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Sample records for achieved significantly greater

  1. DOD Joint Bases: Management Improvements Needed to Achieve Greater Efficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Joint Bases Realign Fort Eustis, VA, by relocating the installation management functions to Langley AFB, VA. Realign Fort Story , VA, by...the installation management functions to L·mglcy AFB, VA. Realign Fort Story , VA, by relocating the installation management functions to Commander...DOD JOINT BASES Management Improvements Needed to Achieve Greater Efficiencies Report to Congressional Addressees

  2. SOARing Into Strategic Planning: Engaging Nurses to Achieve Significant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Barbara; Felton, Fiona; Linus, Rita

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a new system chief nursing officer engaged the nursing leaders and staff in an Appreciative Inquiry process utilizing strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (SOAR), and a Journey of Excellence to assess and understand the current environment. The ultimate goal was to engage all nurses in strategic planning and goal setting to connect their patient care to the system strategic initiatives. This work led to the creation of a nursing vision, a revised professional practice model and greater council alignment, resulting in significant positive change and ongoing advancement throughout the system. The shared decision-making structure was key to the process with a direct connection of each council's goals, leading to the successful achievement of 34 of the 36 goals in 2 years. This article outlines the process, tools, and staff engagement strategies used to achieve system-wide success. This methodology has improved the outcomes across the organization in both small and system-wide work groups. This work can easily be replicated and adapted to help disparate staffs brought together through mergers or acquisitions to become aligned as a new team. This process, model, and framework, provides structure and results in significant outcomes that recognizes and celebrates the work of individual entities while aligning future strategies and goals.

  3. Mechanized pivot shift test achieves greater accuracy than manual pivot shift test.

    PubMed

    Musahl, Volker; Voos, James; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Stueber, Volker; Kendoff, Daniel; Pearle, Andrew D

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to design a navigated mechanized pivot shift test setup and evaluate its repeatability in the ACL-deficient knee. It was hypothesized that translations and rotations measured with the mechanized pivot shift would be more repeatable when compared to those obtained with a manual pivot shift. Twelve fresh frozen cadaveric hip-to-toe whole lower extremities were used for this study. A manual pivot shift test was performed in the intact knee and in the ACL-deficient knee and was repeated three times. A navigation system simultaneously recorded tibial translation and rotation. The mechanized pivot shift test consists of a modified continuous passive motion (CPM) machine and a custom-made foot holder to allow for the application of internal rotation moments at the knee. Valgus moments were achieved by a 45 degrees tilt of the CPM machine with respect to the supine position and a Velcro strap secured across the proximal tibia. The mechanized pivot shift was repeated three times. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare manual and mechanized pivot shift testing. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine variability within each knee at each testing condition. In the ACL-deficient knee, translation with manual pivot shift testing (11.7 +/- 2.6 mm) was significantly higher than with mechanized pivot shift testing (7.4 +/- 2.5 mm; p < 0.05). Rotation with the manual pivot shift testing (18.6 +/- 5.4 degrees) was also significantly higher than with mechanized pivot shift testing (11.0 +/- 2.3 degrees; p < 0.05). The intra-class ICC for translations was 0.76 for manual pivot shift and 0.92 for the mechanized pivot shift test. The intra-class ICC for rotations was 0.89 for manual pivot shift and 0.82 for the mechanized pivot shift test. This study introduced a modified CPM for mechanized pivot shift testing. Although recorded translations and rotations with the mechanized pivot shift test were lower than with manual

  4. Significantly greater reduction in breast cancer mortality from post-diagnosis running than walking.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of these analyses is to test prospectively whether post-diagnosis running and walking differ significantly in their association with breast cancer mortality. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to compare breast cancer mortality to baseline exercise energy expenditure (METs, 1 MET-hour ≅1 km run) in 272 runners and 714 walkers previously diagnosed with breast cancer from the National Runners' and Walkers' Health Studies when adjusted for age, race, menopause, family history, breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use. Diagnosis occurred (mean ± SD) 7.9 ± 7.3 years before baseline. Forty-six women (13 runners and 33 walkers) died from breast cancer during 9.1-year mortality surveillance. For the 986 runners and walkers combined, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 23.9% MET-hours/day [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-38.3%; p = 0.004]. There was a significantly greater decrease in risk for running than walking (risk per MET-hours/day run vs. walked: p = 0.03). For the 272 runners analyzed separately, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 40.9% per MET-hours/day run (95% CI: 19.3-60.0%, p = 0.0004). When analyzed by categories of running energy expenditure, breast cancer mortality was 87.4% lower for the 1.8-3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 41.3-98.2% lower, p = 0.008) and 95.4% lower for the ≥3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 71.9-100% lower, p = 0.0004) compared to the <1.07 MET-hours/day category. In contrast, the 714 walkers showed a nonsignificant 4.6% decrease in breast cancer mortality per MET-hours/day walked (95% CI: 27.3% decreased risk to 21.3% increased risk, p = 0.71). These results suggest that post-diagnosis running is associated with significantly lower breast cancer mortality than post-diagnosis walking.

  5. Creating conditions for greater private sector participation in achieving contraceptive security.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suneeta; Dayaratna, Varuni

    2005-03-01

    The growing gap between donor/government funding and the expected need for contraceptives is an issue of great concern for most developing countries. Addressing this resource shortfall, and meeting the goals of contraceptive security requires that countries mobilize the full and active participation of the private sector in the contraceptive market. Private sector involvement will not only increase the resource base available for contraceptives, it can also free up scarce donor and government resources to serve those who have the greatest need for public subsidies. This paper provides an overview of policy processes, strategies, and tools that can be used in developing countries to create an enabling environment for greater private sector participation, foster complementary public-private sector roles, and enhance the contribution of the private sector to contraceptive security.

  6. A New Technique for Achieving Impact Velocities Greater Than 10 km/sec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piekutowski, A. J.; Nolen, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This Contractor Report describes and presents the results of work that was done in an attempt to develop an augmented acceleration technique that would launch small projectiles of known shape, mass, and state to velocities of 10 km/sec and higher. The higher velocities were to be achieved by adding a third stage to a conventional two-stage, light-gas gun and using a modified firing cycle for the third stage. The technique did not achieve the desired results and was modified for use during the development program. Since the design of the components used for the augmented-acceleration, three-stage launcher could be readily adapted for use as a three-stage launcher that used a single-stage acceleration cycle; the remainder of the contract period was spent performing test firings using the modified three-stage launcher. Work with the modified three-stage launcher, although not complete, did produce test firings in which an 0.11-g cylindrical nylon projectile was launched to a velocity of 8.65 km/sec.

  7. Academic Achievement, Academic Self-Concept, and Academic Motivation of Immigrant Adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the self-reported academic achievement, academic self-concept, and academic motivation of 573 immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) secondary schools. Descriptive Discriminant Analyses indicated that the immigrant adolescents had higher performance in mathematics, higher math and school…

  8. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  9. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million. This was accomplished after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  10. Emotional Intelligence Skills: Significant Factors in Freshmen Achievement and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Darwin B.; Nelson, Kaye W.

    This study investigated the role of emotional skills in the academic achievement and retention of university freshmen. The research group was a randomly selected sample of first semester freshmen students (N=165), and cumulative grade point average was used as the criterion for academic success. The study was designed to investigate: (a) the…

  11. Graphene oxide nanoribbons exhibit significantly greater toxicity than graphene oxide nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Chng, Elaine Lay Khim; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-21

    Graphene oxide (GOs) has emerged in recent years as a versatile nanomaterial, demonstrating tremendous potential for multifunctional biomedical applications. GOs can be prepared by the top-down or bottom-up approach, which leads to a great variability of GOs being produced due to the different procedures and starting carbon sources adopted. This will have an effect on the physiochemical properties of GOs and their resultant toxic behavior. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of graphene-oxide nanoribbons (GONRs; ∼310 × 5000 nm) and graphene-oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs; 100 × 100 nm), prepared from the oxidative treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs; ∼100 × 5000 nm) and stacked graphene nanofibers (SGNFs; 100 × 5000 nm), respectively. In vitro assessments revealed that the GONRs exhibited a much stronger cytotoxicity over the GONPs, and we correlated that observation with characterization data that showed GONRs to have a greater amount of carbonyl groups as well as greater length. Therefore, we put forward that the stronger toxic behavior of GONRs is a result of the synergistic effect between these two factors, and the type of carbon source used to prepare GOs should be carefully considered in any future bioapplications.

  12. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  13. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  14. Significantly shorter Fe–S bond in cytochrome P450-I is consistent with greater reactivity relative to chloroperoxidase

    DOE PAGES

    Krest, Courtney M.; Silakov, Alexey; Rittle, Jonathan; ...

    2015-08-03

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and chloroperoxidase (CPO) are thiolate-ligated haem proteins that catalyse the activation of carbon hydrogen bonds. The principal intermediate in these reactions is a ferryl radical species called compound I. P450 compound I (P450-I) is significantly more reactive than CPO-I, which only cleaves activated C–H bonds. In this paper, to provide insight into the differing reactivities of these intermediates, we examined CPO-I and P450-I using variable-temperature Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These measurements indicate that the Fe–S bond is significantly shorter in P450-I than in CPO-I. This difference in Fe–S bond lengths can be understood in terms ofmore » variations in the hydrogen-bonding patterns within the ‘cys-pocket’ (a portion of the proximal helix that encircles the thiolate ligand). Weaker hydrogen bonding in P450-I results in a shorter Fe–S bond, which enables greater electron donation from the axial thiolate ligand. Finally, this observation may in part explain P450's greater propensity for C–H bond activation.« less

  15. Significantly shorter Fe–S bond in cytochrome P450-I is consistent with greater reactivity relative to chloroperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Krest, Courtney M.; Silakov, Alexey; Rittle, Jonathan; Yosca, Timothy H.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Calixto, Julio C.; Green, Michael T.

    2015-08-03

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and chloroperoxidase (CPO) are thiolate-ligated haem proteins that catalyse the activation of carbon hydrogen bonds. The principal intermediate in these reactions is a ferryl radical species called compound I. P450 compound I (P450-I) is significantly more reactive than CPO-I, which only cleaves activated C–H bonds. In this paper, to provide insight into the differing reactivities of these intermediates, we examined CPO-I and P450-I using variable-temperature Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These measurements indicate that the Fe–S bond is significantly shorter in P450-I than in CPO-I. This difference in Fe–S bond lengths can be understood in terms of variations in the hydrogen-bonding patterns within the ‘cys-pocket’ (a portion of the proximal helix that encircles the thiolate ligand). Weaker hydrogen bonding in P450-I results in a shorter Fe–S bond, which enables greater electron donation from the axial thiolate ligand. Finally, this observation may in part explain P450's greater propensity for C–H bond activation.

  16. Significantly shorter Fe-S bond in cytochrome P450-I is consistent with greater reactivity relative to chloroperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Krest, Courtney M.; Silakov, Alexey; Rittle, Jonathan; Yosca, Timothy H.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Calixto, Julio C.; Green, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and chloroperoxidase (CPO) are thiolate ligated heme proteins that catalyze the activation of carbon hydrogen bonds. The principal intermediate in these reactions is a ferryl radical species called compound I. P450 compound I (P450-I) is significantly more reactive than CPO-I, which only cleaves activated C-H bonds. To provide insight into the differing reactivities of these intermediates, we examined CPO-I and P450-I with variable temperature Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These measurements indicate that the Fe-S bond is significantly shorter in P450-I than in CPO-I. This difference in Fe-S bond lengths can be understood in terms of variations in hydrogen bonding patterns within the “cys-pocket” (a portion of the proximal helix that encircles the thiolate ligand). Weaker hydrogen bonding in P450-I results in a shorter Fe-S bond, which enables greater electron donation from the axial-thiolate ligand. This observation may in part explain P450's greater propensity for C-H bond activation. PMID:26291940

  17. Girl Friends as Significant-Others: Their Influence on Young Men's Career Aspirations and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Luther B.

    1977-01-01

    Girl friends are significant-others who influence young men's career aspirations and achievements. Girl friends and same sex peers evaluate a youth's educational potential using broader criteria than do parents. (Author/MV)

  18. Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact: The Donors' Education Collaborative of New York City. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, constituency building and advocacy for better public education have grown steadily in New York City. "Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact" explores how that growth was fueled by the Donors' Education Collaborative of New York, which pools its members' financial resources and expertise to advance shared…

  19. The Significance of Career Narrative in Examining a High-Achieving Woman's Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elley-Brown, Margaret J.

    2011-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the career journey of one New Zealand woman was analysed. Three key findings emerged: the power of narrative as a vehicle for this woman's story, her movement towards greater authenticity and spiritual fulfilment as a mature woman, and the ongoing struggle for concurrent fulfilment from communal and agentic perspectives.…

  20. A novel approach to achieving significant reverberation control in performance halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, David A.; Chu, William

    2005-09-01

    Conventional methods for achieving broadband, variable sound absorption in large halls normally include heavy application of sound-absorptive drapery and/or thick fibrous panels, applied near available surfaces below, at, and in volumes above the catwalk plane. Occasionally, direct adjustments to room air volume are also provided to effect double-sloped decays. The novel method described here combines carefully located, broad scattering and absorption in singular architectural elements and was applied to a new, 1200-seat concert hall. A change of 0.70 s RT60 in midfrequency is achieved in a visually dramatic manner while neither materially changing room volume nor introducing often-maligned drapery. The aggregate of reverberation control methodologies employed reduces the unoccupied RT60 at midfrequencies from about 3.2 to 1.7 s in this space programed principally for music, including pipe organ. Results of MLS measurements including binaural measurements and binaural recordings of anechoic material and CATT-acoustic modeling and auralizations are discussed.

  1. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices.

  2. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases.

  3. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  4. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  5. The negative influence of significant others on high academic achieving school pupils' choice of nursing as a career.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Gavin R; McNally, Jim

    2013-03-01

    The International Council of Nurses proposes that the shortage of nurses is global in scale and is expected to become much worse in the years ahead. A major factor impacting on the worldwide nursing shortage is the diminishing number of young people choosing nursing as a career (International Council of Nurses, 2008). One important dimension of the school pupils' career choice process is their interactions with significant others and the influence of these significant others (Hodkinson and Sparkes, 1997). As Schools/Departments of Nursing endeavour to attract more intellectual school leavers it is important to examine what advice and opinions are significant others giving regarding nursing as a career choice and how influential is this advice. This paper is based on interview data from 20 high academic achieving 5th and 6th year school pupils in Scotland, paradigmatic cases from a larger sample, who had considered nursing as a possible career choice within their career preference cluster, but then later disregarded nursing and decided to pursue medicine or another health care profession. The data was particularly striking in revealing the negative influence of significant others on high academic achieving school pupils' choice of nursing as a career. The influence of significant others, these being specifically parents, guardians, guidance teachers and career advisors was very apparent in the data in that they had a very negative view regarding nursing as a career choice for high academic achieving school pupils.

  6. Greater Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bennett was once a disinterested student destined to become a dropout. Then he enrolled in Amistad Academy, an academically focused charter middle school intent on narrowing the achievement gap between urban and suburban kids located in New Haven, Connecticut. Now Julius is making plans for college. In this article the author details the…

  7. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    This case study describes how the U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, Minnesota, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  8. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-01

    The U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, MN, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  9. Supporting Low-Achieving EFL Learners: Expectations, Procedure and Significance of Remedial Sessions at a Saudi University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghamdi, Fatimah M. A.; Siddiqui, Ozma

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on and investigates an institutionalized remedial approach held by an English language institute (ELI) at a Saudi University in order to support foundation year struggling students who often achieve low grades or fail to pass a certain level of the English language program. The study utilizes semi-structured interviews to…

  10. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  11. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  12. Studies of IRAS sources at high galactic latitudes. I - Source counts at /b/greater than 60 deg and evidence for a north-south anisotropy of cosmological significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Walker, D.; Chester, T.; Soifer, T.; Fairclough, J.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the IRAS sky at b with an absolute value greater than 60 deg is conducted. Source counts at 12, 25, 60 and 100 microns are presented, and it is shown that emission from interstellar dust at 100 microns is localized to a few small areas of tathe galactic polar caps. At 12 and 25 microns, the sky is dominated by stars; at 60 and 100 microns, by galaxies. Comparison with the minisurvey source counts indicates the 12and 25-micron source denstiy is lower at the present latitude than at a latitude whereby the absolute value of b equals 10-40 deg. Due to the greatly reduced effects of emission from interstellar dust, the 100 micron survey reaches a factor 1.6 deeper in flux at the present latitude than the minisurvey. An anisotropy significant at the 4-sigma level was found between the north and south galactic polar caps at 60 and 100 microns, after exclusion of the Virgo cluster and of the few remaining areas significantly affected by interstellar-dust emission. It is suggested that this anisotropy represents a cosmologically significant anisotropy in the galaxy distribution. The scale of associated inhomogeneity is of the order of at least 100(50/H)Mpc.

  13. A Study to Determine Certain Characteristics of Earth Science Curriculum Project Teachers and Students in the Permissive or Authoritarian Classrooms which Lead to Greater Academic Achievement in These Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Earl Alvin

    Investigated was academic achievement of Earth Science Curriculum Project (ESCP) students in permissive and authoritarian classes. Authoritarian and permissive teachers were identified in the formal ESCP program using McGee's F-Scale; Form 30. Random samples of students and teachers were chosen from the 15 test centers throughout the United…

  14. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Nho, Shane J; Kelly, Bryan T

    2010-06-01

    Originally defined as "tenderness to palpation over the greater trochanter with the patient in the side-lying position," greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) as a clinical entity, has expanded to include a number of disorders of the lateral, peritrochanteric space of the hip, including trochanteric bursitis, tears of the gluteus medius and minimus and external coxa saltans (snapping hip). Typically presenting with pain and reproducible tenderness in the region of the greater trochanter, buttock, or lateral thigh, GTPS is relatively common, reported to affect between 10% and 25% of the general population. Secondary to the relative paucity of information available on the diagnosis and management of components of GTPS, the presence of these pathologic entities may be underrecognized, leading to extensive workups and delays in appropriate treatment. This article aims to review the present understanding of the lesions that comprise GTPS, discussing the relevant anatomy, diagnostic workup and recommended treatment for trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius and minimus tears, and external coxa saltans.

  15. A Long-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injury Therapy Using Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells (Sk-SCs): An Achievement of Significant Morphological, Numerical and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Maki; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Soeda, Shuichi; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always favorable. Here, we use human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs) to reconstitute the function after long nerve-gap injury. Muscles samples were obtained from the amputated legs from 9 patients following unforeseen accidents. The Sk-SCs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and sorted as CD34+/45- (Sk-34) and CD34-/45-/29+ (Sk-DN/29+) cells. Cells were separately cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks, then injected into the athymic nude mice sciatic nerve long-gap model (7-mm) bridging an acellular conduit. After 8–12 weeks, active cell engraftment was observed only in the Sk-34 cell transplanted group, showing preferential differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as formation of the myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium surrounding regenerated axons, resulted in 87% of numerical recovery. Differentiation into vascular cell lineage (pericyte and endothelial cells) were also observed. A significant tetanic tension recovery (over 90%) of downstream muscles following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (at upper portion of the gap) was also achieved. In contrast, Sk-DN/29+ cells were completely eliminated during the first 4 weeks, but relatively higher numerical (83% vs. 41% in axon) and functional (80% vs. 60% in tetanus) recovery than control were observed. Noteworthy, significant increase in the formation of vascular networks in the conduit during the early stage (first 2 weeks) of recovery was observed in both groups with the expression of key factors (mRNA and protein levels), suggesting the paracrine effects to angiogenesis. These results suggested that the human Sk

  16. A Survey Study of Significent Achievements Accomplished By Snon-mainstreamt Seismologists In ¸ Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction Science In China Since 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I. W.

    Since 1990, the author, a British U Chinese consultant, has studied and followed the significant achievements accomplished by Snon-mainstreamT seismologists in & cedil;earthquake prediction in China since 1970. The scientific systems used include: (1) Astronomy-seismology: The relativity between special positions of certain planets (especially the moon and another planet) relative to the seismic active areas on the earth and the occurrence time of major damaging earthquakes in these areas on the earth, the relativity between the dates of magnetic storms on the earth caused by so- lar flare on the sun and the occurrence dates of major damaging earthquakes on the earth, as well as certain cycle relativity between the occurrence dates of major his- torical earthquakes occurring in relative areas on the earth. (2) Precursor analysis: With own-developed sensors and instruments, different to conventional seismologi- cal instruments, numerous precursors, abnormality signs, and earthquake imminent signals were recorded. In most cases, these precursors can not be detected by conven- tional seismological sensors/instruments. Through exploratory practice and theoreti- cal studies, various relativity between different characteristics of the precursors, and the occurrence time, epicenter location and magnitude of the developing earthquake were identified and can be calculated. Through approaches quite different to conven- tional methods, successful predictions of quite a large number of earthquakes have been achieved, including earthquakes that occurred in mainland China, Taiwan and Japan. (3) Earthquake imminent affirmative confirmation: With a special instrument, the background of imminent state of earthquakes can be identified, and a universal earthquake imminent signal is further identified. It can be used to confirm if an earlier predicted earthquake is entering its imminent state, if it will definitely occur, or if an earlier prediction can be released. (4) 5km, 7km and

  17. The Significance of Language and Cultural Education on Secondary Achievement: A Survey of Chinese-American and Korean-American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Steven K.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys of 105 U.S.-born, Chinese-American and Korean-American students in southern California high schools found that those who adapted to the mainstream culture while maintaining their heritage language and culture had higher academic achievement than those who wholly adopted mainstream values and lifestyles. (Contains 21 references.) (SV)

  18. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced, and within 2 s, reductions below the detection limit (<10 CFU) were reached. Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit with only 1 s of treatment. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment was also applied on two different types of plastic modular conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high

  19. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planetary bodies, to techniques and instrument development for exploration.

  20. Influence of Mothers' Education on Children's Maths Achievement in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Benta A.; Oketch, Moses; Mutisya, Maurice; Ngware, Moses; Ciera, James

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that fathers' level of education predicts achievement of both boys and girls, with significantly greater effect for boys. Similarly, mothers' level of education predicts the achievement of girls but not boys. This study tests the mother-child education achievement hypothesis, by examining the effect of mothers' education on the…

  1. Creativity: The Hub of Real Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to encourage a greater emphasis on creativity across and between varied fields of endeavour. It has been written to underline the interdisciplinary significance of creativity and the role of creativity in truly enhancing achievement. There is a reinvigorated awareness of the need for "big thinking", a global…

  2. Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Income Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Finn, Amy S.; Leonard, Julia A.; Jacoby Senghor, Drew S.; West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F.O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the difference in academic achievement between higher- and lower-income students (i.e., the income achievement gap) is substantial and growing. Here, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of this gap in adolescents (n = 58) in whom academic achievement was measured by statewide standardized testing. Cortical gray matter volume was significantly greater in students from higher-income backgrounds (n = 35) compared to students from lower-income backgrounds (n = 23), but cortical white matter volume and total cortical surface area did not differ between groups. Cortical thickness in all lobes of the brain was greater in students from higher-income than lower-income backgrounds. Thicker cortex, particularly in temporal and occipital lobes, was associated with better test performance. These results represent the first evidence that cortical thickness differs across broad swaths of the brain between higher- and lower-income students, and that cortical thickness is related to academic achievement test scores. PMID:25896418

  3. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  4. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  5. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  6. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  7. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  8. Treatment of symptomatic greater trochanteric fracture after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Jeffrey I; Chuang, Michael J; Cerynik, Douglas L; Johanson, Norman A

    2009-08-01

    Isolated greater trochanter fractures after total hip arthroplasty are associated with major comorbidities such as debilitating weakness, pain, and dislocation. No definitive standard of care has been established for these fracture. However, it is well known that reestablishing osseous union in these patients is strongly associated with return of functional status. We report a case of an elderly patient with multiple hip revision surgeries now presenting with unilateral greater trochanter fracture. Treatment incorporated the use of a trochanteric claw plate, cerclage wiring, and adjuvant demineralized bone matrix allograft to achieve successful osseous union. This is the first reported use of adjuvant demineralized bone matrix for fixing these fractures.

  9. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  10. Greater performance impairment of black runners than white runners when running in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Santos-Concejero, J; Tucker, R; Myburgh, K H; Essen-Gustavsson, B; Kohn, T A

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of performance-matched black and white runners during maximal and sub-maximal running in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. 14 well-trained runners (8 black, 6 white) performed 2 incremental maximal exercise tests and 2 fatigue resistance tests at 21% O2 (normoxia) or 14% O2 (hypoxia). Respiratory parameters, heart rate (HR), lactate concentration ([La(-)]) as well as arterial saturation (SpO2) were measured. Enzyme activities and myosin heavy chain content (MHC) were also measured. White runners reached a significantly greater peak treadmill speed and a higher HRmax than black runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Additionally, White runners achieved a greater time to fatigue than black runners (p<0.05), with black runners displaying a greater decline in performance in hypoxia compared to normoxia (20.3% vs. 13.4%, black vs. white, respectively). However, black runners presented lower [La(-)] and higher SpO2 than white runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Black runners had a higher proportion of MHC IIa and higher lactate dehydrogenase activity (p<0.05). The greater performance impairment observed in black runners in hypoxia suggests a greater performance sensitivity to this condition, despite the maintenance of physiological variables such as SpO2 and [La (-) ] within a smaller range than white runners.

  11. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions.

  12. Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gajate, P; Pietrokovsky, S; Abramo Orrego, L; Pérez, O; Monte, A; Belmonte, J; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    2001-05-01

    The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA) receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m(2). The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p<0.001). The number of triatomines collected largely exceeded the highest domestic infestation found in one house from rural endemic areas of Argentina. Though triatomines were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, they could acquire the parasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

  13. Identification and Analysis of the Alternatives for Achieving Greater Television Program Diversity in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimling, John A., Jr.; And Others

    Several alternatives to the present television industry structure are considered in this study. They are: continuation of present policies, satellite-to-home broadcasting, and cable distribution of television. Trends noted are: the growth of commercial UHF (Ultra High Frequency) stations, the introduction of all-channel sets, population growth,…

  14. Achieving a Greater Impact: Developing the Skills of Teaching Artists to Lead Professional Development for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duma, Amy L.; Silverstein, Lynne B.

    2008-01-01

    Teaching artists know that there are many more students who could benefit from learning in and through the arts, but school budgets as well as teaching artists' time and energy are limited. As years pass, teaching artists face the reality that they will reach only a fraction of the students in need. To extend their impact dramatically, some…

  15. Genetic engineering of fungal biocontrol agents to achieve greater efficacy against insect pests.

    PubMed

    St Leger, Raymond J; Wang, Chengshu

    2010-01-01

    Molecular biology methods have elucidated pathogenic processes in several fungal biocontrol agents including two of the most commonly applied entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. In this review, we describe how a combination of molecular techniques has: (1) identified and characterized genes involved in infection; (2) manipulated the genes of the pathogen to improve biocontrol performance; and (3) allowed expression of a neurotoxin from the scorpion Androctonus australis. The complete sequencing of four exemplar species of entomopathogenic fungi including B. bassiana and M. anisopliae will be completed in 2010. Coverage of these genomes will help determine the identity, origin, and evolution of traits needed for diverse lifestyles and host switching. Such knowledge combined with the precision and malleability of molecular techniques will allow design of multiple pathogens with different strategies to be used for different ecosystems and avoid the possibility of the host developing resistance.

  16. Do Left or Right Brain Training Exercises Have the Greater Effect upon College Calculus Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia A.

    Research supports the premise that various mathematical topics can be categorized as being performed better by the left or right brain hemisphere. This study examined the effect of left and right brain hemispheric lateralization exercises upon course grades in two sections of Analysis I (beginning calculus for mathematics/science majors) at a…

  17. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    PubMed

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  18. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs.

  19. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  20. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1980 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution and comparative planetology to geologic processes active on other planetary bodies.

  1. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  2. Significant achievements in the planetary program, 1976 - 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1977 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  3. Age or health status: which influences medical insurance enrollment greater?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Cai, Gong–Jie; Li, Guan–Nan; Cao, Jing–Jing; Shi, Qiong–Hua; Bai, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) for peasantries implemented in 2003 and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the urban unemployed implemented in 2007 have many similarities. They both apply the financing mode of individual premiums plus government’s subsidies, and the voluntary enrollment. The Chinese government plans to integrate these two systems and build a unified basic medical insurance system for the unemployed in order to achieve the medical equity and increase the general health level. Thus, to analyze the main influencing factors of the enrollment of the urban unemployed and rural residents is very important for improving the system and securing the stability of the system during the transition. Methods The study uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and adopts logistic regression models to test which factors influence the enrollment of the URBMI and the NCMS under the background of rather high enrollment rate of Chinese basic medical insurances and strong fiscal support of the Chinese government, especially whether health status or age influences enrollment of these two insurances greater. Results There is indeed some adverse selection in the URBMI and the NCMS. Whether the individual has chronic diseases have significant influence on enrollments of both the urban unemployed and rural residents, while whether the individual got ill in last four weeks just influences enrollments of the urban unemployed. Age influences enrollment greater than health status. The older the insured are, the larger the enrollment rates are. Conclusion Because of the active support for basic medical insurances of the Chinese government, the enrollment performance of the urban unemployed and rural residents has already changed. When implementing the new policy, the government should pay attention to the willingness to enroll in and the change of enrollment performance of the insured. Therefore, under the policy of

  4. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  5. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  6. Spread of English across Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

  7. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  8. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  9. Discordance of Cognitive and Academic Achievement Outcomes in Youth with Perinatal HIV Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Garvie, Patricia A.; Zeldow, Bret; Malee, Kathleen; Nichols, Sharon L.; Smith, Renee A.; Wilkins, Megan L.; Williams, Paige L.

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate achievement in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) compared to HIV-exposed uninfected peers (HEU), and to examine differential effects of HIV on cognition-achievement concordance. Methods Cognition and achievement were assessed using standardized measures. IQ-derived predicted achievement scores were subtracted from observed achievement scores to calculate discrepancy values. Linear regression models were used to compare achievement discrepancies between PHIV and HEU, adjusting for demographic covariates. Results Participants: 295 PHIV and 167 HEU youth; 71% black, 48% male, mean age 13.1 and 11.3 years, respectively. PHIV youth were relatively healthy (mean CD4%, 32%; viral load ≤400 copies/mL, 72%). PHIV and HEU youth had cognitive and achievement scores significantly below population norm means (p<0.001), but did not differ in cognition (mean FSIQ=86.7 vs. 89.4, respectively). In unadjusted models, HEU outperformed PHIV youth on Total Achievement (TA; mean=89.2 vs. 86.0, p=0.04) and Numerical Operations (NO; mean=88.8 vs. 82.9, p<0.001); no differences remained after adjustment. Mean observed-predicted achievement discrepancies reflected “underachievement”. History of encephalopathy predicted poorer achievement (p=0.039) and greater underachievement, even after adjustment. PHIV showed greater underachievement than HEU for NO (p<0.001) and TA (p=0.03), but these differences did not persist in adjusted models. Conclusions Both PHIV and HEU youth demonstrated lower achievement than normative samples, and underachieved relative to predicted achievement scores. Observed-predicted achievement discrepancies were associated with prior encephalopathy, older age and other non-HIV factors. PHIV youth with prior encephalopathy had significantly lower achievement and greater underachievement compared to PHIV without encephalopathy and HEU youth, even in adjusted models. PMID:25361033

  10. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  11. Primary torsion of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Gul, Y A; Jabbar, M F; Moissinac, K

    2001-01-01

    Primary or idiopathic greater omental torsion remains a rare cause of acute surgical abdomen in adults and children. The aetiology is as yet unknown and the treatment of choice, once diagnosis is established, is resection of the torted omentum. We report our experience with three such cases encountered over the last five years, two of which were diagnosed and subsequently managed laparoscopically. The performance of diagnostic laparoscopy for acute abdominal pain of an undetermined origin may lead to an increased detection of this condition and subsequent therapeutic intervention.

