We performed cross sectional analyses to quantify associations between the size of financial incentives and expected health gain in the 2004 and 2006 versions of the Quality and Outcomes Framework. We used non-parametric two-sided Spearman rank correlation tests. Health gain was measured in expected lives saved in one year and in quality adjusted life years. For each quality indicator in an average sized general practice we tested for associations first, between the marginal increase in payment and the health gain resulting from a one percent point improvement in performance and second, between total payment and the health gain at the performance threshold for maximum payment. Results Evidence for lives saved or quality adjusted life years gained was found for 28 indicators accounting for 41% of the total incentive payments. No statistically significant associations were found between the expected health gain and incentive gained from a marginal 1% increase in performance in either the 2004 or 2006 version of the Quality and Outcomes Framework. In addition no associations were found between the size of financial payment for achievement of an indicator and the expected health gain at the performance threshold for maximum payment measured in lives saved or quality adjusted life years. Conclusions In this subgroup of indicators the financial incentives were not aligned to maximise health gain. This disconnection between incentive and expected health gain risks supporting clinical activities that are only marginally effective, at the

  16. Reducing gain shifts in photomultiplier tubes

    DOEpatents

    Cohn, Charles E.

    1976-01-01

    A means is provided for reducing gain shifts in multiplier tubes due to varying event count rates. It includes means for limiting the number of cascaded, active dynodes of the multiplier tube to a predetermined number with the last of predetermined number of dynodes being the output terminal of the tube. This output is applied to an amplifier to make up for the gain sacrificed by not totally utilizing all available active stages of the tube. Further reduction is obtained by illuminating the predetermined number of dynodes with a light source of such intensity that noise appearing at the output dynode associated with the illumination is negligible.

  17. Varactor-diode modulator yields conversion gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitkopf, K.

    1980-05-01

    It is shown that varactor diodes used as modulator elements can make a balanced diode mixer yield conversion gain when employed in an upconverter. Replacing the normal mixer diodes with varactor diodes and inserting the IF and LO voltages at a level that drives the diodes into their nonlinear voltage-capacitance region produces a parametric amplifying effect. This modification results in conversion gain rather than loss, and brings the desired output power up to the 0.1-1.0 W level. The use of this technique in a lower-sideband UHF TV upconverter is considered.

  18. Travel distance and mass gain in wintering blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Cresswell

    1999-11-01

    Birds that range over a large area will have a greater mass-dependent risk of predation than more sedentary birds. Birds that travel more may then reduce winter mass gain to compensate for the increased predation risk that greater travelling entails. I tested whether European blackbirds, Turdus merula, that travelled more in winter had a lower mass than more sedentary birds, independently of any confounding effects of food supply on both ranging behaviour and mass gain. I measured change in winter mass and amount of food eaten in conjunction with the distance that blackbirds travelled to a randomly sited mobile feeder. Blackbirds that travelled shorter distances (per trip and in total) and less often to the feeder had the highest mass midwinter relative to their spring mass. Blackbirds with a higher mean mass midwinter also travelled, on average, shorter distances to the feeder. The distance an individual blackbird travelled to the feeder at any one time was probably independent of the state of its daily energy reserves (how much of its daily total mass gain it had achieved at that point). The relationship between distance travelled and mass was probably independent of food supply because distances actually increased at the end of the winter and the amount of food eaten per individual changed little. More mobile blackbirds were therefore likely to have compensated for any increases in predation risk associated with their greater ranges by decreasing winter mass gain, but will have had an increased risk of starvation because of their lower mass. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  19. L1/ℓ1-Gain analysis and synthesis of Markovian jump positive systems with time delay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhao, Xudong; Zhu, Fubo; Han, Zhengzhi

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with stability analysis and control synthesis of Markovian jump positive systems with time delay. The notions of stochastic stability with L1- and ℓ1-gain performances are introduced for continuous- and discrete-time contexts, respectively. Using a stochastic copositive Lyapunov function, sufficient conditions for the stability with L1/ℓ1-gain performance of the systems are established. Furthermore, mode-dependent controllers are designed to achieve the stabilization with L1/ℓ1-gain of the resulting closed-loop systems. All proposed conditions are formulated in terms of linear programming. Numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the findings of theory.

  20. L1/ℓ1-Gain analysis and synthesis of Markovian jump positive systems with time delay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhao, Xudong; Zhu, Fubo; Han, Zhengzhi

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with stability analysis and control synthesis of Markovian jump positive systems with time delay. The notions of stochastic stability with L1- and ℓ1-gain performances are introduced for continuous- and discrete-time contexts, respectively. Using a stochastic copositive Lyapunov function, sufficient conditions for the stability with L1/ℓ1-gain performance of the systems are established. Furthermore, mode-dependent controllers are designed to achieve the stabilization with L1/ℓ1-gain of the resulting closed-loop systems. All proposed conditions are formulated in terms of linear programming. Numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the findings of theory. PMID:27062020

  1. Photorefractive gain in GaAs under a dc electric field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Duncan T. H.; Cheng, Li-Jen; Rau, Mann-Fu; Wang, Faa-Ching

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the first observation of a photorefractive gain coefficient as high as 2.6/cm in the undoped liquid-encapsulated Czochralski-grown GaAs crystals at 1.06 microns under a dc electric field of 13 kV/cm without using the moving grating technique.The absorption coefficient of the crystals used is 1.3/cm, showing that a net gain has been achieved. This measured gain coefficient is close to the predicted theoretical value.

  2. Attitudes and Achievement of Bruneian Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. Results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. (Contains 46 references.)…

  3. The algorithm and implementation of EMCCD automatic gain adjustment based on fixed gray level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Le; Chen, Qian; He, Wei-Ji; Lu, Zhen-Xi

    2015-10-01

    The image quality and resolution will be affected, if the multiplication gain value of EMCCD imaging system is too low or too high. This paper presents the algorithm of EMCCD automatic gain adjustment based on fixed gray level. The algorithm takes the average brightness of the image as a measure of image quality. It calculates the multiplication gain adjustment value through the calculation of average brightness of current frame image, combining the two gray level threshold values and the system exposure function, so that the next frame image will achieve the ideal brightness value. On the basis of the algorithm, this paper builds a multiplication gain adjustment control circuit and a multiplication gain resistor lookup table. Then, we can achieve automatic adjustment of multiplication gain by changing the resistance value of the digital potentiometer in the circuit. Experimental results show that the image quality can be effectively improved, by using the algorithm of automatic gain adjustment based on fixed gray level. After adjustment, the brightness of the image is moderate, contrast enhanced, and the details more clear.

  4. Optimizing weight gain in pregnancy to prevent obesity in women and children.

    PubMed

    Herring, S J; Rose, M Z; Skouteris, H; Oken, E

    2012-03-01

    Pregnancy is now considered to be an important risk factor for new or persistent obesity among women during the childbearing years. High gestational weight gain is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight or obesity following pregnancy. A growing body of evidence also suggests that both high and low gestational weight gains are independently associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity, suggesting that influences occurring very early in life are contributing to obesity onset. In response to these data, the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) revised gestational weight gain guidelines in 2009 for the first time in nearly two decades. However, less than one third of pregnant women achieve guideline-recommended gains, with the majority gaining above IOM recommended levels. To date, interventions to optimize pregnancy weight gains have had mixed success. In this paper, we summarize the evidence from human and animal studies linking over-nutrition and under-nutrition in pregnancy to maternal and child obesity. In addition, we discuss published trials and ongoing interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain as a strategy for obesity prevention in women and their children.

  5. Using optimal combination of teaching-learning methods (open book assignment and group tutorials) as revision exercises to improve learning outcome in low achievers in biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Suryapriya, R; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2016-07-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving the learning outcome. About 143 graduate medical students were classified into low (<50%: group 1, n = 23), medium (50-75%: group 2, n = 74), and high (>75%: group 3, n = 46) achievers, based on their internal assessment marks. After the regular teaching module on the topics "Vitamins and Enzymology", all the students attempted an open book assignment without peer consultation. Then all the students participated in group tutorials. The effects on the groups were evaluated by pre and posttests at the end of each phase, with the same set of MCQs. Gain from group tutorials and overall gain was significantly higher in the low achievers, compared to other groups. High and medium achievers obtained more gain from open book assignment, than group tutorials. The overall gain was significantly higher than the gain obtained from open book assignment or group tutorials, in all three groups. All the three groups retained the gain even after 1 week of the exercise. Hence, optimal use of novel T-L methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) as revision exercises help in strengthening concepts in Biochemistry in this oft neglected group of low achievers in graduate medical education. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):321-325, 2016.

  6. Total heat gain and the split between radiant and convective heat gain from office and laboratory equipment in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hosni, M.H.; Jones, B.W.; Sipes, J.M.; Xu, Y.

