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Sample records for achieved substantial reductions

  1. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - how to achieve substantial CO(2) reductions?

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, T; Olesen, J E; Petersen, S O; Petersen, B M; Jørgensen, U; Kristensen, T; Hutchings, N J; Gyldenkærne, S; Hermansen, J E

    2011-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance.

  2. Measuring Substantial Reductions in Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Charles; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A.; So, Suzanna; Brown, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The case definitions for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) each include a disability criterion requiring substantial reductions in activity in order to meet diagnostic criteria. Difficulties have been encountered in defining and operationalizing the substantial reduction disability criterion within these various illness definitions. The present study sought to relate measures of past and current activities in several domains including the SF-36, an objective measure of activity (e.g. actigraphy), a self-reported quality of life scale, and measures of symptom severity. Results of the study revealed that current work activities had the highest number of significant associations with domains such as the SF-36 subscales, actigraphy, and symptom scores. As an example, higher self-reported levels of current work activity were associated with better health. This suggests that current work related activities may provide a useful domain for helping operationalize the construct of substantial reductions in activity. PMID:25584524

  3. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  4. Maintained peak leg and pulmonary VO2 despite substantial reduction in muscle mitochondrial capacity.

    PubMed

    Boushel, R; Gnaiger, E; Larsen, F J; Helge, J W; González-Alonso, J; Ara, I; Munch-Andersen, T; van Hall, G; Søndergaard, H; Saltin, B; Calbet, J A L

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported the circulatory and muscle oxidative capacities of the arm after prolonged low-intensity skiing in the arctic (Boushel et al., 2014). In the present study, leg VO2 was measured by the Fick method during leg cycling while muscle mitochondrial capacity was examined on a biopsy of the vastus lateralis in healthy volunteers (7 male, 2 female) before and after 42 days of skiing at 60% HR max. Peak pulmonary VO2 (3.52 ± 0.18 L.min(-1) pre vs 3.52 ± 0.19 post) and VO2 across the leg (2.8 ± 0.4L.min(-1) pre vs 3.0 ± 0.2 post) were unchanged after the ski journey. Peak leg O2 delivery (3.6 ± 0.2 L.min(-1) pre vs 3.8 ± 0.4 post), O2 extraction (82 ± 1% pre vs 83 ± 1 post), and muscle capillaries per mm(2) (576 ± 17 pre vs 612 ± 28 post) were also unchanged; however, leg muscle mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity was reduced (90 ± 3 pmol.sec(-1) .mg(-1) pre vs 70 ± 2 post, P < 0.05) as was citrate synthase activity (40 ± 3 μmol.min(-1) .g(-1) pre vs 34 ± 3 vs P < 0.05). These findings indicate that peak muscle VO2 can be sustained with a substantial reduction in mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity. This is achieved at a similar O2 delivery and a higher relative ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration at a higher mitochondrial p50. These findings support the concept that muscle mitochondrial respiration is submaximal at VO2max , and that mitochondrial volume can be downregulated by chronic energy demand.

  5. The Dutch Gender Gap in Mathematics: Small for Achievement, Substantial for Beliefs and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meelissen, Martina; Luyten, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In general, studies on gender and mathematics show that the advantage held by boys over girls in mathematics achievement has diminished markedly over the last 40 years. Some researchers even argue that gender differences in mathematics achievement are no longer a relevant issue. However, the results of the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study…

  6. Substantial and sustained seizure reduction with ketogenic diet in a patient with Ohtahara syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sivaraju, Adithya; Nussbaum, Ilisa; Cardoza, Candace S; Mattson, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Ketogenic diet has been shown to be efficacious in some epileptic encephalopathies but rarely reported as being useful in children with Ohtahara syndrome. This could possibly be attributed to the rarity of the disease and associated short survival period. We report on a 5-year-old child with Ohtahara syndrome, whose seizures failed to improve with all known medications, continued to show persistent suppression-burst pattern on the electroencephalography (EEG) and had substantial reduction in seizure frequency for one year post-initiation of ketogenic diet. He has not had a single visit to the emergency room because of seizures in the last one year, and more importantly, there has been a clear improvement noted in his level of interaction and temperament. Patients with Ohtahara syndrome invariably have medically intractable seizures and catastrophic neurodevelopmental outcome. Ketogenic diet is a treatment modality that might be worth considering even in this group of patients. PMID:26005637

  7. Substantial reduction of critical current for magnetization switching in an exchange-biased spin valve.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Nozaki, T; Abe, S; Ochiai, T; Hirohata, A; Tezuka, N; Inomata, K

    2004-06-01

    Great interest in current-induced magnetic excitation and switching in a magnetic nanopillar has been caused by the theoretical predictions of these phenomena. The concept of using a spin-polarized current to switch the magnetization orientation of a magnetic layer provides a possible way to realize future 'current-driven' devices: in such devices, direct switching of the magnetic memory bits would be produced by a local current application, instead of by a magnetic field generated by attached wires. Until now, all the reported work on current-induced magnetization switching has been concentrated on a simple ferromagnet/Cu/ferromagnet trilayer. Here we report the observation of current-induced magnetization switching in exchange-biased spin valves (ESPVs) at room temperature. The ESPVs clearly show current-induced magnetization switching behaviour under a sweeping direct current with a very high density. We show that insertion of a ruthenium layer between an ESPV nanopillar and the top electrode effectively decreases the critical current density from about 10(8) to 10(7) A cm(-2). In a well-designed 'antisymmetric' ESPV structure, this critical current density can be further reduced to 2 x 10(6) A cm(-2). We believe that the substantial reduction of critical current could make it possible for current-induced magnetization switching to be directly applied in spintronic devices, such as magnetic random-access memory.