  12. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  13. Effects of Collaborative Group Composition and Inquiry Instruction on Reasoning Gains and Achievement in Undergraduate Biology

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie Lee; Lawson, Anton

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of collaborative group composition and instructional method on reasoning gains and achievement in college biology. Based on initial student reasoning ability (i.e., low, medium, or high), students were assigned to either homogeneous or heterogeneous collaborative groups within either inquiry or didactic instruction. Achievement and reasoning gains were assessed at the end of the semester. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, led to significantly greater gains in reasoning ability and achievement. Inquiry instruction also led to greater confidence and more positive attitudes toward collaboration. Low-reasoning students made significantly greater reasoning gains within inquiry instruction when grouped with other low reasoners than when grouped with either medium or high reasoners. Results are consistent with equilibration theory, supporting the idea that students benefit from the opportunity for self-regulation without the guidance or direction of a more capable peer. PMID:21364101

  14. Asperger Syndrome and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Deborah E.; Barnhill, Gena P.; Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagiwara, Taku; Simpson, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    A study focused on identifying the academic characteristics of 21 children and youth who have Asperger syndrome. Students had an extraordinary range of academic achievement scores, extending from significantly above average to far below grade level. Lowest achievement scores were shown for numerical operations, listening comprehension, and written…

  15. Health and Greater Manchester in Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This article maps the history of health organisation across Greater Manchester (GM), primarily since the Second World War, to show how against a continuing backdrop of health inequalities, services have been driven (and constrained) by the needs and the politics of each period. Defining ‘success’ as benefits for patients the article identifies examples such as Salford’s mental health services (1950s and 1960s), public health in North Manchester (1970s and 1980s), the creation of centres for diabetes, sickle-cell and thalassaemia (1980s) and the formation of the Joint Health Unit in 2002. What this history shows is that over the period the common factors influencing the ‘success’ of health organisation across GM have been the championing of particular issues by multi-disciplinary groups working across health and social care and stability in structures and personnel. PMID:27499557

  16. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that

  17. Editorial Commentary: Save the Subchondral Bone in Rotator Cuff Repair Greater Tuberosity Preparation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-04-01

    Results from a recent investigation into the practice of greater tuberosity decortication before rotator cuff repair showed that decortication significantly reduced the ultimate failure load. Although the potential of greater tuberosity treatment for solving the rotator cuff healing quandary still exists, the biomechanics are clear, one should not decorticate the greater tuberosity to cancellous bone.

  18. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. . Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. ); Dawson, R.N. )

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  19. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  20. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  1. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  2. Rock Art of the Greater Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Archaeoastronomical studies in the American Southwest began in 1955 with recognition of what seemed to be pictorial eyewitness records of the Crab supernova of 1054 AD In time, reports of seasonally significant light-and-shadow effects on rock art and associations of rock art with astronomical alignments also emerged. Most astronomical rock art studies remained problematic, however, because criteria for proof of ancient intent were elusive. Disciplined methods for assessing cultural function were difficult to develop, but review of ethnographically documented astronomical traditions of California Indians and of Indians in the American Southwest subsequently increased confidence in the value of some astronomical rock art initiatives.

  3. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  4. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  5. Assessing the geologic evolution of Greater Thaumasia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Don R.; Judice, Taylor; Karunatillake, Suniti; Rogers, Deanne; Dohm, James M.; Susko, David; Carnes, Lorraine K.

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Thaumasia region consists of three chemical provinces that include Syria, Solis, and Thaumasia Planae, the Corprates Rise, part of the Thaumasia Highlands, and the transition zone northwest of the Argyre basin. Chemical signatures obtained from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer suggest low abundances of K and Th to the west, with low H abundances and high Si abundances to the east, relative to the bulk Martian crust at midlatitudes. These observations are confirmed and quantified with a modified box and whisker analysis that simultaneously captures the degree of deviation and significance of the regionally anomalous chemistry. Motivated by regionally unique chemistry, as well as its diverse geological history, we characterize Greater Thaumasia in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and mapped geology to determine how such complementary data record the evolution of this region. Our observations are inconsistent with a proposed salt-lubricated landslide origin, particularly given the lack of chemical or mineralogical signatures to support near-surface salt deposits that should arise over geological timescales. Our observations instead support magmatic processes, such as mantle evolution over geological time, which may impart the Si-enriched signature of the eastern portion of Greater Thaumasia as well as the K and Th depletion of the southeastern flank of Syria Planum. While the observed trend of decreasing K and Th from Noachian to Hesperian lavas is inconsistent with previous models of Martian mantle evolution, we see an increase in Ca content at the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, consistent with predictions from thermodynamic modeling.

  6. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test.

  7. Oak Ridge greater confinement disposal demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clapp, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Demonstrations are being conducted in association with the disposal of a high activity low-level waste (LLW) stream. The waste stream in question will result from the cement solidification of decanted liquids from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The solid waste will be produced beginning in mid summer 1988. It is anticipated to have significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90, with smaller amounts of other radionuclides and <100 nCi/gm of TRU. The solid waste forms are expected to have surface dose rates in the 1 to 2 r/hr range. The solid waste will also contain several chemical species at concentrations which are below those of concern, but which may present enhanced corrosion potential for the disposal units. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  9. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  10. Collective migration exhibits greater sensitivity but slower dynamics of alignment to applied electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Lalli, Mark L.; Asthagiri, Anand R.

    2015-01-01

    During development and disease, cells migrate collectively in response to gradients in physical, chemical and electrical cues. Despite its physiological significance and potential therapeutic applications, electrotactic collective cell movement is relatively less well understood. Here, we analyze the combined effect of intercellular interactions and electric fields on the directional migration of non-transformed mammary epithelial cells, MCF-10A. Our data show that clustered cells exhibit greater sensitivity to applied electric fields but align more slowly than isolated cells. Clustered cells achieve half-maximal directedness with an electric field that is 50% weaker than that required by isolated cells; however, clustered cells take ∼2-4 fold longer to align. This trade-off in greater sensitivity and slower dynamics correlates with the slower speed and intrinsic directedness of collective movement even in the absence of an electric field. Whereas isolated cells exhibit a persistent random walk, the trajectories of clustered cells are more ballistic as evidenced by the superlinear dependence of their mean square displacement on time. Thus, intrinsically-directed, slower clustered cells take longer to redirect and align with an electric field. These findings help to define the operating space and the engineering trade-offs for using electric fields to affect cell movement in biomedical applications. PMID:26692908

  11. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elizabeth A.; McNair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L.; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. We hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. Design and Methods This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs <5% weight loss, and linear regression was used to identify predictors of percent weight loss. Results 27 subjects (37 ± 4.5 yrs, 93.8 ± 12.1 kg, BMI 33.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2) completed the study, with mean weight loss of -5.4 ± 3.3 kg (-5.7 ± 3.2%). Subjects with ≥5% weight loss had higher baseline pre-breakfast hunger (p=0.017), desire to eat (p=0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006), and lower baseline cognitive restraint (p=0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (p=0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (p<0.001) were found to be predictors of weight loss. Conclusion These results suggest that individuals reporting greater hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. PMID:26584649

  12. Interseismic deformation associated with three-dimensional faults in the greater Los Angeles region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Scott T.; Cooke, Michele L.; Owen, Susan E.

    2009-12-01

    Existing interseismic models are not well-suited to simulate deformation within the network of finite, intersecting, nonplanar faults observed in the greater Los Angeles region. Instead of applying fault slip rates to a model a priori, we allow three-dimensional fault surfaces to interact and accumulate mechanically viable slip distributions and then use the deep nonseismogenic portion of slip to calculate interseismic deformation. We apply this approach to the Los Angeles region and find that the geologic timescale model results match well geologic slip rate data and the interseismic timescale model results match well the heterogeneous GPS velocity pattern in the Los Angeles region. Model results suggest that localized geodetic convergence in the San Gabriel basin can be achieved with slip on multiple active fault surfaces in the Los Angeles region including relatively fast slip on the Sierra Madre fault and slow slip on the Puente Hills thrusts, in agreement with geologic data. The ability of the three-dimensional model to reproduce well both geologic slip rates and interseismic geodetic velocity patterns suggests that current day contraction rates in the greater Los Angeles region are compatible with long-term geologic deformation rates and disputes suggestions of significant temporal variations in fault slip rates inferred from existing investigations.

  13. Longitudinal associations between reading and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    The association between early reading skills and changes in mathematics was examined in a large, low-income sample to determine whether students who have a greater level of reading skills in early elementary school exhibit more rapid gains in tests of mathematics. The longitudinal associations between third grade reading comprehension and changes in three components of mathematics achievement (Problem Solving and Data Interpretation, Mathematical Concepts and Estimation, Mathematical Computation) from third through eighth grade were examined. Latent growth models were fit to the repeated assessments of each mathematics component and the students' third grade reading and global mathematics scores were included as predictors of the intercept and slope. Gender, poverty status, and ethnicity were included in the models as control variables. The results showed males and African-American students tended to have shallower rates of change than females and non-African-American/non-Hispanic students. In terms of the effect of reading on changes in mathematics, third grade reading comprehension was found to be a positive significant predictor of change for each component of mathematics, suggesting students with a greater level of reading achievement in early elementary school change more rapidly in mathematics skills controlling for prior mathematics skills and student characteristics. The largest effects were shown for the Problem Solving and Data Interpretation test, a test focused on the applications of mathematics knowledge, and the Mathematical Concepts and Estimation test. Negligible effects were found for changes in Mathematical Computation. Thus, early reading comprehension was shown to be related to a conceptual understanding of mathematics and the application of mathematics knowledge. These findings lend support for the notion that early reading skills are important for success in mathematics.

  14. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  15. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  16. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  17. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  18. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  19. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  20. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  1. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  2. Predicting educational achievement from DNA

    PubMed Central

    Selzam, S; Krapohl, E; von Stumm, S; O'Reilly, P F; Rimfeld, K; Kovas, Y; Dale, P S; Lee, J J; Plomin, R

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide polygenic score (GPS), derived from a 2013 genome-wide association study (N=127,000), explained 2% of the variance in total years of education (EduYears). In a follow-up study (N=329,000), a new EduYears GPS explains up to 4%. Here, we tested the association between this latest EduYears GPS and educational achievement scores at ages 7, 12 and 16 in an independent sample of 5825 UK individuals. We found that EduYears GPS explained greater amounts of variance in educational achievement over time, up to 9% at age 16, accounting for 15% of the heritable variance. This is the strongest GPS prediction to date for quantitative behavioral traits. Individuals in the highest and lowest GPS septiles differed by a whole school grade at age 16. Furthermore, EduYears GPS was associated with general cognitive ability (~3.5%) and family socioeconomic status (~7%). There was no evidence of an interaction between EduYears GPS and family socioeconomic status on educational achievement or on general cognitive ability. These results are a harbinger of future widespread use of GPS to predict genetic risk and resilience in the social and behavioral sciences. PMID:27431296

  3. Spatial variations in travel behavior within greater Toronto area

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaeli, R.; Hutchinson, B.G.

    1998-03-01

    Rapid suburbanization of housing and employment has produced severe traffic congestion in North American cities. One response to this problem in the greater Toronto area (GTA) has been to identify urban forms that are more supportive of public transport and require less vehicle kilometers of travel to support. The analytical tools used to assess the travel implications of different urban forms normally use travel demand parameters that are uniform across an area. This has yielded misleading estimates of travel demands. This paper describes analyses of the intraregional differences in travel behavior in the greater Toronto area. The analyses described are at two spatial scales: the suburb (municipality/planning district) level and the much finer traffic analysis zone level. The analysis units were grouped into high-growth, developing,a nd low-growth categories at both spatial scales. The analyses reported in this paper show that household characteristics and travel behavior are quite similar for both established and redeveloping zones in the older, stable suburbs. Significant differences in travel characteristics exist between the older, established zones and the growing zones in the developing suburbs. Household trip rates are shown to vary with household size, car ownership, and whether a household is located in a stable or growing suburb. Accessibility to public transport is shown to affect trip behavior differently in growing areas than in established areas. The paper concludes by discussing the public policy and transport systems analysis implications of the results.

  4. Liver metal concentrations in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Raisbeck, Merl F; Siemion, Roger S; Cornish, Todd E

    2008-04-01

    Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are a species of concern due to shrinking populations associated with habitat fragmentation and loss. Baseline health parameters for this species are limited or lacking, especially with regard to tissue metal concentrations. To obtain a range of tissue metal concentrations, livers were collected from 71 Greater Sage-grouse from Wyoming and Montana. Mean +/- SE metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in liver were determined for vanadium (V) (0.12 +/- 0.01), chromium (Cr) (0.50 +/- 0.02), manganese (Mn) (2.68 +/- 0.11), iron (Fe) (1,019 +/- 103), nickel (Ni) (0.40 +/- 0.04), cobalt (Co) (0.08 +/- 0.02), copper (Cu) (6.43 +/- 0.40), mercury (Hg) (0.30 +/- 0.09), selenium (Se) (1.45 +/- 0.64), zinc (Zn) (59.2 +/- 4.70), molybdenum (Mo) (0.93 +/- 0.07), cadmium (Cd) (1.44 +/- 0.14), barium (Ba) (0.20 +/- 0.03), and lead (Pb) (0.17 +/- 0.03). In addition to providing baseline data, metal concentrations were compared between sex, age (juvenile/adult), and West Nile virus (WNv) groups (positive/negative). Adult birds had higher concentrations of Ni and Cd compared to juveniles. In addition, Zn and Cu concentrations were significantly elevated in WNv-positive birds.

  5. Oral hormone replacement therapy: factors that influence the estradiol concentrations achieved in a multiracial study population.

    PubMed

    Gavaler, Judith S

    2002-02-01

    The assumption that estradiol (E2) concentrations are reliably increased to therapeutic levels in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has not been explicitly tested. Nor have factors that may modulate the E2 levels achieved been evaluated. The author examined E2 concentrations in a multiracial study population of 309 postmenopausal women treated with oral HRT and observed that 51.1% had achieved estradiol levels of at least 45 pg/ml (achievers). The odds of being an achiever were significantly elevated among non-Caucasian women by a HRT dose greater than 0.625 mg, current moderate drinking, and increasing duration of HRT use. The odds were significantly decreased by having a high school education or less and increasing time since last HRT dose. White postmenopausal women had significantly reduced odds of being an achiever, and both a dose of less than 0.625 mg and a dose equal to 0.625 mg significantly reduced the odds of being an achiever. Increasing body mass index and menopause duration were both associated with lower odds. This report demonstrates not only that women treated with HRTdo not all achieve therapeutic levels of estradiol but also that factors can be identified that modulate the E2 concentration achieved in response to HRT administration.

  6. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  7. Optimism and spontaneous self-affirmation are associated with lower likelihood of cognitive impairment and greater positive affect among cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Jennifer M.; Klein, William M. P.; Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Kent, Erin E.; Harris, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Optimism and self-affirmation promote adaptive coping, goal achievement, and better health. Purpose To examine the associations of optimism and spontaneous self-affirmation (SSA) with physical, mental, and cognitive health and information seeking among cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors (n=326) completed the Health Information National Trends Survey 2013, a national survey of U.S. adults. Participants reported optimism, SSA, cognitive and physical impairment, affect, health status, and information seeking. Results Participants higher in optimism reported better health on nearly all indices examined, even when controlling for SSA. Participants higher in SSA reported lower likelihood of cognitive impairment, greater happiness and hopefulness, and greater likelihood of cancer information seeking. SSA remained significantly associated with greater hopefulness and cancer information seeking when controlling for optimism. Conclusions Optimism and SSA may be associated with beneficial health-related outcomes among cancer survivors. Given the demonstrated malleability of self-affirmation, these findings represent important avenues for future research. PMID:26497697

  8. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  9. Depressed adolescents demonstrate greater subgenual anterior cingulate activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Wu, Jing; Brown, Gregory G.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies implicate the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as a critical brain region in adult depression. However, unlike adult depression, little is known about the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression, and there are no published data examining differences in sgACC activation between depressed and healthy adolescents. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine sgACC activity in twenty-six depressed and normal 13- to 17-year olds during the performance of a stop-signal task. Significantly greater sgACC activation was found in the depressed adolescents relative to controls. These results establish for the first time abnormal functioning of the sgACC in depressed adolescents and have important implications for understanding the underlying neural correlates and potential treatments of adolescent depression. PMID:19218875

  10. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  11. Underweight and overweight men have greater exercise-induced dyspnoea than normal weight men

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed a.; Bokhari, Syed S. I.; Khan, Mohammed n.; Ahmad, Hakimuddin r.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Persons with high or low body mass index (BMI), involved in clinical or mechanistic trials involving exercise testing, might estimate dyspnoea differently from persons with a normal BMI. Aims. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between BMI and dyspnoea during exercise in normal subjects with varying BMI. Material and methods. A total of 37 subjects undertook progressive exercise testing. Subjects were divided into three groups: underweight (UW), normal weight (NW), and overweight (OW). Dyspnoea was estimated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Spirometry, maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and respiratory muscle strength (RMS) were measured. Results and discussion. The intercept of the VAS/ventilation relationship was significantly higher in NW subjects compared to UW (P = 0.029) and OW subjects (P = 0.040). Relative to the OW group, FVC (P = 0.020), FEV1 (P = 0.024), MVV (P = 0.019), and RMS (P = 0.003) were significantly decreased in the UW group. The greater levels of dyspnoea in UW subjects could possibly be due to decreased RMS. Healthy persons should aim to achieve an optimum BMI range to have the lowest exercise-induced dyspnoea. PMID:22931098

  12. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  13. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  14. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  15. Guidance on Compatibility of UST Systems with Ethanol Blends Greater Than 10 Percent and Biodiesel Blends Greater Than 20 Percent

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA guidance on complying with the federal compatibility requirement for underground storage tank (UST) systems storing gasoline containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel containing greater than 20 percent biodiesel.

  16. Achieve inventory reduction and improve customer service?

    PubMed

    Moody, M C

    2000-05-01

    Is it really possible to achieve significant reductions in your manufacturing inventories while improving customer service? If you really want to achieve significant inventory reductions, focus on the root causes, and develop countermeasures and a work plan, to execute your countermeasures. Include measurements for recording your progress, and deploy your countermeasures until they are no longer required, or until new ones are needed.

  17. Health equity and migrants in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Celia; Healy, Judith

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Migrant health is receiving increasing international attention, reflecting recognition of the health inequities experienced among many migrant populations and the need for health systems to adapt to diverse migrant populations. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) there is increasing migration associated with uneven economic integration and growth, socio-economic vulnerabilities, and disparities between countries. There has been limited progress, however, in improving migrant access to health services in the Subregion. This paper examines the health needs, access barriers, and policy responses to cross-border migrants in five GMS countries. Methods: A review of published literature and research was conducted on migrant health and health service access in Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam, as well as analysis of current migration trends and universal health coverage (UHC) indicators in the Subregion. The review included different migrant types: i.e. migrant workers, irregular migrants, victims of trafficking, refugees and asylum seekers, and casual cross-border migrants. Results: There is substantial diversity in the capacity of GMS health systems to address migrant populations. Thailand has sought to enhance migrant health coverage, including development of migrant health policies/programs, bilateral migrant worker agreements, and migrant health insurance schemes; Viet Nam provides health protection for emigrant workers. Overall, however, access to good quality health care remains weak for many citizens in GMS countries let alone migrants. Migrant workers – and irregular migrants in particular – face elevated health risks yet are not adequately covered and incur high out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for health services. Conclusions: UHC implies equity: UHC is only achieved when everyone has the opportunity to access and use good-quality health care. Efforts to achieve UHC in the GMS require

  18. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  19. Low impact weight-bearing exercise in an upright posture achieves greater lumbopelvic stability than overground walking.

    PubMed

    Gibbon, K C; Debuse, D; Caplan, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the kinematic differences between movements on a new exercise device (EX) that promotes a stable trunk over a moving, unstable base of support, and overground walking (OW). Sixteen male participants performed EX and OW trials while their movements were tracked using a 3D motion capture system. Trunk and pelvis range of motion (ROM) were similar between EX and OW in the sagittal and frontal planes, and reduced for EX in the transverse plane. The pelvis was tilted anteriorly, on average, by about 16° in EX compared to OW. Hip and knee ROM were reduced in EX compared to OW. The exercise device appears to promote similar or reduced lumbopelvic motion, compared to walking, which could contribute to more tonic activity of the local lumbopelvic musculature.

  20. Academic Achievement through FLES: A Case for Promoting Greater Access to Foreign Language Study among Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carolyn; Lafayette, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 established foreign languages as a core curricular content area; however, instructional emphasis continues to be placed on curricular areas that factor into state educational accountability programs. The present study explored whether foreign language study of first-year Grade 3 foreign language students who…

  1. Achieving Greater Feedback and Flexibility Using Online Pre-Laboratory Exercises with Non-Major Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chittleborough, Gail D.; Mocerino, Mauro; Treagust, David F.

    2007-01-01

    The design and effects of using online pre-laboratory exercises in an introductory first-year university chemistry course that requires no previous knowledge of chemistry for non-major chemistry students is reported. The results have indicated that the majority of students involved in the study considered that their learning opportunities were…

  2. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  3. The Albanian National Question and the Myth of Greater Albania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    minister of Greece, “neither race, nor language, nor skull could be used as the basis for determining the nationality and that national conscience...Serbia, in particular, has been very active in spreading propaganda about the danger posed by the prospect of Greater Albania. The term, alien to the...greater Albania plot.”62 However, for Albanians, despite of their living place, the term “Greater Albania” is alien .63 Instead, they use the term

  4. Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-23

    Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending Gold Coast Conference Tim Dowd Director for Contracts Space and Naval...Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending ” 5   Present a competitive strategy at each program milestone *   Remove

  5. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  6. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  7. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  8. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  9. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  10. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  11. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  12. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  13. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  14. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  15. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  16. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  17. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  18. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  19. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  20. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: Epidemiology and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Felson, David T.; Torner, James C.; Zhu, Yanyan; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS); to determine whether GTPS is associated with iliotibial band (ITB) tenderness, knee osteoarthritis (OA), body mass index (BMI), or low back pain (LBP); and to assess whether GTPS is associated with reduced hip internal rotation, physical activity, and mobility. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting Multicenter observational study. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=3026) ages 50 to 79 years. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Greater trochanteric tenderness to palpation in subjects with complaints of hip pain and no signs of hip OA or generalized myofascial tenderness. Results The prevalence of unilateral and bilateral GTPS was 15.0% and 8.5% in women and 6.6% and 1.9% men. Odds ratio (OR) for women was 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–4.25), but age and race were not significantly associated with GTPS. In a multivariate model, adjusting for age, sex, ITB tenderness, ipsilateral and contralateral knee OA, BMI, and LBP, ITB tenderness (OR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.34–2.19), knee OA ipsilaterally (OR=3.47; 95% CI, 2.72–4.42) and con-tralaterally (OR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.32–2.28), and LBP (OR=2.79; 95% CI, 2.22–3.50) were positively related to GTPS. In this complete model, BMI was not associated with GTPS (OR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.80–1.52 when comparing ≥ 30 with <25kg/m2). Hip internal rotation range of motion did not differ based on GTPS status. After multivariate adjustment, GTPS did not alter physical activity score, but bilateal GTPS was significantly associated with a higher 20-meter walk time and chair stand time. Conclusions The higher prevalence of GTPS in women and in adults with ITB pain or knee OA indicates that altered lower-limb biomechanics may be related to GTPS. Slower functional performance in those with GTPS suggests that the study of targeted rehabilitation may be useful. A longitudinal study will be necessary to identify

  1. Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors.

  2. Improving science achievement at high-poverty urban middle schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Allen

    2006-11-01

    A large percentage of U.S. students attending high-poverty urban middle schools achieve low levels of science proficiency, posing significant challenges to their success in high school science and to national and local efforts to reform science education. Through its work in Philadelphia schools, the Center for Social Organization of Schools at Johns Hopkins University developed a teacher-support model to address variation in science curricula, lack of materials, and underprepared teachers that combined with initial low levels of proficiency block improvements in science achievement. The model includes a common science curriculum based on NSF-supported materials commercially available, ongoing teacher professional development built around day-to-day lessons, and regular in-class support of teachers by expert peer coaches. One cohort of students at three Philadelphia middle schools using the model was followed from the end of fourth grade through seventh grade. Their gains in science achievement and achievement levels were substantially greater than students at 3 matched control schools and the 23 district middle schools serving a similar student population. Under school-by-school comparisons, these results held for the two schools with adequate implementation. Using widely available materials and techniques, the model can be adopted and modified by school partners and districts.

  3. DoD Force Mix Issues: Greater Reliance on Civilians in Support Roles Could Provide Significant Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    because, with (’ulrent downsizing , )()th po:;itions muight he lost, B~udget allocations an(d (’ivyianl per-soniel requiremnents decisions often have...often made independently of each other. Local commanuders fear that, because of downsizing , they might not receive adequate funds to hi-e civilian...dart, due to downsizing , before cmrilians could be hired. When funds are aliocated to replace rnilitary personnel with civilians in support positions

  4. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... or regulation. (d) The entitlements under sections 6381 through 6387 of title 5, United States...

  5. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  6. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  7. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  8. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  9. Wechsler performance IQ greater than Verbal IQ index in a forensic sample: a reconsideration.

    PubMed

    DeWolfe, A S; Ryan, J J

    1984-01-01

    Explored the relationships of the Performance IQ (PIQ) greater than Verbal IQ (VIQ) to type of crime, ethnicity, and reading disability in a corrections sample of 70 adult males incarcerated on felony charges. The PIQ greater than VIQ sign was not related to Full Scale IQ or to violent vs. nonviolent crime, per se. The PIQ greater than VIQ sign showed a trend toward association with Ethnicity (black vs. white) and was related significantly to reading disability, with the reading disabled inmates more likely to show the sign, and to type of crime, with perpetrators of sex crimes most likely (87%) to show the sign and those incarcerated for murder or attempted murder least likely (33%) to show it. The difference in the proportion of inmates who showed the sign in these two classes of violent crimes (murder and sex crimes) was significant, and further analysis showed that with murder excluded, PIQ greater than VIQ occurred significantly more frequently in those accused of violent crimes than for nonviolent crimes. The latter findings suggested that differences between studies in the relationship of PIQ greater than VIQ and violence may be the result of differences in the proportion of murderers in the violent samples. Additional analyses indicated that the significant relationships between PIQ greater than VIQ and both type of crime and reading disability were most likely independent of ethnicity and each other.

  10. Home range dynamics, habitat selection, and survival of Greater Roadrunners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, S.W.; Ransom, D.; Butcher, J.A.; Schulz, G.G.; Surber, B.W.; Pinchak, W.E.; Santamaria, C.A.; Hurtado, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Greater Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) are common, poorly studied birds of arid and semi-arid ecosystems in the southwestern United States. Conservation of this avian predator requires a detailed understanding of their movements and spatial requirements that is currently lacking. From 2006 to 2009, we quantified home-range and core area sizes and overlap, habitat selection, and survival of roadrunners (N= 14 males and 20 females) in north-central Texas using radio-telemetry and fixed kernel estimators. Median home-range and core-area sizes were 90.4 ha and 19.2 ha for males and 80.1 ha and 16.7 ha for females, respectively. The size of home range and core areas did not differ significantly by either sex or season. Our home range estimates were twice as large (x??= 108.9 ha) as earlier published estimates based on visual observations (x??= 28-50 ha). Mean percent overlap was 38.4% for home ranges and 13.7% for core areas. Male roadrunners preferred mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna cover types, and avoided the grass-forb cover type. Female roadrunners preferred mesquite savanna and riparian woodland cover types, and avoided grass-forb habitat. Kaplan-Meier annual survival probabilities for females (0.452 ?? 0.118[SE]) were twice that estimated for males (0.210 ?? 0.108), but this difference was not significant. Mortality rates of male roadrunners were higher than those of females during the spring when males call from elevated perches, court females, and chase competing males. Current land use practices that target woody-shrub removal to enhance livestock forage production could be detrimental to roadrunner populations by reducing availability of mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna habitat required for nesting and roosting and increasing the amount of grass-forb habitat that roadrunners avoid. ??2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ??2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  11. An Investigation of Perfectionism, Mental Health, Achievement, and Achievement Motivation in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accordino, Denise B.; Accordino, Michael P.; Slaney, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship of perfectionism with measures of achievement and achievement motivation and mental health aspects of depression and self-esteem in high school students (N=123). Results indicate that students' personal standards were significant predictors of academic achievement and academic motivation. Also reveals that as students'…

  12. Experience-dependent natal philopatry of breeding greater flamingos.

    PubMed

    Balkiz, Ozge; Béchet, Arnaud; Rouan, Lauriane; Choquet, Rémi; Germain, Christophe; Amat, Juan A; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Baccetti, Nicola; Nissardi, Sergio; Ozesmi, Uygar; Pradel, Roger

    2010-09-01

    1. Contrary to the generally high level of natal philopatry (i.e. likelihood that individuals breed at their natal colony) found in first-breeding colonial birds, little is known of natal philopatry later in life. Most hypotheses advanced to explain natal philopatry are valid at all ages. However, for young and inexperienced birds, the benefits of natal philopatry may be counterbalanced by the costs of intraspecific competition at the natal colony making dispersal temporarily advantageous. In turn, experience may increase competitive ability and make natal philopatry advantageous again. 2. We evaluated this hypothesis on the large-scale dispersal of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus breeding among three colonies comprising >85% of the Western Mediterranean metapopulation. The Camargue (France) and Fuente de Piedra (Spain) are large and saturated colonies while Molentargius (Sardinia) is a recent and growing colony. 3. We used a 20-year capture-mark-resighting dataset of 4900 flamingos ringed as chicks in Camargue and Fuente de Piedra and breeding at the three colonies. We assessed the effects of natal colony and breeding experience (first-time observed breeders versus confirmed experienced breeders) on dispersal using multistate capture-recapture models. Dispersal to an unobservable state accounted for temporary emigration. 4. Fidelity was higher at the natal colony (>84%) than elsewhere. Fidelity increased with experience in the two large colonies (Camargue and Fuente de Piedra) suggesting a large-scale experience-related despotic distribution. Breeding dispersal was significant (up to 61% and 52% for first-time breeders and experienced breeders, respectively) so that colony dynamics is affected by exchanges with other colonies. Except for Fuente-born breeders leaving Molentargius, dispersal to the natal colony was higher than to any other colonies. 5. Survival was not higher at the natal colony. Inexperienced birds likely had lower breeding success at the

  13. 3D stress field simulation for Greater Munich, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Moritz; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna Maria; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Geotechnical applications such as tunneling, storage of waste, wellbore planning, or reservoir engineering requires detailed 3D information on the rock properties and behavior of the continuum. One of the key parameters is the contemporary crustal in-situ stress state. However, generally the availability of stress data on reservoir scale is scarce or no data exists at all. Furthermore, stress data is often limited to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress. Hence, geomechanical-numerical modelling provides an approximation of a continuous description of the 3D in-situ stress state. We present a model workflow that shows (1) how to calibrate a regional scale model of Greater Munich with stress orientations and magnitudes mainly from borehole data and (2) how to derive from the regional model boundary conditions for a local high-resolution model of a geothermal reservoir site. This approach using two models is an alternative to the required trade-off between resolution, computational cost and a sufficient number of calibration data which is otherwise inevitable for a single model. The incorporated 3D geological models contain the topography from a digital elevation model and 6 stratigraphic units with different elasto-plastic rock properties. The local model mimics the area of a planned reservoir and its resolution is significantly higher than in the regional model and down to 10 m near the planned borehole trajectories using 21×106 tetrahedron finite elements with linear approximation functions. The uncertainties of the calibrated regional model are large since no information on the magnitude of the maximum horizontal stress is available. Even in the entire Greater Munich area only two reliable leak-off tests that deliver the magnitude of the minimum horizontal stress could be used. These uncertainties are transferred also to the local model. Hence we also show how to quantify for the workflow in general the systematic uncertainties and discuss

  14. Integrated Curriculum and Subject-based Curriculum: Achievement and Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casady, Victoria

    The research conducted for this mixed-method study, qualitative and quantitative, analyzed the results of an academic year-long study to determine whether the use of an integrated fourth grade curriculum would benefit student achievement in the areas of English language arts, social studies, and science more than a subject-based traditional curriculum. The research was conducted based on the international, national, and state test scores, which show a slowing or lack of growth. Through pre- and post-assessments, student questionnaires, and administrative interviews, the researcher analyzed the phenomenological experiences of the students to determine if the integrated curriculum was a beneficial restructuring of the curriculum. The research questions for this study focused on the achievement and attitudes of the students in the study and whether the curriculum they were taught impacted their achievement and attitudes over the course of one school year. The curricula for the study were organized to cover the current standards, where the integrated curriculum focused on connections between subject areas to help students make connections to what they are learning and the world beyond the classroom. The findings of this study indicated that utilizing the integrated curriculum could increase achievement as well as students' attitudes toward specific content areas. The ANOVA analysis for English language arts was not determined to be significant; although, greater growth in the students from the integrated curriculum setting was recorded. The ANOVA for social studies (0.05) and the paired t-tests (0.001) for science both determined significant positive differences. The qualitative analysis led to the discovery that the experiences of the students from the integrated curriculum setting were more positive. The evaluation of the data from this study led the researcher to determine that the integrated curriculum was a worthwhile endeavor to increase achievement and attitudes

  15. The Influence of Teacher Graduate Degrees on Student Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin; Decman, John; Carman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    In a time of limited means and continued calls for higher student achievement, school leaders need to be wise in their use of resources. Earlier research has called for greater levels of teacher preparation, and, while many school districts provide greater compensation for teachers with graduate degrees, some districts have begun phasing out this…

  16. Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, S.

    Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning

  17. Significance of corneal arcus.

    PubMed

    Raj, K Mohan; Reddy, P Arun Subhash; Kumar, Vikram Chella

    2015-04-01

    The corneal arcus consists of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides. As serum triglyceride is one of the accurate of lipid metabolic state, greater importance was given, and it was found to be elevated in 72% of patients and a positive correlation with increasing age. This suggests a strong correlation between impairment of lipid metabolism and incidence of corneal arcus.

  18. Significance of corneal arcus

    PubMed Central

    Raj, K. Mohan; Reddy, P. Arun Subhash; Kumar, Vikram Chella

    2015-01-01

    The corneal arcus consists of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides. As serum triglyceride is one of the accurate of lipid metabolic state, greater importance was given, and it was found to be elevated in 72% of patients and a positive correlation with increasing age. This suggests a strong correlation between impairment of lipid metabolism and incidence of corneal arcus. PMID:26015693

  19. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  20. Parenting Style and Parental Involvement: Relations with Adolescent Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…

  1. Chapter 4: Adult Descriptions of Public Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Adult volunteers who work as experiential educators in Public Achievement (PA) told us about their experiences, and we contrasted these with the stated aims of Public Achievement, young peoples' experiences, and what it is like to be an adult volunteer. PA coaches reflected that there was a significant disjuncture between the official aims of PA…

  2. Effectiveness of Greater Occipital Nerve Blocks in Migraine Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    İNAN, Nurten; İNAN, Levent E.; COŞKUN, Özlem; TUNÇ, Tuğba; İLHAN, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral nerve blocks have been used in primary headache treatment since a long time. In this study, we aimed to examine the efficiency of greater occipital nerve (GON) block in migraine prophylaxis. Methods Data from migraine without aura patients who had GON block were collected and divided into two groups: Group PGON (n=25), which included patients who were under medical prophylaxis and had GON block, and Group GON (n=53), which included patients who had only GON blocks. Migraine was diagnosed using International Headache Society (IHS) classification. Data of 78 patients were analyzed. Headache attack frequency, headache duration, and severity were compared between and within groups in a 3-month follow-up period. Results The decrease in headache parameters after GON block in both groups was significantly similar. Headache attack frequency decreased from 15.73±7.21 (pretreatment) to 4.52±3.61 (3rd month) in Group GON and from 13.76±8.07 to 3.28±2.15 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache duration decreased from 18.51±9.43 to 8.02±5.58 at 3rd month in Group GON and from 15.20±9.16 to 7.20±4.16 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache severity decreased from 8.26±1.32 to 5.16±2.64 in Group GON and from 8.08±0.90 to 5.96±1.20 in Group PGON (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in 3rd month after treatment (p>0.05). Conclusion This study showed significant decreases in headache parameters in both groups. As GON blocks were performed in patients unresponsive to medical prophylaxis, a decrease in the headache parameters in Group PGON similar to that in Group GON can be attributed to GON blocks. Consequently, these results show that repeated GON blocks with local anesthetic can be an effective alternative treatment in migraine patients who are unresponsive to medical prophylaxis or who do not prefer to use medical prophylaxis. PMID:28360765

  3. Dementia Caregiver Intervention Research: In Search of Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; O’Brien, Alison; Czaja, Sara; Ory, Marcia; Norris, Rachel; Martire, Lynn M.; Belle, Steven H.; Burgio, Lou; Gitlin, Laura; Coon, David; Burns, Robert; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Stevens, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed intervention studies that reported dementia caregiver outcomes published since 1996, including psychosocial interventions for caregivers and environmental and pharmacological interventions for care recipients. Our goal was to focus on issues of clinical significance in caregiver intervention research in order to move the field toward a greater emphasis on achieving reliable and clinically meaningful outcomes. Design and Methods MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health databases from 1996 through 2001 were searched to identify articles and book chapters mapping to two medical subject headings: caregivers and either dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. Articles were evaluated on two dimensions, outcomes in four domains thought to be important to the individual or society and the magnitude of reported effects for these outcomes in order to determine if they were large enough to be clinically meaningful. Results Although many studies have reported small to moderate statistically significant effects on a broad range of outcomes, only a small proportion of these studies achieved clinically meaningful outcomes. Nevertheless, caregiving intervention studies have increasingly shown promise of affecting important public health outcomes in areas such as service utilization, including delayed institutionalization; psychiatric symptomatology, including the successful treatment of major and minor depression; and providing services that are highly valued by caregivers. Implications Assessment of clinical significance in addition to statistical significance is needed in this research area. Specific recommendations on design, measurement, and conceptual issues are made to enhance the clinical significance of future research. PMID:12351794

  4. Creative motivation: creative achievement predicts cardiac autonomic markers of effort during divergent thinking.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Paul J; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Eddington, Kari M; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-10-01

    Executive approaches to creativity emphasize that generating creative ideas can be hard and requires mental effort. Few studies, however, have examined effort-related physiological activity during creativity tasks. Using motivational intensity theory as a framework, we examined predictors of effort-related cardiac activity during a creative challenge. A sample of 111 adults completed a divergent thinking task. Sympathetic (PEP and RZ) and parasympathetic (RSA and RMSSD) outcomes were assessed using impedance cardiography. As predicted, people with high creative achievement (measured with the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) showed significantly greater increases in sympathetic activity from baseline to task, reflecting higher effort. People with more creative achievements generated ideas that were significantly more creative, and creative performance correlated marginally with PEP and RZ. The results support the view that creative thought can be a mental challenge.

  5. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  6. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  7. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  8. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    PubMed

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C; Gupta, Anupam K; Simmons, James A; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves') that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information.

  9. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  10. The formation and inversion of the western Greater Caucasus Basin and the uplift of the western Greater Caucasus: Implications for the wider Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Stephen J.; Braham, William; Lavrishchev, Vladimir A.; Maynard, James R.; Harland, Melise

    2016-12-01

    The western Greater Caucasus formed by the tectonic inversion of the western strand of the Greater Caucasus Basin, a Mesozoic rift that opened at the southern margin of Laurasia. Subsidence analysis indicates that the main phase of rifting occurred during the Aalenian to Bajocian synchronous with that in the eastern Alborz and, possibly, the South Caspian Basin. Secondary episodes of subsidence during the late Tithonian to Berriasian and Hauterivian to early Aptian are tentatively linked to initial rifting within the western, and possibly eastern, Black Sea and during the late Campanian to Danian to the opening of the eastern Black Sea. Initial uplift, subaerial exposure, and sediment derivation from the western Greater Caucasus occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Oligocene and younger sediments on the southern margin of the former basin were derived from the inverting basin and uplifted parts of its northern margin, indicating that the western Greater Caucasus Basin had closed by this time. A predominance of pollen representing a montane forest environment (dominated by Pinacean pollen) within these sediments suggests that the uplifting Caucasian hinterland had a paleoaltitude of around 2 km from early Oligocene time. The closure of the western Greater Caucasus Basin and significant uplift of the range at approximately 34 Ma is earlier than stated in many studies and needs to be incorporated into geodynamic models for the Arabia-Eurasia region.

  11. Effect of Tax Ratification Elections on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groppel, Lance

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact a Tax Ratification Election has on student achievement in Texas. Texas schools continue to struggle with shrinking budgets and increasing standards of student achievement (Equity Center, 2011). This study will provide greater insight into whether school districts that have completed a TRE have created a…

  12. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  13. Adolescent Sleep Duration, Variability, and Peak Levels of Achievement and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Arruda, Erin H; Krull, Jennifer L; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2017-01-27

    To inform public health recommendations for adolescent sleep, the amounts of sleep associated with the highest levels of academic achievement and mental health were examined. The degree to which daily variability in sleep duration represents an underappreciated but functionally significant sleep behavior also was tested. A total of 421 adolescents (Mage  = 15.03 years) with Mexican-American backgrounds reported nightly sleep times for 2 weeks; approximately 80% repeated the same protocol 1 year later. Multilevel modeling indicated that the amount of sleep associated with the lowest levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms was more than 1 hr greater than the amount associated with the highest levels of academic performance. Greater daily variability in sleep duration predicted greater symptomatology and mixed academic outcomes.

  14. Home media and children's achievement and behavior.

    PubMed

    Hofferth, Sandra L

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls, and for Black but not White boys. Increased video game play was associated with an improved ability to solve applied problems for Black girls but lower verbal achievement for all girls. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems.

  15. Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Caprara, G V; Barbaranelli, C; Pastorelli, C; Bandura, A; Zimbardo, P G

    2000-07-01

    The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.

  16. Nesting success and resource selection of greater sage grouse in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Jensen, Kent C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Rumble, Mark A.; Herman-Brunson, Katie M.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Martin, Kathy; Segelbacher, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse nesting success and resource selection in South Dakota during 2006-2007. Radiomarked females were tracked to estimate nesting rates, nest success, and habitat resources selected for nesting. Nest initiation was 98.0%, with a maximum likelihood estimate of nest success of 45.6 ± 5.3%. Females selected nest sites that had greater sagebrush canopy cover and visual obstruction of the nest bowl compared to random sites. Nest survival models indicated that taller grass surrounding nests increased nest survival. Tall grass may supplement the low sagebrush cover in this area in providing suitable nest sites for Greater Sage-Grouse. Land managers on the eastern edge of Greater Sage-Grouse range could focus on increasing sagebrush density while maintaining tall grass by developing range management practices that accomplish this goal. To achieve nest survival rates similar to other populations, predictions from our models suggest 26 cm grass height would result in approximately 50% nest survival. Optimal conditions could be accomplished by adjusting livestock grazing systems and stocking rates.

  17. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  18. Significant Steps Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuta, Theresa; Mauricio, David

    2012-01-01

    Three years ago, the authors accepted positions as high school principals in Buffalo City (NY) Schools after serving as elementary school principals in the district for many years. In their new positions, they were to lead schools that were designated by the New York State Department of Education as "persistently lowest achieving,"…

  19. Teaching and Assessing Low-Achieving Students with Disabilities: A Guide to Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perie, Marianne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    For lower-achieving students with disabilities, effective and appropriate alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) can open the door to greater expectations and opportunities. State policymakers have the option of providing certain students who have disabilities with AA-MAS aligned with grade-level content--and now…

  20. Velocity Drives Greater Power Observed During Back Squat Using Cluster Sets.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Kreutzer, Andreas; Jenke, Shane C; Phillips, Melody D; Mitchell, Joel B; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    This investigation compared the kinetics and kinematics of cluster sets (CLU) and traditional sets (TRD) during back squat in trained (RT) and untrained (UT) men. Twenty-four participants (RT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 179.1 ± 2.2 cm, 84.6 ± 2.1 kg; UT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 180.1 ± 1.8 cm, 85.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed TRD (4 × 10, 120-second rest) and CLU (4 × (2 × 5) 30 seconds between clusters; 90 seconds between sets) with 70% one repetition maximum, randomly. Kinematics and kinetics were sampled through force plate and linear position transducers. Resistance-trained produced greater overall force, velocity, and power; however, similar patterns were observed in all variables when comparing conditions. Cluster sets produced significantly greater force in isolated repetitions in sets 1-3, while consistently producing greater force due to a required reduction in load during set 4 resulting in greater total volume load (CLU, 3302.4 ± 102.7 kg; TRD, 3274.8 ± 102.8 kg). Velocity loss was lessened in CLU resulting in significantly higher velocities in sets 2 through 4. Furthermore, higher velocities were produced by CLU during later repetitions of each set. Cluster sets produced greater power output for an increasing number of repetitions in each set (set 1, 5 repetitions; sets 2 and 3, 6 repetitions; set 4, 8 repetitions), and the difference between conditions increased over subsequent sets. Time under tension increased over each set and was greater in TRD. This study demonstrates greater power output is driven by greater velocity when back squatting during CLU; therefore, velocity may be a useful measure by which to assess power.

  1. Home Media and Children’s Achievement and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6–12 year olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching television at home in 1997 and 2003 and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computers more than boys and Black children’s achievement benefited more from greater computer use than did that of White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls and Black boys, but not White boys. Greater computer play was also associated with a lower risk of becoming socially isolated among girls. Computer use does not crowd out positive learning-related activities, whereas video game playing does. Consequently, increased video game play had both positive and negative associations with the achievement of girls but not boys. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems. PMID:20840243

  2. Effects of collaboration and inquiry on reasoning and achievement in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jamie Lee

    The primary purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two collaborative grouping strategies and two instructional methods in terms of gains in reasoning ability and achievement in college biology. In order to do so, a quasi-experimental study was performed in which students were placed in one of four treatment conditions: heterogeneous grouping within inquiry instruction, homogeneous grouping within inquiry instruction, heterogeneous grouping within non-inquiry instruction, and homogeneous grouping within non-inquiry instruction. Students were placed in groups based on initial reasoning level. Reasoning levels and achievement gains were assessed at the end of the study. Results showed that within non-inquiry instruction, heterogeneous mean group scores were higher in both reasoning and achievement than homogeneous groups. In contrast, within inquiry instruction, homogeneous mean group scores were higher in both reasoning and achievement. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, significantly outperformed non-inquiry instruction in the development of reasoning ability. Within inquiry instruction, low-ability students had significantly greater reasoning gains when grouped homogeneously. These results support Piaget's developmental theory and contradict Vygotsky's developmental theory. These results also suggest that the success of one grouping strategy over another is highly dependent upon the nature of instruction, which may be a cause for such conflicting views on grouping strategies within the educational literature. In addition, inquiry instruction led to students having greater confidence in their reasoning ability as well as a more positive attitude toward collaboration. Instructional implications are discussed.

  3. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  4. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  5. Bilingualism and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in kindergarten, Mixed Bilingual children fully closed the math gap with their White English Monolingual peers by fifth grade. However, because non-English-Dominant Bilinguals and non-English Monolinguals started kindergarten with significantly lower reading and math scores compared to their English Monolingual peers, by fifth grade the former groups still had significantly lower scores. School-level factors explained about one third of the reductions in the differences in children's academic performance.

  6. Oxygen cost of exercise hyperpnoea is greater in women compared with men

    PubMed Central

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Render, Jacqueline N; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Foster, Glen E; Romer, Lee M; Sheel, A William

    2015-01-01

    We compared the oxygen cost of breathing () in healthy men and women over a wide range of exercise ventilations (). Eighteen subjects (nine women) completed 4 days of testing. First, a step-wise maximal cycle exercise test was completed for the assessment of spontaneous breathing patterns. Next, subjects were familiarized with the voluntary hyperpnoea protocol used to estimate . During the final two visits, subjects mimicked multiple times (four to six) the breathing patterns associated with five or six different exercise stages. Each trial lasted 5 min, and on-line pressure–volume and flow–volume loops were superimposed on target loops obtained during exercise to replicate the work of breathing accurately. At ∼55 l min−1 , was significantly greater in women. At maximal ventilation, the absolute was not different (P > 0.05) between the sexes, but represented a significantly greater fraction of whole-body in women (13.8 ± 1.5 vs. 9.4 ± 1.1% ). During heavy exercise at 92 and 100% , the unit cost of was +0.7 and +1.1 ml O2 l−1 greater in women (P < 0.05). At , men and women who developed expiratory flow limitation had a significantly greater than those who did not (435 ± 44 vs. 331 ± 30 ml O2 min−1). In conclusion, women have a greater for a given , and this represents a greater fraction of whole-body . The greater in women may have implications for the integrated physiological response to exercise. PMID:25652549

  7. Integrating science into management of ecosystems in the Greater Blue Mountains.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Rosalie S; Ramp, Daniel; Bradstock, Ross A; Kingsford, Richard T; Merson, John A; Auld, Tony D; Fleming, Peter J S; Mulley, Robert C

    2011-10-01

    Effective management of large protected conservation areas is challenged by political, institutional and environmental complexity and inconsistency. Knowledge generation and its uptake into management are crucial to address these challenges. We reflect on practice at the interface between science and management of the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA), which covers approximately 1 million hectares west of Sydney, Australia. Multiple government agencies and other stakeholders are involved in its management, and decision-making is confounded by numerous plans of management and competing values and goals, reflecting the different objectives and responsibilities of stakeholders. To highlight the complexities of the decision-making process for this large area, we draw on the outcomes of a recent collaborative research project and focus on fire regimes and wild-dog control as examples of how existing knowledge is integrated into management. The collaborative research project achieved the objectives of collating and synthesizing biological data for the region; however, transfer of the project's outcomes to management has proved problematic. Reasons attributed to this include lack of clearly defined management objectives to guide research directions and uptake, and scientific information not being made more understandable and accessible. A key role of a local bridging organisation (e.g., the Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute) in linking science and management is ensuring that research results with management significance can be effectively transmitted to agencies and that outcomes are explained for nonspecialists as well as more widely distributed. We conclude that improved links between science, policy, and management within an adaptive learning-by-doing framework for the GBMWHA would assist the usefulness and uptake of future research.

  8. Body condition scoring system for greater one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis): Development and application.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Eva M; von Houwald, Friederike; Steck, Beatrice; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Preventing obesity in zoo animals is increasingly recognized as an important husbandry objective. To achieve this goal, body condition scoring (BCS) systems are available for an ever-increasing number of species. Here, we present a BCS for the greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) based on an evaluation (on a scale from 1 to 5) of seven different body regions, and report resulting scores for 62 animals from 27 facilities, based on digital photographs. In animals above 4 years of age, this BCS correlated with the body mass:shoulder height ratio. Although differences between the sexes for individual regions were noted (with consistently higher scores in males for the neck and shoulder and in parous females for the abdomen), the average BCS of all regions did not differ significantly between males (4.3 ± 0.4) and females (4.1 ± 0.5). Linking the BCS to results of a questionnaire survey and studbook information, there were no differences in BCS between animals with and without foot problems or between parous and non-parous females. In a very limited sample of 11 females, those eight that had been diagnosed with leiomyoma in a previous study had a higher BCS (range 3.9-4.9) than the three that had been diagnosed as leiomyoma-free (range 3.5-3.7). The BCS was correlated to the amount of food offered as estimated from the questionnaire. Adjusting the amounts and the nutritional quality of the diet components is an evident measure to maintain animals at a target BCS (suggested as 3-3.5). Zoo Biol. 35:432-443, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Integrating Science into Management of Ecosystems in the Greater Blue Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapple, Rosalie S.; Ramp, Daniel; Bradstock, Ross A.; Kingsford, Richard T.; Merson, John A.; Auld, Tony D.; Fleming, Peter J. S.; Mulley, Robert C.

    2011-10-01

    Effective management of large protected conservation areas is challenged by political, institutional and environmental complexity and inconsistency. Knowledge generation and its uptake into management are crucial to address these challenges. We reflect on practice at the interface between science and management of the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA), which covers approximately 1 million hectares west of Sydney, Australia. Multiple government agencies and other stakeholders are involved in its management, and decision-making is confounded by numerous plans of management and competing values and goals, reflecting the different objectives and responsibilities of stakeholders. To highlight the complexities of the decision-making process for this large area, we draw on the outcomes of a recent collaborative research project and focus on fire regimes and wild-dog control as examples of how existing knowledge is integrated into management. The collaborative research project achieved the objectives of collating and synthesizing biological data for the region; however, transfer of the project's outcomes to management has proved problematic. Reasons attributed to this include lack of clearly defined management objectives to guide research directions and uptake, and scientific information not being made more understandable and accessible. A key role of a local bridging organisation (e.g., the Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute) in linking science and management is ensuring that research results with management significance can be effectively transmitted to agencies and that outcomes are explained for nonspecialists as well as more widely distributed. We conclude that improved links between science, policy, and management within an adaptive learning-by-doing framework for the GBMWHA would assist the usefulness and uptake of future research.

  10. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  11. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  12. Report Urges Greater Coordination of European Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    A new report assessing the state of doctoral education in Europe says that, even as 47 European nations enter the final phase of harmonizing their degree programs, Ph.D.-level education across Europe suffers from a lack of coordination and cooperation. "There is an urgent need for greater consultation and coordination at the regional,…

  13. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  14. The beneficial effects of ranolazine on cardiac function after myocardial infarction are greater in diabetic than in nondiabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mourouzis, Iordanis; Mantzouratou, Polixeni; Galanopoulos, Georgios; Kostakou, Erietta; Dhalla, Arvinder K; Belardinelli, Luiz; Pantos, Constantinos

    2014-09-01

    Ranolazine (RAN) is known to exert both anti-ischemic and antidiabetic actions. Thus, this study has explored the hypothesis that RAN would have greater effect on the recovery of cardiac function in diabetic mellitus (DM) rat hearts following myocardial infarction (MI). Myocardial infarction was induced in nondiabetic (MI, n = 14) and diabetic (streptozotocin induced; DM-MI, n = 13) Wistar rats by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. Cardiac function was evaluated using echocardiography (left ventricular ejection fraction %) and in isolated heart preparations by measuring left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and the positive and negative first derivative of LVDP (± dp/dt). Ranolazine (20 mg/kg, ip once a day) was administered 24 hours after surgical procedure for 4 weeks to nondiabetic (MI + RAN, n = 17) and diabetic rats (DM-MI + RAN, n = 15). The RAN improved the recovery of function in both the nondiabetic and the diabetic postinfarcted hearts but this effect was greater and achieved statistical significance only in the diabetic group. The RAN resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a component of Akt signaling) in both nondiabetic and diabetic infarcted hearts without changes in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase). In addition, in diabetic hearts, RAN resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase/phospholamban (a target of Akt signaling, 2.0-fold increase) and increased levels of phosphorylated calcium-regulated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK; 2.0-fold increase). In diabetic animals, RAN increased insulin and lowered glucose levels in serum. In conclusion, the beneficial effect of RAN on the recovery of cardiac function after MI was greater in DM rats. This response was associated with activation of Akt/mTOR and AMPK

  15. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency.

  16. Access to primary care in Hong Kong, Greater London and New York City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Pui Hing; Woo, Jean; Gusmano, Michael K; Weisz, Daniel; Rodwin, Victor G; Chan, Kam Che

    2013-01-01

    We investigate avoidable hospital conditions (AHC) in three world cities as a way to assess access to primary care. Residents of Hong Kong are healthier than their counterparts in Greater London or New York City. In contrast to their counterparts in New York City, residents of both Greater London and Hong Kong face no financial barriers to an extensive public hospital system. We compare residence-based hospital discharge rates for AHC, by age cohorts, in these cities and find that New York City has higher rates than Hong Kong and Greater London. Hong Kong has the lowest hospital discharge rates for AHC among the population 15-64, but its rates are nearly as high as those in New York City among the population 65 and over. Our findings suggest that in contrast to Greater London, older residents in Hong Kong and New York face significant barriers in accessing primary care. In all three cities, people living in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods are more likely to be hospitalized for an AHC, but neighborhood inequalities are greater in Hong Kong and New York than in Greater London.

  17. Achieving Peace in Afghanistan: Obstacles and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-05

    interests between insurgent factions could pose significant obstacles to negotiations. This 12 challenge to the organizations’ unity could become more...significant challenges during negotiations over the role of women in Afghan society. To overcome these potential obstacles , the United States...Achieving Peace in Afghanistan: Obstacles and Recommendations by Colonel Lee K. Grubbs United States Army United

  18. Academic Achievement of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Kathy A.; Hickey, Ann

    2014-01-01

    A study of 215 athletes at a small private liberal arts Division III college revealed that athletes (a) begin their college experience with SATs no different from non-athletes; (b) attain GPAs that do not significantly differ from those of nonathletes; (c) achieve GPAs that do not significantly differ between their "in-season" semester…

  19. Psychological Barriers to Achievement in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lois S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among birth order, number of course credits achieved, and personality integration for 56 women graduate students. No evidence of significant stress was found as these women approached career choice points, nor was there a significant effect from birth order. (Author/RD)

  20. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  1. Achieving TASAR Operational Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept for aircraft operations featuring a NASA-developed cockpit automation tool, the Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), which computes traffic/hazard-compatible route changes to improve flight efficiency. The TAP technology is anticipated to save fuel and flight time and thereby provide immediate and pervasive benefits to the aircraft operator, as well as improving flight schedule compliance, passenger comfort, and pilot and controller workload. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for TASAR-equipped aircraft, and a flight trial of the TAP software application in the National Airspace System has demonstrated its technical viability. This paper reviews previous and ongoing activities to prepare TASAR for operational use.

  2. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse Associated with Greater Psychological Impairment among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Michael R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of the psychiatric histories and projective test responses of 102 sexually abused girls found that the following characteristics of abuse were significantly associated with greater psychological disturbance: more than one perpetrator, an early age of abuse onset, and periods of intense and frequent abuse episodes. A relatively stable…

  3. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  4. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  5. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  6. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  7. Mercury source sector asssessment for the Greater Milwaukee Area

    SciTech Connect

    Obenauf, P.; Skavroneck, S.

    1997-09-01

    The Mercury Reduction Project for the Greater Milwaukee Area is a joint effort of the Pollution Prevention Partnership, Milwaukee Metropolitan Seweage District (MMSD) and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Estimates of the amounts of mercury present, used and/or annually released to air, land and water within the MMSD service area are provided for 25 source sectors. This 420 square mile area (including Milwaukee County and parts of Waukesha, Racine, Ozaukee and Washington Counties) is home to just over 1 million people. The tables and figures summarize the relative amounts of mercury: annually released from purposeful uses; annually released due to trace impurities; and present or in use from the various source sectors in the Greater Milwaukee Area.

  8. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  9. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  10. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  11. Dietary phosphorus is associated with greater left ventricular mass.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kalani T; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A C; Siscovick, David S; Weiss, Noel S; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2013-04-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function, which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals who were free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1167 mg/day in men and 1017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 g greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 g greater LVM compared with the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies.

  12. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  13. Significance of periodogram peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süveges, Maria; Guy, Leanne; Zucker, Shay

    2016-10-01

    Three versions of significance measures or False Alarm Probabilities (FAPs) for periodogram peaks are presented and compared for sinusoidal and box-like signals, with specific application on large-scale surveys in mind.

  14. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  15. Which type of repetitive muscle contractions induces a greater acute impairment of position sense?

    PubMed

    Fortier, Sylvie; Basset, Fabien A; Billaut, François; Behm, David; Teasdale, Normand

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which type of repetitive muscle contractions induces a greater acute impairment of elbow position sense. Eleven male subjects participating in the study underwent (i) an exercise task (ET) consisting of 9 sets of 10 voluntary isometric, concentric, or eccentric contractions randomly performed on three separate sessions, and (ii) a pre- and post-exercise maximal voluntary isometric contraction (iMVC). Prior to and between sets of ET, a proprioception task (PT) consisting of matching the right arm to the left reference arm was performed at three different target angular positions (70 degrees , 110 degrees and 150 degrees). Each ET was immediately followed by 3 PT and 1 min rest. The statistical analysis revealed that post-exercise iMVCs were significantly decreased compared to pre-exercise iMVC in all conditions with a greater drop following the eccentric task. Despite this greater drop, position sense was significantly affected by the concentric exercise task. In addition, the spectral EMG signals significantly shifted towards lower frequencies from the initial values, regardless of exercise task. The results showed that concentric muscle contractions impaired position sense to a greater extent compared to isometric and eccentric contractions.

  16. Greater hydrogen ion-induced depression of tension and velocity in skinned single fibres of rat fast than slow muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, J M; Moss, R L

    1987-01-01

    1. The effects of variations in pH between 7.00 and 6.20 on Ca2+ -activated tension development and maximum velocity of shortening (Vmax) were examined in skinned single skeletal fibres from rat slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch superficial (s.v.l.) and deep (d.v.l.) regions of the vastus lateralis muscle. 2. At pH 6.50, Vmax was depressed to a similar degree in each of the soleus, d.v.l., and s.v.l. fibres. Lowering pH to 6.20 resulted in a further decline in Vmax in all fibres; however, differences between the slow fibres, identified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and fast fibres were apparent, with soleus retaining a significantly greater proportion of its control Vmax (0.83 +/- 0.03 in soleus vs. 0.69 +/- 0.03 in s.v.l.; mean +/- S.E.M.). 3. Maximum force production decreased significantly as pH was reduced. Peak force at pH 6.50, relative to that at pH 7.00, was significantly greater in soleus (0.80 +/- 0.01) than in the s.v.l. (0.75 +/- 0.01) fibres. At pH 6.20 these differences between slow and fast fibres were still greater, in that soleus fibres generated significantly greater relative forces (0.73 +/- 0.01) than did d.v.l. (0.67 +/- 0.02) or s.v.l. (0.63 +/- 0.02) fibres. 4. As pH was lowered the tension-pCa relationship shifted to the right (i.e. to higher [Ca2+]), indicating a reduction in the Ca2+ sensitivity of tension development. The [Ca2+] necessary to achieve half-maximal tension in both the slow- and fast-twitch fibres increased approximately 5-fold when pH was lowered from 7.00 to 6.20. Furthermore, in the case of the soleus, the Ca2+ threshold for tension development was 45 times greater at pH 6.20 than at pH 7.00, while in the fast-twitch fibres, this increase was 4-fold. 5. Increased [H+] differentially affected the steepness of the tension-pCa relationship between slow and fast fibres. As pH was lowered, the steepness of the lower portion of the tension-pCa curve increased in the soleus and decreased in d.v.l. and s

  17. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  18. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences.

  19. Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among

  20. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  1. Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that “random” gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated

  2. Saudi arabian students' chemistry achievement and science attitudes stemming from lecture-demonstration and small group teaching methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Harold; Al-Faleh, Nasser

    The study was designed to determine differences between two chemistry teaching methods on students' chemistry achievement and attitudes toward science. The two methods were the large lecture-demonstration and small-group laboratory approaches to teaching chemistry. The subjects were 74 eleventh-grade Saudi Arabian students randomly assigned to the two treatment groups. The findings revealed that the small-group laboratory students exhibited significantly greater chemistry achievement than students in the lecture-demonstration group on both immediate and delayed posttests. The results also indicated that students taught by the lab approach possessed more desirable attitudes toward science.

  3. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery, Shelly; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farritor, Shane; Joyce, James; Rebrovich, Barb

    2003-01-01

    Condensing five years of significant work into a brief narrative fitting PPR requirements gave the affiliates of the Nebraska Space Grant a valuable chance for reflection. Achievements of Space Grant in Nebraska were judiciously chosen for this document that best illustrate the resultant synergism of this consortium, keeping in mind that these examples are only a representation of greater activity throughout the state. Following are highlights of many of the finer and personal achievements for Nebraska Space Grant. The Consortium welcomes inquiries to elaborate on any of these accomplishments.