    1998-10-01

    An accurate determination of the cooling load is important in the proper sizing of air-conditioning equipment. Improvements on the thermal insulation characteristics of building materials and recent advances in building envelope systems have reduced the building cooling load from external sources. However, the number of internal cooling load sources have increased due to the addition of various office and laboratory equipment (e.g., microcomputer, monitor, printer copier, scanner, overhead projector, microwave oven, incubator, etc.). In this article, typical office and laboratory equipment such as desktop computers (with a Pentium and a 486DX2-33 processor), monitors, a copier, a laser printer, and a biological incubator are evaluated to determine the total heat gain and the split between radiant and convective heat gain from these items. In addition, two standard objects with well-defined radiant heat loss characteristics, a heated flat slab, and a heated sphere are used to verify the accuracy of measurement and data reduction procedures. The total heat gain from tested office equipment was significantly less than the name plate ratings even when operated continuously. The actual power consumption ranged from 14% to 36% of the name plate ratings. Thus, care must be taken when using equipment nameplate ratings in estimating total heat gain for air-conditioning equipment sizing.

  7. Measurement of Information Gain from Written Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosberg, Ludwig

    A pretest/post-test procedure for measuring information gain from discourse was investigated together with several other aspects of discourse processing. The main purpose was to determine the effect of a pretest on discourse learning as measured by post-test performance. The study also investigated (1) serial position effects in learning from…

  8. Electromagnetically induced gain in molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Nandini; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-12-01

    We report electromagnetically induced gain in a highly degenerate two-level rotational vibrational molecular system. Using two photon (Raman-type) interaction with right and left circularly polarized pump and probe waves, the Zeeman coherence is established within the manifold of degenerate sublevels belonging to a rotational vibrational eigenstate. We analytically and numerically calculate the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility for a Doppler-broadened molecular transition for an arbitrary high rotational angular momentum (J≥20) . It is shown that for a Q -type open transition, a weak probe will experience an electromagnetically induced gain in presence of a strong copropagating pump wave. The inversionless gain originates due to cancellation of absorption from the interference of the coupled Λ - and V-type excitation channels in an N -type configuration. A detailed analysis of the optical susceptibility as a function of Doppler detuning explains how the gain bands are generated in a narrow transparency window from the overlapping contributions of different velocity groups. It is shown that the orientation dependent coherent interaction in presence of a strong pump induces narrow resonances for the probe susceptibility. The locations, intensity, and sign (positive or negative susceptibility) of these resonances are decided by the frequency detuning of the Doppler group and the strength of the coupling field. The availability of high power tunable quantum cascade lasers covering a spectral region from about 4 to 12μm opens up the possibility of investigating the molecular vibrational rotational transitions for a variety of coherent effects.

  9. Project GAIN Evaluation: 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biller, Julian

    Project GAIN was designed to meet the special needs of the academically retarded junior high school student. This federally funded project has been on-going in Broward County (Florida) since January 1966. The project was conceived of as a means to motivate and educate those students whose "dull normal" intellectual ability might otherwise doom…

  10. Net Photorefractive Gain In Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tsuen-Hsi; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1990-01-01

    Prerequisite includes applied electric field. Electric field applied to GaAs crystal in which two infrared beams interfere. Depending on quality of sample and experimental conditions, net photorefractive gain obtained. Results offer possibility of new developments in real-time optical processing of signals by use of near-infrared lasers of low power.

  11. Dimensions of Compliance-Gaining Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Michael J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Tested a seven-factor model of situation perception to develop a set of valid and reliable situation perception factors for use in compliance-gaining research. (Factors included personal benefits, intimacy, rights, resistance, dominance, situation apprehension, and relational consequences.) Found that the model fit the data well and was superior…

  12. Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made…

  13. GAIN Appraisal Program IV. Fourth Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, June; And Others

    The Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) legislation in California mandated a full range of employment-related training and supportive services designed to provide welfare program applicants and recipients with the skills needed to acquire unsubsidized employment through education and training. Tests to assess the basic reading, mathematics,…

  14. Significant Steps Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuta, Theresa; Mauricio, David

    2012-01-01

    Three years ago, the authors accepted positions as high school principals in Buffalo City (NY) Schools after serving as elementary school principals in the district for many years. In their new positions, they were to lead schools that were designated by the New York State Department of Education as "persistently lowest achieving," better known…

  15. Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension Gains from Assisted Reading Practice: Pre Existing Conditions, Vocabulary Acquisition, and Amounts of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shany, Michal; Biemiller, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a study of the effects of assisted reading practice (Shany & Biemiller, 1995). In this paper we examined the original data to find factors affecting gains in reading comprehension. We contrasted 14 children who had below median gains in reading comprehension and 15 who had above median gains. There were no significant correlations…

  16. Commissural Gain Control Enhances the Midbrain Representation of Sound Location

    PubMed Central

    Orton, Llwyd David; Papasavvas, Christoforos A.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate localization of sound sources is essential for survival behavior in many species. The inferior colliculi (ICs) are the first point in the auditory pathway where cues used to locate sounds, ie, interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs), and pinna spectral cues, are all represented in the same location. These cues are first extracted separately on each side of the midline in brainstem nuclei that project to the ICs. Because of this segregation, each IC predominantly represents stimuli in the contralateral hemifield. We tested the hypothesis that commissural connections between the ICs mediate gain control that enhances sound localization acuity. We recorded IC neurons sensitive to either ITDs or ILDs in anesthetized guinea pig, before, during, and following recovery from deactivation of the contralateral IC by cryoloop cooling or microdialysis of procaine. During deactivation, responses were rescaled by divisive gain change and additive shifts, which reduced the dynamic range of ITD and ILD response functions and the ability of neurons to signal changes in sound location. These data suggest that each IC exerts multiplicative gain control and subtractive shifts over the other IC that enhances the neural representation of sound location. Furthermore, this gain control operates in a similar manner on both ITD- and ILD-sensitive neurons, suggesting a shared mechanism operates across localization cues. Our findings reveal a novel dependence of sound localization on commissural processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sound localization, a fundamental process in hearing, is dependent on bilateral computations in the brainstem. How this information is transmitted from the brainstem to the auditory cortex, through several stages of processing, without loss of signal fidelity, is not clear. We show that the ability of neurons in the auditory midbrain to encode azimuthal sound location is dependent on gain control mediated by the commissure of

  17. Method and system for edge cladding of laser gain media

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Caird, John Allyn; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene

    2014-03-25

    A gain medium operable to amplify light at a gain wavelength and having reduced transverse ASE includes an input surface and an output surface opposing the input surface. The gain medium also includes a central region including gain material and extending between the input surface and the output surface along a longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The gain medium further includes an edge cladding region surrounding the central region and extending between the input surface and the output surface along the longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The edge cladding region includes the gain material and a dopant operable to absorb light at the gain wavelength.

  18. Training-Induced Functional Gains following SCI.

    PubMed

    Ward, P J; Herrity, A N; Harkema, S J; Hubscher, C H

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that daily, hour-long training sessions significantly improved both locomotor (limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns) and nonlocomotor (bladder function and at-level mechanical allodynia) functions following a moderate contusive spinal cord injury. The amount of training needed to achieve this recovery is unknown. Furthermore, whether this recovery is induced primarily by neuronal activity below the lesion or other aspects related to general exercise is unclear. Therefore, the current study objectives were to (1) test the efficacy of 30 minutes of step training for recovery following a clinically relevant contusion injury in male Wistar rats and (2) test the efficacy of training without hindlimb engagement. The results indicate that as little as 30 minutes of step training six days per week enhances overground locomotion in male rats with contusive spinal cord injury but does not alter allodynia or bladder function. Thirty minutes of forelimb-only exercise did not alter locomotion, allodynia, or bladder function, and neither training protocol altered the amount of in-cage activity. Taken together, locomotor improvements were facilitated by hindlimb step training for 30 minutes, but longer durations of training are required to affect nonlocomotor systems. PMID:27403345

  19. Training-Induced Functional Gains following SCI

    PubMed Central

    Ward, P. J.; Herrity, A. N.; Harkema, S. J.; Hubscher, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that daily, hour-long training sessions significantly improved both locomotor (limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns) and nonlocomotor (bladder function and at-level mechanical allodynia) functions following a moderate contusive spinal cord injury. The amount of training needed to achieve this recovery is unknown. Furthermore, whether this recovery is induced primarily by neuronal activity below the lesion or other aspects related to general exercise is unclear. Therefore, the current study objectives were to (1) test the efficacy of 30 minutes of step training for recovery following a clinically relevant contusion injury in male Wistar rats and (2) test the efficacy of training without hindlimb engagement. The results indicate that as little as 30 minutes of step training six days per week enhances overground locomotion in male rats with contusive spinal cord injury but does not alter allodynia or bladder function. Thirty minutes of forelimb-only exercise did not alter locomotion, allodynia, or bladder function, and neither training protocol altered the amount of in-cage activity. Taken together, locomotor improvements were facilitated by hindlimb step training for 30 minutes, but longer durations of training are required to affect nonlocomotor systems. PMID:27403345

  20. The Relationship between Mathematics Preparation and Conceptual Learning Gains in Physics: A Possible "Hidden Variable" in Diagnostic Pretest Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of an investigation into factors associated with variations in students' ability to achieve conceptual learning gains in a physics course that employs interactive-engagement methods. Explores the correlation between students' normalized learning gains and their initial level of physics concept knowledge, pre-instruction…

  1. Analysis of optical amplifier gain competition attack in a point-to-point WDM link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Tao; Subramaniam, Suresh

    2002-07-01

    Gain competition in an optical amplifier can result in a performance-degrading reduction in the gain of a channel if the overall input power of the amplifier is increased. A gain competition attack may be realized by one or more attackers (pretending to be legitimate users) increasing their source powers in order to degrade the quality of service seen by other users. In this paper, we study the effect of an optical amplifier gain competition attack in a point-to-point WDM link. By looking at the relative OSNR degradation ratio of the attacked channels, we show that Automatic Gain Control mechanisms can alleviate the absolute OSNR degradation to a significant extent, but cannot immunize the system from performance deterioration if the attacking user's power is strong enough. Adding more amplifiers to a link will enhance the service quality as well as the system's robustness against a gain competition attack at the price of higher network cost.