  8. Achieving strategic cost reduction in the OR.

    PubMed

    Buchler, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Hospitals should be proactive insearching for ways to control operating room supply chain costs. A hospital can identify an overall supply cost savings goal by analyzing patient-encounter data for its 15 most costly procedures and identifying the dollar figure under which 25 percent of cases fall for each procedure. After establishing savings targets, the hospital can achieve its goals through a range of approaches. PMID:25647904

  9. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... head of the agency. Examples include a Chief Human Capital Officer, an Assistant Secretary for... agency human capital goals; (3) The date on which the agency expects to effect the substantial delayering... incentive payments and voluntary early retirement; or (3) The agency's human capital plan, which...

  10. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... head of the agency. Examples include a Chief Human Capital Officer, an Assistant Secretary for... agency human capital goals; (3) The date on which the agency expects to effect the substantial delayering... incentive payments and voluntary early retirement; or (3) The agency's human capital plan, which...

  11. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... head of the agency. Examples include a Chief Human Capital Officer, an Assistant Secretary for... agency human capital goals; (3) The date on which the agency expects to effect the substantial delayering... incentive payments and voluntary early retirement; or (3) The agency's human capital plan, which...

  12. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... head of the agency. Examples include a Chief Human Capital Officer, an Assistant Secretary for... agency human capital goals; (3) The date on which the agency expects to effect the substantial delayering... incentive payments and voluntary early retirement; or (3) The agency's human capital plan, which...

  13. Method for the substantial reduction of quenching effects in luminescence spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Demas, James N.; Jones, Wesley M.; Keller, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Method for reducing quenching effects in analytical luminescence measurements. Two embodiments of the present invention are described which relate to a form of time resolution based on the amplitudes and phase shifts of modulated emission signals. In the first embodiment, the measured modulated emission signal is substantially independent of sample quenching at sufficiently high frequenices. In the second embodiment, the modulated amplitude and the phase shift between the emission signal and the excitation source are simultaneously measured. Using either method, the observed modulated amplitude may reduced to tis unquenched value.

  14. Method for the substantial reduction of quenching effects in luminescence spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Demas, J.N.; Jones, W.M.; Keller, R.A.

    1987-06-26

    Method for reducing quenching effects in analytical luminescence measurements. Two embodiments of the present invention are described which relate to a form of time resolution based on the amplitudes and phase shifts of modulated emission signals. In the first embodiment, the measured modulated emission signal is substantially independent of sample quenching at sufficiently high frequencies. In the second embodiment, the modulated amplitude and the phase shift between the emission signal and the excitation source are simultaneously measured. Using either method, the observed modulated amplitude may be reduced to its unquenched value. 3 figs.

  15. Substantial Reduction of Parenchymal Cerebral Blood Flow in Mice with Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Yorito; Enmi, Jun-ichiro; Iguchi, Satoshi; Saito, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yumi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Iida, Hidehiro; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) mouse model, which replicates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and white matter ischemic lesions, is considered to model some aspects of vascular cognitive impairment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the brain surface post-BCAS have been demonstrated by laser speckle flowmetry, but CBF levels in the brain parenchyma remain unknown. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were subjected to BCAS using external microcoils. Brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was conducted to visualize the intracranial main arteries while arterial spin labeling (ASL) was used to measure cortical and subcortical parenchymal CBF levels before and after BCAS. Brain MRA showed anterior circulation flow was substantially decreased until 14 days post-BCAS, which gradually but incompletely recovered over the following 14 days, with probable growth of collaterals from the posterior cerebral artery. ASL showed that cortical and subcortical parenchymal CBF remained decreased at approximately 50% of the baseline level during 1 and 14 days post-BCAS, recovering to approximately 70% at day 28. CBF levels in the parenchyma were lower than the cortical superficial region in the BCAS model and remained decreased without recovery during the first 2 weeks post-BCAS. These results suggest that the BCAS model reliably replicates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. PMID:27535801

  16. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-07-02

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.

  17. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-01-01

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. These results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability. PMID:26133469

  18. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; et al

    2015-07-02

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can bemore » attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.« less

  19. Can fisheries management make substantial progress towards further reductions in sport fish PCB concentrations?

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Great Lakes managers continue to be concerned by PCB concentrations in Great Lakes sport fish. A reduction in sport fish consumption advisory levels would heighten public concern and increase pressure on managers to reduce contaminant levels in sport fish. PCB concentrations in Great Lakes sediments remain high and exchange with the water column is significant. Atmospheric inputs help maintain PCB availability in the Great Lakes. However, it is not technically feasible to control sediment and atmospheric inputs. Here the author uses a detailed age-structured simulation model of chinook salmon, alewife and rainbow smelt to examine the potential for fish management actions to make progress towards reducing PCB concentrations of sport fish consumed by humans. Chinook salmon PCB concentrations were found to be more affected by prey PCB concentrations than chinook salmon growth rates. Salmonid predators selectively attack the largest prey, but these prey are likely the oldest and most contaminated. The interaction between size selective predation by chinook salmon and their growth rates suggests that there is an ideal stocking level of sport fish that should keep the average prey fish small, and therefore have relatively low PCE concentrations, but not reduce the age structure of the alewife population to include few reproductive individuals. These results are applicable to other stocked salmonids too, (e.g., lake trout, brown trout, coho salmon, steelhead) because they also exhibit size selective predation and their recruitment is primarily by stocking.