  4. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  5. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  6. Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C

    2015-05-12

    We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles.

  7. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite.

  8. Greater Coordination Required in Defense Planning for Intratheather Airlift Needs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-09

    AD-AIOI 292 GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC PROCUREMENT -ETC F/6 15/5 GREATER COORDINATION REQUIRED IN DEFENSE PLANNING FOR INTRATHEA-(ETC(U...JUL 81 UNCLASSIFIED GAO/PLR-81-42 BY THE U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE Report To The Secretary Of Defense Q reater Coordination Required In Defense...11~~~I~ LF’A RD-1-42/ I1CCU4S JULY 9, 1981’ / 81 7 13 331 I Request for copies of GAO reports should be sent to: U.S. General Accounting Office

  9. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  10. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  11. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  12. The Preconscious: Locus for Significant Written Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Alvin D.

    1979-01-01

    The author suggests that the preconscious is the true locus of significant prose because of its greater amount of freedom to gather, compare, and rearrange ideas, and that the ultimate challenge to teachers of composition is to give freedom to their students' preconscious processes. (KC)

  13. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  14. The State of Lithospheric Stress in Greater Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, B.; Furlong, K. P.; Pananont, P.; Pornsopin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Thailand and its surrounding regions occupy an important, but often overlooked, location in terms of plate tectonics and lithospheric deformation. The lateral extrusion of Tibet southeastward and eastward along deep strike slip faults to the north and the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone to the south and west bound the region of greater Thailand. While it is adjacent to some of the most seismically active plate boundaries and intra-plate regions on Earth, this region has experienced only a low level of background seismicity. Thus, the long-term seismic potential of greater Thailand remains highly uncertain. Although historic seismicity is one indicator for future seismicity it is not the only tool we have for determining seismic hazard; we can assess the state of lithospheric stress. The stress conditions in this apparent aseismic region will be controlled by the forces acting on it boundaries. We can analyze those conditions through a study of fault structure, earthquake activity, and kinematics in the boundary area. Using Global Seismic Network (GSN) data augmented with Thai seismic network data to constrain the kinematics, and numerical finite element modeling of crustal and lithospheric deformation of the region, we are able to determine to overall stress conditions. This stress model can be compared to the known fault states in Thailand to assess the potential for earthquake activity.

  15. BBilateral Neglected Anterior Shoulder Dislocation with Greater Tuberosity Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Tejas; Bhatnagar, Abhinav; Mehta, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Shoulder dislocations are a very common entity in routine orthopaedic practice. Chronic unreduced anterior dislocations of the shoulder are not very common. Neurological and vascular complications may occur as a result of an acute anterior dislocation of the shoulder or after a while in chronic unreduced shoulder dislocation. Open reduction is indicated for most chronic shoulder dislocations. We report a case of neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral displaced greater tuberosity fracture. To the best of our knowledge, only a handful cases have been reported in literature with bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral fractures. Delayed diagnosis/reporting is a scenario which makes the list even slimmer and management all the more challenging. Case Report: We report a case of a 35-year-old male who had bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation and bilateral greater tuberosity fracture post seizure and failed to report it for a period of 30 days. One side was managed conservatively with closed reduction and immobilization and the other side with open reduction. No neurovascular complications pre or post reduction of shoulder were seen. Conclusion: Shoulder dislocations should always be suspected post seizures and if found should be treated promptly. Treatment becomes difficult for any shoulder dislocation that goes untreated for considerable period of time PMID:27703939

  16. Occult fractures of the greater tuberosity of the humerus.

    PubMed

    Gumina, S; Carbone, S; Postacchini, F

    2009-02-01

    We studied the highest reported number of patients with occult fracture of the greater tuberosity of the humerus and we analysed why fracture was not diagnosed, shoulder function and prevalence of eventually associated rotator cuff tear (RCT). Twenty-four patients with a missed fracture of the greater tuberosity underwent MR study for a suspect RCT. We evaluated shoulder function and self-assessed comfort with the Constant score (CS) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Nine patients showed evidence of cuff tendinosis, 11 of partial (p) RCT (2: subscapularis; 6: supraspinatus and 3: supraspinatus and infraspinatus). All patients with pRCT were older than 40. Initially, the mean CS and SST were 54% and 5/12; at follow-up, values increased to 36% and 5 points. MR should be performed in patients apparently negative for fracture but with painful shoulders and decreased ROM. Of our patients, 45.8% had pRCT; nevertheless function recovery was verified in 16 weeks.

  17. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-06-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths.

  18. Thiafentanil-dexmedetomidine-telazol anesthesia in greater rheas (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Ter Beest, Julia; McClean, Modesto; Cushing, Andrew; Bildfell, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Ratite anesthetic events are often dangerous because these birds use their powerful legs and clawed feet as a defense, and physical restraint can result in self-trauma or injury to handlers. Although various combinations of opioids, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, and dissociative agents have been employed in ratites, few effective chemical immobilization protocols have been documented for rheas (Rhea spp.). An intramuscular, remote-delivered combination of thiafentanil (0.30 +/- 0.08 mg/kg), dexmedetomidine (7.31 +/- 2.72 microg/kg), and tiletamine-zolazepam (5.09 +/- 2.31 mg/kg) was utilized in eight adult (four male, four female) greater rheas (Rhea americana). Smooth inductions were observed. During clinical procedures, birds were intubated and maintained on isoflurane gas, and atipamezole was administered to antagonize the dexmedetomidine. At recovery, naltrexone was administered to antagonize the thiafentanil, and midazolam was administered to smooth crate recoveries until release. This low-volume, high-potency, reversible drug combination demonstrated safe inductions and smooth recoveries and proved to be a reliable anesthetic regimen for greater rheas.

  19. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  20. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  1. Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thormodsgard, June M.

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

  2. Composite Defect Significance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-13

    A12i 299 COMPOSITE DEFECT SIGNIFICANCE(U) MATERIALS SCIENCES 1/1 \\ CORP SPRING HOUSE PA S N CHATTERJEE ET AL. 13 JUL 82 MSC/TFR/1288/il87 NADC-80848...Directorate 30 Sensors & Avionics Technology Directorate 40 Communication & Navigation Technology Directorate 50 Software Computer Directorate 60 Aircraft ...instructions concerning commercial products herein do not constitute an endorsement by the Government nor do they convey or imply the license or right to use

  3. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  4. The Mechanics of Human Achievement.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Ungar, Lyle H

    2015-07-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers.

  5. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  6. Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Gu, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are an important component in the development of alternative energy supplies, which is needed to achieve national energy independence and security in the United States. The most common biofuel product today in the United States is corn-based ethanol; however, its development is limited because of concerns about global food shortages, livestock and food price increases, and water demand increases for irrigation and ethanol production. Corn-based ethanol also potentially contributes to soil erosion, and pesticides and fertilizers affect water quality. Studies indicate that future potential production of cellulosic ethanol is likely to be much greater than grain- or starch-based ethanol. As a result, economics and policy incentives could, in the near future, encourage expansion of cellulosic biofuels production from grasses, forest woody biomass, and agricultural and municipal wastes. If production expands, cultivation of cellulosic feedstock crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus species), is expected to increase dramatically. The main objective of this study is to identify grasslands in the Great Plains that are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock (such as switchgrass) production. Producing ethanol from noncropland holdings (such as grassland) will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies. Our pilot study area is the Greater Platte River Basin, which includes a broad range of plant productivity from semiarid grasslands in the west to the fertile corn belt in the east. The Greater Platte River Basin was the subject of related U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated research projects.

  7. Radical Dissection of Greater Palatine Artery and Dynamic Reconstruction of Cleft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Nauman Ahmad; Chaudry, Ayesha; Ishaq, Irfan; Aslam, Muhammad; Shamim, Romaisa; Kafeel, Mirza Muhammad; Aazam, Muhammad; Sailer, Hermann; Ganatra, Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Background: Restoration of proper anatomy and physiology is an integral part of cleft palate repair. The senior author has devised a new technique of radical release of greater palatine vessels, which helps in achieving tension-free closure of palatal cleft. In addition, release and transposition of palatal muscles is performed without the use of operative microscope, resulting in improved palatal function. This technique is applicable to all types of clefts of the palate and can be performed on adult patients as well. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective case series of cleft palate repairs performed over a period of 3 years. Single-stage repair with modified Bardach’s technique for complete cleft palate and von Langenbeck’s technique for incomplete cleft palate with radical release of greater palatine vessels and levator complex retropositioning was performed. The outcome measures were closure of palatal defect and speech production. A follow-up of at least 6 months was completed in each patient. Results: A total of 1568 patients were included in the study. Their age ranged from 9 months to 54 years. The overall fistula rate was 6.1%. Improvement of speech was observed even in adult patients. Conclusions: Radical release of greater palatine artery and levator complex transposition can dramatically improve results of cleft palate repair. This technique helps in dynamic reconstruction of cleft palate and can be effectively applied in all age groups. PMID:28280675

  8. Stable Same-Sex Friendships with Higher Achieving Partners Promote Mathematical Reasoning in Lower Achieving Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and one year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal Actor-Partner Interdependence Models) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  9. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Hanus, Michael D

    2014-04-29

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse.

  10. Discrimination reversal learning reveals greater female behavioural flexibility in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility allows an animal to adapt its behaviour in response to changes in the environment. Research conducted in primates, rodents and domestic fowl suggests greater behavioural persistence and reduced behavioural flexibility in males. We investigated sex differences in behavioural flexibility in fish by comparing male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a reversal learning task. Fish were first trained on a colour discrimination, which was learned equally rapidly by males and females. However, once the reward contingency was reversed, females were better at inhibiting the previous response and reached criterion twice as fast as males. When reward reversing was repeated, males gradually reduced the number of errors, and the two sexes had a comparable performance after four reversals. We suggest that sex differences in behavioural flexibility in guppies can be explained in terms of the different roles that males and females play in reproduction.

  11. Lakes in the greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danielson, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of an inventory of the lakes in the central one-third of the Colorado Front Range Urban Corridor. This inventory provides information that might be helpful in planning the best and most beneficial use of lakes in an area of rapid population growth. The report includes data on lake size and water quality. Size data are included on most of the lakes of 2 hectares (20,000 m2, or about 5 acres) or greater, and water-quality data are provided on most lakes larger than 10 hectares (about 25 acres). Bodies of water resulting form excavation of gravel (borrow pits) were generally not included in the inventory.

  12. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  13. Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with rated importance of intercourse for men. Noncoital partnered sexual activity had a less consistent association with slimness. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with less masturbation (in men and in the sexes combined). I discuss the results in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, attractiveness, emotional relatedness, physical sensitivity, sexual dysfunction, sociobiology, psychopharmacological aspects of excess fat and carbohydrate consumption, and implications for sex therapy.

  14. Risks of Brucella abortus spillover in the Greater Yellowstone area.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, B

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent spillover of Brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) has prevented the United States from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. Risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. While the brucellosis prevalence in wild, free-ranging GYA bison (Bison bison) is high, current management actions have successfully limited contact between bison and cattle. Under current management practices, the risks to cattle in the GYA are predominantly from wild elk (Cervus elaphus). Intra- and inter-species transmission events, while uncommon, are nevertheless crucial for the maintenance of brucellosis in the GYA. Future management actions should focus on decreasing elk herd densities and group sizes and on understanding the behavioural and environmental drivers that result in co-mingling that makes transmission possible.

  15. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  16. Multilingualism, Mathematics Achievement and Instructional Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rachel Singal

    2010-01-01

    A significant and growing proportion of students in the United States speak primarily a non-English language at home. This dissertation contributes to the understanding of academic achievement patterns among language minority students in the United States. The first essay uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey Kindergarten Class…

  17. Science Achievement of Secondary Agricultural Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sara Vicky

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this quantitative descriptive and correlational study were to describe the science achievements of secondary agricultural education students and determine if the number of agricultural education courses passed, FFA involvement, and SAE participation would statistically significantly improve students' performance on science…

  18. Building Fires: Raising Achievement through Class Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    According to a growing body of research, discussion-based instruction, in the context of high academic demands, significantly enhances student achievement in reading. The effects apply to below- as well as above-average-ability students. These findings confirm what secondary English teachers have believed all along about the value of discussion.…

  19. Sickle Cell Trait and Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Yvonne; Ayrer, James

    1974-01-01

    In a preliminary study, no significant interaction effects were found between scholastic achievement and sickle cell trait in black children currently in eight and ninth grades, as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills over a consecutive period of four years, 1968 through 1971, grades four through seven. (EH)

  20. NRL SSD Research Achievements: 19902000. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    stratCAT. Projected future increases in computing power offer no prospect of solving this fundamental resolution constraint. Thus novel new...extraordinary ranges of research and results have been achieved. To document significant SSD historical accomplishments, Drs. George Doschek and...Howard ....................... 04 1.0 Historical Perspective

  1. Ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup during egg production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, K.B.; Flint, P.L.; Esler, Daniel; Williams, T.D.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of female waterfowl nutrient reserve use during egg production require a precise understanding of ovarian follicle dynamics to correctly interpret breeding status, and, therefore, derive proper inference. Concerns over numerical declines of North American scaup have increased the need to better understand the role of female condition in reproductive performance. We quantified ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) breeding on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, using a method that accounts for within day variation in follicle size. We considered several models for describing changes in follicle growth with the best supported model estimating the duration of rapid follicle growth (RFG) to be 5.20 ± 0.52 days (±95% confidence intervals) for each developing follicle. Average diameter and dry mass of preovulatory follicles were estimated to be 9.36 mm and 0.26 g, respectively, at the onset of RFG, and these follicle characteristics were 41.47 mm and 15.57 g, respectively, at ovulation. The average diameter of postovulatory follicles immediately following ovulation was estimated to be 17.35 mm, regressing quickly over several days. In addition, we derived predictive equations using diameter and dry mass to estimate the number of days before, and after, ovulation for pre- and postovulatory follicles, as well as an equation to estimate dry mass of damaged follicles. Our results allow precise definition of RFG and nest initiation dates, clutch size, and the daily energetic and nutritional demands of egg production at the individual level. This study provides the necessary foundation for additional work on Greater Scaup reproductive energetics and physiology, and offers an approach for quantifying ovarian follicle dynamics in other species.

  2. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  3. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  4. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    PubMed

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p < 0.001). After adjusting for BMI, age, education, cancer treatment, months since diagnosis, and aromatase inhibitor status, Black women had an average 4-point (95 % confidence interval 0.18-8.01) higher QuickDASH score (p = 0.04) than White women. Mediation analysis suggested that BMI attenuated the association between race and disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  5. Can use of positive religious coping predict greater distress? An examination of Army soldiers on deployment.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Marilyn A; Lannin, Daniel G; Wade, Nathaniel G; Martinez, Melisa

    2017-04-01

    Although positive religious coping is generally viewed as an adaptive, functional coping pattern, some studies have actually found positive religious coping to be associated with more distress in military populations. In the current study, we examined the role of positive religious coping on distress across 2 time points. Participants in this study were 192 Army soldiers (men = 90.4%) who were stationed in Iraq for a 1-year deployment in 2005. Using structural equation modeling, we conducted a cross-lag analysis of positive religious coping and distress. Results indicated that greater use of positive religious coping significantly predicted greater distress 1 month later, whereas distress at T1 did not predict positive religious coping 1 month later. Combat exposure was also a significant predictor of distress 1 month later. Implications of these results include the need to inquire about clients' use of religious coping and whether such coping methods are having the desired effect for them. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.

  7. Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

    1985-10-01

    Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia and four had heterophilia. The findings suggested that haematological testing is of potential diagnostic value in the species.

  8. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT AND THE NAVAJO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAAS, JOHN; MELVILLE, ROBERT

    A STUDY WAS DEVISED TO APPRAISE THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF NAVAJO STUDENTS LIVING IN DORMITORIES AWAY FROM THE INDIAN RESERVATION. THE FOLLOWING SEVEN FACTORS WERE CHOSEN TO BE INVESTIGATED AS BEING DIRECTLY RELATED TO ACHIEVEMENT--(1) INTELLIGENCE, (2) READING ABILITY, (3) ANXIETY, (4) SELF-CONCEPT, (5) MOTIVATION, (6) VERBAL DEVELOPMENT, (7)…

  9. Sociocultural Origins of Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theoretical review of work on sociocultural influences on achievement, focusing on a critical evaluation of the work of David McClellan. Offers an alternative conception of achievement motivation which stresses the role of contextual and situational factors in addition to personality factors. Available from: Transaction Periodicals…

  10. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do…

  11. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  12. Early Intervention and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hormes, Mridula T.

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Education has been rigorous in holding all states accountable with regard to student achievement. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 clearly laid out federal mandates for all schools to follow. K-12 leaders of public schools are very aware of the fact that results in terms of student achievement need to improve…

  13. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  14. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  15. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  16. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  17. Analyses of sexual dimorphism of reconstructed pelvic computed tomography images of contemporary Japanese using curvature of the greater sciatic notch, pubic arch and greater pelvis.

    PubMed

    Biwasaka, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Sato, Kei; Tanijiri, Toyohisa; Fujita, Sachiko; Dewa, Koji; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Tomabechi, Makiko

    2012-06-10

    Three-dimensional pelvic images were reconstructed from multi-slice CT data of contemporary Japanese (males: 124; females: 104, 25-92 years old), and curvature analysis to examine sexual dimorphism was carried out in the great sciatic notch (GSN), the pubic arch and the greater pelvis in the images. Reconstructed pelvic CT images were visualized fairly well and anatomical landmarks were easily recognizable. When calculating the radii (curvature radii) of the best-fit circles for the spline curve lines set along the edges of the GSNs and of the pubic arches, sexes from these regions were correctly identified in 89.1% (males: 93.8%; females: 83.7%) and 94.7% (males: 97.3%; females: 91.8%) of cases, respectively, by setting an appropriate cut-off value. Furthermore, sexing was possible even in deeper regions of the GSN which are relatively resistant to postmortem damage. Curvature radii of the best-fit spheres of greater pelves showed no significant difference between sexes. However, curvature of the best-fit sphere for the left iliac fossa was significantly larger than that of the right one (p<10(-24)) in males, and the ratios were >1.0 in 88% of all male specimens analyzed. Meanwhile, no significant difference was observed among female samples. Although some left-sided dominancy has been reported in 2-dimensional measurements of the human pelvis, this 3-dimensional laterality in males was much more significant, and is a potential index of sex difference.

  18. Circumpolar variation in morphological characteristics of Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Fox, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Andreev, A.; Bromley, R.G.; Degtyarev, Andrei G.; Ebbinge, B.; Gurtovaya, E.N.; Kerbes, R.; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Kostin, I.; Krechmar, A.V.; Litvin, K.E.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Moou, J.H.; Oates, R.M.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Sabano, Yutaka; Simpson, S.G.; Solovieva, D.V.; Spindler, Michael A.; Syroechkovsky, Y.V.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Walsh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Capsule: Greater White-fronted Geese show significant variation in body size from sampling locations throughout their circumpolar breeding range. Aims: To determine the degree of geographical variation in body size of Greater White-fronted Geese and identify factors contributing to any apparent patterns in variation. Methods: Structural measures of >3000 geese from 16 breeding areas throughout the Holarctic breeding range of the species were compared statistically. Results: Palearctic forms varied clinally, and increased in size from the smallest forms on the Kanin and Taimyr peninsulas in western Eurasia to the largest forms breeding in the Anadyr Lowlands of eastern Chukotka. Clinal variation was less apparent in the Nearctic, as both the smallest form in the Nearctic and the largest form overall (the Tule Goose) were from different breeding areas in Alaska. The Tule Goose was 25% larger than the smallest form. Birds from Greenland (A. a. flavirostris) were the second largest, although only slightly larger than geese from several North American populations. Body size was not correlated with breeding latitude but was positively correlated with temperature on the breeding grounds, breeding habitat, and migration distance. Body mass of Greater White-fronted Geese from all populations remained relatively constant during the period of wing moult. Morphological distinctness of eastern and western Palearctic forms concurs with earlier findings of complete range disjunction. Conclusions: Patterns of morphological variation in Greater White-fronted Geese across the Holarctic can be generally attributed to adaptation to variable breeding environments, migration requirements, and phylo-geographical histories. 

  19. The Length of the Greater Palatine Canal in a Lebanese Population: a Radio-anatomical Study

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Georges; Nasseh, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the length of the greater palatine canal in a Lebanese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology. Material and methods: In this study, we measured the length of 148 greater palatine canals in 74 CBCT images of Lebanese adult patients (38 females and 36 males). The data obtained was analyzed statistically to determine 1) if age is related to the length of the canal, 2) if the length of the left side tends to be systematically larger or smaller than the length of the right side, and 3) if the mean length of the canals in females is different than the one in males. Results: In a sagittal plane, the average length of the greater palatine canal was 30.62 (30.64 mm on the right and 30.60 mm on the left). Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we concluded that in our sample in a Lebanese population, the length of the greater palatine canal does not significantly vary according to age, gender, and side. PMID:28077902

  20. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  1. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  2. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born…

  3. Electronic Play, Study, Communication, and Adolescent Achievement, 2003-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' time spent messaging, exploring websites, and studying on the computer increased between 2003 and 2008. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement, this study examines how such changes have influenced individual achievement and behavior from childhood to adolescence. Greater communications and…

  4. Comparison of Achievement of Students in High School Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troxel, Verne A.

    1970-01-01

    Compares student achievements on common objectives of CHEMS, CBA, and "Modern Chemistry high school chemistry courses. Results indicate the three couses are not equally effective in meeting their objectives. CHEMS and CBA develop a better understanding of chemistry and science, as well as develop greater ability for critical thinking. CBA…

  5. Achieving Equity in Higher Education: The Unfinished Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Alexander W.; Astin, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective account of their scholarly work over the past 45 years, Alexander and Helen Astin show how the struggle to achieve greater equity in American higher education is intimately connected to issues of character development, leadership, civic responsibility, and spirituality. While shedding some light on a variety of questions…

  6. Social, Cultural, and Contextual Influences on Achievement Motivation Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    Given the decline in birth rates, which will produce a steep decline in the youth population by 1990, this paper examines the possible effects such a population shift will have on the achievement motivation of children. It is reasoned the increased adult/child ratio could result in either of two possibilities: the greater attention paid to the…

  7. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 8, November-December 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. Highlights of this issue include: (1) President Signs College Cost Reduction Act; (2) Galvanizing the Community: Charter Schools Provides Greater Choice to Colorado Latinos…

  8. Effective Teachers = Student Achievement: What the Research Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that there is no greater influence on a student's success than the quality of his or her teacher. This book presents the research findings which demonstrate the connection between teacher effectiveness and student achievement. We've always known, at least intuitively, that teachers matter, but this book proves that teachers are…

  9. The Longitudinal Link between Student Health and Math Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for…

  10. Concurrent Alcohol Dependence Among Methadone-Maintained Cocaine Abusers Is Associated with Greater Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shannon A.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent alcohol dependence (AD) among polysubstance abusers has been associated with negative consequences, although it may not necessarily lead to poor treatment outcomes. One of the most efficacious treatments for cocaine abuse is contingency management (CM), but little research has explored the impact of AD on abstinence outcomes, particularly among patients in methadone maintenance. Using data from three trials of CM for cocaine use, we compared baseline characteristics and post-treatment and follow-up cocaine outcomes between methadone maintained, cocaine dependent patients (N=193) with and without concurrent AD, randomized to standard care (SC) with or without CM. Patients with and without concurrent AD had similar baseline characteristics, with the exception that AD patients reported more alcohol use. AD patients achieved longer durations of cocaine abstinence and were more likely to submit a cocaine negative sample at follow-up than non-AD patients. Patients randomized to CM achieved better outcomes than those randomized to SC, but there was no interaction between treatment condition and AD status. These findings suggest that cocaine using methadone patients with AD achieve greater cocaine abstinence than their non-AD counterparts and should not be necessarily viewed as more difficult to treat. PMID:21463068

  11. Chrysler: Save Energy Now Assessment Enables a Vehicle Assembly Complex to Achieve Significant Natural Gas Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-01

    This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how Chrysler LLC saves more than 70,000 MMBtu and $627,000 annually after increasing the steam system energy efficiency of a truck and minivan assembly plant in St. Louis, Missouri.

  12. DOD Financial Management: The Army Faces Significant Challenges in Achieving Audit Readiness for Its Military Pay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs COBOL Common Business Oriented Language CFO Chief Financial Officer CIGIE Council of the...pay, is an aging, Common Business Oriented Language ( COBOL ) 49

  13. Is It Really Possible to Test All Educationally Significant Achievements with High Levels of Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    PISA claims that it can extend its reach from its current core subjects of Reading, Science, Maths and problem-solving. Yet given the requirement for high levels of reliability for PISA, especially in the light of its current high stakes character, proposed widening of its subject coverage cannot embrace some important aspects of the social and…

  14. The Significance of the Interculturally Competent School Psychologist for Achieving Equitable Education Outcomes for Migrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranchi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This article examines procedures and processes that result in the over-referral of migrant students to separate special education programmes and, as a consequence, their exclusion from general education. The particular focus is on the role of the school psychologist in this process. The empirical study is a comparison of Swiss teachers' and school…

  15. Randomization in clinical trials in orthodontics: its significance in research design and methods to achieve it.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2011-12-01

    Randomization is a key step in reducing selection bias during the treatment allocation phase in randomized clinical trials. The process of randomization follows specific steps, which include generation of the randomization list, allocation concealment, and implementation of randomization. The phenomenon in the dental and orthodontic literature of characterizing treatment allocation as random is frequent; however, often the randomization procedures followed are not appropriate. Randomization methods assign, at random, treatment to the trial arms without foreknowledge of allocation by either the participants or the investigators thus reducing selection bias. Randomization entails generation of random allocation, allocation concealment, and the actual methodology of implementing treatment allocation randomly and unpredictably. Most popular randomization methods include some form of restricted and/or stratified randomization. This article introduces the reasons, which make randomization an integral part of solid clinical trial methodology, and presents the main randomization schemes applicable to clinical trials in orthodontics.

  16. Black Hegemony, a Significant Influence in the School Success of High-Achieving African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jean C.

    This is an interpretive study of the influence of Black Hegemony on the academic success of three successful African Americans: Clifton L. Taulbert, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Margaret Morgan Lawrence. All three spent their youth in southern communities strongly influenced by Jim Crow laws and customs, and their academic accomplishments were…

  17. The Significance of Relationships: Academic Engagement and Achievement among Newcomer Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Pimentel, Allyson; Martin, Margary

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Newcomer immigrant students are entering schools in the United States in unprecedented numbers. As they enter new school contexts, they face a number of challenges in their adjustment. Previous literature suggested that relationships in school play a particularly crucial role in promoting socially competent behavior in the…

  18. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program. [geologic processes, comparative planetology, and solar system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included.

  19. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  20. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  1. Public health significance of neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them.

  2. Greater transportation energy and GHG offsets from bioelectricity than ethanol.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J E; Lobell, D B; Field, C B

    2009-05-22

    The quantity of land available to grow biofuel crops without affecting food prices or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land conversion is limited. Therefore, bioenergy should maximize land-use efficiency when addressing transportation and climate change goals. Biomass could power either internal combustion or electric vehicles, but the relative land-use efficiency of these two energy pathways is not well quantified. Here, we show that bioelectricity outperforms ethanol across a range of feedstocks, conversion technologies, and vehicle classes. Bioelectricity produces an average of 81% more transportation kilometers and 108% more emissions offsets per unit area of cropland than does cellulosic ethanol. These results suggest that alternative bioenergy pathways have large differences in how efficiently they use the available land to achieve transportation and climate goals.

  3. Farming Approaches for Greater Biodiversity, Livelihoods, and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Lucas A; Gemmill-Herren, Barbara; D'Annolfo, Raffaele; Graeub, Benjamin E; Cunningham, Saul A; Breeze, Tom D

    2017-01-01

    Scientists and policy-makers globally are calling for alternative approaches to conventional intensification of agriculture that enhance ecosystem services provided by biodiversity. The evidence reviewed here suggests that alternative approaches can achieve high crop yields and profits, but the performance of other socioeconomic indicators (as well as long-term trends) is surprisingly poorly documented. Consequently, the implementation of conventional intensification and the discussion of alternative approaches are not based on quantitative evidence of their simultaneous ecological and socioeconomic impacts across the globe. To close this knowledge gap, we propose a participatory assessment framework. Given the impacts of conventional intensification on biodiversity loss and greenhouse gas emissions, such evidence is urgently needed to direct science-policy initiatives, such as the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  4. Personal and family factors as predictors of pupils' mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Alomar, Bader O

    2007-08-01

    This study examined personal and family factors in prediction of mathematics achievement by Kuwaiti fourth graders (395 boys, 501 girls; M age=10.0 yr., SD=8.0 mo.). Personal variables included sex, total achievement, perception of parental involvement, pupil's attitude towards school, and mathematics achievement. Family variables included parental education and parental involvement, views of school, and income. The data had good fit with the suggested model. Analysis showed variables which had significant direct association with mathematics achievement were total achievement and sex. Parental education, pupil's sex, and attitude towards school had significant indirect associations with mathematical achievement. Associations were direct for boys and indirect for girls on mathematics achievement, so sex had minimal total effects on mathematics achievement.

  5. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  6. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  7. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  8. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  9. Outreach impact study: the case of the Greater Midwest Region*

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Jeffrey T; Kean, Emily B; Fitzgerald, Philip D; Altman, Trina A; Young, Zach G; Dupin, Katherine M; Leskovec, Jacqueline; Holst, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the impact that funding from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM), Greater Midwest Region (GMR), has on member institutions' ability to conduct outreach on behalf of NN/LM. Methods: The study employed both content analysis and survey methodologies. The final reports from select GMR-funded outreach projects (n = 20) were analyzed based on a set of evaluation criteria. Project principal investigators (n = 13) were then surveyed using the same evaluation criteria. Results: Results indicated that outreach projects supported by GMR funding improved access to biomedical information for professionals and the general public. Barriers to conducting outreach projects included time constraints or commitments, staffing, scheduling and absenteeism, inadequate space, and issues associated with technology (e.g., hardware and software, Internet connectivity and firewall issues, and creation and use of new technologies). Conclusions: The majority of project principal investigators indicated that their attempts to conduct outreach were successful. Moreover, most noted that outreach had a positive impact on professionals as well as the general public. In general, it seems that negative outcomes, as with most barriers to conducting outreach, can be mitigated by more thorough planning. PMID:22022223

  10. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Tercek, Michael T.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M.; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann W.; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change. PMID:26674185

  11. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  12. Vaccine preventability of meningococcal clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany.

    PubMed

    Elias, Johannes; Schouls, Leo M; van de Pol, Ingrid; Keijzers, Wendy C; Martin, Diana R; Glennie, Anne; Oster, Philipp; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-03-01

    Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city of Aachen and 3 neighboring countries (Greater Aachen) prompted us to investigate and determine the source and nature of this outbreak. Using molecular typing and geographic mapping, we analyzed 1,143 strains belonging to ST41/44 complex, isolated from persons with invasive meningococcal disease over 6 years (2001-2006) from 2 German federal states (total population 26 million) and the Netherlands. A spatially slowly moving clone with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis type 19, ST42, and antigenic profile B:P1.7-2,4:F1-5 was responsible for the outbreak. Bactericidal activity in serum samples from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccination campaign confirmed vaccine preventability. Because this globally distributed epidemic strain spreads slowly, vaccination efforts could possibly eliminate meningococcal disease in this area.

  13. The shifting climate portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Tercek, Mike T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  14. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Adam J; Tercek, Michael T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M; Thoma, David P; Hossack, Blake R; Pederson, Gregory T; Rodman, Ann W; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  15. Greater commitment to the domestic violence training is required.