  2. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  3. Music training and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Cheek, J M; Smith, L R

    1999-01-01

    Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) mathematics scores of eighth graders who had received music instruction were compared according to whether the students were given private lessons. Comparisons also were made between students whose lessons were on the keyboard versus other music lessons. Analyses indicated that students who had private lessons for two or more years performed significantly better on the composite mathematics portion of the ITBS than did students who did not have private lessons. In addition, students who received lessons on the keyboard had significantly higher ITBS mathematics scores than did students whose lessons did not involve the keyboard. These results are discussed in relation to previous research on music training and mathematics achievement.

  4. Subtractive, divisive and non-monotonic gain control in feedforward nets linearized by noise and delays.

    PubMed

    Mejias, Jorge F; Payeur, Alexandre; Selin, Erik; Maler, Leonard; Longtin, André

    2014-01-01

    The control of input-to-output mappings, or gain control, is one of the main strategies used by neural networks for the processing and gating of information. Using a spiking neural network model, we studied the gain control induced by a form of inhibitory feedforward circuitry-also known as "open-loop feedback"-, which has been experimentally observed in a cerebellum-like structure in weakly electric fish. We found, both analytically and numerically, that this network displays three different regimes of gain control: subtractive, divisive, and non-monotonic. Subtractive gain control was obtained when noise is very low in the network. Also, it was possible to change from divisive to non-monotonic gain control by simply modulating the strength of the feedforward inhibition, which may be achieved via long-term synaptic plasticity. The particular case of divisive gain control has been previously observed in vivo in weakly electric fish. These gain control regimes were robust to the presence of temporal delays in the inhibitory feedforward pathway, which were found to linearize the input-to-output mappings (or f-I curves) via a novel variability-increasing mechanism. Our findings highlight the feedforward-induced gain control analyzed here as a highly versatile mechanism of information gating in the brain.

  5. Almost All Antipsychotics Result in Weight Gain: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Maarten; Fransen, Annemarie; Janssen, Jouke; van Os, Jim; Drukker, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Antipsychotics (AP) induce weight gain. However, reviews and meta-analyses generally are restricted to second generation antipsychotics (SGA) and do not stratify for duration of AP use. It is hypothesised that patients gain more weight if duration of AP use is longer. Method A meta-analysis was conducted of clinical trials of AP that reported weight change. Outcome measures were body weight change, change in BMI and clinically relevant weight change (7% weight gain or loss). Duration of AP-use was stratified as follows: ≤6 weeks, 6–16 weeks, 16–38 weeks and >38 weeks. Forest plots stratified by AP as well as by duration of use were generated and results were summarised in figures. Results 307 articles met inclusion criteria. The majority were AP switch studies. Almost all AP showed a degree of weight gain after prolonged use, except for amisulpride, aripiprazole and ziprasidone, for which prolonged exposure resulted in negligible weight change. The level of weight gain per AP varied from discrete to severe. Contrary to expectations, switch of AP did not result in weight loss for amisulpride, aripiprazole or ziprasidone. In AP-naive patients, weight gain was much more pronounced for all AP. Conclusion Given prolonged exposure, virtually all AP are associated with weight gain. The rational of switching AP to achieve weight reduction may be overrated. In AP-naive patients, weight gain is more pronounced. PMID:24763306

  6. Subtractive, divisive and non-monotonic gain control in feedforward nets linearized by noise and delays

    PubMed Central

    Mejias, Jorge F.; Payeur, Alexandre; Selin, Erik; Maler, Leonard; Longtin, André

    2014-01-01

    The control of input-to-output mappings, or gain control, is one of the main strategies used by neural networks for the processing and gating of information. Using a spiking neural network model, we studied the gain control induced by a form of inhibitory feedforward circuitry—also known as “open-loop feedback”—, which has been experimentally observed in a cerebellum-like structure in weakly electric fish. We found, both analytically and numerically, that this network displays three different regimes of gain control: subtractive, divisive, and non-monotonic. Subtractive gain control was obtained when noise is very low in the network. Also, it was possible to change from divisive to non-monotonic gain control by simply modulating the strength of the feedforward inhibition, which may be achieved via long-term synaptic plasticity. The particular case of divisive gain control has been previously observed in vivo in weakly electric fish. These gain control regimes were robust to the presence of temporal delays in the inhibitory feedforward pathway, which were found to linearize the input-to-output mappings (or f-I curves) via a novel variability-increasing mechanism. Our findings highlight the feedforward-induced gain control analyzed here as a highly versatile mechanism of information gating in the brain. PMID:24616694

  7. Noise Induces Biased Estimation of the Correction Gain

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jooeun; Zhang, Zhaoran; Sternad, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    The detection of an error in the motor output and the correction in the next movement are critical components of any form of motor learning. Accordingly, a variety of iterative learning models have assumed that a fraction of the error is adjusted in the next trial. This critical fraction, the correction gain, learning rate, or feedback gain, has been frequently estimated via least-square regression of the obtained data set. Such data contain not only the inevitable noise from motor execution, but also noise from measurement. It is generally assumed that this noise averages out with large data sets and does not affect the parameter estimation. This study demonstrates that this is not the case and that in the presence of noise the conventional estimate of the correction gain has a significant bias, even with the simplest model. Furthermore, this bias does not decrease with increasing length of the data set. This study reveals this limitation of current system identification methods and proposes a new method that overcomes this limitation. We derive an analytical form of the bias from a simple regression method (Yule-Walker) and develop an improved identification method. This bias is discussed as one of other examples for how the dynamics of noise can introduce significant distortions in data analysis. PMID:27463809

  8. Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Caprara, G V; Barbaranelli, C; Pastorelli, C; Bandura, A; Zimbardo, P G

    2000-07-01

    The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.

  9. English proficiency and peer interethnic relations as predictors of math achievement among Latino and Asian immigrant students.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Alice N; Barile, John P; Malm, Esther K; Weaver, Scott R

    2012-12-01

    Studies show math achievement to be the best predictor of entering post-secondary education. However, less is known about the predictors of math achievement, particularly among immigrant youth. This study examined English proficiency and peer interethnic relations as predictors of mathematics achievement among Latino and Asian high school students, postulating an interaction between the predictors and mediation by academic motivation. A multilevel moderated-mediation model was used to analyze data from a national sample of 2113 non-native English speaking Latino and Asian students attending high school in the U.S. We found that higher academic motivation mediated the relationship between English proficiency during their sophomore year and gains in senior math achievement scores for both Asian and Latino students. For Latino students however, this indirect path was only significant for students whose perceptions of positive peer interethnic relations at school were average or above average. PMID:22959129

  10. Assessing the efficiency gains of improved spatial targeting of policy interventions; the example of an agri-environmental scheme.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Dan

    2007-12-01

    GIS-based spatial targeting is increasingly recognised as a potentially useful tool to design more efficient policy interventions. The use of this tool has also been advocated in the context of incentive-based agri-environmental schemes, but there has been little work to date to estimate the level of efficiency gains which it may help to achieve. This paper investigates the requirements to arrive at such estimates, using a Scottish farm woodland scheme as a case study. This agri-environmental scheme aims to provide visual amenity and biodiversity. Maps of these two benefits are used to develop improved spatial targeting scenarios that deliver significant efficiency gains in comparison to the existing scheme design. The paper discusses the nature of the spatial distribution of the relevant benefits at the landscape scale and the data requirements for the realistic estimation of efficiency gains. It concludes that although much work needs to be done, the methods available today could and should play a much greater role in improving the landscape-scale design of existing land use schemes focused on the delivery of non-market benefits. PMID:17350157

  11. On the Fielding of a High Gain, Shock-Ignited Target on the National Ignitiion Facility in the Near Term

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L J; Betti, R; Schurtz, G P; Craxton, R S; Dunne, A M; LaFortune, K N; Schmitt, A J; McKenty, P W; Bailey, D S; Lambert, M A; Ribeyre, X; Theobald, W R; Strozzi, D J; Harding, D R; Casner, A; Atzemi, S; Erbert, G V; Andersen, K S; Murakami, M; Comley, A J; Cook, R C; Stephens, R B

    2010-04-12

    Shock ignition, a new concept for igniting thermonuclear fuel, offers the possibility for a near-term ({approx}3-4 years) test of high gain inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility at less than 1MJ drive energy and without the need for new laser hardware. In shock ignition, compressed fusion fuel is separately ignited by a strong spherically converging shock and, because capsule implosion velocities are significantly lower than those required for conventional hotpot ignition, fusion energy gains of {approx}60 may be achievable on NIF at laser drive energies around {approx}0.5MJ. Because of the simple all-DT target design, its in-flight robustness, the potential need for only 1D SSD beam smoothing, minimal early time LPI preheat, and use of present (indirect drive) laser hardware, this target may be easier to field on NIF than a conventional (polar) direct drive hotspot ignition target. Like fast ignition, shock ignition has the potential for high fusion yields at low drive energy, but requires only a single laser with less demanding timing and spatial focusing requirements. Of course, conventional symmetry and stability constraints still apply. In this paper we present initial target performance simulations, delineate the critical issues and describe the immediate-term R&D program that must be performed in order to test the potential of a high gain shock ignition target on NIF in the near term.