  20. The Impact of Class Size Reduction on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Penny

    This study examined the impact of class size reduction (CSR) on achievement among 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students with different numbers of years of participation in CSR. Single-year matched gains were calculated for the 1997-1998 and 1999-2000 school years. Student progress was assessed using scores from the SAT/9 reading, mathematics, and…

  1. Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

  2. Explaining the Substantial Inter-Domain and Over-Time Correlations in Student Achievement: The Importance of Stable Student Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-domain and longitudinal studies of student achievement routinely find moderate to strong correlations across achievement domains and even stronger within-domain correlations over time. The purpose of this study is to examine the sources of these patterns analysing student achievement in 5 domains across Years 3, 5 and 7. The analysis is of…

  3. Pediatric cT: Implementation of ASIR for Substantial Radiation Dose Reduction While Maintaining Pre-ASIR Image Noise1

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Samuel L.; Moore, Bria M.; Yee, Brian S.; Kaufman, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine a comprehensive method for the implementation of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for maximal radiation dose reduction in pediatric computed tomography (CT) without changing the magnitude of noise in the reconstructed image or the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the patient. Materials and Methods The institutional review board waived the need to obtain informed consent for this HIPAA-compliant quality analysis. Chest and abdominopelvic CT images obtained before ASIR implementation (183 patient examinations; mean patient age, 8.8 years ± 6.2 [standard deviation]; range, 1 month to 27 years) were analyzed for image noise and CNR. These measurements were used in conjunction with noise models derived from anthropomorphic phantoms to establish new beam current–modulated CT parameters to implement 40% ASIR at 120 and 100 kVp without changing noise texture or magnitude. Image noise was assessed in images obtained after ASIR implementation (492 patient examinations; mean patient age, 7.6 years ± 5.4; range, 2 months to 28 years) the same way it was assessed in the pre-ASIR analysis. Dose reduction was determined by comparing size-specific dose estimates in the pre- and post-ASIR patient cohorts. Data were analyzed with paired t tests. Results With 40% ASIR implementation, the average relative dose reduction for chest CT was 39% (2.7/4.4 mGy), with a maximum reduction of 72% (5.3/18.8 mGy). The average relative dose reduction for abdominopelvic CT was 29% (4.8/6.8 mGy), with a maximum reduction of 64% (7.6/20.9 mGy). Beam current modulation was unnecessary for patients weighing 40 kg or less. The difference between 0% and 40% ASIR noise magnitude was less than 1 HU, with statistically nonsignificant increases in patient CNR at 100 kVp of 8% (15.3/14.2; P = .41) for chest CT and 13% (7.8/6.8; P = .40) for abdominopelvic CT. Conclusion Radiation dose reduction at pediatric CT was achieved when 40% ASIR was implemented as a dose

  4. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-ying

    2003-07-01

    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbon market, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex, dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. The modeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared. Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reduction requirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA's withdrawal. Total costs vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs would sharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigation strategies drops to only 0-16% .

  5. Substantial Improvements in Performance Indicators Achieved in a Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cryopreservation Quality Assurance Program Using Single Donor Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Wayne B.; Pett, Sarah L.; Sullivan, John S.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A.; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Lloyd, Andrew; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2007-01-01

    Storage of high-quality cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is often a requirement for multicenter clinical trials and requires a reproducibly high standard of practice. A quality assurance program (QAP) was established to assess an Australia-wide network of laboratories in the provision of high-quality PBMC (determined by yield, viability, and function), using blood taken from single donors (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and HIV negative) and shipped to each site for preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC. The aim of the QAP was to provide laboratory accreditation for participation in clinical trials and cohort studies which require preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC and to assist all laboratories to prepare PBMC with a viability of >80% and yield of >50% following thawing. Many laboratories failed to reach this standard on the initial QAP round. Interventions to improve performance included telephone interviews with the staff at each laboratory, two annual wet workshops, and direct access to a senior scientist to discuss performance following each QAP round. Performance improved substantially in the majority of sites that initially failed the QAP (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001 for viability and yield, respectively). In a minority of laboratories, there was no improvement (n = 2), while a high standard was retained at the laboratories that commenced with adequate performance (n = 3). These findings demonstrate that simple interventions and monitoring of PBMC preparation and cryopreservation from multiple laboratories can significantly improve performance and contribute to maintenance of a network of laboratories accredited for quality PBMC fractionation and cryopreservation. PMID:17050740

  6. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  7. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  8. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  9. 25 by 25: Achieving Global Reduction in Cardiovascular Mortality.

    PubMed

    Dugani, Sagar; Gaziano, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Four non-communicable diseases-cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer-account for over 60 % of all deaths globally. In recognition of this significant epidemic, the United Nations set forth a target of reducing the four major NCDs by 25 % by 2025. Cardiovascular disease alone represents half of these deaths and is the leading cause of death globally, representing as much as 60 % of all deaths in regions such as Eastern Europe. In response, the WHO set specific targets on conditions and risk factors and changes in the health systems structure in order to achieve the goals. The focus was set on lifestyle risk factors-physical activity, salt-intake, and tobacco-and established conditions-obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Health system efforts to improve medical treatment of high risk are encouraged. Efforts to achieve the goal are being promoted by leading international CVD organizations.

  10. Reductions in transformer losses achieved by staggering lamination layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albir, R. S.; Moses, A. J.

    1989-05-01

    The total loss of identical 3-phase, 3-limb, mitred and staggered cores assembled from 0.3 mm thick, conventional high permeability and laser scribed grain oriented silicon iron have been compared. The croes built from conventional material produced the best improvements when staggered and these were chosen to carry out further investigation to examine the effect of the stacking number and the T-joint design on the power loss of the cores. The power loss generally increased as the stagger length was increased, but an optimum stagger length range was determined at which the power loss was lowest. The percentage improvement in the power loss due to the introduction of the staggered technique is dependent upon the orientation of the material and the T-joint design. The best loss reduction compared to a mitred core of the same rating was around 5% using a core assembled from conventional material.