    PubMed

    Leppäkoski, Tuija Helena; Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija

    2015-05-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is a major public health problem with high health and social costs. A solution to this multi-faceted problem requires that various help providers work together in an effective and optimal manner when dealing with different parties of DV. The objective of our research and development project (2008-2013) was to improve the preparedness of the social and healthcare professionals to manage DV. This article focuses on the evaluation of interprofessional education (IPE) to provide knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in DV and to improve collaboration among social and health care professionals and other help providers at the local and regional level. The evaluation data were carried out with an internal evaluation. The evaluation data were collected from the participants orally and in the written form. The participants were satisfied with the content of the IPE programme itself and the teaching methods used. Participation in the training sessions could have been more active. Moreover, some of the people who had enrolled for the trainings could not attend all of them. IPE is a valuable way to develop intervening in DV. However, greater commitment to the training is required from not only the participants and their superiors but also from trustees.

  16. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted.

  17. Comparison of student achievement among two science laboratory types: traditional and virtual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Mary Celeste

    Technology has changed almost every aspect of our daily lives. It is not surprising then that technology has made its way into the classroom. More and more educators are utilizing technological resources in creative ways with the intent to enhance learning, including using virtual laboratories in the sciences in place of the "traditional" science laboratories. This has generated much discussion as to the influence on student achievement when online learning replaces the face-to-face contact between instructor and student. The purpose of this study was to discern differences in achievement of two laboratory instruction types: virtual laboratory and a traditional laboratory. Results of this study indicate statistical significant differences in student achievement defined by averages on quiz scores in virtual labs compared with traditional face-to-face laboratories and traditional laboratories result in greater student learning gains than virtual labs. Lecture exam averages were also greater for students enrolled in the traditional laboratories compared to students enrolled in the virtual laboratories. To account for possible differences in ability among students, a potential extraneous variable, GPA and ACT scores were used as covariates.

  18. Longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on adolescents' academic achievements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih

    2009-01-01

    This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.

  19. Electrophysiological dynamic brain connectivity during symbolic magnitude comparison in children with different mathematics achievement levels.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola R; Vélez-Pérez, Hugo; Espinoza-Valdez, Aurora; Romo-Vazquez, Rebeca; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo A; Ruiz-Stovel, Vanessa; Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B; González-Garrido, Andrés A; Berumen, Gustavo

    2017-02-08

    Children with mathematical difficulties usually have an impaired ability to process symbolic representations. Functional MRI methods have suggested that early frontoparietal connectivity can predict mathematic achievements; however, the study of brain connectivity during numerical processing remains unexplored. With the aim of evaluating this in children with different math proficiencies, we selected a sample of 40 children divided into two groups [high achievement (HA) and low achievement (LA)] according to their arithmetic scores in the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th ed.. Participants performed a symbolic magnitude comparison task (i.e. determining which of two numbers is numerically larger), with simultaneous electrophysiological recording. Partial directed coherence and graph theory methods were used to estimate and depict frontoparietal connectivity in both groups. The behavioral measures showed that children with LA performed significantly slower and less accurately than their peers in the HA group. Significantly higher frontocentral connectivity was found in LA compared with HA; however, when the connectivity analysis was restricted to parietal locations, no relevant group differences were observed. These findings seem to support the notion that LA children require greater memory and attentional efforts to meet task demands, probably affecting early stages of symbolic comparison.

  20. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  1. High Achievement in Mathematics Education in India: A Report from Mumbai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at characterizing the conditions that lead to high achievement in mathematics in India. The study involved eight schools in the greater Mumbai region. The main result of the study is that the notion of high achievement itself is problematic, as reflected in the reports about mathematics achievement within and…

  2. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  3. “I think I can”: achievement-oriented themes in storybooks from Indonesia, Japan, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Suprawati, Maria; Anggoro, Florencia K.; Bukatko, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the present study is on the ways in which storybooks communicate cultural ideals about achievement orientation, and in particular, the role of effort, perseverance, and hard work in fostering successful outcomes. Sixty preschool children's books from Indonesia, Japan, and the United States (20 from each country) were examined for the presence of achievement-oriented themes. These countries were chosen due to previously documented cultural differences in models of learning and individualist/collectivist tendencies that could have some bearing on achievement outcomes. Texts were assessed for (1) the frequency with which “challenge events” appeared in the narratives, (2) whether these events derived from sources internal or external to the main character, and (3) whether solutions relied on the main character individually or included the assistance of others. Results show that Japanese storybooks contained significantly more challenge events than Indonesian storybooks. Compared with Japanese storybooks, American storybooks tended to include a greater proportion of challenges derived from internal qualities of the main character as opposed to external factors. Compared with American storybooks, Japanese storybooks contained a significantly greater proportion of challenges that were solved with individual efforts as opposed to efforts involving the assistance of others. Findings from this study contribute to our understanding of how storybook contexts can provide a rich source of information for young children learning about culturally valued qualities and behaviors related to achievement. PMID:24624105

  4. Chinese collective orientation and need for achievement.

    PubMed

    Yu, E S

    1980-01-01

    Based on a sample of 401 Chinese male and female teenagers in Taiwan, this study was designed to test the cross-cultural validity of the affective arousal model for n Ach (need for Achievement) employed by McClelland and his associates. An attempt was made to replicate their research procedures while at the same time adding an experimental condition (Collective Failure) which they did not have in their studies. It was found that the (Individual) Failure condition, as employed by McClelland and his associates, was not particularly salient in arousing the need for achievement of the Chinese teenagers sampled in this study. Instead, they responded most favourably when the achievement demands were least overt and when they were impressed with the significance of their performance on a larger collectivity than the self. Implications of this finding for ethnic mental health are suggested.

  5. Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Uteri Greater Than One Kilogram

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Maria V.; Moawad, Gaby N.; Opoku-Anane, Jessica; Shu, Michael K. M.; Marfori, Cherie Q.; Robinson, James K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To assess the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg. Methods: Clinical and surgical characteristics were collected for patients in an academic tertiary care hospital. Included were patients who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained gynecologists from January 1, 2009, to July 1, 2015 and subsequently had confirmed uterine weights of 1 kg or greater on pathology report. Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic procedures were included. Results: During the study period, 95 patients underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy with confirmed uterine weight over 1 kg. Eighty-eight percent were performed with conventional laparoscopy and 12.6% with robot-assisted laparoscopy. The median weight (range) was 1326 g (range, 1000–4800). The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50–2000), and median operating time was 191 minutes (range, 75–478). Five cases were converted to laparotomy (5.2%). Four cases were converted secondary to hemorrhage and one secondary to extensive adhesions. There were no conversions after 2011. Intraoperative transfusion was given in 6.3% of cases and postoperative transfusion in 6.3% of cases. However, after 2013, the rate of intraoperative transfusion decreased to 1.0% and postoperative transfusion to 2.1%. Of the 95 cases, there were no cases with malignancy. Conclusions: This provides the largest case series of hysterectomy over 1 kg completed by a minimally invasive approach. Our complication rate improved with experience and was comparable to other studies of minimally invasive hysterectomy for large uteri. When performed by experienced surgeons, minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg can be considered feasible and safe. PMID:28352147

  6. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  7. Greater risks of chemotherapy toxicity in elderly patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Lazzaro

    2003-01-01

    Complications of cytotoxic chemotherapy are more common in older patients (65 years of age and older) with cancer than in younger patients, and the occurrence of myelosuppression, mucositis, cardiodepression, peripheral neuropathy, and central neurotoxicity can complicate treatment. Age-related physiologic changes that can increase the toxicity of chemotherapy are decreased stem-cell reserves, decreased ability to repair cell damage, progressive loss of body protein, and accumulation of body fat. A decline in organ function can alter the pharmacokinetics of many of the commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in some elderly patients, making toxicity less predictable. Comorbidities increase the risk of toxicity through their effects on the body. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat comorbidities may interact with chemotherapeutic drugs, potentially increasing toxicity in elderly patients. Prospective trials in older patients with lymphoma or solid tumors have found that age is a risk factor for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and its complications. Anemia may be present because of the disease or its treatment, and, if left uncorrected, it can alter drug activity and increase toxicity. Being able to predict which elderly patients are at greater risk of toxicity on the basis of pretreatment factors would be valuable, and there is a need for prospective trials to determine regimen- and patient-specific prognostic factors. Effective management of the toxicity associated with chemotherapy with appropriate supportive care is crucial, especially in the elderly population, to give them the best chance of cure and survival, or to provide palliation. For example, management of neutropenic complications with colony-stimulating factors makes treatment with standard-dose chemotherapy possible, which can lead to better outcomes. A better understanding of drug activity and toxicity in older patients is necessary for developing guidelines for safe and effective treatment. Few

  8. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  9. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  10. Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34" ’■■"■" 1 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations by Richard Fliss Col. Richard M. Meinhart Project...government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES IN ARMY INSTALLATIONS BY RICHARD FLISS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved...for public release. Distribution is unlimited. DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED & USAWC CLASS OF 1998 U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050

  11. Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep are Associated with Greater Cognitive Decline in Older Men without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Yue; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L.; Hoang, Tina D.; Redline, Susan; Yaffe, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the association between periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) and change in selected aspects of cognition in community-dwelling older men. Methods: We studied 2,636 older men without dementia who underwent in-home polysomnography with measurement of the periodic limb movement index (PLMI) and periodic limb movement arousal index (PLMAI) using piezoelectric sensors. Random-effects models and logistic regression were used to examine the association between PLMI, PLMAI, and 3- to 4-y change in cognition. Results: After multivariable adjustment, men with a high PLMI had greater decline on the Trail Making Test – Part B (P trend = 0.02); those with a PLMI ≥ 30 were 48% more likely (odds ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.05–2.07) to experience the development of significant cognitive impairment (≥ 1 SD above mean change). Further adjustment for sleep efficiency, nocturnal hypoxemia, or dopaminergic medication use and analysis among men without Parkinson disease (n = 2,607) showed similar findings. No significant association was found for PLMAI or for Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Conclusions: Among older men without dementia, higher PLMS frequency was associated with greater decline in cognition, particularly in executive function. Citation: Leng Y, Blackwell T, Stone KL, Hoang TD, Redline S, Yaffe K. Periodic limb movements in sleep are associated with greater cognitive decline in older men without dementia. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1807–1810. PMID:27568800

  12. Body composition and weight dynamics of wintering greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Raveling, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    Adult greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) wintering in southern Oregon and California increased or maintained body weight in autumn, lost weight from autumn through winter, and rapidly increased in weight before spring migration in late April. We documented significant annual differences in body weights for both sexes. We related seasonal changes in body weight to changes in lipid levels, which were lowest (12-13% of wet wt in M and F) in mid-March and highest in late April (24% in F). Greater white-fronted geese maintained lipid levels during winter similar to those reported for large subspecies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), and greater than those reported for small subspecies of Canada geese and other small species of geese. Protein content of carcasses varied significantly in females; i.e., lowest in early October and highest in late October and late April. Differences among species in patterns of weight change and body composition during winter seem to be related to social organization, body size, food type, and foraging behavior. Females left spring staging areas weighing relatively less than most other species of geese and may have benefited from foraging opportunities on the nesting grounds.

  13. The neural basis of academic achievement motivation.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Onoe, Hirotaka; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2008-08-01

    We have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the neural correlates of motivation, concentrating on the motivation to learn and gain monetary rewards. We compared the activation in the brain obtained during reported high states of motivation for learning, with the ones observed when the motivation was based on monetary reward. Our results show that motivation to learn correlates with bilateral activity in the putamen, and that the higher the reported motivation, as derived from a questionnaire that each subject filled prior to scanning, the greater the change in the BOLD signals within the putamen. Monetary motivation also activated the putamen bilaterally, though the intensity of activity was not related to the monetary reward. We conclude that the putamen is critical for motivation in different domains and the extent of activity of the putamen may be pivotal to the motivation that drives academic achievement and thus academic successes.

  14. Shifting South African Learners towards Greater Autonomy in Scientific Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Hobden, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This report describes how teachers support ninth-grade students who are doing scientific investigations in Natural Sciences in South African schools. This is of interest as allowing students to participate in inquiry-based investigations is a significant shift from traditional practices. It presents a new challenge to teachers as it signals an…

  15. Optimizing Rubisco and its regulation for greater resource use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Scales, Joanna C; Madgwick, Pippa J; Parry, Martin A J

    2015-09-01

    Rubisco catalyses the carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), enabling net CO2 assimilation in photosynthesis. The properties and regulation of Rubisco are not optimal for biomass production in current and projected future environments. Rubisco is relatively inefficient, and large amounts of the enzyme are needed to support photosynthesis, requiring large investments in nitrogen. The competing oxygenation of RuBP by Rubisco decreases photosynthetic efficiency. Additionally, Rubisco is inhibited by some sugar phosphates and depends upon interaction with Rubisco activase (Rca) to be reactivated. Rca activity is modulated by the chloroplast redox status and ADP/ATP ratios, thereby mediating Rubisco activation and photosynthetic induction in response to irradiance. The extreme thermal sensitivity of Rca compromises net CO2 assimilation at moderately high temperatures. Given its central role in carbon assimilation, the improvement of Rubisco function and regulation is tightly linked with irradiance, nitrogen and water use efficiencies. Although past attempts have had limited success, novel technologies and an expanding knowledge base make the challenge of improving Rubisco activity in crops an achievable goal. Strategies to optimize Rubisco and its regulation are addressed in relation to their potential to improve crop resource use efficiency and climate resilience of photosynthesis.

  16. Sympathetic preganglionic efferent and afferent neurons mediated by the greater splanchnic nerve in rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Yasuhiro; Cernucan, Roxana D.; Nishimoto, Jo Ann S.; Blanks, Robert H. I.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the study of the vestibular-autonomic pathways involved in motion sickness, the location and the morphology of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSNs) projecting via the greater splanchnic nerve were examined. Retrograde labeling of neurons was obtained by application of horseradish peroxidase to the cut end of the greater splanchnic nerve. Labeled PSNs were found, ipsilaterally, within the T1 to T11 spinal cord segments, with the highest density of neurons in T6. Most PSNs were located within the intermediolateral column, but a significant portion also occurred within the lateral funiculus, the intercalated region, and the central autonomic area; the proportion of labeling between the four regions depended on the spinal cord segment.

  17. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  18. Disparate stakeholder management: the case of elk and bison feeding in southern Greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koontz, Lynne; Hoag, Dana; DeLong, Don

    2012-01-01

    For resource decisions to make the most possible progress toward achieving agency mandates, managers must work with stakeholders and may need to at least partially accommodate some of their key underlying interests. To accommodate stakeholder interests, while also substantively working toward fulfilling legal mandates, managers must understand the sociopolitical factors that influence the decision-making process. We coin the phrase disparate stakeholder management (DSM) to describe situations with disparate stakeholders and disparate management solutions. A DSM approach (DSMA) requires decision makers to combine concepts from many sciences, thus releasing them from disciplinary bonds that often constrain innovation and effectiveness. We combined three distinct approaches to develop a DSMA that assisted in developing a comprehensive range of elk and bison management alternatives in the Southern Greater Yellowstone Area. The DSMA illustrated the extent of compromise between meeting legal agency mandates and accommodating the preferences of certain stakeholder groups.

  19. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R R; Netalkar, A; Lad, S D

    2000-02-01

    Primary Ewing's sarcoma is an uncommon lethal tumour of the long bones and pelvic girdle mainly affecting children and young adults. An origin in the cranial bones is extremely rare. We report a unique case of primary involvement of the greater wing of sphenoid bone in a 16-year-old patient. Aggressive management using microsurgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy was curative. Localized, primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cranial bones should be considered as a distinct clinicopathological entity with an extremely low rate of dural penetration and metastases, and with a relatively better prognosis as compared with those of long bones and pelvic girdle. In neurosurgical practice, primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cranial bones requires early aggressive management to achieve adequate long-term prognosis and cure.

  20. Greater specificity of sensorimotor learning in the elderly when acquiring an interceptive task.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luis Augusto; Lima, Elke dos Santos

    2009-03-01

    In this investigation we assessed the extent to which young and elderly individuals become dependent on the specific visual situation present during practice of an interceptive task. Young and elderly participants practiced extensively a task of intercepting a virtually moving target under full vision or visual occlusion of the last 600 ms of target displacement. Before and after practice they were assessed in four visual conditions varying the time interval of visual display. The results showed that the elderly practicing under full vision had a progressive increase of temporal errors as a function of the period of visual occlusion after task acquisition. The elderly practicing under visual occlusion, conversely, achieved improved performance only in the visual condition experienced during task acquisition. Young individuals showed greater adaptability, presenting similar performance across visual conditions. Development of specific visuomotor integration only for the elderly seems to be related with the higher status that vision holds for movement control at this age.

  1. Oxidative stress in severely obese persons is greater in those with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Tinahones, Francisco J; Murri-Pierri, Mora; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; García-Almeida, Jose M; García-Serrano, Sara; García-Arnés, Juan; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    The postprandial state seems to have a direct influence on oxidative status and insulin resistance. We determined the effect of an increase in plasma triglycerides after a high-fat meal on oxidative stress in severely obese patients with differing degrees of insulin resistance. The study was undertaken in 60 severely obese persons who received a 60-g fat overload with a commercial preparation. Measurements were made of insulin resistance, the plasma activity of various antioxidant enzymes, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The patients with greater insulin resistance had a lower plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P < 0.05) and a greater glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (P < 0.05). The high-fat meal caused a significant reduction in SOD activity and an increase in the plasma concentration of TBARS in all the patients. Only the patients with lower insulin resistance experienced a significant increase in plasma catalase activity (2.22 +/- 1.02 vs. 2.93 +/- 1.22 nmol/min/ml, P < 0.01), remaining stable in the patients with greater insulin resistance. These latter patients had a reduction in plasma TAC (6.92 +/- 1.93 vs. 6.29 +/- 1.80 mmol/l, P < 0.01). In conclusion, our results show a close association between the degree of insulin resistance and markers of oxidative stress, both before and after a high-fat meal. The postprandial state causes an important increase in oxidative stress, especially in severely obese persons with greater insulin resistance. However, we are unable to determine from this study whether there is first an increase in oxidative stress or in insulin resistance.

  2. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  3. Latin American perspectives on the individual and the greater community.

    PubMed

    Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1983-08-01

    betterment; social justice; and individual dignity. In all these questions, there are legitimate rationales for childbearing or for contraceptive use from the individual's perspective, but from the point of view of the global community, continued high fertility appears to be a longterm plan for disaster. By taking into account the greater good of the community, the exercise of individual choices takes on new meaning.

  4. Exercising in environmental extremes : a greater threat to immune function?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Neil P; Whitham, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Athletes, military personnel, fire fighters, mountaineers and astronauts may be required to perform in environmental extremes (e.g. heat, cold, high altitude and microgravity). Exercising in hot versus thermoneutral conditions (where core temperature is > or = 1 degrees C higher in hot conditions) augments circulating stress hormones, catecholamines and cytokines with associated increases in circulating leukocytes. Studies that have clamped the rise in core temperature during exercise (by exercising in cool water) demonstrate a large contribution of the rise in core temperature in the leukocytosis and cytokinaemia of exercise. However, with the exception of lowered stimulated lymphocyte responses after exercise in the heat, and in exertional heat illness patients (core temperature > 40 degrees C), recent laboratory studies show a limited effect of exercise in the heat on neutrophil function, monocyte function, natural killer cell activity and mucosal immunity. Therefore, most of the available evidence does not support the contention that exercising in the heat poses a greater threat to immune function (vs thermoneutral conditions). From a critical standpoint, due to ethical committee restrictions, most laboratory studies have evoked modest core temperature responses (< 39 degrees C). Given that core temperature during exercise in the field often exceeds levels associated with fever and hyperthermia (approximately 39.5 degrees C) field studies may provide an opportunity to determine the effects of severe heat stress on immunity. Field studies may also provide insight into the possible involvement of immune modulation in the aetiology of exertional heat stroke (core temperature > 40.6 degrees C) and identify the effects of acclimatisation on neuroendocrine and immune responses to exercise-heat stress. Laboratory studies can provide useful information by, for example, applying the thermal clamp model to examine the involvement of the rise in core temperature in the

  5. Family stability in greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1993-01-01

    I investigated the stability of parent-offspring bonds, and sibling-sibling bonds of neck-banded Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) during winters (September-May) in California and southern Oregon from 1979 to 1989. Geese captured at feeding sites were more likely to be in social groups than those captured at roosting sites. Offspring remained associated with their parents longer than reported for other geese, as 69% of yearlings, 39% of two-year-olds, and 38% of three-year-olds and older were observed with their parents during winter. The proportion of time offspring spent with their parents declined as they grew older, being 76% for juveniles, 32% for yearlings, and 15% for two-year-olds and older. The prevalence of extended family groups was corroborated by counts of landing groups of unmarked geese. Sibling bonds also persisted after the first year of life, with 74%, 50%, and 39% of siblings maintaining some degree of social contact at ages of one, two and three years or older, respectively. Older offspring were more likely to associate with brood mates than with parents. Intensive observations ended when the oldest known-age geese were 34 months old. Incidental sightings in subsequent years revealed that some offspring up to eight years of age still associated with their parents and/or siblings. The benefits of maintaining long-term family bonds were not readily apparent, as there was no difference in the reproductive success of parents with and without attendant offspring, and yearlings that associated with parents were not more likely to survive than yearlings that did not associate with parents. However, older offspring and their parents may benefit by remaining together if extended families are more dominant and have better access to limited food and safe roost sites. Parents benefit if their fitness is enhanced due to nest defense provided by older offspring, and subadults probably benefit from staying with their parents by learning

  6. Evaluating 'good governance': The development of a quantitative tool in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kisingo, Alex; Rollins, Rick; Murray, Grant; Dearden, Phil; Clarke, Marlea

    2016-10-01

    Protected areas (PAs) can provide important benefits to conservation and to communities. A key factor in the effective delivery of these benefits is the role of governance. There has been a growth in research developing frameworks to evaluate 'good' PA governance, usually drawing on a set of principles that are associated with groups of indicators. In contrast to dominant qualitative approaches, this paper describes the development of a quantitative method for measuring effectiveness of protected area governance, as perceived by stakeholders in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem in Tanzania. The research developed a quantitative method for developing effectiveness measures of PA governance, using a set of 65 statements related to governance principles developed from a literature review. The instrument was administered to 389 individuals from communities located near PAs in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem. The results of a factor analysis suggest that statements load onto 10 factors that demonstrate high psychometric validity as measured by factor loadings, explained variance, and Cronbach's alpha reliability. The ten common factors that were extracted were: 1) legitimacy, 2) transparency and accountability, 3) responsiveness, 4) fairness, 5) participation, 6) ecosystem based management (EBM) and connectivity, 7) resilience, 8) achievements, 9) consensus orientation, and 10) power. The paper concludes that quantitative surveys can be used to evaluate governance of protected areas from a community-level perspective.

  7. Consumer perspectives on involving family and significant others in a healthy lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Bartels, Stephen; Mueser, Kim; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Kinney, Allison

    2012-11-01

    This focus group study explored the potential benefits and challenges of involving family members and significant others in a healthy lifestyle program for people with serious mental illness (SMI). Six focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 30 people with SMI, who were participants in a healthy lifestyle intervention. Separate focus groups were conducted for high and low achievers in the program based on clinically significant weight loss or significant increase in fitness. Thematic analysis revealed that social support for diet and exercise was a perceived benefit to involving others in a healthy lifestyle program. Other perceived benefits were the potential to increase others' understanding of the challenges of living with mental illness and to enhance the quality of relationships. Participants identified practical and logistical concerns that could interfere with participation, including partner reliability and desirability, scheduling, and lack of financial resources. Participants in the high achiever group expressed a greater desire to involve others in exercise than did participants in the low achiever group. Programs aimed at helping people with SMI make lifestyle changes may increase their effectiveness by involving significant others. Mobilizing social support networks for health behavior change is an ideal role for social workers.

  8. Childhood vaccination: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ndumbe, P

    1996-09-01

    As the goal of eradicating smallpox was being met, the World Health Organization created its Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in 1974 and reached its initial goal of achieving full vaccination of 80% of the world's children by 1990. This effort was aided by the creation of "cold chain" delivery systems and resulted in the annual saving of 3.5 million children in less-developed countries. Current EPI vaccination goals include 1) eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000, 2) elimination of neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, 3) control of measles and hepatitis B, and 4) immunization of 90% of the world's children 1 year or younger by the year 2000. Goals of the Children's Vaccine Initiative (formed in 1991) include 1) provision of an adequate supply of affordable, safe, and effective vaccines; 2) production of improved and new vaccines; and 3) simplification of the logistics of vaccine delivery. Future challenges are to sustain high vaccination coverage, reach the unreached, achieve proper storage of vaccines and reduce waste, integrate new vaccines into national programs, and achieve vaccine self-sufficiency. The fact that these challenges will be difficult to achieve is illustrated by the situation in Africa where the high immunization levels achieved in 1990 have dropped dramatically. Those who must act to implement immunization programs are health personnel, families, governments, and development partners. In order to achieve equity in health, every child must be reached, governments must be made accountable for programs, health workers must convince families of the importance of vaccination, delivery systems must be in place to take advantage of the new vaccines being delivered, and a multisectoral approach must be taken to assure sustainability.

  9. The clinical significance of command hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Hellerstein, D; Frosch, W; Koenigsberg, H W

    1987-02-01

    Patients with command hallucinations (voices ordering particular acts, often violent or destructive ones) are commonly assumed to be at high risk for dangerous behavior. The authors reviewed 789 consecutive inpatient admissions. Of 151 patients with auditory hallucinations, 58 (38.4%) heard commands. The presence of auditory hallucinations was significantly associated with diagnosis, demographic variables, and use of maximal observation and seclusion. However, patients with command hallucinations were not significantly different from patients without commands on demographic and behavioral variables, including suicidal ideation or behavior and assaultiveness. These findings suggest that command hallucinations alone may not imply greater risk for acute, life-threatening behavior.

  10. Maternal, neonatal, and child health in southeast Asia: towards greater regional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Acuin, Cecilia S; Khor, Geok Lin; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Achadi, Endang L; Htay, Thein Thein; Firestone, Rebecca; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-02-05

    Although maternal and child mortality are on the decline in southeast Asia, there are still major disparities, and greater equity is key to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We used comparable cross-national data sources to document mortality trends from 1990 to 2008 and to assess major causes of maternal and child deaths. We present inequalities in intervention coverage by two common measures of wealth quintiles and rural or urban status. Case studies of reduction in mortality in Thailand and Indonesia indicate the varying extents of success and point to some factors that accelerate progress. We developed a Lives Saved Tool analysis for the region and for country subgroups to estimate deaths averted by cause and intervention. We identified three major patterns of maternal and child mortality reduction: early, rapid downward trends (Brunei, Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand); initially high declines (sustained by Vietnam but faltering in the Philippines and Indonesia); and high initial rates with a downward trend (Laos, Cambodia, and Myanmar). Economic development seems to provide an important context that should be coupled with broader health-system interventions. Increasing coverage and consideration of the health-system context is needed, and regional support from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations can provide increased policy support to achieve maternal, neonatal, and child health goals.

  11. Western juniper management: assessing strategies for improving greater sage-grouse habitat and rangeland productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J.N.; Dedrick, Allison G.; Hamilton, Mattew; Porse, Erik C.; Coates, Peter S.; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  12. Western Juniper Management: Assessing Strategies for Improving Greater Sage-grouse Habitat and Rangeland Productivity.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J N; Dedrick, Allison G; Hamilton, Matthew; Porse, Erik C; Coates, Peter S; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  13. Western Juniper Management: Assessing Strategies for Improving Greater Sage-grouse Habitat and Rangeland Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J. N.; Dedrick, Allison G.; Hamilton, Matthew; Porse, Erik C.; Coates, Peter S.; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  14. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater Augusta, Maine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W; Marvinney, Robert G; Loiselle, Marc C; Locke, Daniel B; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-04-15

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (10(0)-10(1) km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 microg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 microg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (approximately 40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%),the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (approximately 1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 microg/L arsenic in groundwater.

  15. Susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to experimental infection with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Clark, Larry; Hall, Jeffrey; McLean, Robert; Dunbar, Michael; Klenk, Kaci; Bowen, Richard; Smeraski, Cynthia A

    2006-01-01

    Populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined 45-80% in North America since 1950. Although much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss, recent field studies have indicated that West Nile virus (WNV) has had a significant negative impact on local populations of grouse. We confirm the susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to WNV infection in laboratory experimental studies. Grouse were challenged by subcutaneous injection of WNV (10(3.2) plaque-forming units [PFUs]). All grouse died within 6 days of infection. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for 50% survival was 4.5 days. Mean peak viremia for nonvaccinated birds was 10(6.4) PFUs/ml (+/-10(0.2) PFUs/ml, standard error of the mean [SEM]). Virus was shed cloacally and orally. Four of the five vaccinated grouse died, but survival time was increased (50% survival=9.5 days), with 1 grouse surviving to the end-point of the experiment (14 days) with no signs of illness. Mean peak viremia for the vaccinated birds was 10(2.3) PFUs/ml (+/-10(0.6) PFUs/ml, SEM). Two birds cleared the virus from their blood before death or euthanasia. These data emphasize the high susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to infection with WNV.

  16. Spatial Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Occurrence and Association with Bedrock Geology in Greater Augusta, Maine, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 μg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 μg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (p<0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%) and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 μg/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

  17. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater augusta, maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Q.; Jung, H.B.; Culbertson, C.W.; Marvinney, R.G.; Loiselle, M.C.; Locke, D.B.; Cheek, H.; Thibodeau, H.; Zheng, Yen

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 ??g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ??g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (???40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian - Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician - Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (???1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ??g/L arsenic in groundwater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. Relatedness and nesting dispersion within breeding populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, A.C.; Eadie, J.M.; Ely, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    We studied patterns of relatedness and nesting dispersion in female Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) in Alaska. Female Greater White-fronted Geese are thought to be strongly philopatric and are often observed nesting in close association with other females. Analysis of the distribution of nests on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in 1998 indicated that nests were significantly clumped. We tested the hypothesis that females in the same nest cluster would be closely related using estimates of genetic relatedness based on six microsatellite DNA loci. There was no difference in the mean relatedness of females in the same cluster compared to females found in different clusters. However, relatedness among females was negatively correlated with distance between their nests, and geese nesting within 50 m of one another tended to be more closely related than those nesting farther apart. Randomization tests revealed that pairs of related individuals (R > 0.45) were more likely to occur in the same cluster when analyzed at the scale of the entire study site. However, the pattern did not hold when restricted to pairs found within 500 m of each other. Our results indicate that nest clusters are not composed primarily of closely related females, but Greater White-fronted Geese appear to be sufficiently philopatric to promote nonrandom patterns of relatedness at a local scale.

  19. Computer-assisted TKA: greater precision, doubtful clinical efficacy: affirms.

    PubMed

    Berend, Michael E

    2009-09-01

    Component and limb alignment are essential surgical variables that influence the long-term performance of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Total knee arthroplasty failure remains multifactorial, and computer-assisted surgical techniques may address only part of the failure pathophysiology. Despite attempting to use computer-assisted surgical techniques to improve TKA alignment, recent evidence has reported that the entire nature of the computer-assisted experience is not particularly forgiving, as significant increases in time and complications remain problematic. It appears computer-assisted surgical techniques are not yet "ready for primetime" with reproducible and proven long-term benefits for patients. Further studies are needed to better determine the precise target toward which to aim computer-assisted surgery efforts.

  20. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Greater Lefkosia Area, Cyprus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Richard W.; Newell, Wayne; Panayides, Ioannis; Stone, Byron; Tsiolakis, Efthymios; Necdet, Mehmet; Batihanli, Hilmi; Ozhur, Ayse; Lord, Alan; Berksoy, Okan; Zomeni, Zomenia; Schindler, J. Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The island of Cyprus has a long historical record of earthquakes that have damaged pre-Roman to modern human settlements. Because the recurrent damaging earthquakes can have a significant economic and social impact on Cyprus, this project was initiated to develop a seismic-hazard assessment for a roughly 400 square kilometer area centered on Cyprus' capital and largest city, whose European name is Nicosia and whose local name is Lefkosia. In addition, geologic and seismotectonic evaluations for the project extended beyond the perimeter of the geologic map. Additional structural, stratigraphic, and paleontological data were collected island-wide as well as data from literature research throughout the eastern Mediterranean region, in order to accurately place the geology and seismic hazards of the Lefkosia area in a regional tectonic framework.