  12. High-power picosecond laser diodes based on different methods of fast gain control for high-precision radar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainshtein, Sergey; Kostamovaara, Juha; Lantratov, Vladimir; Kaluzhniy, Nikolay; Mintairov, Sergey

    2007-05-01

    Current-pumped picosecond-range laser diodes with a peak power significantly exceeding that achievable from gainswitched lasers are of major interest for a large variety of commercial applications. A group of phenomena have been explored in which the peak transient gain is efficiently controlled by a fast reduction in the pumping current. Common to all these phenomena is the fact that the peak powers of the emitted picosecond optical pulses (15-100 ps) exceed that obtainable from gain-switched laser diodes by at least an order of magnitude, although the physical reasons for the high gain and the design principles of the semiconductor structures are different. The main problem in the realization of these picosecond modes in low-cost practical systems is the high sensitivity of the operation regime to structural and circuit parameters. A related problem is the questionable reproducibility of the fabrication processes used so far. Proper development of reliable high-power picosecond transmitters will require the use of more advanced fabrication methods and further study of the effect of structural parameters on the properties of the picosecond lasing mode. In this paper we report on a record value for the power density of the picosecond lasing (50W / 30ps) obtained from a laser diode chip of width 20 μm and give a qualitative interpretation of the operating mode. Use of the MOCVD process for diode fabrication should allow reproducible technology for picosecond laser diodes to be developed.

  13. Maternal obesity: pregnancy complications, gestational weight gain and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Guelinckx, I; Devlieger, R; Beckers, K; Vansant, G

    2008-03-01

    The obesity epidemic affects all, including women of reproductive age. One in five women attending prenatal care in the UK is obese. Prepregnancy obesity is associated with serious short- and long-term complications for mother and child. Furthermore, gestational weight gain (GWG) of obese pregnant women generally exceeds the Institute of Medicine recommended ranges. This observation can partially be explained by an unbalanced diet and lack of daily physical activity. Despite this, few lifestyle intervention trials in obese pregnant women are available. Two out of seven intervention trials focusing on GWG, nutrition and physical activity, reached a significant decrease in GWG. Developing guidelines to promote appropriated weight gain and healthy lifestyle in overweight and obese pregnant women remains a challenge. This review aims to summarize the complications associated with maternal prepregnancy overweight and obesity and to discuss possible strategies to improve the lifestyle habits of pregnant women.

  14. Measuring learning gain during a one-day introductory bronchoscopy course

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Mohsen; Murgu, Septimiu; Zamanian Rohani, Nazanin

    2010-01-01

    Background Rigorous assessment of medical knowledge and technical skill inspires learning, reinforces confidence, and reassures the public. Identifying curricular effectiveness using objective measures of learning is therefore crucial for competency-oriented program development in a learner-centric educational environment. The aim of this study was to determine whether various measures of learning, including class-averagenormalized gain, can be used to assess the effectiveness of a one-day introductory bronchoscopy course curriculum. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental one-group pre-test/post-test study at the University of California, Irvine. The group comprised 24 first-year pulmonary and critical care trainees from eight training institutions in southern California. Class-average normalized gain, single-student normalized gain, absolute gain, and relative gain were used as objective measures of cognitive knowledge and bronchoscopy technical skill learning. A class-average normalized gain of 30% was used to determine curricular effectiveness. Perceived educational value using Likert-scale surveys and post-course questionnaires was determined during and 3 months after course participation. Results Mean test scores of cognitive knowledge improved significantly from 48 to 66% (p = 0.043). Absolute gain for the class was 18%, relative gain was 37%, classaverage normalized gain 〈g〉 was 34%, and the average of thesingle-student normalized gains g(ave) was 29%. Mean test scores of technical skill improved significantly from 43 to 77% (p = 0.017). Absolute gain was 34%, relative gain was 78%, classaverage normalized gain 〈g〉 was 60%, and the average of thesingle-student normalized gains g(ave) was 59%. Statistically significant improvements in absolute gain were noted in all five elements of technical skill (p < 0.05). Likert-scale surveys, questionnaires, and surveys demonstrated strong perceived educational value. Conclusion The effectiveness

  15. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  16. The Effect of Thinking Maps on Fifth Grade Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Darlene

    Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.

  17. Sabbatical leave: who gains and how much?

    PubMed

    Davidson, Oranit B; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B; Kluger, Avraham N; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewé, Pamela L; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E

    2010-09-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls completed measures of resource gain, resource loss, and well-being before, during, and after the sabbatical. Among the sabbatees, resource loss declined and resource gain and well-being rose during the sabbatical. The comparison group showed no change. Moderation analysis revealed that those who reported higher respite self-efficacy and greater control, were more detached, had a more positive sabbatical experience, and spent their sabbatical outside their home country enjoyed more enhanced well-being than others.

  18. Time ramped gain for borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Rambow, F.H.K.

    1989-08-08

    This patent describes an improvement in a borehole imaging apparatus wherein a rotating acoustic transducer means is periodically pulsed to emit a sequence of acoustic pulses into the borehole fluid toward the borehole wall and the reflected response of the acoustic pulse is received by the transducer means and converted to a related electrical signal. The improvement comprises: electrical signal compensating means located in the borehole for compensating substantially each of the electrical signals. The compensating means including variable gain amplifier means controllable from the surface for continuing to increase the amount of gain applied to each electrical signal as a function of the propagation time of the acoustic energy through the borehole fluid, to reduce the effects such as initial ringdown, mud reflections, and time-dependent borehole fluid attenuation of the acoustic energy.

  19. Pole placement with constant gain output feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Given a linear time invariant multivariable system with m inputs and p outputs, it was shown that p closed loop poles of the system can be preassigned arbitrarily using constant gain output feedback provided (A circumflex, B circumflex) is controllable. These data show that if (A circumflex, B circumflex, C circumflex) is controllable and observable, and Rank B circumflex = m, Rank C circumflex = p, then max (m,p) poles of the system can be assigned arbitarily using constant gain output feedback. Further, it is shown that in some cases more than max (m,p) poles can be arbitrarily assigned. A least square design technique is outlined to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  20. Contrast Gain Control Model Fits Masking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the fit of a contrast gain control model to data of Foley (JOSA 1994), consisting of thresholds for a Gabor patch masked by gratings of various orientations, or by compounds of two orientations. Our general model includes models of Foley and Teo & Heeger (IEEE 1994). Our specific model used a bank of Gabor filters with octave bandwidths at 8 orientations. Excitatory and inhibitory nonlinearities were power functions with exponents of 2.4 and 2. Inhibitory pooling was broad in orientation, but narrow in spatial frequency and space. Minkowski pooling used an exponent of 4. All of the data for observer KMF were well fit by the model. We have developed a contrast gain control model that fits masking data. Unlike Foley's, our model accepts images as inputs. Unlike Teo & Heeger's, our model did not require multiple channels for different dynamic ranges.

  1. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  2. Exploring gender differences with different gain calculations in astronomy and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willoughby, Shannon D.; Metz, Anneke

    2009-07-01

    To investigate differences in learning gains by gender, we collected data in large introductory astronomy and biology courses. Male astronomy students had significantly higher pre- and post-test scores than female students on the astronomy diagnostic test. Male students also had significantly higher pretest and somewhat higher post-test scores than female students on a survey instrument designed for an introductory biology course. For both courses, males had higher learning gains than female students only when the normalized gain measure was utilized. No differences were found with any other measures, including other gain calculations, overall course grades, or individual exams. Implications for using different learning gain measures in science classrooms, as well as for research on learning differences by gender are discussed.