  11. Achieving esthetic success while avoiding extensive tooth reduction.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Douglas E

    2014-06-01

    This case report demonstrates the importance of both careful diagnosis and thorough patient education when planning treatment for a worn and actively chipping dentition. At presentation, the patient had assumed that porcelain crowns would be needed to restore her teeth. Historically, her wear had been attributed to nocturnal bruxism. However, after a diagnostic work-up, her attrition was determined to be the result of an aberrant tooth position, which resulted in a constricted envelope of function. This diagnosis provided the opportunity to orthodontically reposition the teeth, and then achieve normal function and esthetic success with either indirect porcelain adhesively retained or additive direct resin restorations instead of more invasive, cohesively retained porcelain crowns. During orthodontic treatment, the teeth were restored with direct resin. No further restorative treatment was needed. This case has been successful for more than 6 years post-treatment, without the use of a protective appliance.

  12. Performance evaluation of iterative reconstruction algorithms for achieving CT radiation dose reduction - a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Cristina T; Tamm, Eric P; Cody, Dianna D; Liu, Xinming; Jensen, Corey T; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas; Rong, X John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize image quality and dose performance with GE CT iterative reconstruction techniques, adaptive statistical iterative recontruction (ASiR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), over a range of typical to low-dose intervals using the Catphan 600 and the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantoms. The scope of the project was to quantitatively describe the advantages and limitations of these approaches. The Catphan 600 phantom, supplemented with a fat-equivalent oval ring, was scanned using a GE Discovery HD750 scanner at 120 kVp, 0.8 s rotation time, and pitch factors of 0.516, 0.984, and 1.375. The mA was selected for each pitch factor to achieve CTDIvol values of 24, 18, 12, 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm thickness with filtered back-projection (FBP); 20%, 40%, and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. The potential for dose reduction and low-contrast detectability were evaluated from noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements in the CTP 404 module of the Catphan. Hounsfield units (HUs) of several materials were evaluated from the cylinder inserts in the CTP 404 module, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated from the air insert. The results were con-firmed in the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantom at 6, 3, 2, and 1mGy. MBIR reduced noise levels five-fold and increased CNR by a factor of five compared to FBP below 6mGy CTDIvol, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. Compared to ASiR and FBP, HU in images reconstructed with MBIR were consistently lower, and this discrepancy was reversed by higher pitch factors in some materials. MBIR improved the conspicuity of the high-contrast spatial resolution bar pattern, and MTF quantification confirmed the superior spatial resolution performance of MBIR versus FBP and ASiR at higher dose levels. While ASiR and FBP were relatively insensitive to changes in dose and pitch, the spatial resolution for MBIR

  13. Friction drag reduction achievable by near-wall turbulence manipulation in spatially developing boundary-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannier, Amaury; Garnier, Eric; Sagaut, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Various control strategies, such as active feedback control or riblets, end up restraining near-wall turbulence. An analytical study is conducted to estimate the drag-reduction achievable by such control in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary-layers. Based on an idealized control which damps all fluctuations within a near-wall layer, a composite flow profile is established. It leads to explicit models for both the drag-reduction and the boundary-layer development rate. A skin-friction decomposition is applied and gives physical insights on the underlying phenomena. The control is found to alter the spatial development of the boundary-layer, resulting in detrimental impact on the skin-friction. However, the drag-reducing mechanism, attributed to the turbulence weakening, is found predominant and massive drag reductions remain achievable at high Reynolds number, although a minute part of the boundary-layer is manipulated. The model is finally assessed against Large Eddy Simulations of riblet-controlled flow.

  14. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    DOE PAGES

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase inmore » the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.« less

  15. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    SciTech Connect

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.

  16. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenesh R; Clark, Ezra L; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-11-10

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices.

  17. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Meenesh R.; Clark, Ezra L.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32–42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0–0.9 V, 0.9–1.95 V, and 1.95–3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices. PMID:26504215

  18. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenesh R.; Clark, Ezra L.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices.

  19. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenesh R; Clark, Ezra L; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-11-10

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices. PMID:26504215

  20. Development of a voxel-matching technique for substantial reduction of subtraction artifacts in temporal subtraction images obtained from thoracic MDCT.

    PubMed

    Itai, Yoshinori; Kim, Hyoungseop; Ishikawa, Seiji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Doi, Kunio

    2010-02-01

    A temporal subtraction image, which is obtained by subtraction of a previous image from a current one, can be used for enhancing interval changes (such as formation of new lesions and changes in existing abnormalities) on medical images by removing most of the normal structures. However, subtraction artifacts are commonly included in temporal subtraction images obtained from thoracic computed tomography and thus tend to reduce its effectiveness in the detection of pulmonary nodules. In this study, we developed a new method for substantially removing the artifacts on temporal subtraction images of lungs obtained from multiple-detector computed tomography (MDCT) by using a voxel-matching technique. Our new method was examined on 20 clinical cases with MDCT images. With this technique, the voxel value in a warped (or nonwarped) previous image is replaced by a voxel value within a kernel, such as a small cube centered at a given location, which would be closest (identical or nearly equal) to the voxel value in the corresponding location in the current image. With the voxel-matching technique, the correspondence not only between the structures but also between the voxel values in the current and the previous images is determined. To evaluate the usefulness of the voxel-matching technique for removal of subtraction artifacts, the magnitude of artifacts remaining in the temporal subtraction images was examined by use of the full width at half maximum and the sum of a histogram of voxel values, which may indicate the average contrast and the total amount, respectively, of subtraction artifacts. With our new method, subtraction artifacts due to normal structures such as blood vessels were substantially removed on temporal subtraction images. This computerized method can enhance lung nodules on chest MDCT images without disturbing misregistration artifacts.

  1. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  2. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  3. Use of hazard assessments to achieve risk reduction in the USDOE Stockpile Stewardship (SS-21) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Bott, T.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; DeYoung, L.; Hockert, J.