  1. Offshore technology aims for reduced costs, greater safety

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, P.

    1985-04-01

    OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGY continued to make headway last year, although dramatic breakthroughs were few and far between. Major oil companies have been spending heavily on acquisitions and the service companies, which historically have done much innovative work, have been forced to curtail their engineering budgets. The Weir hydraulic pump has been vetted for offshore service and a production model is being installed on a North Sea platform. A CO/sub 2/ fire-control system has been developed for both offshore and onshore applications, and Drilco's Trans-Wate pipe promises to extend drillstring life. And, perhaps most significantly, the Poseidon project is healthy and flourishing. If successful, Poseidon could cut development costs by more than half.

  2. The Relationship between Motivation and Achievement--A Survey of the Study Motivation of English Majors in Qingdao Agricultural University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Peipei; Pan, Guirong

    2009-01-01

    The survey conducted in Qingdao Agricultural University reveals the relationship between motivation and achievement as follows: instrumental motivation influences both high achievers and low achiever; while high achievers have greater integrative motivation than lower ones; Interest plays an extremely important role in study and high achievers…

  3. Relationship between width of greater trochanters and width of iliac wings in tronchanteric bursitis.

    PubMed

    Viradia, Neal K; Berger, Alex A; Dahners, Laurence E

    2011-09-01

    Trochanteric bursitis is a common disorder that is characterized by inflammation of the bursa, superficial to the greater trochanter of the femur, leading to pain in the lateral hip, and often occurs because of acute trauma or repetitive friction involving the iliotibial band, the greater trochanter, and the bursa. In the study reported here, we hypothesized that the increased incidence of bursitis may be the result of the increased prominence of the trochanter in relation to the wings of the iliac crest. Distances between the outermost edges of trochanters and iliac wings were measured in 202 patients from the University of North Carolina Health Care System-101 without a known diagnosis and 101 with a clinical diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis. To determine significance, t tests for nonpaired data were used. Mean (SD) difference between trochanter and iliac wing widths was 28 (20) mm in the group diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and 17 (18) mm in the control group. The difference between the groups in this regard was significant (P<.00005). In addition, mean (SD) ratio of trochanter widths to iliac wing widths was 1.09 (.06) in the bursitis group and 1.05 (.06) in the control group. The difference between these groups was significant (P<.0005) in this regard as well. Having trochanters wider in relation to iliac wings was associated with the diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis.

  4. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  5. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…

  6. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  7. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  8. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  9. Student Achievement, 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangino, Evangelina

    This report summarizes results of student achievement in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) on the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) tests in 1986-87. Major findings indicate the following: (1) 99.4% of AISD seniors to graduate in May 1987 passed the Exit-Level TEAMS tests, with only 17 denied diplomas in…

  10. Sociocultural Variation in Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the variations in literacy achievement among native and non-native upper primary school children (grades three to six) in the Netherlands. Various measures of word decoding, reading literacy and writing skill were collected from 1091 native Dutch children, 753 children with a former Dutch colonial…

  11. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  12. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  13. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  14. Grouping Students for Increased Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews results of four recent studies exploring the effects of various student-grouping schemes on academic achievement. Grouping plans included multiage classrooms, full-time ability grouping, and within-classroom grouping. Two studies investigated administrator attitudes toward student grouping. Several studies found that grouping plans…

  15. Achievement, Hedonism and the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    The problem of poor school achievement is in part because students lack work and discipline values. The article suggests moral and ethical teachings inspire students to be better scholars and people; and teacher education must prepare teachers to be moral educators by reintroducing moral education into the curriculum. (SM)

  16. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  17. Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C.

    This paper discusses ways that institutions can change the higher education system and environment to accommodate more minority students. The first section, "Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement," presents an overview of the problems facing colleges and universities with respect to recruiting and retaining minority students. In the…

  18. Faculty Development: Assessing Learner Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Barbara A.; Overfield, Karen

    This study addressed the challenges of developing a faculty professional development workshop on assessment, measurement, and evaluation of achievement in adult learners. The setting for the workshop was a system of postsecondary career colleges throughout the United States. The curriculum development model of D. Kirkpatrick (1994) was used as a…

  19. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  20. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  1. Teacher Dispositions and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Kathleen Adams

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to close the achievement gap between students of minority and majority populations and between students in higher and lower economic circumstances, the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) added instruction and evaluation of teacher dispositions to its requirements for credentialing prospective teachers.…

  2. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  3. Greater cognitive deterioration in women than men with Alzheimer's disease: a meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Karen; Laws, Keith R; Gale, Tim M; Kondel, Tejinder K

    2012-01-01

    Studies reporting on the cognitive abilities of men and women with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are surprisingly rare. We carried out a meta-analysis of neurocognitive data from 15 studies (n = 828 men; 1,238 women), which revealed a consistent male advantage on verbal and visuospatial tasks and tests of episodic and semantic memory. Moderator regression analyses showed that age, education level, and dementia severity did not significantly predict the male advantage. Reasons posited for this advantage include a reduction of estrogen in postmenopausal women, sex differences in AD pathology, and greater cognitive reserve in men.

  4. Beauty is in the 'we' of the beholder: greater agreement on facial attractiveness among close relations.

    PubMed

    Bronstad, P Matthew; Russell, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Scientific research on facial attractiveness has focused primarily on elucidating universal factors to which all raters respond consistently. However, recent work has shown that there is also substantial disagreement between raters, highlighting the importance of determining how attractiveness preferences vary among different individuals. We conducted a typical attractiveness ratings study, but took the unusual step of recruiting pairs of subjects who were spouses, siblings, or close friends. The agreement between pairs of affiliated friends, siblings, and spouses was significantly greater than between pairs of strangers drawn from the same race and culture, providing evidence that facial-attractiveness preferences are socially organized.

  5. Lifetime history of heroin use is associated with greater drug severity among prescription opioid abusers

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Andrew C.; Patrick, Mollie E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While research suggests primary prescription opioid (PO) abusers may exhibit less severe demographic and drug use characteristics than primary heroin abusers, less is known about whether a lifetime history of heroin use confers greater severity among PO abusers. Objective In this secondary analysis, we examined demographic and drug use characteristics as a function of lifetime heroin use among 89 PO-dependent adults screened for a trial evaluating the relative efficacy of buprenorphine taper durations. Exploratory analyses also examined contribution of lifetime heroin use to treatment response among a subset of participants who received a uniform set of study procedures. Methods Baseline characteristics were compared between participants reporting lifetime heroin use ≥5 (H+; n=41) vs. <5 (H−; n=48) times. Treatment response (i.e., illicit opioid abstinence and treatment retention at end of study) was examined in the subset of H+ and H− participants randomized to receive the 4-week taper condition (N=22). Results H+ participants were significantly older and more likely to be male. They reported longer durations of illicit opioid use, greater alcohol-related problems, more past-month cocaine use, greater lifetime IV drug use, and greater lifetime use of cigarettes, amphetamines and hallucinogens. H+ participants also had lower scores on the Positive Symptom Distress and Depression subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Finally, there was a trend toward poorer treatment outcomes among H+ participants. Conclusion A lifetime history of heroin use may be associated with elevated drug severity and unique treatment needs among treatment-seeking PO abusers. PMID:25481453

  6. Tailoring Ion-Thruster Grid Apertures for Greater Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John

    2004-01-01

    A report proposes tailoring the diameters of the apertures in the accelerator grid of an ion thruster to reduce the open grid area through which un-ionized propellant gas can escape. The result would be a reduction in the loss of propellant gas and a corresponding increase in propellant efficiency. In a typical ion thruster, the plasma density decreases with radial distance from the centerline, and as a consequence, the diameters of ion beamlets decrease with increasing radial distance. According to the proposal, the apertures, through which the ion beamlets must pass, would be sized to match the diameters (with margin) of the beamlets. The decrease of the aperture diameters with radial distance would result in a significant reduction in the open grid area: In an example based on representative design parameters, the reduction could be as much as 30 percent. In this example, the transparency to un-ionized propellant would decrease from 0.24 to 0.17 and, as a result, the propellant efficiency would increase from 0.91 to 0.96.

  7. Context of maternal lineages in the Greater Southwest.

    PubMed

    Carlyle, S W; Parr, R L; Hayes, M G; O'Rourke, D H

    2000-09-01

    We present mitochondrial haplogroup characterizations of the prehistoric Anasazi of the United States (US) Southwest. These data are part of a long-term project to characterize ancient Great Basin and US Southwest samples for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. Three restriction site polymorphisms (RSPs) and one length polymorphism identify four common Native American matrilines (A, B, C, and D). The Anasazi (n = 27) are shown to have a moderate frequency of haplogroup A (22%), a high frequency of haplogroup B (56%), and a low frequency of C (15%). Haplogroup D has not yet been detected among the Anasazi. In comparison to modern Native American groups from the US Southwest, the Anasazi are shown to have a distribution of haplogroups similar to the frequency pattern exhibited by modern Pueblo groups. A principal component analysis also clusters the Anasazi with some modern (Pueblo) Southwestern populations, and away from other modern (Athapaskan speaking) Southwestern populations. The Anasazi are also shown to have a significantly different distribution of the four haplogroups as compared to the eastern Great Basin Great Salt Lake Fremont (n = 32), although both groups cluster together in a principal component analysis. The context of our data suggests substantial stability within the US Southwest, even in the face of the serious cultural and biological disruption caused by colonization of the region by European settlers. We conclude that although sample numbers are fairly low, ancient DNA (aDNA) data are useful for assessing long-term populational affinities and for discerning regional population structure.

  8. Differential negative air ion effects on learning disabled and normal-achieving children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.; Kershner, J. R.

    1990-03-01

    Forty normal-achieving and 33 learning disabled (LD) children were assigned randomly to either a negative ion or placebo test condition. On a dichotic listening task using consonant-vowel (CV) combinations, both groups showed an ioninduced increase in the normal right ear advantage (REA). However, the mechanisms for this effect were different for each group. The LDs showed the effect at the right ear/left hemisphere (enhancement). The normal achievers showed the effect at the left ear/right hemisphere (inhibition). The results are consistent with an activation-inhibition model of cerebral function and suggest a functional relationship between arousal, interhemispheric activation-inhibition, and learning disabilities. The LDs may have an interhemispheric dysfunction. Both groups showed superior right ear report and the normal achiever showed overall superiority. Normal achievers showed higher consonant intrusion scores, probably due to a greater cognitive capacity. Age was a significant covariate reflecting developmental capacity changes. Negative air ions are seen to be a tool with potential theoretical and remedial applications.

  9. Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer.

  10. The Achievement Gap: Factors That Influenced the Achievement of Successful Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Kwame R., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The academic underperformance of Black students when compared to their White peers has confounded educators nationwide. This discrepancy in academic performance commonly referred to as the achievement gap has become a national crisis which has led to one of the most significant educational reforms undertaken in the United States of America in the…

  11. Reliance on luck: identifying which achievement goals elicit superstitious behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamerman, Eric J; Morewedge, Carey K

    2015-03-01

    People often resort to superstitious behavior to facilitate goal achievement. We examined whether the specific type of achievement goal pursued influences the propensity to engage in superstitious behavior. Across six studies, we found that performance goals were more likely than learning goals to elicit superstitious behavior. Participants were more likely to engage in superstitious behavior at high than at low levels of chronic performance orientation, but superstitious behavior was not influenced by chronic learning orientation (Studies 1 and 2). Similarly, participants exhibited stronger preferences for lucky items when primed to pursue performance goals rather than learning goals (Studies 3 and 4). As uncertainty of goal achievement increased, superstitious behavior increased when participants pursued performance goals but not learning goals (Study 5). Finally, assignment to use a lucky (vs. unlucky) item resulted in greater confidence of achieving performance goals but not learning goals (Study 6).

  12. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Ruth, K; Pechtel, P; Yoon, S A; Anderson, C M; Teicher, M H

    2016-07-15

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r=0.679, p<0.004). Later stressors, including childhood maltreatment and attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes.

  13. Hybrid Wound Filaments for Greater Resistance to Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K.; Patterson, James E.; Olson, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid material containing wound filaments made of a hybrid of high-strength carbon fibers and poly(phenylene benzobisoxazole) [PBO] fibers is discussed. This hybrid material is chosen in an effort to increase the ability of the pressure vessel to resist damage by low-speed impacts (e.g., dropping of tools on the vessel or bumping of the vessel against hard objects during installation and use) without significantly increasing the weight of the vessel. While the basic concept of hybridizing fibers in filament-wound structures is not new, the use of hybridization to increase resistance to impacts is an innovation, and can be expected to be of interest in the composite-pressure-vessel industry. The precise types and the proportions of the high-strength carbon fibers and the PBO fibers in the hybrid are chosen, along with the filament-winding pattern, to maximize the advantageous effects and minimize the disadvantageous effects of each material. In particular, one seeks to (1) take advantage of the ability of the carbon fibers to resist stress rupture while minimizing their contribution to vulnerability of the vessel to impact damage and (2) take advantage of the toughness of the PBO fibers while minimizing their contribution to vulnerability of the vessel to stress rupture. Experiments on prototype vessels fabricated according to this concept have shown promising results. At the time of reporting the information for this article, research toward understanding and optimizing the performances of PBO fibers so as to minimize their contribution to vulnerability of the pressure vessel to stress rupture had yet to be performed.

  14. Lifetime Discrimination Associated with Greater Likelihood of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rani; Kasl, Stanislav; Levy, Becca R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To evaluate whether the stressor of perceived discrimination was associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and premenstrual symptoms among minority women. This study builds on previous research that found perceived discrimination was positively associated with other psychiatric illnesses. Methods Participants were 2718 Asian, Latina, and black premenopausal women aged 18–40 years who completed the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview for the National Latino and Asian American Survey or the National Survey of American Life. Perceived discrimination was assessed with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. DSM-IV-based diagnostic algorithms generated a provisional lifetime diagnosis of PMDD. Results Eighty-three percent of the participants reported experiencing discrimination (due to race, gender, age, height or weight, or other reasons) in their lifetimes. The frequency of perceived discrimination was positively associated with PMDD (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.10) and premenstrual symptoms (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.05), independent of demographic covariates and social desirability. Women reporting gender discrimination (OR 5.18, 95% CI 1.80-14.90), race discrimination (OR 4.14, 95% CI 1.54-11.11), and other forms of discrimination (OR 6.43, 95% CI 2.11-19.65) were significantly more likely than women without experiences of discrimination to have PMDD. Subtle discrimination was more strongly associated with PMDD (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.23) than was blatant discrimination (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.94-1.15). Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate that perceived discrimination is associated with PMDD and premenstrual symptoms. These findings suggest that the prevalence of these conditions may be lessened by reducing discrimination in women's lives. PMID:21671777

  15. The tectonic evolution of the greater South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.E. )

    1990-06-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) basin is composed of two major subbasins. The eastern subbasin was formed by seafloor spreading in the middle Tertiary and is associated with roughly E-W-trending magnetic lineations. The southwestern subbasin of the South China Sea is characterized by NE-SW tectonic and magnetic trends and is considerably narrower than the eastern subbasin. There is no obvious structural discontinuity between the two subbasins; hence the initial opening of the eastern subbasin was likely accommodated to the west by a prolonged period of extension of the continental crust that was not accompanied by the formation of normal oceanic crust. The southwest subbasin was eventually also formed by seafloor spreading processes. Although the sequence of magnetic lineations recorded there is relatively short, these data coupled with heatflow and crustal depth data strongly suggest that the southwestern subbasin was not formed until the early-middle Miocene, coincident with the last phase of spreading in the adjacent eastern subbasin. It is still unclear whether or not a significant change in spreading direction occurred within the SCS basin during the early Miocene. The geometry of the deep SCS basin as defined by the seaward limit of the continent-ocean boundary zone provides important constraints on the east-to-west variations in the total crustal extension manifested in the rifted margins of the South China Sea. The amount of new oceanic crust created by seafloor spreading plus the amount of crustal extension accommodated within the continental crust must be nearly the same for all points along the rifted margins. Because the amount of oceanic crust present is quite variable, it follows that the amount of crustal extension must be similarly variable and in a predictable way.

  16. Student achievement outcomes in a scaling urban standards-based science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Robert R.

    This work examines the effects on achievement of a multifaceted reform supporting standards based science teaching in urban middle schools. Several project-based inquiry science curriculum units were introduced to the Detroit public schools, supported by aligned professional development, learning technologies, and administrative policy. The units scaled to over 20,000 students in 26 schools over 6 years, producing unique large-scale longitudinal achievement data on curriculum reform. Chapters include a review of achievement studies on scaling reforms, an examination of the impact of the inquiry curriculum units on state standardized test results, and an investigation of the effect of scaling and teacher experience on student learning. Two cohorts of 7th and 8th graders that participated in the curricula are compared with the remainder of the district population using state standardized test results. Both the initial (n = 760) and scaled up (n = 1,043) cohorts show higher science content understanding and process skills, and significantly higher pass rates. The effect does not attenuate with scaling, is greater for students who experience an inquiry curriculum in both 7th and 8th grade, and reduces the gender gap in achievement for urban African-American boys. Scaling effects as the curriculum innovation matured over 4--6 years are examined using pretest/posttest assessments for two curricula involving 6,396 and 5,043 students respectively. There is no attenuation in student achievement as the innovation scales and outside support fades. Student achievement shows significant gains in the first two years of curriculum enactment, before reaching a stable plateau. By contrast, individual teachers show yearly improvement in student achievement on average as they gain experience with curricula. The absence of a plateau suggests that stability of teacher staffing and administrative support for reform are important for maintaining and improving achievement. Together, the

  17. DPAL: historical perspective and summary of achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Knize, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Alkali vapor lasers are under extensive research and development during the past decade because of their potential for scaling to high powers while maintaining a good beam quality. Also, a possibility of using efficient diode lasers for pumping alkali vapor promises high total wall plug efficiency for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL). Since the first DPAL demonstration with output power of 130 mW in 20051, a significant progress in this field was achieved. The output power of about 1 kW in continuous wave (CW) operation with optical efficiency close to 50% was recently demonstrated for a Cs DPAL2. Also, the DPALs based on other alkali metals (Rubidium and Potassium) were demonstrated3,4 . In spite of these significant achievements, there are still several problems in DPAL power scaling exist that must be addressed. Among them are the thermal5 and photoionization6 issues that become important even at power level about several tens of watts. In this paper we present a historical review of the alkali laser research and development, discuss the most important achievements and future perspectives in this field of research.

  18. Wise detections of known QSOs at redshifts greater than six

    SciTech Connect

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-12-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55% (17/31) of the known QSOs at z > 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer, and UKIDSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in the quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE W1 (3.4 μm) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 μm), 3 in W3 (12 μm), and 0 in W4 (22 μm). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longward of 5 μm until the launch of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES, and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests that a more aggressive hunt for very high redshift QSOs by combining WISE W1 and W2 data with red, observed optical colors could be effective at least for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are, on average, significantly fainter than the WISE-detected examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-IR flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in W1 but not W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large active galactic nucleus samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshift QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  19. Modeling Phosphorus Transport and Cycling in the Greater Everglades Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, A. I.; Grace, K. A.; Jawitz, J. W.; Muller, S.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Flaig, E. G.

    2005-12-01

    A solute transport model was used to predict phosphorus mobility in the northern Everglades. Over the past several decades, agricultural drainage waters discharged into the northern Everglades, have been enriched in phosphorus (P) relative to the historic rainfall-driven inputs. While methods of reducing total P concentrations in the discharge water have been actively pursued through implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), a major parallel effort has focused on the construction of a network of constructed wetlands for P removal before these waters enter the Everglades. This study describes the development of a water quality model for P transport and cycling and its application to a large constructed wetland: Stormwater Treatment Area 1 West (STA 1W), located southeast of Lake Okeechobee on the eastern perimeter of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). In STA 1W agricultural nutrients such as phosphorus (P) are removed from EAA runoff before entering the adjacent Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) and the Everglades. STA 1W is divided by levees into 4 cells, which are flooded for most of the year; thus the dominant mechanism for flow and transport is overland flow. P is removed either through deposition into sediments or is taken up by plants; in either case the soils end up being significantly enriched in P. The model has been applied and calibrated to several years of water quality data from Cell 4 within STA 1W. Most existing P models have been applied to agricultural/upland systems, with only a few relevant to treatment wetlands such as STA 1W. To ensure sufficient flexibility in selecting appropriate system components and reactions, the model has been designed to incorporate a wide range of user-selectable mechanisms for P uptake and release parameters between soils and inflowing water. The model can track a large number of mobile and nonmobile components and utilizes a Godunov-style operator-splitting technique for the transported

  20. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  1. The incongruous achiever in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kline, S A; Golombek, H

    1974-06-01

    The authors wished to study some of the internal psychological dynamics of achievement in a nonpatient identified high school population. Questionnaires were administered to the Grade 13 students and their parents in a large high school. A number of students whose achievement and educational plans were not congruous with their general background were selected for interview. The findings suggest that a wide variety of ages and developmental stages can be discerned as critical points in the development of a student's attitude toward higher education. These students have many values in common, and their values appear related to a positive or negative identification with parental values. The students themselves show a wide range of personality integration. They relate in a special way to a wide variety of teachers' personalities.

  2. Beam cooling: Principles and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Mohl, Dieter; Sessler, Andrew M.

    2003-05-18

    After a discussion of Liouville's theorem, and its implications for beam cooling, a brief description is given of each of the various methods of beam cooling: stochastic, electron, radiation, laser, ionization, etc. For each, we present the type of particle for which it is appropriate, its range of applicability, and the currently achieved degree of cooling. For each method we also discuss the present applications and, also, possible future developments and further applications.

  3. Smoking control: challenges and achievements

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa; de Araújo, Alberto José; de Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. PMID:27832238

  4. Family Inequality, School Inequalities, and Mathematics Achievement in 65 Countries: Microeconomic Mechanisms of Rent Seeking and Diminishing Marginal Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: While many studies show that greater economic inequality widens the achievement gap between rich and poor students, recent studies indicate that countries with greater economic inequality have lower overall student achievement. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This study explores whether family inequalities…

  5. Endogenous GABA levels in the pontine reticular formation are greater during wakefulness than during REM sleep

    PubMed Central

    Vanini, Giancarlo; Wathen, Bradley L.; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A.

    2011-01-01

    Studies using drugs that increase or decrease GABAergic transmission suggest that GABA in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) promotes wakefulness and inhibits rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Cholinergic transmission in the PRF promotes REM sleep, and levels of endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) in the PRF are significantly greater during REM sleep than during wakefulness or non-REM (NREM) sleep. No previous studies have determined whether levels of endogenous GABA in the PRF vary as a function of sleep and wakefulness. This study tested the hypothesis that GABA levels in cat PRF are greatest during wakefulness and lowest during REM sleep. Extracellular GABA levels were measured during wakefulness, NREM sleep, REM sleep, and the REM sleep-like state (REMNeo) caused by microinjecting neostigmine into the PRF. GABA levels varied significantly as a function of sleep and wakefulness, and decreased significantly below waking levels during REM sleep (−42%) and REMNeo (−63%). The decrease in GABA levels during NREM sleep (22% below waking levels) was not statistically significant. Compared to NREM sleep, GABA levels decreased significantly during REM sleep (−27%) and REMNeo (−52%). Comparisons of REM sleep and REMNeo revealed no differences in GABA levels or cortical EEG power. GABA levels did not vary significantly as a function of dialysis site within the PRF. The inverse relationship between changes in PRF levels of GABA and ACh during REM sleep indicates that low GABAergic tone combined with high cholinergic tone in the PRF contributes to the generation of REM sleep. PMID:21325533

  6. Mentoring urban Black Middle-School Male Students: Implications for Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Iwamoto, Derek; Ward, Nadia; Potts, Randolph; Boyd, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have called for innovative and culturally responsive intervention programs to enhance male, African American middle school students’ academic achievement. Mentoring has received considerable attention as a novel remedy. Although anecdotal evidence supports the positive role of mentoring on academic achievement, these results are not consistent. The Benjamin E. Mays Institute (BEMI) builds on the ideals of mentoring to counter the effects academic underachievement among adolescent Black males by building a model that is Afro-centric, uses pro-social modeling, and emphasizes cultural strengths and pride, and single-sex instruction in a dual-sex educational environment. Sixty-one middle-school Black males were enrolled (BEMI: n=29; Comparison: n=32) in this study. Results revealed that students in the BEMI program had significantly greater academic attachment scores and academic success than their non-mentored peers. Additionally, racial identity attitudes of immersion/emersion and internalization and identification with academics were also significantly associated with standardized achievement tests and GPA. Policy and practice implications are discussed. PMID:20379371

  7. Breakfast Intake and Composition is Associated with Superior Academic Achievement in Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Ptomey, Lauren T.; Steger, Felicia L.; Schubert, Matthew M.; Lee, Jaehoon; Willis, Erik A.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if breakfast consumption or content affects academic achievement measured by standardized tests. Methods Baseline data was collected in fall of 2011 from 698 students (50.5% female, age=7.5±0.6 yrs.) living in the state of Kansas. Academic achievement was assessed using three components from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-III). Prior to taking the WIAT-III, participants completed a breakfast recall of all the foods and drinks consumed that morning, which was analyzed using NDS-R. WIAT-III scores were compared between breakfast and non-breakfast consumers in a sample (n=162) matched for age, sex, race, education level of both parents, household income, BMI, and cardiovascular fitness, and Pearson correlations were calculated from all breakfast eaters (n=617) between test performance and components of the breakfast. Results When compared to non-breakfast consumers, the breakfast consumers had significantly higher scores in all three WIAT-III components (all p<0.05). In breakfast consumers, servings of fruit juice were negatively correlated with reading comprehension and fluency standard score and mathematics standard score (both p<0.0001), and greater servings of whole grains were significantly related to higher scores in reading comprehension and fluency and mathematics (both p<0.05). Conclusion Both breakfast consumption and the content may be associated with improved standardized test performance in elementary school students. PMID:26697955

  8. The effects of immediate achievement and retention of middle school students involved in a metric unit designed to promote the development of estimating skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael L.; Rowsey, Robert E.

    1990-12-01

    Three hundred nintey-seven seventh-grade students were studied to determine the effect on immediate achievement and retention of a unit designed to promote the development of estimating skills involved in metric measurement. The study involved five teachers with a total of 15 average- or advanced-level classes divided into the reference and treatment groups. A five-day metric unit was designed so that both groups received exactly the same instruction in metric length, mass, and capacity with the exception of the treatment group's participation in activities relating to the development of estimation skills. Data collected from the Metric Application Instrument and analyzed with analysis of covariance indicated that students in the experimental group did retain significantly more of their improved metric application skills than the students in the reference group. The analysis of the main effects of race, sex, and ability indicated that white students achieved significantly more than black students and that males achieved significantly more than females. Analysis of significant race/ability and sex/race interactions indicated that (a) white students in the advanced group attained significantly greater achievement in metric application skills than black students of equal status and (b) white males significantly retained their metric applications achievement when compared to black males or black or white females.

  9. Greater trochanter location measurement using a three-dimensional motion capture system during prone hip extension

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji-Su; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The greater trochanter (GT) is an important structure in biomedical research, but the measurement methods require development. This study presents data from a new measurement method that does not use GT-marker-based measurement (No GT-m) in comparison with GT-marker based measurement (GT-m). [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 20 healthy subjects, who were asked to perform and maintain a prone position and then move to the prone hip extension. A motion capture system collected the kinematic data and the location of the GT was calculated by two measurements. [Results] GT migration distance differed significantly between the two measurements and the coefficient of the variation value was lower for the No GT-m method. Thigh lengths of the No GT-m method were comparable to the original lengths. There were significant differences between the GT-m and the other methods. [Conclusions] These data suggest that the GT-m method yielded a lower precision with a smaller GT migration distance. In the comparison of thigh length, the No GT-m method was in close agreement with the original length. We suggest that determining the location of the GT using the No GT-m has greater accuracy than the GT-m method. PMID:28265151

  10. Effects of neck bands on the behavior of wintering greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1990-01-01

    Activity budgets of adult Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) with and without neck bands during the non-breeding season revealed that geese with neck bands spent more time preening than geese without neck bands while at foraging sites, but not while at roosting sites. Neck-banded and control geese spent equal time in other important activities (alert, feeding, sleeping, locomotor activities, flying, or social interactions) while at both foraging and roosting sites. Neck-banded geese apparently compensated for the increase in preening activity by reducing the amount of time spent in alert postures relative to control geese (23.9 vs. 28.6%), although the decrease was not significant (P = 0.106). There was a significant negative relationship (P = 0.038) between the length of time a goose had worn a neck band and the amount of time spent preening while at roost sites. After a short acclimation period, neck bands probably have minimal effect on the activity of wintering Greater White-fronted Geese.

  11. Mycorrhizal trifoliate orange has greater root adaptation of morphology and phytohormones in response to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ying-Ning; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Ni, Qiu-Dan; Zhang, De-Jian; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Plant roots are the first parts of plants to face drought stress (DS), and thus root modification is important for plants to adapt to drought. We hypothesized that the roots of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants exhibit better adaptation in terms of morphology and phytohormones under DS. Trifoliate orange seedlings inoculated with Diversispora versiformis were subjected to well-watered (WW) and DS conditions for 6 weeks. AM seedlings exhibited better growth performance and significantly greater number of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order lateral roots, root length, area, average diameter, volume, tips, forks, and crossings than non-AM seedlings under both WW and DS conditions. AM fungal inoculation considerably increased root hair density under both WW and DS and root hair length under DS, while dramatically decreased root hair length under WW but there was no change in root hair diameter. AM plants had greater concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid, methyl jasmonate, nitric oxide, and calmodulin in roots, which were significantly correlated with changes in root morphology. These results support the hypothesis that AM plants show superior adaptation in root morphology under DS that is potentially associated with indole-3-acetic acid, methyl jasmonate, nitric oxide, and calmodulin levels. PMID:28106141

  12. Individuals with low working memory spans show greater interference from irrelevant information because of poor source monitoring, not greater activation.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Lindsey; Rose, Nathan S; Tamez, Elaine; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Although individuals with high and low working memory (WM) span appear to differ in the extent to which irrelevant information interferes with their performance on WM tasks, the locus of this interference is not clear. The present study investigated whether, when performing a WM task, high- and low-span individuals differ in the activation of formerly relevant, but now irrelevant items, and/or in their ability to correctly identify such irrelevant items. This was done in two experiments, both of which used modified complex WM span tasks. In Experiment 1, the span task included an embedded lexical decision task designed to obtain an implicit measure of the activation of both currently and formerly relevant items. In Experiment 2, the span task included an embedded recognition judgment task designed to obtain an explicit measure of both item and source recognition ability. The results of these experiments indicate that low-span individuals do not hold irrelevant information in a more active state in memory than high-span individuals, but rather that low-span individuals are significantly poorer at identifying such information as irrelevant at the time of retrieval. These results suggest that differences in the ability to monitor the source of information, rather than differences in the activation of irrelevant information, are the more important determinant of performance on WM tasks.

  13. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    PubMed

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  14. Is the Scale Up of Malaria Intervention Coverage Also Achieving Equity?