  3. The Persistence of Gaining and Losing Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, J. P.; Frye, A.

    2012-12-01

    Streams are commonly classified as "gaining" or "losing", according to their relationships with groundwater. However, the gaining and losing nature of a stream can vary in space and time. Understanding the spatial and temporal persistence of gaining and losing reaches is essential for understanding controls on stream health. This is particularly important during low flow conditions. Hydrologic models are typically designed to simulate high flows, and are challenged by low flow. This problem will become more important as hydrologists are asked to forecast the increasing occurrence of low flows as a consequence of climate change. Low flow discharges have been a focus of research as they are occurring earlier in the summer and have longer durations throughout the fall. A concern is how low flow will affect water resources and its users in the region when demand is at its highest. As low flow discharges continue to persist, debate over these rights will continue as well. This study we used chloride as a chemical tracer to monitor gains and losses of stream discharge of small watershed in Southwestern, Idaho. Six conductivity probes were spaced evenly 200m apart along a control reach 1200m in total length. Tracers were performed at least once a month at this site throughout the winter and spring and even more often during the summer dry down to understand the temporal changes occurring. Spatial variations were observed by performing basin wide tracers over a stream length of ~9km during the spring and late summer. Results show that stream baseflow is dependent on the winter snowpack and spring rains in order to recharge the deep groundwater systems and to create a hydrologic connection between the stream and local hillslopes. As a result, when winter snowpack's and spring rains are mild, this connectivity is cut off much sooner producing low flow conditions much earlier in the summer.

  4. Mispredicting the Hedonic Benefits of Segregated Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morewedge, Carey K.; Gilbert, Daniel T.; Keysar, Boaz; Berkovits, Michael J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    The hedonic benefit of a gain (e.g., receiving $100) may be increased by segregating it into smaller units that are distributed over time (e.g., receiving $50 on each of 2 days). However, if these units are too small (e.g., receiving 1 cent on each of 10,000 days), they may fall beneath the person's hedonic limen and have no hedonic benefit at…

  5. Optical antenna gain. II - Receiving antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.; Klein, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    Expressions are developed for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver, involving losses due to (1) incoming light blockage by central obscuration, (2) energy spillover at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distribution (uniform, Gaussian, and matched).

  6. Gain scaling for multirate filter banks

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    Eliminating two trivial degrees of freedom corresponding to the lowpass DC response and the highpass Nyquist response in a two-channel multirate filter bank seems simple enough. Nonetheless, the ISO/IEC JPEG 2000 image coding standard manages to make this mundane task look totally mysterious. We reveal the true meaning behind JPEG 2000's arcane specifications for filter bank normalization and point out how the seemingly trivial matter of gain scaling leads to highly nontrivial issues concerning uniqueness of lifting factorizations.

  7. High gain feedback and telerobotic tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koditschek, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    Asymptotically stable linear time invariant systems are capable of tracking arbitrary reference signals with a bounded error proportional to the magnitude of the reference signal (and its derivatives). It is shown that a similar property holds for a general class of nonlinear dynamical systems which includes all robots. As in the linear case, the error bound may be made arbitrarily small by increasing the magnitude of the feedback gains which stabilize the system.

  8. Loss/gain-induced ultrathin antireflection coatings.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Lai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Tradional antireflection coatings composed of dielectric layers usually require the thickness to be larger than quarter wavelength. Here, we demonstrate that materials with permittivity or permeability dominated by imaginary parts, i.e. lossy or gain media, can realize non-resonant antireflection coatings in deep sub-wavelength scale. Interestingly, while the reflected waves are eliminated as in traditional dielectric antireflection coatings, the transmitted waves can be enhanced or reduced, depending on whether gain or lossy media are applied, respectively. We provide a unified theory for the design of such ultrathin antireflection coatings, showing that under different polarizations and incident angles, different types of ultrathin coatings should be applied. Especially, under transverse magnetic polarization, the requirement shows a switch between gain and lossy media at Brewster angle. As a proof of principle, by using conductive films as a special type of lossy antireflection coatings, we experimentally demonstrate the suppression of Fabry-Pérot resonances in a broad frequency range for microwaves. This valuable functionality can be applied to remove undesired resonant effects, such as the frequency-dependent side lobes induced by resonances in dielectric coverings of antennas. Our work provides a guide for the design of ultrathin antireflection coatings as well as their applications in broadband reflectionless devices. PMID:27349750

  9. [Pattern of wight gain during normal pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Velazco Orellana, R; Alvarez Aguilar, C; Mejía Rodríguez, O

    1998-03-01

    The maternal weight gain during pregnancy has been established as a common acceptance criterion about 11 Kg., and its evaluation is of interest in Gynecology and Obstetrics; the objective of this study was to evaluate the Gestational Weight Gain Pattern (GWGP) during the normal pregnancy and its association with the maternal height, pregestional weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) schooling, the intergensic interval and the newborn weight. It was found through a longitudinal and prospective study in women of the urban area, under prenatal control in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), in Morelia, Mich. México, that the average overall GWGP was of 9.3 Kg, and a normality band within 6.6 to 12 Kg which is smaller than the established by obstetrics criteria. It was not found a correlation between the GWGP and the newborn weight, now that the 94.3% of them had normal weight. The mother's age, weight, body mass index and schooling didn't show any correlation with the maternal weight gain during the pregnancy. It was shown that the mother's height and parity influence notably the GWGP. It's convenient the adoption during the prenatal control to determine that the GWGP normality is in agreement with the bio-psycho-social characteristics of the Mexican woman.

  10. Loss/gain-induced ultrathin antireflection coatings

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Lai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Tradional antireflection coatings composed of dielectric layers usually require the thickness to be larger than quarter wavelength. Here, we demonstrate that materials with permittivity or permeability dominated by imaginary parts, i.e. lossy or gain media, can realize non-resonant antireflection coatings in deep sub-wavelength scale. Interestingly, while the reflected waves are eliminated as in traditional dielectric antireflection coatings, the transmitted waves can be enhanced or reduced, depending on whether gain or lossy media are applied, respectively. We provide a unified theory for the design of such ultrathin antireflection coatings, showing that under different polarizations and incident angles, different types of ultrathin coatings should be applied. Especially, under transverse magnetic polarization, the requirement shows a switch between gain and lossy media at Brewster angle. As a proof of principle, by using conductive films as a special type of lossy antireflection coatings, we experimentally demonstrate the suppression of Fabry-Pérot resonances in a broad frequency range for microwaves. This valuable functionality can be applied to remove undesired resonant effects, such as the frequency-dependent side lobes induced by resonances in dielectric coverings of antennas. Our work provides a guide for the design of ultrathin antireflection coatings as well as their applications in broadband reflectionless devices. PMID:27349750

  11. Raman gains of ADP and KDP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Wang, Bo; Xu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Li-Song; Liu, Bao-An; Chai, Xiang-Xu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the Raman gain coefficients of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are measured. By using a pump source of a 30-ps, 532-nm laser, the gain coefficients of ADP and KDP are 1.22 cm/GW, and 0.91 cm/GW, respectively. While for a 20-ps, 355-nm pump laser, the gain coefficients of these two crystals are similar, which are 1.95 cm/GW for ADP and 1.86 for KDP. The present results indicate that for ultra-violet frequency conversion, the problem of stimulated Raman scattering for ADP crystal will not be more serious than that for KDP crystal. Considering other advantages such the larger nonlinear optical coefficient, higher laser damage threshold, and lower noncritical phase-matching temperature, it can be anticipated that ADP will be a powerful competitor to KDP in large aperture, high energy third-harmonic generation or fourth-harmonic generation applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51323002 and 51402173), the Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University, China (Grant Nos. IIFSDU and 2012JC016), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-10-0552), the Fund from the Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2014BB07), and the Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholar of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. JQ201218).

  12. Microscopic model for intersubband gain from electrically pumped quantum-dot structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Stephan; Chow, Weng W.; Schneider, Hans Christian

    2014-10-01

    We study theoretically the performance of electrically pumped self-organized quantum dots as a gain material in the mid-IR range at room temperature. We analyze an AlGaAs/InGaAs based structure composed of dots-in-a-well sandwiched between two quantum wells. We numerically analyze a comprehensive model by combining a many-particle approach for electronic dynamics with a realistic modeling of the electronic states in the whole structure. We investigate the gain both for quasiequilibrium conditions and current injection. Comparing different structures, we find that steady-state gain can only be realized by an efficient extraction process, which prevents an accumulation of electrons in continuum states, that make the available scattering pathways through the quantum dot active region too fast to sustain inversion. The tradeoff between different extraction/injection pathways is discussed. Comparing the modal gain to a standard quantum-well structure as used in quantum cascade lasers, our calculations predict reduced threshold current densities of the quantum dot structure for comparable modal gain. Such a comparable modal gain can, however, only be achieved for an inhomogeneous broadening of a quantum-dot ensemble that is close to the lower limit achievable today using self-organized growth.