    1995-07-01

    This paper summarizes the nuclear explosive hazard assessment activities performed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) Stockpile Stewardship Demonstration Project SS-21, better known as the ``Seamless Safety`` program. Past practice within the DOE Complex has dictated the use of a significant number of post-design/fabrication safety reviews to analyze the safety associated with operations on nuclear explosives and to answer safety questions. These practices have focused on reviewing-in or auditing-in safety vs incorporating safety in the design process. SS-21 was proposed by the DOE as an avenue to develop a program to ``integrate established, recognized, verifiable safety criteria into the process at the design stage rather than continuing the reliance on reviews, evaluations and audits.`` The entire Seamless Safety design and development process is verified by a concurrent hazard assessment (HA). The primary purpose of the SS-21 Demonstration Project HA was to demonstrate the feasibility of performing concurrent HAs as part of an engineering design and development effort and then to evaluate the use of the HA to provide an indication in the risk reduction or gain in safety achieved. To accomplish this objective, HAs were performed on both baseline (i.e., old) and new (i.e. SS-21) B61-0 Center Case Section disassembly processes. These HAs were used to support the identification and documentation of weapon- and process-specific hazards and safety-critical operating steps. Both HAs focused on identifying accidents that had the potential for worker injury, public health effects, facility damage, toxic gas release, and dispersal of radioactive materials. A comparison of the baseline and SS-21 process risks provided a semi-quantitative estimate of the risk reduction gained via the Seamless Safety process.

  4. The Impact of California's Class Size Reduction Initiative on Student Achievement: Detailed Findings from Eight School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Mitchell, Ross E.

    This report presents a comprehensive preliminary analysis of how California's Class Size Reduction (CSR) initiative has impacted student achievement during the first 2 years of implementation. The analysis is based on complete student, classroom, and teacher records from 26,126 students in 1,174 classrooms from 83 schools in 8 Southern California…

  5. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  6. Fan noise reduction achieved by removing tip flow irregularities behind the rotor - forward arc test configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Woodward, R. P.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The noise source caused by the interaction of the rotor tip flow irregularities (vortices and velocity defects) with the downstream stator vanes was studied. Fan flow was removed behind a 0.508 meter (20 in.) diameter model turbofan through an outer wall slot between the rotor and stator. Noise measurements were made with far-field microphones positioned in an arc about the fan inlet and with a pressure transducer in the duct behind the stator. Little tone noise reduction was observed in the forward arc during flow removal; possibly because the rotor-stator interaction noise did not propagate upstream through the rotor. Noise reductions were maded in the duct behind the stator and the largest decrease occurred with the first increment of flow removal. This result indicates that the rotor tip flow irregularity-stator interaction is as important a noise producing mechanism as the normally considered rotor wake-stator interaction.

  7. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  8. Achieving Selective and Efficient Electrocatalytic Activity for CO2 Reduction Using Immobilized Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheonghee; Jeon, Hyo Sang; Eom, Taedaehyeong; Jee, Michael Shincheon; Kim, Hyungjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Selective electrochemical reduction of CO2 is one of the most sought-after processes because of the potential to convert a harmful greenhouse gas to a useful chemical. We have discovered that immobilized Ag nanoparticles supported on carbon exhibit enhanced Faradaic efficiency and a lower overpotential for selective reduction of CO2 to CO. These electrocatalysts were synthesized directly on the carbon support by a facile one-pot method using a cysteamine anchoring agent resulting in controlled monodispersed particle sizes. These synthesized Ag/C electrodes showed improved activities, specifically decrease of the overpotential by 300 mV at 1 mA/cm(2), and 4-fold enhanced CO Faradaic efficiency at -0.75 V vs RHE with the optimal particle size of 5 nm compared to polycrystalline Ag foil. DFT calculations enlightened that the specific interaction between Ag nanoparticle and the anchoring agents modified the catalyst surface to have a selectively higher affinity to the intermediate COOH over CO, which effectively lowers the overpotential. PMID:26447349

  9. How to Achieve Transparency in Public-Private Partnerships Engaged in Hunger and Malnutrition Reduction.

    PubMed

    Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Bird, Julia K

    2016-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships are important facilitators of improving nutrition in developing countries to achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Often, the role of industry is challenged and questions are raised as to the ethics of involving for-profit companies in humanitarian projects. The Second International Conference on Nutrition placed great emphasis on the role of the private sector, including industry, in multi-stakeholder partnerships to reduce hunger and malnutrition. Governments have to establish regulatory frameworks and institutions to guarantee fair competition and invest in infrastructure that makes investments for private companies attractive, eventually leading to economic growth. Civil society organizations can contribute by delivering nutrition interventions and behavioral change-related communication to consumers, providing capacity, and holding governments and private sector organizations accountable. Industry provides technical support, innovation, and access to markets and the supply chain. The greatest progress and impact can be achieved if all stakeholders cooperate in multi-stakeholder partnerships aimed at improving nutrition, thereby strengthening local economies and reducing poverty and inequality. Successful examples of public-private partnerships exist, as well as examples in which these partnerships did not achieve mutually agreed objectives. The key requirements for productive alliances between industry and civil society organizations are the establishment of rules of engagement, transparency and mutual accountability. The Global Social Observatory performed a consultation on conflicts of interest related to the Scaling Up Nutrition movement and provided recommendations to prevent, identify, manage and monitor potential conflicts of interest. Multi-stakeholder partnerships can be successful models in improving nutrition if they meet societal demand with transparent decision-making and execution. Solutions to

  10. Furnace veneering systems of special design help achieve energy reduction goals at Armco

    SciTech Connect

    Caspersen, L.J.

    1982-12-01

    A steel company conserves energy by veneering reheat furnaces with a ceramic fiber modular system. The furnace lining system incorporates several grades of veneering materials (modules, cements, coatings) whose application is matched to the exact conditions in the furnace. Zoned linings utilize a combination of grades of alumina-silica modules to achieve thermally efficient yet durable performance. High temperature cements exhibit good tackiness, easy module penetration and high strength retention after firing. A protective coating is sprayed in a thin layer over the modules and can be easily reapplied at a later date should it be necessary. Benefits include greater thermal control (temperature responsiveness and heating uniformity), less over-firing, less fuel use, and less heat loss. Fuel efficiency is increased by 20 to 50%.