    PubMed Central

    Steketee, Richard W.; Eisele, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Methods Malaria in Africa is most severe in young children and pregnant women, particularly in rural and poor households. In many countries, malaria intervention coverage rates have increased as a result of scale up; but this may mask limited coverage in these highest-risk populations. Reports were reviewed from nationally representative surveys in African malaria-endemic countries from 2006 through 2008 to understand how reported intervention coverage rates reflect access by the most at-risk populations. Results Reports were available from 27 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs), Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICSs), and Malaria Indicator Surveys (MISs) during this interval with data on household intervention coverage by urban or rural setting, wealth quintile, and sex. Household ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) varied from 5% to greater than 60%, and was equitable by urban/rural and wealth quintile status among 13 (52%) of 25 countries. Malaria treatment rates for febrile children under five years of age varied from less than 10% to greater than 70%, and while equitable coverage was achieved in 8 (30%) of 27 countries, rates were generally higher in urban and richest quintile households. Use of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women varied from 2% to more than 60%, and again tended to be higher in urban and richest quintile households. Across all countries, there were no significant male/female inequalities seen for children sleeping under ITNs or receiving antimalarial treatment for febrile illness. Parasitemia and anemia rates from eight national surveys showed predominance in poor and rural populations. Conclusions/Significance Recent efforts to scale up malaria intervention coverage have achieved equity in some countries (especially with ITNs), but delivery methods in other countries are not addressing the most at-risk populations. As countries seek universal malaria intervention coverage, their delivery

  15. Modeling of longitudinal academic achievement scores after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Barnes, Marcia; Fletcher, Jack M; Levin, Harvey S; Swank, Paul R; Song, James

    2004-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study, academic achievement scores were obtained from youth 5 to 15 years of age who sustained mild-moderate (n = 34) or severe (n = 43) traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Achievement scores were collected from baseline to 5 years following TBI and were subjected to individual growth curve analysis. The models fitted age at injury, years since injury, duration of impaired consciousness, and interaction effects to Reading Decoding, Reading Comprehension, Spelling, and Arithmetic standard scores. Although scores improved significantly over the follow-up relative to normative data from the standardization sample of the tests, children with severe TBI showed persistent deficits on all achievement scores in comparison to children with mild-moderate TBI. Interactions of the slope and age parameters for the Arithmetic and Reading Decoding scores indicated greater increases over time in achievement scores of the children injured at an older age, but deceleration in growth curves for the younger children with both mild-moderate and severe TBI. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that early brain injuries disrupt the acquisition of some academic skills. Hierarchical regression models revealed that indexes of academic achievement obtained 2 years following TBI had weak relations with the duration of impaired consciousness and socioeconomic status. In contrast, concurrent cognitive variables such as phonological processing and verbal memory accounted for more variability in academic scores. Given the significant and persistent decrement in basic academic skills in youth with severe TBI, it is clear that head-injured youth require intensive, long-term remediation and intervention not only of the academic skills themselves, but also of those cognitive abilities that support the development and maintenance of reading and math.

  16. The effects of traditional learning and a learning cycle inquiry learning strategy on students' science achievement and attitudes toward elementary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahim, Ali

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of two instructional methods on students' academic achievement and attitudes toward elementary science in the State of Kuwait: traditional teaching method and the 4-E learning cycle inquiry teaching method. The subjects were 111 students from four intact 4th grade classes. The experiment group (n = 56) received the learning cycle instruction while the control group (n = 55) received a more traditional approach over a four week period. The same female teacher taught the experimental and control groups for boys and a different female teacher taught experimental and control groups for girls. The dependent variables were measured through the use of: (1) a science achievement test to assess student achievement; and (2) an attitude survey to measure students' attitudes toward science. Quantitative data were collected on students' pre- and post-treatment achievement and attitudes measures. The two way MANOVA reveals that: the 4-E learning cycle instructional method produces significantly greater achievement and attitudes among fourth grade science students than the traditional teaching approach F (2, 93) = 19.765, (P = .000), corresponding to Wilks' Lambda = .702 with an effect size of .298 and a power of 1. In light of these findings, it is therefore suggested that students can achieve greater and have higher science attitudes when the 4-E learning cycle is used. In addition, these findings support the notion that effective instruction in teaching science, such as the 4-E learning cycle instruction, should be proposed and implemented in elementary schools.

  17. Length and anatomic routes of the greater palatine canal as observed by cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Zamaninaser, Asieh; Jalalian, Faranak

    2013-01-01

    Background: Greater palatine canal is used for maxillary nerve block. This procedure has some complications such as proptosis, blindness, and intravascular injection. This study aimed to determine the mean greater palatine canal length (CL) and its typical anatomic routes, as well as provide a reliable facial index for computing the CL by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data. Materials and Methods: A total of 138 CBCT scans (65 females and 73 males) were evaluated. The path of the canal and the CL were determined by sex, age, and side. The mean distance from the inferior border of the infraorbital foramen (IOF) to the crest of alveolar bone between maxillary premolar(CMP) was measured and compared with the CL. Paired t-tests, independent t-test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of CL was 31.82 ± 1.37 mm (31.70 ± 2.44 mm on the right side and 31.94 ± 2.40 mm on the left side), and the values were 32.49 ± 2.37 mm in males and 30.55 ± 1.76 mm among females (P = 0.001). The mean distance from the IOF to the CMP was 32.01 ± 2.18 mm, which was not significantly different to the CL (P = 0.336). Conclusions: The mean CL was significantly different according to sex and side. The mean distance from the IOF to CMP was significantly different according to sex. On comparing the mean distance from the IOF to the CMP with the CL, no significant difference was observed. Therefore, the mean distance from the IOF to CMP may be a reliable clinical index. PMID:23946729

  18. Higher Insulin, Triglycerides, and Blood Pressure With Greater Trunk Fat in Tanner 1 Chinese

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing; Zhang, Xiaojing; He, Suyuan; Gong, Luxia; Sun, Yungao; Heshka, Stanley; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the body fat distribution pattern in prepubertal Chinese children and to investigate the relationship between central fat distribution and specific biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Research Methods and Procedures The study was conducted in an urban Mainland Chinese (Jinan, Shandong) sample of children using a cross-sectional design. Pubertal status was determined by Tanner criteria. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, DXA measures of total body fat and trunk fat; fasting serum measures of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Multiple regression models were developed with the biomarkers of cardiovascular risk factor as the dependent variables, and adjustments were made for significant covariates, including sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, total body fat, trunk fat, and interactions. Results A total of 247 healthy prepubertal subjects were studied. After co-varying for age, weight, height, and extremity fat (the sum of arm fat and leg fat), girls had greater trunk fat than boys (p < 0.0001, R2 for model = 0.95). Insulin and triglyceride were positively related to central fat measured by DXA-trunk fat (p < 0.05) but not related to the waist circumference. In the blood pressure model, waist circumference was a significant predictor of both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, while DXA-trunk fat was associated with diastolic blood pressure only. Significant interactions between sex and trunk fat, and sex and total fat, were found in relation to diastolic blood pressure. Discussion In prepubertal Chinese children, greater trunk fat was significantly associated with higher insulin and triglyceride in boys and girls and was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in boys only. PMID:17426336

  19. [Accuracy of apposition achieved by mandibular osteosyntheses. Stereophotogrammetric study].

    PubMed

    Randzio, J; Ficker, E; Wintges, T; Laser, S

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of apposition achieved by wire and plate osteosyntheses is measured with the aid of close range stereophotogrammetry in the mandibles of dead bodies. Both osteosynthesis methods are characterized by an increase in the intercondylar distance which, on the average, is about 3.3 mm greater after plate osteosynthesis and about 1.9 mm after wiring. Moreover, osteosyntheses of the base of the mandible may involve a tendency of the condyle to become caudally dislocated.

  20. The effect of retesting on end-of-semester performance in high school chemistry at three levels of previous science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboer, George E.

    To determine the effect of retesting on student learning in chemistry, three questions were addressed by means of a 3 × 2 (achievement level X treatment) factorial design: (1) Does retesting affect differently the end-of-semester mastery of course objectives of students who are grouped according to their previous achievement in science? (2) Do students who are given an opportunity to take retests merely delay their studying and perform at a lower level on initial tests than nonretested students? (3) Is the procrastination of retested students (if it exists) affected by their achievement level? The results showed that for one of four units low ability students who were retested demonstrated greater learning gains than low ability students who were not retested, and that procrastination, if it was present, did not have significant effects on student learning at any achievement level. Results were discussed in terms of the students' room for improvement, motivation to improve, and ability to improve.

  1. Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Sigal; Eliraz, Abraham; Kaplan, Sara; Voet, Hillary; Fink, Gershon; Kima, Tzadok; Madar, Zecharia

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner on anthropometric, hunger/satiety, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters. Hormonal secretions were also evaluated. Seventy-eight police officers (BMI >30) were randomly assigned to experimental (carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner) or control weight loss diets for 6 months. On day 0, 7, 90, and 180 blood samples and hunger scores were collected every 4 h from 0800 to 2000 hours. Anthropometric measurements were collected throughout the study. Greater weight loss, abdominal circumference, and body fat mass reductions were observed in the experimental diet in comparison to controls. Hunger scores were lower and greater improvements in fasting glucose, average daily insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), T-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were observed in comparison to controls. The experimental diet modified daily leptin and adiponectin concentrations compared to those observed at baseline and to a control diet. A simple dietary manipulation of carbohydrate distribution appears to have additional benefits when compared to a conventional weight loss diet in individuals suffering from obesity. It might also be beneficial for individuals suffering from insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Further research is required to confirm and clarify the mechanisms by which this relatively simple diet approach enhances satiety, leads to better anthropometric outcomes, and achieves improved metabolic response, compared to a more conventional dietary approach.

  2. ENSO-Related Variability in Wave Climate Drives Greater Erosion Potential on Central Pacific Atolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramante, J. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulates atmospheric circulation across the equatorial Pacific over a periodic time scale of 2-7 years. Despite the importance of this climate mode in forcing storm generation and trade wind variability, its impact on the wave climate incident on central Pacific atolls has not been addressed. We used the NOAA Wavewatch III CFSR reanalysis hindcasts (1979-2007) to examine the influence of ENSO on sediment mobility and transport at Kwajalein Atoll (8.8°N, 167.7°E). We found that during El Nino event years, easterly trade winds incident on the atoll weakened by 4% compared to normal years and 17% relative to La Nina event years. Despite this decrease in wind strength, significant wave heights incident on the atoll were 3-4% greater during El Nino event years. Using machine learning to partition these waves revealed that the greater El Nino wave heights originated mainly from greater storm winds near the atoll. The southeastern shift in tropical cyclone genesis location during El Nino years forced these storm winds and contributed to the 7% and 16% increases in annual wave energy relative to normal and La Nina years, respectively. Using nested SWAN and XBeach models we determined that the additional wave energy during El Nino event years significantly increased potential sediment mobility at Kwajalein Atoll and led to greater net offshore transport on its most populous island. The larger storm waves likely deplete ocean-facing beaches and reef flats of sediment, but increase the supply of sediment to the atoll lagoon across open reef platforms that are not supporting islands. We discuss further explicit modelling of storms passing over the atoll to elucidate the confounding role of storm surge on the net erosional/depositional effects of these waves. Extrapolating our results to recent Wavewatch III forecasts leads us to conclude that climate change-linked increases in wave height and storm wave energy will increase erosion on

  3. The Relationship Between Greater Prepubertal Adiposity, Subsequent Age of Maturation, and Bone Strength During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Glass, Natalie A; Torner, James C; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Janz, Kathleen F; Eichenberger Gilmore, Julie M; Schlechte, Janet A; Levy, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether greater prepubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using body mass index (BMI) data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy weight (HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15, and 17 years for estimates of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone compression (bone strength index), and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age - grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit age - age PHV) as the time variable for model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p < 0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) in model 1, whereas OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck but not radius (p > 0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (model 1.) Differences were no longer present after adjustment for lean mass (model 2) in girls (p > 0.05) whereas differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation, and

  4. The Benefits of Following Your Pride: Authentic Pride Promotes Achievement.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Aaron C; Tracy, Jessica L; Elliot, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Although the emotion authentic pride has been posited to promote achievement, it remains unclear precisely how this works. Here, we tested whether authentic pride promotes adaptive downstream achievement outcomes by motivating individuals to engage in appropriate behavioral responses to success and failure. In two longitudinal studies (N = 1,132), we measured pride emotional responses to a prior performance and subsequent changes in achievement-oriented behavior and performance outcomes among (a) adults training for long-distance running races and (b) undergraduates completing class exams. Authentic pride shifted in direct response to achievement outcomes, such that those who performed well felt greater pride. Furthermore, individuals who felt low authentic pride responded to these feelings by changing their achievement behavior in a functional manner. In Studies 2a, 2b, and 2c, we found that pride-driven behavioral changes led to improved future performance among low performers. In these studies we also demonstrated that the effect of authentic pride on achievement is independent of that of self-efficacy, which in fact works in an opposite manner. Taken together, these results suggest that authentic pride functions as a barometer of achievement, promoting behavioral responses that lead to improved performance.

  5. San Andreas Fault, California, M 5.5 or greater Earthquakes 1800-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppozada, T.; Branum, D.; Reichle, M.; Hallstrom, C.

    2001-12-01

    The San Andreas fault has been the most significant source of major California earthquakes since 1800. From 1812 to 1906 it generated four major earthquakes of M 7.2 or greater in two pairs on two major regions of the fault. A pair of major earthquakes occurred on the Central to Southern region, where the 1857 faulting overlapped the 1812 earthquake faulting. And a pair of major earthquakes occurred on the Northern region, where the 1906 faulting overlapped the 1838 earthquake faulting. The 1812 earthquake resulted from a rupture of up to about 200 km, from the region of Cajon Pass to as far as about 50 km west of Fort Tejon (Sieh and others, 1989). This rupture is the probable source of both the destructive 1812.12.8 "San Juan Capistrano" and the 1812.12.21 "Santa Barbara Channel" earthquakes. The 1838 earthquake's damage effects throughout the Bay area, from San Francisco to Santa Clara Valley and Monterey, were unequalled by any Bay area earthquake other than the 1906 event. The mainshock's effects, and numerous strong probable aftershocks in the San Juan Bautista vicinity in the following three years, suggest 1838 faulting from San Francisco to San Juan Bautista, and M about 7.4. The 630 km length of the San Andreas fault between San Francisco and Cajon Pass ruptured in the 1838 and 1857 earthquakes, except for about 75 km between Bitterwater and San Juan Bautista. The 1840-1841 probable aftershocks of the 1838 event occurred near San Juan Bautista, and the foreshocks and aftershocks of the 1857 event occurred near Bitterwater. In the Bitterwater area, strong earthquakes continued to occur until the 1885 earthquake of M 6.5. Near Parkfield, 40 to 70 km southeast of Bitterwater, M 5.5 or greater earthquakes have occurred from the 1870s to the 1960s. In the total Bitterwater to Parkfield zone bracketing the northern end of the 1857 rupture, the seismicity and moment release has decreased steadily since 1857, and has tended to migrate southeastward with time. The

  6. Test Anxiety, Test Comfort and Student Achievement Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyans, Leslie J., Jr.

    The Illinois Inventory of Educational Progress (IIEP) Test Comfort Scale was administered and test results were studied in terms of student achievement and correlates of achievement. Using the revised, seven-item scale, it was determined that: in grade 4, there was no main significant effect for sex or ethnic differences, although Orientals and…

  7. Predictors of Academic Achievement and Their Possible Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockshin, Jeffrey; Zamkov, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    A significant amount of attention has been given to the predictors of academic achievement in higher education. However, the vast majority of articles have centred on entrance criteria and the learning approaches or personal habits of students. Investigations into how achievement depends on student efforts, being almost invariably based on…

  8. School Expenditures and Student Achievement: Evidence for the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Rati

    2004-01-01

    Using state-level panel data, this study estimates a simple achievement function in the fixed-effects format to explore further the nexus between school expenditure and student achievement in the United States. Five main points are noted. First, the effect of per-pupil expenditure is positive and carries high statistical significance in some…

  9. AchieveNJ and Its Effects on Hiring Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinotti, Gina; Gutmore, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The study described the influence, if any, AchieveNJ might have on superintendents' hiring decisions of principals. According to superintendents, there is not one accepted standard in principal leadership characteristics, although there are commonalities regarding traits associated with improving student achievement. The significance of this study…

  10. The Effect of Integrating Interactive Whiteboards on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sheila Denise

    2012-01-01

    While it is known that instructional technology improves academic achievement, there is little research about the integration of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) during Success For All (SFA) reading instruction. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in reading achievement between third…

  11. Learning Through Tutoring: Low-Achieving Childern as Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Vernon L.; Feldman, Robert S.

    Low-achieving fifth-grade children either taught a third grader or studied alone for a series of daily sessions. At the end of the two-week period, the low-achievers' performance was significantly better in the tutoring condition than in the studying condition. This showed a reversal in the direction from the initial difference between conditions.…

  12. Robert M. Finley Middle School: Building Community, Respect, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features Robert M. Finley Middle School, a school that is considered by the entire Glen Cove, New York, community as important and successful. Gaps in student achievement have decreased significantly and all student achievement has improved over the last five years in this school, where nearly half of the 652 students are from…

  13. Student Participation and Parental Involvement in Relation to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niia, Anna; Almqvist, Lena; Brunnberg, Elinor; Granlund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that students, teachers, and parents in Swedish schools ascribe differing meanings and significance to students' participation in school in relation to academic achievement. Students see participation as mainly related to social interaction and not academic achievement, whilst teachers view students' participation as more closely…

  14. The Dynamics of Gender Impact on Group Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen-Jones, Carolee; Chalupa, Marilyn R.; Charles, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    In cooperative learning groups of business students (n=38, 27, 28), half were self-selected, half were assigned. No differences in achievement were found across majors, gender, or membership choice. Groups with only one representative of a gender achieved significantly less than mixed or single-gender groups. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  15. Differences in Middle School Science Achievement by School District Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Matthew James; Maxwell, Gerri M.; Holland, Glenda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in Texas middle school student achievement in science by school district enrollment size. Quantitative research utilized analysis of variance to determine whether significant differences existed between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8th grade science results and four school…

  16. Exploring Differential Effects of Mathematics Courses on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; McIntyre, Laureen J.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Participation (N = 1,518 students from 34 schools), we investigated the effects of pure and applied mathematics courses on mathematics achievement, controlling for prior mathematics achievement. Results of multilevel modelling showed that the effects of pure mathematics were significant after…

  17. The Relative Influence of Time Variables on Primary Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, David J.; Tunnecliffe, Michael R.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of two time variables (allocated time and pupil time on task) was compared with the influence of two context variables (aptitude and socioeconomic status), on primary level mathematics achievement. Results showed that the time variables accounted for significantly more variance in achievement, with pupil time on task having the…

  18. Brief Group Therapy with Low-Achieving Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shechtman, Zipora; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effect of treatment on both the cognitive and the affective functioning of 142 low achievers. Results indicate significant gains for the experimental group on four variables (academic achievement, self-concept, social acceptance, and locus of control). Group therapy enhanced academic progress and social well-being of low-achieving…

  19. Closing the health and nutrition gap in Odisha, India: A case study of how transforming the health system is achieving greater equity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Deborah; Sarangi, Biraj Laxmi; Garg, Anu; Ahuja, Arti; Meherda, Pramod; Karthikeyan, Sujata R; Joddar, Pinaki; Kar, Rajendra; Pattnaik, Jeetendra; Druvasula, Ramesh; Dembo Rath, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Health equity is high on the international agenda. This study provides evidence of how health systems can be strengthened to improve health equity in a low-income state. The paper presents a case study of how the Government of Odisha in eastern India is transforming the health system for more equitable health and nutrition outcomes. Odisha has a population of over 42 million, high levels of poverty, and poor maternal and child health concentrated in its Southern districts and among Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste communities. Conducted between 2008 and 2012 with the Departments of Health and Family Welfare, and Women and Child Development, the study reviewed a wide range of literature including policy and programme documents, evaluations and studies, published and grey material, and undertook secondary analysis of state level household surveys. It identifies innovative and expanded provision of health services, reforms to the management and development of human resources for health, and the introduction of a number of cash transfer and entitlement schemes as contributing to closing the gap between maternal and child health and nutrition outcomes of Scheduled Tribes, and the Southern districts, compared to the state average. The institutional delivery rate for Scheduled Tribes has risen from 11.7% in 2005-06 to 67.3% in 2011, and from 35.6% to 79.8% for all women. The social gradient has also closed for antenatal and postnatal care and immunisation. Nutrition indicators though improving are proving slower to budge. The paper identifies how political will, committed policy makers and fiscal space energised the health system to promote equity. Sustained political commitment will be required to continue to address the more challenging human resource, health financing and gender issues.

  20. Circadian preference and thinking styles: implications for school achievement.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown that thinking styles could have an influence on academic achievement. Previous studies have described that evening types are usually right-thinkers who tend to be creative and intuitive, whereas morning types tend to be left-thinkers who prefer verbal and analytic strategies in processing information. However, these studies have been realized among undergraduates, who have more freedom to choose their time schedules according to their circadian preference than adolescents or adult workers. On other hand, the relationship between thinking styles and circadian preference has not been analyzed considering school achievement. The present study aims (1) to investigate the relationship between circadian preference, that is, behavioral differences in circadian rhythmic expression, and thinking styles, referring to the preference toward information processing typical of the right versus the left cerebral hemisphere; and (2) to test the implications for self-reported school achievement. A sample of 1134 preadolescents and adolescents (581 girls; mean ± SD age: 12.1 ± 1.47, range: 10-14 yrs) completed the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) as measure of circadian preference (morning, neither, or evening types), the Hemispheric Preference Test (HPT), conceived as a tool to measure thinking styles (right-, balanced-, and left-thinkers), and self-reported school achievement. Results indicated a greater percentage of left-thinkers among morning types and a greater percentage of right-thinkers among evening types. No differences were found among balanced-thinkers and neither types. Morning types and left-thinkers reported the highest subjective level of achievement, followed by evening types and left-thinkers, and morning types and right-thinkers. Evening types and right-thinkers reported the lowest subjective level of achievement. Finally, multivariate regression analysis indicated that age, left hemisphere and morning preferences accounted

  1. Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    1999-12-01

    This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total

  2. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  3. Greater sexual reproduction contributes to differences in demography of invasive plants and their noninvasive relatives.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jean H; Pardini, Eleanor A; Schutzenhofer, Michele R; Chung, Y Anny; Seidler, Katie J; Knight, Tiffany M

    2013-05-01

    An understanding of the demographic processes contributing to invasions would improve our mechanistic understanding of the invasion process and improve the efficiency of prevention and control efforts. However, field comparisons of the demography of invasive and noninvasive species have not previously been conducted. We compared the in situ demography of 17 introduced plant species in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to contrast the demographic patterns of invasive species with their less invasive relatives across a broad sample of angiosperms. Using herbarium records to estimate spread rates, we found higher maximum spread rates in the landscape for species classified a priori as invasive than for noninvasive introduced species, suggesting that expert classifications are an accurate reflection of invasion rate. Across 17 species, projected population growth was not significantly greater in invasive than in noninvasive introduced species. Among five taxonomic pairs of close relatives, however, four of the invasive species had higher projected population growth rates compared with their noninvasive relative. A Life Table Response Experiment suggested that the greater projected population growth rate of some invasive species relative to their noninvasive relatives was primarily a result of sexual reproduction. The greater sexual reproduction of invasive species is consistent with invaders having a life history strategy more reliant on fecundity than survival and is consistent with a large role of propagule pressure in invasion. Sexual reproduction is a key demographic correlate of invasiveness, suggesting that local processes influencing sexual reproduction, such as enemy escape, might be of general importance. However, the weak correlation of projected population growth with spread rates in the landscape suggests that regional processes, such as dispersal, may be equally important in determining invasion rate.

  4. Influence of breeding season on fecal glucocorticoid levels in captive Greater Rhea (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Lèche, A; Hansen, C; Navarro, J L; Marin, R H; Martella, M B

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones and stress-related changes can be seasonally influenced. We investigate whether fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) levels can differ between male and female captive Greater Rheas during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Over a 3-year-period, fresh fecal samples from 10 individuals (five of each sex) were collected during the breeding months (October, November, and December) and non-breeding months (April and June). A total of 960 samples were assayed using a commercial radioimmunoassay. Results showed that FGM levels (mean ± SE) were affected by the breeding season in a sex-dependent way. Male Greater Rheas showed significantly higher FGM levels in the breeding months than in the non-breeding months (13.44 ± 0.37 vs. 7.92 ± 0.1 ng/g feces, respectively). By contrast, females did not show FGM seasonal changes throughout the same sampling periods (7.55 ± 0.14 vs. 7.26 ± 0.73 ng/g feces). Moreover, during the breeding season months, males showed higher average FGM levels than females (13.44 ± 0.37 vs. 7.55 ± 0.14 ng/g feces, respectively), and no differences were found between sexes during the non-breeding season (7.92 ± 0.1 vs. 7.26 ± 0.73 ng/g feces, respectively). Our findings suggest that male Greater Rheas have a higher adrenocortical activity during the breeding season, which is probably indirectly related to the increased testosterone levels and agonist interactions that are also observed during that phase. Studies aimed to determine the appropriate sex ratio for captive rearing should be developed to minimize male agonist encounters and therefore improve welfare of the captive group.

  5. Leg-length inequality is not associated with greater trochanteric pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A; Harvey, William; Felson, David T; Yang, Mei; Torner, James C; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Nevitt, Michael C

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a common condition, the pathogenesis of which is incompletely understood. Although leg-length inequality has been suggested as a potential risk factor for GTPS, this widely held assumption has not been tested. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of greater trochanteric tenderness to palpation was performed in subjects with complaints of hip pain and no signs of hip osteoarthritis or generalized myofascial tenderness. Subjects were recruited from one clinical center of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, a multicenter population-based study of community-dwelling adults aged 50 to 79 years. Diagnosis of GTPS was based on a standardized physical examination performed by trained examiners, and technicians measured leg length on full-limb anteroposterior radiographs. Results A total of 1,482 subjects were eligible for analysis of GTPS and leg length. Subjects' mean ± standard deviation age was 62.4 ± 8.2 years, and 59.8% were female. A total of 372 lower limbs from 271 subjects met the definition for having GTPS. Leg-length inequality (difference ≥ 1 cm) was present in 37 subjects with GTPS and in 163 subjects without GTPS (P = 0.86). Using a variety of definitions of leg-length inequality, including categorical and continuous measures, there was no association of this parameter with the occurrence of GTPS (for example, for ≥ 1 cm leg-length inequality, odds ratio = 1.17 (95% confidence interval = 0.79 to 1.73)). In adjusted analyses, female sex was significantly associated with the presence of GTPS, with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.04 (95% confidence interval = 2.07 to 4.47). Conclusion The present study found no evidence to support an association between leg-length inequality and greater trochanteric pain syndrome. PMID:18510741

  6. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 2: The point source catalog declination range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 2, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg.

  7. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 5: The point source catalog declination range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 5, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg.

  8. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 3: The point source catalog declination range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 3, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg.

  9. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 6: The point source catalog declination range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 6, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg.

  10. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 4: The point source catalog declination range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched 26 January 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 4, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg.

  11. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  12. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary process. Our results indicate a highly supported monophyletic group of Northeast Asian greater horseshoe bats, in which Japanese populations formed a single clade and clustered into the mixed branches of Northeast Chinese and South Korean populations. We infer that R. ferrumequinum in Northeast Asia originated in Northeast China and South Korea during a cold glacial period, while some ancestors likely arrived in Japan by flying or land bridge and subsequently adapted to the local environment. Consequently, during the warm Eemian interglaciation, the Korea Strait, between Japan and South Korea, became a geographical barrier to Japanese and inland populations, while the Changbai Mountains, between China and North Korea, did not play a significant role as a barrier between Northeast China and South Korea populations. PMID:27761309

  13. Did greater burial depth increase the seed size of domesticated legumes?

    PubMed

    Kluyver, Thomas A; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Rees, Mark; Osborne, Colin P

    2013-10-01

    The independent domestication of crop plants in several regions of the world formed the basis of human civilizations, and attracts considerable interest from archaeologists and biologists. Selection under cultivation led to a suite of domestication traits which distinguish crops from their wild progenitors, including larger seeds in most seed crops. This selection may be classified as 'conscious' or 'unconscious' selection according to whether humans were aware of the changes that they were driving. The hypothesis that human cultivation buried seeds deeper than natural dispersal, exerting unconscious selection favouring larger seeds with greater reserves, was tested. Using a comparative approach, accessions of eight grain legumes, originating from independent domestication centres across several continents, were sampled. Seeds were planted at different depths in a controlled environment, and seedling emergence scored for 5 weeks after sowing. Domestication in all species was associated with increased seed mass. In three species, greater mass was not correlated with increased ability to emerge from depth. In five species, emergence depth did correlate with mass, suggesting that selection during domestication may have acted on emergence depth. However, domestication only had a significant effect in two of these species (lentil and mung bean), and the increase in depth was no more than predicted by a cube-root allometric relationship with seed mass. The results do not support the hypothesis that burial under cultivation was a general selection mechanism for increased seed mass during the domestication of grain legumes, but it may have acted in particular species or regions.

  14. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  15. Greater taxol yield of fungus Pestalotiopsis hainanensis from dermatitic scurf of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yanlin; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Chengdong; Yue, Guizhou; Zhang, Yuetian; Zhang, Yunyan; Li, Shanshan; Ling, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaomin; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Yu, Shumin; Shen, Liuhong; Wu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    While taxol yields of fungi from non-animal sources are still low, whether Pestalotiopsis hainanensis isolated from the scurf of a dermatitic giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, provides a greater taxol yield remains unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the corresponding taxol yield. The structure of the taxol produced by the fungus was evaluated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), with standard taxol as a control. The results demonstrated that the P. hainanensis fungus produced taxol, which had the same structure as the standard taxol and yield of 1,466.87 μg/L. This fungal taxol yield from the dermatitic giant panda was significantly greater than those of fungus from non-animal sources. The taxol-producing fungus may be a potential candidate for the production of taxol on an industrial scale.

  16. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  17. Banned and Punished: A Study of Disciplinary Consequences and Reading Achievement among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Erica M.

    2014-01-01

    The impact that removal of students from the educational setting has on student reading achievement (and later life outcomes) was the impetus for this study which sought to identify whether a relationship existed between an increasingly greater frequency of out of school suspension (OSS days) and reading achievement for middle school students.…

  18. Summer Study: A Two Part Investigation of the Impact of Exposure to Schooling on Achievement Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Jane Lisa

    This thesis is composed of two studies which look at the impact of exposure to schooling on achievement growth of children. Both use data from the National Follow Through Evaluation. The first study investigates the hypothesis that the difference in achievement growth between poor and non-poor children is greater during the summer months than…

  19. The Fixation Method according to the Fracture Type of the Greater Trochanter in Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures Undergoing Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Doohoon; Park, Byeong-Seop; Jang, Gun-Il

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a study on patients who underwent hip joint arthroplasty because of unstable femur intertrochanteric fractures with greater trochanter bony fragments. After dividing patients into three groups depending on their fracture patterns, we evaluated the clinical and radiological outcomes of different operation methods applied to each of these groups. Materials and Methods Using Evan's classification, we defined an unstable intertrochanteric fracture as those characterized as stage 4 or 5. Of the 137 patients presenting with an intertrochanteric fracture with osteoporosis (bone mineral density, <−2.5) between March 2014 and October 2015, 63 met the eligibility criteria and were included in this study. Next, patients were divided into three groups based on their greater trochanter fracture patterns (discerned with three-dimensional computed tomography images); different fixation methods were applied to each group by a single orthopaedic surgeon. Results Taken as a whole, 50 out of 63 patients experienced no reduction in walking distance in their daily lives. Harris hip score increased from 74.8 to 85.7 point and we considered this a relatively good result. Radiologically, we observed complete bone union in 62 cases (98.4%); the lone exception was in a patient who experienced osteolysis. There were also 3 cases who removed greater trochanter reattachment device due to broken implant and 1 case of dislocation. Conclusion The different fixation methods applied to three distinct groups with varying fractures patterns were successful in achieving proper reduction and fixation of greater trochanteric fractures. We also observed reduced bone union periods when arthroplasty was performed in patients with unstable intertrochanteric fractures. Lastly, we believe these approaches may also aid in achieving early ambulation and early rehabilitations. PMID:28316964

  20. Birth Order and Achievement: A Study of the Effects of Family Constellation and Related Variables on the Achievement of Officer Students at the Naval Postgraduate School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, William J.; Murphy, Timothy A.

    The findings suggest that there may be no significant difference between the achievement of first-, only-, and last-born children. While middle-born children appeared to do less well in academic achievement, their occupational achievement did not differ significantly from the other birth-order groups. The findings suggest further that…

  1. The effects of chronic achievement motivation and achievement primes on the activation of achievement and fun goals.

    PubMed

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-12-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.