  13. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  14. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  15. Sympathetic baroreflex gain in normotensive pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Charlotte W.; Skow, Rachel J.; Matenchuk, Brittany A.; Chari, Radha S.; Julian, Colleen G.; Stickland, Michael K.; Davenport, Margie H.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is increased during normotensive pregnancy while mean arterial pressure is maintained or reduced, suggesting baroreflex resetting. We hypothesized spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex gain would be reduced in normotensive pregnant women relative to nonpregnant matched controls. Integrated muscle sympathetic burst incidence and total sympathetic activity (microneurography), blood pressure (Finometer), and R-R interval (ECG) were assessed at rest in 11 pregnant women (33 ± 1 wk gestation, 31 ± 1 yr, prepregnancy BMI: 23.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2) and 11 nonpregnant controls (29 ± 1 yr; BMI: 25.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Pregnant women had elevated baseline sympathetic burst incidence (43 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.01) and total sympathetic activity (1,811 ± 148 vs. 1,140 ± 55 au, P < 0.01) relative to controls. Both mean (88 ± 3 vs. 91 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.4) and diastolic (DBP) (72 ± 3 vs. 73 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.7) pressures were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively, indicating an upward resetting of the baroreflex set point with pregnancy. Baroreflex gain, calculated as the linear relationship between sympathetic burst incidence and DBP, was reduced in pregnant women relative to controls (−3.7 ± 0.5 vs. −5.4 ± 0.5 bursts·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1, P = 0.03), as was baroreflex gain calculated with total sympathetic activity (−294 ± 24 vs. −210 ± 24 au·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1; P = 0.03). Cardiovagal baroreflex gain (sequence method) was not different between nonpregnant controls and pregnant women (49 ± 8 vs. 36 ± 8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.2). However, sympathetic (burst incidence) and cardiovagal gains were negatively correlated in pregnant women (R = −0.7; P = 0.02). Together, these data indicate that the influence of the sympathetic nervous system over arterial blood pressure is reduced in normotensive pregnancy, in terms of both long-term and beat-to-beat regulation of arterial pressure

  16. Improved spectral vector error diffusion by dot gain compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyström, Daniel; Norberg, Ole

    2013-02-01

    Spectral Vector Error Diffusion, sVED, is an interesting approach to achieve spectral color reproduction, i.e. reproducing the spectral reflectance of an original, creating a reproduction that will match under any illumination. For each pixel in the spectral image, the colorant combination producing the spectrum closest to the target spectrum is selected, and the spectral error is diffused to surrounding pixels using an error distribution filter. However, since the colorant separation and halftoning is performed in a single step in sVED, compensation for dot gain cannot be made for each color channel independently, as in a conventional workflow where the colorant separation and halftoning is performed sequentially. In this study, we modify the sVED routine to compensate for the dot gain, applying the Yule-Nielsen n-factor to modify the target spectra, i.e. performing the computations in (1/n)-space. A global n-factor, optimal for each print resolution, reduces the spectral reproduction errors by approximately a factor of 4, while an n-factor that is individually optimized for each target spectrum reduces the spectral reproduction error to 7% of that for the unmodified prints. However, the improvements when using global n-values are still not sufficient for the method to be of any real use in practice, and to individually optimize the n-values for each target is not feasible in a real workflow. The results illustrate the necessity to properly account for the dot gain in the printing process, and that further developments is needed in order to make Spectral Vector Error Diffusion a realistic alternative for spectral color reproduction.

  17. Curriculum Alignment: Exploring Student Perception of Learning Achievement Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Kerri-Ann L.; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of constructively aligned curriculum is well understood in higher education. Based on the principles of constructive alignment, this research considers whether student perception of learning achievement measures can be used to gain insights into how course activities and pedagogy are assisting or hindering students in accomplishing…

  18. The Relationship of Oral Language Features to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Peggy

    To gain more information about the language awareness of young children, a study examined the relationship between 14 middle class kindergarten children's oral language and their reading achievement in third, fourth, and fifth grades. Individual children's ranks on 61 oral language features derived from a previous microethnography were compared to…

  19. Improving Student Achievement in Today's High Schools: What Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Marie S.

    This paper is based on a study of two high schools in Maine that achieved outstanding and consistent gains in English, math, and science over a 5-year period. Three strands of inquiry were used for the study: surveys, interviews, and observations. A multiple-perspective approach was used to integrate the information so as to evaluate the…

  20. An Effective Way to Improve Mathematics Achievement in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taik

    2010-01-01

    The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in…

  1. Reading First: Student Achievement, Teacher Empowerment, National Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This publication highlights the Reading First program as the academic cornerstone of the No Child Left Behind Act, and cites state achievement data indicating that Reading First students from nearly every grade and subgroup have made gains in reading proficiency. Restoration of full funding for the program has been requested for Fiscal Year 2009.

  2. Improving Literacy Achievement: An Effective Approach to Continuous Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent searching for programs and strategic plans that will prove to be the panacea for improving literacy achievement. With all of the experimental and researched programs implemented in school districts, the overall results are still at a minimum and many improvement gains have been short term. This book focuses on…

  3. The Impact of Class Size Reduction on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Penny

    This study examined the impact of class size reduction (CSR) on achievement among 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students with different numbers of years of participation in CSR. Single-year matched gains were calculated for the 1997-1998 and 1999-2000 school years. Student progress was assessed using scores from the SAT/9 reading, mathematics, and…

  4. Dynamic modulation of visual and electrosensory gains for locomotor control.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Erin E; Demir, Alican; Stamper, Sarah A; Fortune, Eric S; Cowan, Noah J

    2016-05-01

    Animal nervous systems resolve sensory conflict for the control of movement. For example, the glass knifefish, Eigenmannia virescens, relies on visual and electrosensory feedback as it swims to maintain position within a moving refuge. To study how signals from these two parallel sensory streams are used in refuge tracking, we constructed a novel augmented reality apparatus that enables the independent manipulation of visual and electrosensory cues to freely swimming fish (n = 5). We evaluated the linearity of multisensory integration, the change to the relative perceptual weights given to vision and electrosense in relation to sensory salience, and the effect of the magnitude of sensory conflict on sensorimotor gain. First, we found that tracking behaviour obeys superposition of the sensory inputs, suggesting linear sensorimotor integration. In addition, fish rely more on vision when electrosensory salience is reduced, suggesting that fish dynamically alter sensorimotor gains in a manner consistent with Bayesian integration. However, the magnitude of sensory conflict did not significantly affect sensorimotor gain. These studies lay the theoretical and experimental groundwork for future work investigating multisensory control of locomotion. PMID:27170650

  5. Thermal gain shutter control. Final report, preliminary design phase

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzdrall, J.A.

    1983-10-01

    The Thermal Gain Sensor is an insulation control system for manual and motorized solar shutters. Unlike ordinary systems, control is based on the actual net thermal flow through the window, rather than a tenuous or indirect measure. The sensor continuously and directly tracks the conduction, convection, and radiation losses as well as the attenuated solar input. Although basically simple and inexpensive, the Thermal Gain Sensor (TGS) reacts to the thermal flow with near perfect accuracy. It operates with equal effectiveness in both summer and winter. The hardware consists of a sensor, a control box, and an optional power controller for motorized shutters. The first objective of the preliminary design phase was to determine if, with properly selected materials and dimensions, a practical sensor could accurately determine the real thermal gain threshold under the wide range of installations, geographic locations, and weather conditions. The second objective, having found the best possible sensor design, was to determine whether the level of performance attainable produced significantly more energy savings than competitive control systems, namely time and sunlight activated systems. Another objective of this phase was to assure that the product could be made for an acceptable cost. To this end, a schematic design, including conceptual drawings, was prepared. From this conceptual design, manufacturing cost estimates were made using industry accepted estimating procedures. Finally, it was required to determine whether there was public interest in the product. For this, a preliminary assessment of the market was made, based on unsolicited inquiries and local discussions.

  6. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency.

  7. Divisive gain modulation of motoneurons by inhibition optimizes muscular control.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Mikkel; Berg, Rune W

    2015-02-25

    When using muscles, the precision with which force is delivered is as important as the delivery of force itself. Force is regulated by both the number of recruited motoneurons and their spike frequency. While it is known that the recruitment is ordered to reduce variability in force, it remains unclear whether the motoneuron gain, i.e., the slope of the transformation between synaptic input and spiking output, is also modulated to reduce variability in force. To address this issue, we use turtle hindlimb scratching as a model for fine motor control, since this behavior involves precise limb movement to rub the location of somatic nuisance touch. We recorded intracellularly from motoneurons in a reduced preparation where the limbs were removed to increase mechanical stability and the motor nerve activity served as a surrogate for muscle force. We found that not only is the gain of motoneurons regulated on a subsecond timescale, it is also adjusted to minimize variability. The modulation is likely achieved via an expansive nonlinearity between spike rate and membrane potential with inhibition having a divisive influence. These findings reveal a versatile mechanism of modulating neuronal sensitivity and suggest that such modulation is fundamentally linked to optimization.