  11. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  12. Robust Airfoil Optimization to Achieve Consistent Drag Reduction Over a Mach Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Huyse, Luc; Padula, Sharon; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We prove mathematically that in order to avoid point-optimization at the sampled design points for multipoint airfoil optimization, the number of design points must be greater than the number of free-design variables. To overcome point-optimization at the sampled design points, a robust airfoil optimization method (called the profile optimization method) is developed and analyzed. This optimization method aims at a consistent drag reduction over a given Mach range and has three advantages: (a) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (b) there is no random airfoil shape distortion for any iterate it generates, and (c) it allows a designer to make a trade-off between a truly optimized airfoil and the amount of computing time consumed. For illustration purposes, we use the profile optimization method to solve a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for 2-D airfoil in Euler flow with 20 free-design variables. A comparison with other airfoil optimization methods is also included.

  13. Achieving Highly Efficient, Selective, and Stable CO2 Reduction on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjie; Yadav, Ram Manohar; Liu, Mingjie; Sharma, Pranav P; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ma, Lulu; Zou, Xiaolong; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Yakobson, Boris I; Lou, Jun; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-05-26

    The challenge in the electrosynthesis of fuels from CO2 is to achieve durable and active performance with cost-effective catalysts. Here, we report that carbon nanotubes (CNTs), doped with nitrogen to form resident electron-rich defects, can act as highly efficient and, more importantly, stable catalysts for the conversion of CO2 to CO. The unprecedented overpotential (-0.18 V) and selectivity (80%) observed on nitrogen-doped CNTs (NCNTs) are attributed to their unique features to facilitate the reaction, including (i) high electrical conductivity, (ii) preferable catalytic sites (pyridinic N defects), and (iii) low free energy for CO2 activation and high barrier for hydrogen evolution. Indeed, DFT calculations show a low free energy barrier for the potential-limiting step to form key intermediate COOH as well as strong binding energy of adsorbed COOH and weak binding energy for the adsorbed CO. The highest selective site toward CO production is pyridinic N, and the NCNT-based electrodes exhibit no degradation over 10 h of continuous operation, suggesting the structural stability of the electrode.

  14. Analysing Global Achievements in Orbital Lifetime Reduction at the End of LEO Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krag, Holger; Lemmens, Stijn; Flohrer, Tim; Klinkard, Heiner

    2013-08-01

    The major driver for future debris proliferation, besides the intentional and unintentional release of objects, is the abundance of objects with large masses and sizes in orbit that could be involved in catastrophic collisions. Mitigation measures thus concentrate on the prevention of object release (explosions, mission-related objects, SRM (Solid Rocket Motor) exhaust products), the disposal of objects and active collision avoidance. As ESA's simulations show, the most effective means of stabilizing the space debris environment is the removal of mass from regions with high spatial densities. A limitation of the residence time of controlled objects in altitudes below 2000km to 25 years followed by either atmospheric re-entry or reboost to higher altitudes allows to limit the growth of object numbers in the densely populated LEO environment. This is the most relevant requirement for operations. In this paper we look into the achievements of all spacefaring nations with respect to this requirement. For this purpose, ESA has developed a method to determine the operational status of running missions, by monitoring their manoeuvre activity with the help of the publicly available orbit data distributed by the US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). Missions that have been found to have terminated their operational life will be processed to determine the remaining orbital lifetime. The results will be presented in a statistical manner.

  15. [5 years of "concerted action dose reduction in CT" -- what has been achieved and what remains to be done?].

    PubMed

    Nagel, H D; Blobel, J; Brix, G; Ewen, K; Galanski, M; Höfs, P; Loose, R; Prokop, M; Schneider, K; Stamm, G; Stender, H-S; Süss, C; Türkay, S; Vogel, H; Wucherer, M

    2004-11-01

    In May 1998, the German "Concerted Action Dose Reduction in CT" was founded by all parties involved in CT. Its intention was to achieve a significant reduction of the radiation exposure caused by CT, a matter that has increasingly been considered a major challenge since the early nineties. As a result of a number of joint efforts, the essential preconditions have been established by now. The fifth anniversary of the Concerted Action gave rise for both retrospection and outlook on the tasks that have already been accomplished and those that still need to be done. For this purpose, a one-day symposium took place in Berlin on November 4, 2003. The contents of a total of 18 contributions will be outlined here in brief. PMID:15497088

  16. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic composite nacelle. [for achieving reductions in community noise and operating expense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodall, R. G.; Painter, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual nacelle designs for wide-bodied and for advanced-technology transports were studied with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise with minimum penalties in airplane weight, cost, and in operating expense by the application of advanced composite materials to nacelle structure and sound suppression elements. Nacelle concepts using advanced liners, annular splitters, radial splitters, translating centerbody inlets, and mixed-flow nozzles were evaluated and a preferred concept selected. A preliminary design study of the selected concept, a mixed flow nacelle with extended inlet and no splitters, was conducted and the effects on noise, direct operating cost, and return on investment determined.

  17. Reduction of exposure to acrylamide: achievements, potential of optimization, and problems encountered from the perspectives of a Swiss enforcement laboratory.

    PubMed

    Grob, Koni

    2005-01-01

    The most important initiatives taken in Switzerland to reduce exposure of consumers to acrylamide are the separate sale of potatoes low in reducing sugars for roasting and frying, the optimization of the raw material and preparation of french fries, and campaigns to implement suitable preparation methods in the gastronomy and homes. Industry works on improving a range of other products. Although these measures can reduce high exposures by some 80%, they have little effect on the background exposure resulting from coffee, bread, and numerous other products for which no substantial improvement is in sight. At this stage, improvements should be achieved by supporting voluntary activity rather than legal limits. Committed and consistent risk communication is key, and the support of improvements presupposes innovative approaches.