  2. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  3. How might global health master deadly sins and strive for greater virtues?

    PubMed Central

    Panter-Brick, Catherine; Eggerman, Mark; Tomlinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In the spirit of critical reflection, we examine how the field of global health might surmount current challenges and prioritize its ethical mandate, namely to achieve, for all people, equity in health. We use the parlance of mastering deadly sins and striving for greater virtues in an effort to review what is needed to transform global health action. Global health falls prey to four main temptations: coveting silo gains, lusting for technological solutions, leaving broad promises largely unfulfilled, and boasting of narrow successes. This necessitates a change of heart: to keep faith with the promise it made, global health requires a realignment of core values and a sharper focus on the primacy of relationships with the communities it serves. Based on the literature to date, we highlight six steps to re-orienting global health action. Articulating a coherent global health agenda will come from principled action, enacted through courage and prudence in decision-making to foster people-centered systems of care over the entire lifespan. PMID:24685169

  4. Designing for multiple global user populations: increasing resource allocation efficiency for greater sustainability.

    PubMed

    Nadadur, G; Parkinson, M B

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to identify opportunities for increasing the efficiency of raw material allocation decisions for products that are simultaneously targeted at multiple user populations around the world. The values of 24 body measures at certain key percentiles were used to estimate the best-fitting anthropometric distributions for female and male adults in nine national populations, which were selected to represent the diverse target markets multinational companies must design for. These distributions were then used to synthesize body measure data for combined populations with a 1:1 female:male ratio. An anthropometric range metric (ARM) was proposed for assessing the variation of these body measures across the populations. At any percentile, ARM values were calculated as the percentage difference between the highest and lowest anthropometric values across the considered user populations. Based on their magnitudes, plots of ARM values computed between the 1st and 99 th percentiles for each body measure were grouped into low, medium, and high categories. This classification of body measures was proposed as a means of selecting the most suitable strategies for designing raw material-efficient products. The findings in this study and the contributions of subsequent work along these lines are expected to help achieve greater efficiencies in resource allocation in global product development.

  5. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  6. Educational achievements in Pierre Robin Sequence.

    PubMed

    Persson, Martin; Sandy, Jonathan; Kilpatrick, Nicky; Becker, Magnus; Svensson, Henry

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective population-based study was to determine if there is any significant difference in academic achievement between students with a Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) compared with the general population of Swedish students at the typical time of graduation from compulsory school (usually at 16 years of age). The data were obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register for the years 1973-1986 and linked to the Swedish School-Grade Register, which generated a data set of 68 individuals with PRS that were compared with a control group consisting of 1,249,404 individuals. The following outcomes were measured: not receiving a school leaving certificate; their odds of receiving lowest grade; and reduced odds of receiving high grade in the following subjects: mathematics; English; Swedish; and physical education, and their grade point average. For the control group 2.74% did not receive their leaving certificate, while for the individuals with PRS 9.68% (OR = 4.00; 95% CI = 1.81-8.86) did not receive their leaving certificate. There were no differences between the groups in mathematics, English, and Swedish, while, in physical education, individuals with PRS had significantly reduced odds of receiving a high grade in the relative grading system. Individuals with PRS had a significantly lower grade point average: 3.00 ± 0.09 in comparison to the control group: 3.23 ± 0.002, p = 0.002. This study indicates that individuals with PRS experience significant difficulties in their educational achievements in compulsory school in Sweden.

  7. Fecal steroid analysis for evaluating ovarian function in the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis).

    PubMed

    Black, Peter A; Trent, Ava M; Bauman, Joan E; Farnsworth, Ralph J; Monfort, Steven L

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal reproductive-endocrine norms have not been described for the genus Tragelaphus, which consists of seven species of African antelope. Longitudinal patterns of progesterone metabolite excretion were assessed by radioimmunoassays in fecal samples collected noninvasively (three to seven samples per week) from greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, n = 4) and lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis, n = 4). Progesterone metabolite excretion patterns revealed seasonal estrous cycles in both species, and discrimination of pregnant versus nonpregnant females was achieved in lesser kudu. These data reveal the value of fecal progesterone metabolites for establishing reproductive-endocrine norms in both zoo-maintained and free-living antelopes of the genus Tragelaphus.

  8. Predicting achievement of first semester university science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Al

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on 11 measures used as predictors of students' achievement in their first semester subjects. The students were enrolled in the same four core subjects of a university general science course. Although a number of statistically significant correlations were found, only one predictor variable, HSC aggregate mark, correlated significantly with each of the achievement variables. One predictor variable entered four of the achievement regression equations, while two variables entered the fifth, accounting for 34 to 54% of the variance. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A05A9011 00020

  9. Classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie

    2011-12-01

    Classroom context and school engagement are significant predictors of academic achievement. These factors are especially important for academically at-risk students. Grounded in an ecological systems perspective, this study examined links between classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement among early adolescents. We took a multidimensional approach to the measurement of classroom context and school engagement, incorporating both observational and self-reported assessments of various dimensions of classroom context (instruction quality, social/emotional climate, and student-teacher relationship) and school engagement (psychological and behavioral engagement). Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we tested whether school engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement among 5th grade students, and whether these pathways were the same for students with previous achievement difficulties identified in 3rd grade. Participants included 1,014 children (50% female) in 5th grade (mean age = 11). The majority of the participants were white (77%) and 23% were children of color. Results indicated that psychological and behavioral engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement for students without previous achievement difficulties. However, for students with previous achievement difficulties psychological and behavioral engagement did not mediate the link between classroom context and academic achievement. These results suggest that improving classroom quality may not be sufficient to improve student engagement and achievement for students with previous achievement difficulties. Additional strategies may be needed for these students.

  10. Emittance of a finite scattering medium with refractive index greater than unity

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Refractive index and scattering can significantly influence the transfer of radiation in a semitransparent medium such as water, glass, plastics, or ceramics. In a recent article (1979), the author presented exact numerical results for the emittance of a semiinfinite scattering medium with a refractive index greater than unity. The present investigation extends the analysis to a finite medium. The physical situation consists of a finite planar layer. The isothermal layer emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters thermal radiation. It is characterized by single scattering albedo, optical thickness, refractive index, and temperature. A formula for the directional emittance is derived, the directional emittance being the emittance of the medium multiplied by the interface transmittance. The ratio of hemispherical to normal emittance is tabulated and discussed.

  11. Performing music can induce greater modulation of emotion-related psychophysiological responses than listening to music.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hidehiro; Furuya, Shinichi; Masuko, Tsutomu; Francis, Peter R; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigated the differential effects of music-induced emotion on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) while playing music on the piano and listening to a recording of the same piece of music. Sixteen pianists were monitored during tasks involving emotional piano performance, non-emotional piano performance, emotional perception, and non-emotional perception. It was found that emotional induction during both perception and performance modulated HR and HRV, and that such modulations were significantly greater during musical performance than during perception. The results confirmed that musical performance was far more effective in modulating emotion-related autonomic nerve activity than musical perception in musicians. The findings suggest the presence of a neural network of reward-emotion-associated autonomic nerve activity for musical performance that is independent of a neural network for musical perception.

  12. The Busier the Better: Greater Busyness Is Associated with Better Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Festini, Sara B.; McDonough, Ian M.; Park, Denise C.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained engagement in mentally challenging activities has been shown to improve memory in older adults. We hypothesized that a busy schedule would be a proxy for an engaged lifestyle and would facilitate cognition. Here, we examined the relationship between busyness and cognition in adults aged 50–89. Participants (N = 330) from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study (DLBS) completed a cognitive battery and the Martin and Park Environmental Demands Questionnaire (MPED), an assessment of busyness. Results revealed that greater busyness was associated with better processing speed, working memory, episodic memory, reasoning, and crystallized knowledge. Hierarchical regressions also showed that, after controlling for age and education, busyness accounted for significant additional variance in all cognitive constructs—especially episodic memory. Finally, an interaction between age and busyness was not present while predicting cognitive performance, suggesting that busyness was similarly beneficial in adults aged 50–89. Although correlational, these data demonstrate that living a busy lifestyle is associated with better cognition. PMID:27242510

  13. Stable same-sex friendships with higher achieving partners promote mathematical reasoning in lower achieving primary school children.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and 1 year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning.

  14. Trend analysis of long-term temperature time series in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsin, Tanzina; Gough, William A.

    2010-08-01

    As the majority of the world’s population is living in urban environments, there is growing interest in studying local urban climates. In this paper, for the first time, the long-term trends (31-162 years) of temperature change have been analyzed for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Annual and seasonal time series for a number of urban, suburban, and rural weather stations are considered. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for the assessing of the significance and detection of trends, and the sequential Mann test is used to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significant trends for annual mean and minimum temperatures are detected for almost all stations in the GTA. Winter is found to be the most coherent season contributing substantially to the increase in annual minimum temperature. The analyses of the abrupt changes in temperature suggest that the beginning of the increasing trend in Toronto started after the 1920s and then continued to increase to the 1960s. For all stations, there is a significant increase of annual and seasonal (particularly winter) temperatures after the 1980s. In terms of the linkage between urbanization and spatiotemporal thermal patterns, significant linear trends in annual mean and minimum temperature are detected for the period of 1878-1978 for the urban station, Toronto, while for the rural counterparts, the trends are not significant. Also, for all stations in the GTA that are situated in all directions except south of Toronto, substantial temperature change is detected for the periods of 1970-2000 and 1989-2000. It is concluded that the urbanization in the GTA has significantly contributed to the increase of the annual mean temperatures during the past three decades. In addition to urbanization, the influence of local climate, topography, and larger scale warming are incorporated in the analysis of the trends.

  15. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  16. A 110-year perspective of significant tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazulis, Thomas P.

    A tornado documentation project began in 1980 as an effort to resolve differences between the two independently designed tornado data bases used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One was established for the NRC at the University of Chicago (UC) by T. T. Fujita for the years 1916-1985. In addition, the NRC assisted the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) in adding F scale ratings to the existing NSSFC data base in Kansas City, from 1950 to the present. The final task of this effort (hereinafter called the project) was to locate and list all significant tornadoes from 1880 through 1989. Significant is defined here as all tornadoes doing confirmable F-2 or greater damage or causing a death.

  17. Smoking control: challenges and achievements.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa da; Araújo, Alberto José de; Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias de; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. RESUMO O tabagismo é o fator de risco mais prevenível e controlável em saúde e, por isso, precisa ter a máxima atenção e ser muito mais enfocado por todos os profissionais da saúde. O tabaco é um produto de alta rentabilidade pela sua grande produção e pelo elevado número de consumidores. As políticas de controle e os recursos terapêuticos para o tabagismo avançaram muito nos últimos anos e têm mostrado resultados altamente satisfatórios, particularmente no Brasil. Entretanto, ainda resta um longo caminho a ser percorrido para que se possa considerar o tabagismo como uma doença controlada sob o ponto de vista da saúde pública. Já se observam modificações do comportamento da sociedade com relação ao tabagismo, mas ainda em escala muito lenta, de modo que os pneumologistas têm nesse setor um campo

  18. Health status and school achievement of children from Head Start and Free School Lunch Programs.

    PubMed

    Gietzen, D; Vermeersch, J A

    1980-01-01

    School health records of 332 children through the eighth grade were examined in a retrospective comparative analysis of physical health status and school achievement of children from Head Start and Free School Lunch Programs. The objective was to determine if nutrition early in the lives of children as a part of a comprehensive health and education program such as Head Start produces greater or different benefits for disadvantaged children than nutrition intervention later through free lunches when the child enters school. Cross-sectional longitudinal, and case-study approaches were used in the analysis. A group of no-food-program disadvantaged children and a group of advantaged children served as comparisons. Results showed that advantaged children performed better on all parameters of school achievement and health status compared with the disadvantaged children, regardless of the form of intervention. Measures of school achievement of Head Start and Free Lunch children did not differ from those of the disadvantaged comparison group, but there were significant differences in measures of health status between the disadvantaged groups. Fewer boys from Project Head Start fell below the 25th percentile for height compared with boys in the Free Lunch Program. Head Start children also scored higher in physical fitness and had fewer reported absences from school due to illness.

  19. A 2-Year Psychological Autopsy Study of Completed Suicides in the Athens Greater Area, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Michopoulos, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Christos; Koutsaftis, Filippos; Lykouras, Lefteris; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of a sample of suicide victims from the Athens Greater Area using the psychological autopsy method for the first time in Greece. Methods We studied all recorded cases of completed suicide for the 2-year time period November 2007-October 2009 collecting data from the victims' forensic records as well as from the completion of a psychological autopsy questionnaire. Results 335 persons were recorded as suicide victims. We contacted relatives of 256 victims interviewing those of 248 of them (96.9%). The differences regarding sex, marital and employment status between our sample and the general population were statistically significant (p<0.001). The male/female ratio was 3:1. Comparatively more victims were divorced, separated or single and a greater proportion were pensioners or unemployed. 26.0% of the victims had history of prior attempts (64.4% once, 20.3% twice and 15.3% more times). 42.6% were taking psychiatric medication-significantly more women than men according to blood tests; 14.2% had been hospitalized in a psychiatric clinic the year prior to their death. 84.8% have deceased at the place of suicide and 15.2% died in the hospital; 80.3% died indoors and 19.7% outdoors. Men died primarily by hanging or shooting by a firearm while women preferred jumping from height instead (p<0.001). As many as 48.8% had expressed their intention to die to their relatives; 26.6% left a suicide note. Conclusion Our study has shown that the psychological autopsy method is applicable and widely accepted yielding results comparable to the international literature. Specific parameters associated with suicide have been studied for the first time in Greece. PMID:25866522

  20. Serum concentrations of vitamins and trace elements in clinically healthy greater flamingos (Phoeniconaias phoenicopterus rubeus) and lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor).

    PubMed

    Benato, Livia; Rice, Caroline J; Wernery, Ulli; McKeown, Sean; Bailey, Tom A

    2013-06-01

    Analysis of vitamins and trace elements has gained importance in avian medicine in recent years. It has become evident that interpretation should be based on species-specific reference intervals due to differences in intervals between species. This study was performed to evaluate the blood concentrations of vitamins A (retinol), B1 (thiamine), C (ascorbic acid), and E (alpha-tocopherol) and trace elements copper, selenium, and zinc for greater flamingos (Phoeniconaias (Phoenicopterus) rubeus) and lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor). Reference intervals of vitamins and trace elements are presented for clinically healthy flamingos. Thirty-six clinically healthy greater flamingos, divided into male and female groups, and 14 healthy lesser flamingos were evaluated. There was no significant difference in the vitamin and trace element concentrations between male and female greater flamingos, but there was a statistically significant difference between greater flamingos and lesser flamingos for ascorbic acid, copper, and selenium. Blood concentration of ascorbic acid was greater (P < 0.001) in lesser flamingos (122.66 +/- 31.53 microM) than in male and female greater flamingos (40.53 +/- 13.83 and 30.44 +/- 11.43 microM, respectively). Blood concentrations of copper and selenium were greater (P < 0.001) in greater flamingos (copper: 5.57 +/- 1.3 microM for males, 5.65 +/- 1.53 microM for females; selenium: 2.74 +/- 0.43 microM for males, 2.54 +/- 0.7 microM for females) than lesser flamingos (copper: 2.45 +/- 1.96 microM; selenium: 0.45 +/- 0.29 microM). The mean +/- SD of vitamins A, B1, and E and zinc are reported as entire group (male and female greater flamingos and lesser flamingos): vitamin A, 1.54 +/- 0.45 micromM; thiamine, 0.49 +/- 0.07 jM; vitamin E, 31 +/- 9.8 micromol/L; and zinc, 29.52 +/- 6.49 microM.

  1. Using hierarchical linear growth models to evaluate protective mechanisms that mediate science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Secker, Clare Elaine

    The study of students at risk is a major topic of science education policy and discussion. Much research has focused on describing conditions and problems associated with the statistical risk of low science achievement among individuals who are members of groups characterized by problems such as poverty and social disadvantage. But outcomes attributed to these factors do not explain the nature and extent of mechanisms that account for differences in performance among individuals at risk. There is ample theoretical and empirical evidence that demographic differences should be conceptualized as social contexts, or collections of variables, that alter the psychological significance and social demands of life events, and affect subsequent relationships between risk and resilience. The hierarchical linear growth models used in this dissertation provide greater specification of the role of social context and the protective effects of attitude, expectations, parenting practices, peer influences, and learning opportunities on science achievement. While the individual influences of these protective factors on science achievement were small, their cumulative effect was substantial. Meta-analysis conducted on the effects associated with psychological and environmental processes that mediate risk mechanisms in sixteen social contexts revealed twenty-two significant differences between groups of students. Positive attitudes, high expectations, and more intense science course-taking had positive effects on achievement of all students, although these factors were not equally protective in all social contexts. In general, effects associated with authoritative parenting and peer influences were negative, regardless of social context. An evaluation comparing the performance and stability of hierarchical linear growth models with traditional repeated measures models is included as well.

  2. 21 CFR 1312.15 - Shipments in greater or less amount than authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipments in greater or less amount than... in greater or less amount than authorized. (a) If the shipment made under an import permit is greater... amount by less than 1 percent may be released to the importer upon the filing by him of an amended...

  3. 75 FR 42079 - Treatment of Letters Stating That the USPTO's Patent Term Adjustment Determination Is Greater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Determination Is Greater Than What the Applicant or Patentee Believes Is Appropriate AGENCY: United States... notification, or patent, is greater than what the applicant or patentee believes is appropriate. The USPTO will... notification, or patent is greater than what the applicant or patentee believes is appropriate. DATES:...

  4. Values, achievement goals, and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among Chinese and Indonesian secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Nie, Youyan

    2008-10-01

    This study examined how values related to achievement goals and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among secondary school students in China (N = 355) and Indonesia (N = 356). Statistical comparisons showed the Chinese students endorsed more strongly than the Indonesian students on self-direction and hedonism values, individual-oriented achievement motivation, and mastery-approach goals. Conversely, the Indonesian students endorsed more strongly than their Chinese counterparts on security, conformity, tradition, universalism and achievement values, social-oriented achievement motivation, and performance-approach and mastery-avoidance goals. Values explained a significant amount of the variance in almost all of the dimensions of motivation. Etic and emic relationships between values and achievement motivations were found.

  5. Sanitary Surveys & Significant Deficiencies Presentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Sanitary Surveys & Significant Deficiencies Presentation highlights some of the things EPA looks for during drinking water system site visits, how to avoid significant deficiencies and what to do if you receive one.

  6. Treadmill walking in water induces greater respiratory muscle fatigue than treadmill walking on land in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Naghavi, Nooshin; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ota, Akemi; Imai, Daiki; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of walking in water on respiratory muscle fatigue compared with that of walking on land at the same exercise intensity. Ten healthy males participated in 40-min treadmill walking trials on land and in water at an intensity of 60% of peak oxygen consumption. Respiratory function and respiratory muscle strength were evaluated before and after walking trials. Inspiratory muscle strength and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were significantly decreased immediately after walking in water, and expiratory muscle strength was significantly decreased immediately and 5 min after walking in water compared with the baseline. The decreases of inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength were significantly greater compared with that after walking on land. In conclusion, greater inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue was induced by walking in water than by walking on land at the same exercise intensity in healthy young men.

  7. Competency-Based Achievement System

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Shelley; Poth, Cheryl N.; Donoff, Michel; Humphries, Paul; Steiner, Ivan; Schipper, Shirley; Janke, Fred; Nichols, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residency programs require innovative means to assess residents’ competence in “soft” skills (eg, patient-centred care, communication, and professionalism) and to identify residents who are having difficulty early enough in their residency to provide remedial training. Objective of program To develop a method to assess residents’ competence in various skills and to identify residents who are having difficulty. Program description The Competency-Based Achievement System (CBAS) was designed to measure competence using 3 main principles: formative feedback, guided self-assessment, and regular face-to-face meetings. The CBAS is resident driven and provides a framework for meaningful interactions between residents and advisors. Residents use the CBAS to organize and review their feedback, to guide their own assessment of their progress, and to discern their future learning needs. Advisors use the CBAS to monitor, guide, and verify residents’ knowledge of and competence in important skills. Conclusion By focusing on specific skills and behaviour, the CBAS enables residents and advisors to make formative assessments and to communicate their findings. Feedback indicates that the CBAS is a user-friendly and helpful system to assess competence. PMID:21918129

  8. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees

    PubMed Central

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F.; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010–July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research. PMID:24064502

  9. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.

  10. The effects of femoral neck cut, cable tension, and muscles forces on the greater trochanter fixation.

    PubMed

    Petit, Yvan; Cloutier, Luc P; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves

    2012-04-01

    Greater trochanter (GT) stabilization techniques following a fracture or an osteotomy are still showing high levels of postoperative complications. Understanding the effect of femoral neck cut placement, cable tension and muscles forces on GT fragment displacements could help surgeons optimize their techniques. A 3D finite element model has been developed to evaluate, through a statistical experimental design, the impact of the above variables on the GT fragment gap and sliding displacements. Muscles forces were simulating typical daily activities. Stresses were also investigated. The femoral neck cut placement had the most significant effect on the fragment displacement. Lowering it by 5 mm increased the gap and sliding fragment displacements by 288 and 128 %, respectively. Excessive cable tightening provided no significant reduction in fragment displacement. Muscle activities increased the gap and the sliding displacements for all muscle configurations. The maximum total displacement of 0.41 mm was present with a 10 mm femoral neck cut, a cable tension of 178 N, and stair climbing. Caution must be used not to over tighten the cables as the potential damage caused by the increased stress is more significant than any reduction in fragment displacement. Furthermore, preservation of the contact area is important for GT stabilization.

  11. Greater widespread functional connectivity of the caudate in older adults who practice kripalu yoga and vipassana meditation than in controls.

    PubMed

    Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K; Dickerson, Bradford C; Lazar, Sara W

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in understanding how contemplative practices affect brain functional organization. However, most studies have restricted their exploration to predefined networks. Furthermore, scientific comparisons of different contemplative traditions are largely lacking. Here we explored differences in whole brain resting state functional connectivity between experienced yoga practitioners, experienced meditators, and matched controls. Analyses were repeated in an independent sample of experienced meditators and matched controls. Analyses utilizing Network-Based Statistics (Zalesky et al., 2010) revealed difference components for yoga practitioners > controls and meditators > controls in which the right caudate was a central node. Follow up analyses revealed that yoga practitioners and meditators had significantly greater degree centrality in the caudate than controls. This greater degree centrality was not driven by single connections but by greater connectivity between the caudate and numerous brain regions. Findings of greater caudate connectivity in meditators than in controls was replicated in an independent dataset. These findings suggest that yoga and meditation practitioners have stronger functional connectivity within basal ganglia cortico-thalamic feedback loops than non-practitioners. Although we could not provide evidence for its mechanistic role, this greater connectivity might be related to the often reported effects of meditation and yoga on behavioral flexibility, mental health, and well-being.

  12. Greater widespread functional connectivity of the caudate in older adults who practice kripalu yoga and vipassana meditation than in controls

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Lazar, Sara W.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in understanding how contemplative practices affect brain functional organization. However, most studies have restricted their exploration to predefined networks. Furthermore, scientific comparisons of different contemplative traditions are largely lacking. Here we explored differences in whole brain resting state functional connectivity between experienced yoga practitioners, experienced meditators, and matched controls. Analyses were repeated in an independent sample of experienced meditators and matched controls. Analyses utilizing Network-Based Statistics (Zalesky et al., 2010) revealed difference components for yoga practitioners > controls and meditators > controls in which the right caudate was a central node. Follow up analyses revealed that yoga practitioners and meditators had significantly greater degree centrality in the caudate than controls. This greater degree centrality was not driven by single connections but by greater connectivity between the caudate and numerous brain regions. Findings of greater caudate connectivity in meditators than in controls was replicated in an independent dataset. These findings suggest that yoga and meditation practitioners have stronger functional connectivity within basal ganglia cortico-thalamic feedback loops than non-practitioners. Although we could not provide evidence for its mechanistic role, this greater connectivity might be related to the often reported effects of meditation and yoga on behavioral flexibility, mental health, and well-being. PMID:25852521

  13. Research Brief--Sex and Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Achievement of Black and Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John L.; Exezidis, Roxane H.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the effects of both sex and ethnic background on mathematics achievement, 112 Mexican-American and Black adolescents were studied. Achievement scores, parental influence, and math attitudes were analyzed. Ethnic background seemed to exert a much greater effect on mathematics achievement than did gender. (PP)

  14. Academic Achievement and Loneliness of Migrant Children in China: School Segregation and Segmented Assimilation1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Zhou, Hao

    2013-01-01

    China’s rural-urban migration presents a significant educational challenge. This study uses theories of segmented assimilation and school segregation to measure the assimilation and well-being of migrant children who attend either Beijing’s public schools or its informal migrant schools. Controling for other factors, we find poorer achievement and greater loneliness among migrant children who are isolated in migrant schools than similar migrant students enrolled in regular urban public schools. We show there is little difference in learning outcome or loneliness between urban native children and migrant children who attend public schools. We further discuss similarities and differences between the experiences of migrant children in China and immigrant children in the United States. PMID:24078743

  15. Alcohol-induced suppression of gluconeogenesis is greater in ethanol fed female rat hepatocytes than males.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Ken D; Cogger, Alma A; Matveyenko, Aleksey V

    2007-03-01

    The impact of alcohol-induced suppression on hepatic gluconeogenesis (HGN) after chronic ethanol consumption between males and females is unknown. To determine the effects of chronic alcohol consumption (8 weeks) on HGN, the isolated hepatocyte technique was used on 24 h fasted male and female Wistar rats. Livers were initially perfused with collagenase and the hepatocytes were isolated. Aliquots of the cell suspension were placed in Krebs-Henseleit buffer and incubated for 30 min with lactate, [U -14C]lactate, and nine different concentrations of ethanol (EtOH). Dose-effect curves were generated for the determination of maximal and half-maximal alcohol-induced inhibition on HGN. There was no significant difference in HGN (lactate only and no EtOH) between males and females fed the control diet (88.5 +/- 5.1 nmol/mg protein/30 min). Similarly, the HGN (lactate only and no EtOH) in males fed the ethanol diet (ME) were not significantly different (82.8 +/- 3.5 nmol/mg protein/30 min) compared to controls. In contrast, the females chronically fed the ethanol diet (FE) had significantly (P < .05) lower HGN (67.8 +/- 4.6 nmol/mg protein/30 min) compared to both ME and controls. With alcohol in the incubation medium, the HGN significantly (P<.05) declined in all groups. While alcohol suppressed HGN to a larger (P < .05) extent in ME (45.8 +/- 3.7 nmol/mg protein/30 min) compared to controls (64.0 +/- 3.8 nmol/mg protein/30 min), the inhibition was even greater (P < .05) in FE (32.7 +/- 3.2 nmol/mg protein/30 min). The more pronounced effect of chronic alcohol consumption on HGN in the presence of ethanol in female hepatocytes was supported by the concomitant decreases (P < .05) in 14C-lactate incorporation into 14C-glucose, lactate uptake, and 14C-lactate uptake. The results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption elicits a greater reduction on HGN in the presence of ethanol in the hepatocytes of females compared to males.

  16. Fibrosis and inflammation are greater in muscles of beta-sarcoglycan-null mouse than mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Gibertini, Sara; Zanotti, Simona; Savadori, Paolo; Curcio, Maurizio; Saredi, Simona; Salerno, Franco; Andreetta, Francesca; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato; Mora, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The Sgcb-null mouse, with knocked-down β-sarcoglycan, develops severe muscular dystrophy as in type 2E human limb girdle muscular dystrophy. The mdx mouse, lacking dystrophin, is the most used model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Unlike DMD, the mdx mouse has mild clinical features and shows little fibrosis in limb muscles. To characterize ECM protein deposition and the progression of muscle fibrosis, we evaluated protein and transcript levels of collagens I, III and VI, decorin, and TGF-β1, in quadriceps and diaphragm, at 2, 4, 8, 12, 26, and 52 weeks in Sgcb-null mice, and protein levels at 12, 26, and 52 weeks in mdx mice. In Sgcb-null mice, severe morphological disruption was present from 4 weeks in both quadriceps and diaphragm, and included conspicuous deposition of extracellular matrix components. Histopathological features of Sgcb-null mouse muscles were similar to those of age-matched mdx muscles at all ages examined, but, in the Sgcb-null mouse, the extent of connective tissue deposition was generally greater than mdx. Furthermore, in the Sgcb-null mouse, the amount of all three collagen isoforms increased steadily, while, in the mdx, they remained stable. We also found that, at 12 weeks, macrophages were significantly more numerous in mildly inflamed areas of Sgcb-null quadriceps compared to mdx quadriceps (but not in highly inflamed regions), while, in the diaphragm, macrophages did not differ significantly between the two models, in either region. Osteopontin mRNA was also significantly greater at 12 weeks in laser-dissected highly inflamed areas of the Sgcb-null quadriceps compared to the mdx quadriceps. TGF-β1 was present in areas of degeneration-regeneration, but levels were highly variable and in general did not differ significantly between the two models and controls. The roles of the various subtypes of macrophages in muscle repair and fibrosis in the two models require further study. The Sgcb-null mouse, which develops early fibrosis

  17. Closing the Achievement Gap: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robards, Shirley N.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap between low- and high-achieving public school students is an important goal of public education. This article explores background information and research and discusses examples of best practices to close the achievement gap. Several plans have been proposed as ways to enhance the achievement of under-represented…

  18. Wild garlic has a greater effect than regular garlic on blood pressure and blood chemistries of rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Clouatre, D; Mohamadi, A; Jarrell, S T

    2001-01-01

    When groups of 10 Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) were fed diets containing either 1% w/w regular garlic (Allium sativum) (AS) or 1% w/w wild garlic (Allium ursinum) (AU) for 45 days, the final mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was reduced significantly compared to control (C) (C 189; AS 175; Au 173 mm Hg). Compared to C, body weight and circulating glucose and triglyceride levels were not significantly different; but circulating insulin was significantly higher (C 23.6; AS 33.9; AU 29.5 uIU/dl), and total cholesterol was significantly lower (C 133; AS 115; AU 117 mg/dl) in the two groups consuming AS or AU. HDL rose in the two garlic groups, but the differences from C were statistically significant only for the AU group. In a second study, the effects of a lower dose of dietary AS and AU (0.1% w/w) on SBP and various blood chemistries were compared head-to-head in 80 SHR-40 control and 40 test rats. Both AS and AU decreased SBP significantly compared to a control group of 10 SHR followed simultaneously. However, AU at this lower concentration produced a significantly greater SBP-lowering effect compared to the AS group. In addition, AU decreased total cholesterol significantly and tended to increase HDL compared to AS. Accordingly, the results suggest that AU has a greater therapeutic benefit compared to AS at a given concentration.

  19. Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, Vicki

    Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

  20. Housing Affordability And Children's Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Newman, Sandra; Holupka, C Scott

    2016-11-01

    Housing cost burden-the fraction of income spent on housing-is the most prevalent housing problem affecting the healthy development of millions of low- and moderate-income children. By affecting disposable income, a high burden affects parents' expenditures on both necessities for and enrichment of their children, as well as investments in their children. Reducing those expenditures and investments, in turn, can affect children's development, including their cognitive skills and physical, social, and emotional health. This article summarizes the first empirical evidence of the effects of housing affordability on children's cognitive achievement and on one factor that appears to contribute to these effects: the larger expenditures on child enrichment by families in affordable housing. We found that housing cost burden has the same relationship to both children's cognitive achievement and enrichment spending on children, exhibiting an inverted U shape in both cases. The maximum benefit occurs when housing cost burden is near 30 percent of income-the long-standing rule-of-thumb definition of affordable housing. The effect of the burden is stronger on children's math ability than on their reading comprehension and is more pronounced with burdens above the 30 percent standard. For enrichment spending, the curve is "shallower" (meaning the effect of optimal affordability is less pronounced) but still significant.