  8. Treatment with iron increases weight gain and psychomotor development.

    PubMed Central

    Aukett, M A; Parks, Y A; Scott, P H; Wharton, B A

    1986-01-01

    Previous work at this hospital and elsewhere has shown that anaemia in toddlers is common and is associated with psychomotor delay. It seemed unclear, however, whether this association was cause and effect or merely due to the same underprivileged environment. A double blind randomised intervention study was, therefore, performed. After an initial assessment 97 children with anaemia (haemoglobin 8-11 g/dl) aged 17-19 months received either iron and vitamin C or vitamin C only (control group) for two months and were then reassessed. The children who received the iron had an increased rate of weight gain and more of them achieved the expected rate of development. While iron deficiency anaemia is unlikely to be the only factor in the slower development of children living in underprivileged circumstances, it can at least be easily identified and treated. Routine child health surveillance in such areas should include a haemoglobin determination. PMID:2429622

  9. Inverse statistics in economics: the gain-loss asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Mogens H.; Johansen, Anders; Simonsen, Ingve

    2003-06-01

    Inverse statistics in economics is considered. We argue that the natural candidate for such statistics is the investment horizons distribution. This distribution of waiting times needed to achieve a predefined level of return is obtained from (often detrended) historic asset prices. Such a distribution typically goes through a maximum at a time called the optimal investment horizon, τ ρ∗, since this defines the most likely waiting time for obtaining a given return ρ. By considering equal positive and negative levels of return, we report on a quantitative gain-loss asymmetry most pronounced for short horizons. It is argued that this asymmetry reflects the market dynamics and we speculate over the origin of this asymmetry.

  10. Young children's analogical problem solving: gaining insights from video displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed.

  11. Graphene/GaSe-Nanosheet Hybrid: Towards High Gain and Fast Photoresponse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Rongtao; Liu, Jianwei; Luo, Hongfu; Chikan, Viktor; Wu, Judy Z.

    2016-01-01

    While high photoconductive gain has been recently achieved in graphene-based hybrid phototransistors using semiconductor two-dimensional transition/post-transition metal dichalcogenides or quantum dots sensitizers, obtaining fast photoresponse simutaneously remains a challenge that must be addressed for practical applications. In this paper we report a graphene/GaSe nanosheets hybrid photodetector, in which GaSe nanosheets provide a favorable geometric link to graphene conductive layer through van Der Waals force. After a vacuum annealing process, a high gain in exceeding 107 has been obtained simitaneously with a dynamic response time of around 10 ms for both light on and off. We attribute the high performance to the elimination of possible deep charge traps, most probably at the graphene/GaSe nanosheets interface. This result demonstrates high photoconductive gain and fast photoresponse can be achieved simultaneously and a clean interface is the key to the high performance of these hybrid devices.

  12. Graphene/GaSe-Nanosheet Hybrid: Towards High Gain and Fast Photoresponse

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Rongtao; Liu, Jianwei; Luo, Hongfu; Chikan, Viktor; Wu, Judy Z.

    2016-01-01

    While high photoconductive gain has been recently achieved in graphene-based hybrid phototransistors using semiconductor two-dimensional transition/post-transition metal dichalcogenides or quantum dots sensitizers, obtaining fast photoresponse simutaneously remains a challenge that must be addressed for practical applications. In this paper we report a graphene/GaSe nanosheets hybrid photodetector, in which GaSe nanosheets provide a favorable geometric link to graphene conductive layer through van Der Waals force. After a vacuum annealing process, a high gain in exceeding 107 has been obtained simitaneously with a dynamic response time of around 10 ms for both light on and off. We attribute the high performance to the elimination of possible deep charge traps, most probably at the graphene/GaSe nanosheets interface. This result demonstrates high photoconductive gain and fast photoresponse can be achieved simultaneously and a clean interface is the key to the high performance of these hybrid devices. PMID:26776942

  13. Academic Achievement of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Kathy A.; Hickey, Ann

    2014-01-01

    A study of 215 athletes at a small private liberal arts Division III college revealed that athletes (a) begin their college experience with SATs no different from non-athletes; (b) attain GPAs that do not significantly differ from those of nonathletes; (c) achieve GPAs that do not significantly differ between their "in-season" semester…

  14. Psychological Barriers to Achievement in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lois S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among birth order, number of course credits achieved, and personality integration for 56 women graduate students. No evidence of significant stress was found as these women approached career choice points, nor was there a significant effect from birth order. (Author/RD)

  15. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  16. Gain enhancement for wideband end-fire antenna design with artificial material.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Sun, Yuanhua; Wu, Xi; Wen, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Gain enhancement wideband end-fire antenna is proposed in this paper. The proposed antenna can achieve gain enhancement by loading novel artificial materials structures (Split-ring Resonators) in the end-fire direction while broad bandwidth is realized by using elliptic dipole elements and a microstrip to coplanar balun. The measurements show that the proposed antenna have around 5-8 dB gain in the working band (5-11 GHz), which is around 2 dB more than the unloaded one. This antenna can be used in target recognition systems for its advantages of end-fire radiation broad bandwidth and high gain. PMID:27652144

  17. Gain Characteristics of a 100 μm thick Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, J. A.; Natal da Luz, H.; Carvalho, X.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Amaro, F. D.

    2015-12-01

    The standard Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) invented by F. Sauli [1] consists of high density holes etched in 50 μm thick copper clad Kapton foil. This study, however, investigated the basic charge gain characteristics of a non-standard 100 μm thick Gas Electron Multiplier, fabricated using the same wet chemical etch process at CERN. It was possible to sustain charge gains of 3× 103 and 1× 104 using single and double stage configurations, respectively, operated in an Ar(70%)-CO2(30%) gas mixture. These values are similar to those achieved with standard GEMs. Crucially, we found that the thicker GEM is more robust as it withstood sparking without catastrophic failure. We also measured the gain dependence on ambient variables such as pressure and temperature and found the gain sensitivity to be 4.0 K/mbar, compared with 1.55 K/mbar for the standard GEM.

  18. Micro-Macro Bilateral Control Taking into Account Scaling of Control Gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susa, Shigeru; Shimono, Tomoyuki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In micro-macro bilateral control systems, it is important to use position and force scaling factors that depend on the size of the master and slave system. Moreover, it is vital for control systems to use appropriate control gains depending on the scaling ratio between master and slave response. This paper proposes a micro-macro bilateral control system based on the scaling of control gains. In this system, the control gains of the master and slave system are adjusted to appropriate values by using control gain scaling factors. These scaling factors are obtained by designing a micro-macro bilateral control system to achieve ideal reproducibility. To verify the validity of the proposed system, analytical results for the reproducibility, operationality, and stability of the proposed control system are presented in this paper. Moreover, the proposed system is used in an experimental micro-macro bilateral system, and the results are presented.

  19. Possibility of a high-power, high-gain amplifier FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D. C.; Freund, H. P.

    2002-01-01

    High-gain amplifier FEL offer many unique advantages such as robust operation without a high-Q optical cavity and potentially high extraction eaciencies with the use of tapered wigglers. Although a high average power, cw amplifier FEL has not been demonstrated, many key physics issues such as electron beam brightness requirements, single-pass gains, saturation, etc. have been resolved. In this paper, we study the feasibility of a high-power FEL based on the high-gain amplifier concept. We show that with suitable electron beam parameters, i.e. high peak current, low emittance, low energy spread, and sufficient tapered wiggler length, peak output power of 1 QW and optical pulse energy of 8 mJ can be achieved. We also outline a possible configuration of a high-power, high-gain amplifier FEL with energy recovery.

  20. Theory of noise in high-gain surface plasmon-polariton amplifiers incorporating dipolar gain media.

    PubMed

    De Leon, Israel; Berini, Pierre

    2011-10-10

    A theoretical analysis of noise in high-gain surface plasmon-polariton amplifiers incorporating dipolar gain media is presented. An expression for the noise figure is obtained in terms of the spontaneous emission rate into the amplified surface plasmon-polariton taking into account the different energy decay channels experienced by dipoles in close proximity to the metallic surface. Two amplifier structures are examined: a single-interface between a metal and a gain medium and a thin metal film bounded by identical gain media on both sides. A realistic configuration is considered where the surface plasmon-polariton undergoing amplification has a Gaussian field profile in the plane of the metal and paraxial propagation along the amplifier's length. The noise figure of these plasmonic amplifiers is studied considering three prototypical gain media with different permittivities. It is shown that the noise figure exhibits a strong dependance on the real part of the permittivities of the metal and gain medium, and that its minimum value is 4/π(∼3.53 dB). The origin of this minimum value is discussed. It is also shown that amplifier configurations supporting strongly confined surface plasmon-polaritons suffer from a large noise figure, which follows from an enhanced spontaneous emission rate due to the Purcell effect.

  1. Looking Inside the Black Box: What School Factors Explain Voucher Gains in Washington, DC?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Hoople, Daniel S.