  18. The BOS-X approach: achieving drastic cost reduction in CPV through holistic power plant level innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Amonix Advanced Technology Group was awarded DOE SunShot funding in the amount of 4.5M to design a new Balance of System (BOS) architecture utilizing Amonix MegaModules™ focused on reaching the SunShot goal of 0.06-$0.08/kWhr LCOE. The project proposal presented a comprehensive re-evaluation of the cost components of a utility scale CPV plant and identified critical areas of focus where innovation is needed to achieve cost reduction. As the world's premier manufacturer and most experienced installer of CPV power plants, Amonix is uniquely qualified to lead a rethinking of BOS architecture for CPV. The presentation will focus on the structure of the BOS-X approach, which looks for the next wave of cost reduction in CPV through evaluation of non-module subsystems and the interaction between subsystems during the lifecycle of a solar power plant. Innovation around nonmodule components is minimal to date because CPV companies are just now getting enough practice through completion of large projects to create ideas and tests on how to improve baseline designs and processes. As CPV companies increase their installed capacity, they can utilize an approach similar to the methodology of BOS-X to increase the competitiveness of their product. Through partnership with DOE, this holistic approach is expected to define a path for CPV well aligned with the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  19. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G.; Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea; Liu Feifei; Fyles, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  20. Acid and reduction stimulated logic "and"-type combinational release mode achieved in DOX-loaded superparamagnetic nanogel.

    PubMed

    Song, Meifang; Xue, Yanan; Chen, Lidi; Xia, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Lei; Yu, Bo; Long, Sihui; Huang, Shiwen; Yu, Faquan

    2016-08-01

    A superparamagnetic nanogel featured with a logic "and"-type pH/reduction combinational stimulated release mode was fabricated as a drug delivery system by virtue of parallel crosslinking. The disulfide bond and electrostatic interaction between thiolated alginate (SA-SH) and thiolated/aminated iron oxide nanoparticles (SH-MION-NH2) were employed to achieve the mechanism. The obtained DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel is 122.7±20.3nm in size with superparamagnetism. The combinational conditions of pH5.0/10mM glutathione (GSH) stimulated a significantly high accumulative release. However, either pH7.4/10mM (GSH) or pH5.0 alone induced much low release. This verified the typical logic "and"-type combinationally stimulated release mode. In vitro cytotoxicity tests clearly illustrated the effective selectivity of killing the human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with IC50 of 1.01μg/mL and the human hepatoma cells (HepG2) with IC50 of 1.57μg/mL but significantly low cytotoxicity to the cercopithecus aethiops kidney cells (Vero). CLSM presented the internationalization of the nanogel into cytoplasm and nuclei with time. In vivo investigation revealed that the selective intratumoral accumulation and antitumor efficacy were considerably advantageous over free DOX whereas low systemic toxicity exhibited up-regulated security as compared to free DOX. Overall, the DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel with enhanced antitumor efficacy and down-regulated adverse effect was a promising nanoplatform for the clinical chemotherapy of malignancy. PMID:27157762

  1. China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% Reduction in CO{sub 2} Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Ke, Jing

    2011-09-30

    Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario – to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} emissions intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative reduction of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} emissions of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated emissions reduction are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.

  2. Production of substantially pure fructose

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, H.J.; Gallian, J.J.; Leeper, S.A.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for the production of a substantially pure product containing greater than 60% fructose. It comprises: combining a sucrose-containing substrate with effective amounts of a levansucrase enzyme preparation to form levan and glucose; purifying the levan by at least one of the following purification methods: ultrafiltration, diafiltration, hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, liquid--liquid partition, solvent extraction, chromatography, and precipitation; hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose substantially free of glucose and sucrose; and recovering the fructose by at least one of the following recovery methods: hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, evaporation, drying, crystallization, and chromatography.

  3. Production of substantially pure fructose

    DOEpatents

    Hatcher, Herbert J.; Gallian, John J.; Leeper, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of substantially pure fructose from sucrose-containing substrates. The process comprises converting the sucrose to levan and glucose, purifying the levan by membrane technology, hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose monomers, and recovering the fructose.

  4. The application of an analytical probabilistic model for estimating the rainfall-runoff reductions achieved using a rainwater harvesting system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoungjun; Han, Mooyoung; Lee, Ju Young

    2012-05-01

    Rainwater harvesting systems cannot only supplement on-site water needs, but also reduce water runoff and lessen downstream flooding. In this study, an existing analytic model for estimating the runoff in urban areas is modified to provide a more economical and effective model that can be used for describing rainwater harvesting. This model calculates the rainfall-runoff reduction by taking into account the catchment, storage tank, and infiltration facility of a water harvesting system; this calculation is based on the water balance equation, and the cumulative distribution, probability density, and average rainfall-runoff functions. This model was applied to a water harvesting system at the Seoul National University in order to verify its practicality. The derived model was useful for evaluating runoff reduction and for designing the storage tank capacity.

  5. Justice policy reform for high-risk juveniles: using science to achieve large-scale crime reduction.

    PubMed

    Skeem, Jennifer L; Scott, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    After a distinctly punitive era, a period of remarkable reform in juvenile crime regulation has begun. Practical urgency has fueled interest in both crime reduction and research on the prediction and malleability of criminal behavior. In this rapidly changing context, high-risk juveniles--the small proportion of the population where crime becomes concentrated--present a conundrum. Research indicates that these are precisely the individuals to treat intensively to maximize crime reduction, but there are both real and imagined barriers to doing so. Mitigation principles (during early adolescence, ages 10-13) and institutional placement or criminal court processing (during mid-late adolescence, ages 14-18) can prevent these juveniles from receiving interventions that would best protect public safety. In this review, we synthesize relevant research to help resolve this challenge in a manner that is consistent with the law's core principles. In our view, early adolescence offers unique opportunities for risk reduction that could (with modifications) be realized in the juvenile justice system in cooperation with other social institutions.