    2006-01-01

    Several evaluations of private school voucher programs in the United States have reported achievement gains for voucher users, particularly African Americans. These studies tend to be structured as Randomized Field Trials (RFTs) in which participants are assigned to treatment (offered a voucher) and control (not offered a voucher) groups by…

  2. Looking inside the Black Box: What School Factors Explain Voucher Gains in Washington, D.C.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    Recently, a number of evaluations of private school voucher programs in the United States have reported achievement gains for voucher users, especially African Americans. These studies tend to be structured as Randomized Field Trials (RFTs), where participants are assigned to treatment (offered a voucher) and control (not offered a voucher) groups…

  3. Does the Flipped Classroom Lead to Increased Gains on Learning Outcomes in ESL/EFL Contexts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Marie; Doman, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates whether the flipped classroom can lead students to increased gains on learning outcomes in 2 ESL/EFL contexts in Macau, China, and the US. A pretest posttest quasi-experimental mixed-methods design (N = 64) was used to determine any differences in student achievement that might be associated with the flipped approach…

  4. Preliminary Findings of Learning Gains for Adult Learners with Developmental Disabilities. Research Brief No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia; Jacobsen, Jared

    2007-01-01

    Public perception of adults with developmental disabilities realizing learning gains often remains illusive. This paper highlights key findings in achievement in basic skills for adults with mental retardation on a functional assessment in a life skills context for three program years (2003-2006). In this study the time period between the pre- and…

  5. Can Gains from Early Literacy Interventions Be Sustained? The Case of Reading Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesson, Rebecca; Limbrick, Libby

    2014-01-01

    Early literacy interventions have demonstrated that pedagogically sound programmes can boost reading achievement for students who do not succeed in early literacy learning. However, there is less evidence as to what extent gains are maintained in subsequent years or the factors which may contribute to sustained progress. The research reported in…

  6. Estimated Effect of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal of the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  7. Variation in Mean Academic Gains across Classrooms in the Tennessee Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Kerry G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the amount of classroom variation in gains across various domains of achievement within the Tennessee Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten (TN-VPK) program; the data are taken from the randomized control trial (RCT) design of the TN-VPK evaluation. This study explores areas where those differences are largest, and offers…

  8. Polarization-insensitive optical gain characteristics of highly stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Takashi; Suwa, Masaya; Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Harada, Yukihiro

    2014-06-21

    The polarized optical gain characteristics of highly stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) with a thin spacer layer fabricated on an n{sup +}-GaAs (001) substrate were studied in the sub-threshold gain region. Using a 4.0-nm-thick spacer layer, we realized an electronically coupled QD superlattice structure along the stacking direction, which enabled the enhancement of the optical gain of the [001] transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization component. We systematically studied the polarized electroluminescence properties of laser devices containing 30 and 40 stacked InAs/GaAs QDs. The net modal gain was analyzed using the Hakki-Paoli method. Owing to the in-plane shape anisotropy of QDs, the polarization sensitivity of the gain depends on the waveguide direction. The gain showing polarization isotropy between the TM and transverse-electric polarization components is high for the [110] waveguide structure, which occurs for higher amounts of stacked QDs. Conversely, the isotropy of the [−110] waveguide is easily achieved even if the stacking is relatively low, although the gain is small.

  9. Characterization of NPP Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Reflective Solar Bands Dual Gain Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Shihyan; McIntire, Jeff; Oudari, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) contains six dual gain bands in the reflective solar spectrum. The dual gain bands are designed to switch gain mode at pre-defined thresholds to achieve high resolution at low radiances while maintaining the required dynamic range for science. During pre-launch testing, an anomaly in the electronic response before transitioning from high to low gain was discovered and characterized. On-orbit, the anomaly was confirmed using MODIS data collected during Simultaneous Nadir Overpasses (SNOs). The analysis of the Earth scene data shows that dual gain anomaly can be determined at the orbital basis. To characterize the dual gain anomaly, the anomaly region and electronic offsets were tracked per week during the first 8 month of VIIRS operation. The temporal analysis shows the anomaly region can drift 20 DN and is impacted by detectors DC Restore. The estimated anomaly flagging regions cover 2.5 % of the high gain dynamic range and are consistent with prelaunch and on-orbit LUT. The prelaunch results had a smaller anomaly range (30-50 DN) and are likely the results of more stable electronics from the shorter data collection time. Finally, this study suggests future calibration efforts to focus on the anomaly's impact on science products and possible correction method to reduce uncertainties.

  10. Achieving TASAR Operational Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept for aircraft operations featuring a NASA-developed cockpit automation tool, the Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), which computes traffic/hazard-compatible route changes to improve flight efficiency. The TAP technology is anticipated to save fuel and flight time and thereby provide immediate and pervasive benefits to the aircraft operator, as well as improving flight schedule compliance, passenger comfort, and pilot and controller workload. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for TASAR-equipped aircraft, and a flight trial of the TAP software application in the National Airspace System has demonstrated its technical viability. This paper reviews previous and ongoing activities to prepare TASAR for operational use.

  11. The significance of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-02-01

    When promoting the value of their research or procuring funding, researchers often need to explain the significance of their work to the community -- something that can be just as tricky as the research itself.

  12. Laterally periodic resonator for large-area gain lasers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Ueda, Ken-Ichi

    2003-03-24

    Laterally periodic resonators, which can be constructed by use of transversely periodic phase- or amplitude-modulating elements in a cavity, are proposed for stabilization and generation of transversely coherent output from large-area gain. Lasers with periodic resonators have the combined features of conventional cavities and laser arrays. Significant low-order transverse modes and mode discrimination of a sample resonator with intracavity periodic phase elements are investigated numerically by the iteration method. Wave-propagation calculations are carried out by use of a fast Fourier transform, and a modified Prony method is used to evaluate wave functions and losses of transverse modes. Results of numerical calculations are consistent with expectations.

  13. Pregnancy weight gain: marmoset and tamarin dads show it too

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Toni E; Prudom, Shelley L; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Kurian, Aimee V; Snowdon, Charles T

    2006-01-01

    Paternal behaviour is critical for the survival of offspring in many monogamous species. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) fathers spend as much or more time caring for infants than mothers. Expectant males of both species showed significant increases in weight across the pregnancy whereas control males did not (five consecutive months for marmoset males and six months for cotton-top tamarin males). Expectant fathers might be preparing for the energetic cost of fatherhood by gaining weight during their mate's pregnancy. PMID:16810338

  14. Gain results for low voltage FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A.; Stuart, R.A.; Al-Shamma`a, A.

    1995-12-31

    We have designed and constructed a low voltage (130 kV) FEL system capable of operating in the microwave frequency range for which the electron beam current is cw (rather than pulsed) in time at a level of {approximately} 12 mA. The gain of this system has been measured as a function of the electron beam accelerating voltage and current level, and the input microwave frequency (8-10 GHz). The results are compared with the predictions of a simple theoretical model.

  15. Semiconductor radiation detector with internal gain

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan; Patt, Bradley E.; Vilkelis, Gintas

    2003-04-01

    An avalanche drift photodetector (ADP) incorporates extremely low capacitance of a silicon drift photodetector (SDP) and internal gain that mitigates the surface leakage current noise of an avalanche photodetector (APD). The ADP can be coupled with scintillators such as CsI(Tl), NaI(Tl), LSO or others to form large volume scintillation type gamma ray detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy, photon counting, gamma ray counting, etc. Arrays of the ADPs can be used to replace the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used in conjunction with scintillation crystals in conventional gamma cameras for nuclear medical imaging.

  16. Galileo spacecraft high gain antenna offset calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical model for the estimation of the dual-spin Galileo spacecraft high gain antenna misalignment is developed. The feasibility of the proposed technique is investigated by means of a simulation study. In-flight parameter estimation requires the development of a stochastic model of the spacecraft rotational biases and the earth-received signal strength measurements. The signal strength measurements for X-band frequency are used as observations to estimate the rotational biases and their corresponding uncertainties. The simulation study shows that the initial ground measured uncertainties of .6 mrad can be reduced by a factor of ten.

  17. Turbocharger with downstream pressure-gain combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Sherikar, S.V.

    1991-05-14

    This patent describes a turbocharger. It comprises: an internal combustion engine; a compressor located upstream of the internal combustion engine for increasing the inlet pressure of the internal combustion engine; a turbine located down stream of the internal combustion engine and mechanically coupled to the compressor for driving the compressor; and a pressure-gain combustor located downstream of the turbine for decreasing the outlet pressure of the internal combustion engineer and thus increasing the turbine power output and improving the starting characteristics of the turbocharger.

  18. Gain dynamics in liquid crystal photorefractive hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, C. M.; Tabiryan, N. V.; Basun, S. A.; Ighodalo, I. U.; Reshetnyak, V. Y.; Evans, D. R.

    2014-09-01

    Photorefractive (PR) hybrid liquid crystal (LC) cells have combined the space-charge field generated in either a polymer (using e.g. PVK;C60) with the large birefringence from a LC layer to generate PR grating for beam coupling applications. The efficiency of PR beam coupling in hybrid devices is dependent on the amplitude of the space-charge field, as well as the ability of the LC molecules to align with the corresponding field. In this paper the time dynamics of the formation of the PR gratings are measured in LC hybrid systems and are used to explain the large variation of gain coefficients found in the literature.

  19. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  20. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…