  6. Dose reduction of up to 89% while maintaining image quality in cardiovascular CT achieved with prospective ECG gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londt, John H.; Shreter, Uri; Vass, Melissa; Hsieh, Jiang; Ge, Zhanyu; Adda, Olivier; Dowe, David A.; Sabllayrolles, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    We present the results of dose and image quality performance evaluation of a novel, prospective ECG-gated Coronary CT Angiography acquisition mode (SnapShot Pulse, LightSpeed VCT-XT scanner, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI), and compare it to conventional retrospective ECG gated helical acquisition in clinical and phantom studies. Image quality phantoms were used to measure noise, slice sensitivity profile, in-plane resolution, low contrast detectability and dose, using the two acquisition modes. Clinical image quality and diagnostic confidence were evaluated in a study of 31 patients scanned with the two acquisition modes. Radiation dose reduction in clinical practice was evaluated by tracking 120 consecutive patients scanned with the prospectively gated scan mode. In the phantom measurements, the prospectively gated mode resulted in equivalent or better image quality measures at dose reductions of up to 89% compared to non-ECG modulated conventional helical scans. In the clinical study, image quality was rated excellent by expert radiologist reviewing the cases, with pathology being identical using the two acquisition modes. The average dose to patients in the clinical practice study was 5.6 mSv, representing 50% reduction compared to a similar patient population scanned with the conventional helical mode.

  7. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research.

    PubMed

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  8. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research

    PubMed Central

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  9. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research

    PubMed Central

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies.

  10. Glucose-assisted reduction achieved transparent p-type cuprous oxide thin film by a solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Sha; Sun, Jian; Gong, Hao; Chen, Zequn; Huang, Yifei; Xu, Jianmei; Zhao, Ling; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Qing

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of p-type cuprous oxide thin film via a cheap and simple chemical method has been known as challenging. We first find that glucose can assist reduce Cu to a lower valence state in the preparation of cuprous oxide films by the sol-gel method. By first adding glucose in the sol as reducing agent, oxidation from the oxygen in the environment is limited and transparent p-type cuprous oxide films are eventually achieved under optimized experimental conditions. We have developed a p-type cuprous oxide thin film with an optimal Hall mobility of ∼8 cm2/Vs and an optical transmittance of 78%.

  11. Achieving greenhouse gas emission reductions in developing countries through energy efficient lighting projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    SciTech Connect

    Figueres, C.; Bosi, M.

    2006-11-15

    Energy efficiency can help address the challenge of increasing access to modern energy services, reduce the need for capital-intensive supply investments as well as mitigating climate change. Efficient lighting is a promising sector for improving the adequacy and reliability of power systems and reducing emissions in developing countries. However, these measures are hardly represented in the CDM portfolio. The COP/MOP decision to include programs of activities in the CDM could open the door to the implementation of a large number of energy efficiency projects in developing countries. Since GHG reductions are essentially the emission equivalent of energy savings, the CDM can benefit from long established energy efficiency methodologies for quantifying energy savings and fulfilling CDM methodological requirements. The integration of the CDM into energy efficiency programs could help spur a necessary transformation in the lighting market.

  12. [ADVANCE-ON Trial; How to Achieve Maximum Reduction of Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes].

    PubMed

    Kanorskiĭ, S G

    2015-01-01

    Of 10,261 patients with type 2 diabetes who survived to the end of a randomized ADVANCE trial 83% were included in the ADVANCE-ON project for observation for 6 years. The difference in the level of blood pressure which had been achieved during 4.5 years of within trial treatment with fixed perindopril/indapamide combination quickly vanished but significant decrease of total and cardiovascular mortality in the group of patients treated with this combination for 4.5 years was sustained during 6 years of post-trial follow-up. The results can be related to gradually weakening protective effect of perindopril/indapamide combination on cardiovascular system, and are indicative of the expedience of long-term use of this antihypertensive therapy for maximal lowering of mortality of patients with diabetes. PMID:26164995

  13. Achieving Peak Flow and Sediment Loading Reductions through Increased Water Storage in the Le Sueur Watershed, Minnesota: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, N. A.; Gran, K. B.; Cho, S. J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kumarasamy, K.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of factors including climate change, land clearing, and artificial drainage have increased many agricultural regions' stream flows and rates at which channel banks and bluffs are eroded. Increasing erosion rates within the Minnesota River Basin have contributed to higher sediment-loading rates, excess turbidity levels, and increases in sedimentation rates in Lake Pepin further downstream. Water storage sites (e.g., wetlands) have been discussed as a means to address these issues. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess a range of water retention site (WRS) implementation scenarios in the Le Sueur watershed in south-central Minnesota, a subwatershed of the Minnesota River Basin. Sediment loading from bluffs was assessed through an empirical relationship developed from gauging data. Sites were delineated as topographic depressions with specific land uses, minimum areas (3000 m2), and high compound topographic index values. Contributing areas for the WRS were manually measured and used with different site characteristics to create 210 initial WRS scenarios. A generalized relationship between WRS area and contributing area was identified from measurements, and this relationship was used with different site characteristics (e.g., depth, hydraulic conductivity (K), and placement) to create 225 generalized WRS scenarios. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates are generally maximized by placing site with high K values in the upper half of the watershed. High K values allow sites to lose more water through seepage, emptying their storages between precipitation events and preventing frequent overflowing. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates also level off at high WRS extents due to the decreasing frequencies of high-magnitude events. The generalized WRS scenarios were also used to create a simplified empirical model capable of generating peak flows and sediment-loading rates from near

  14. CHP project brings substantial savings.

    PubMed

    Newman, Alan

    2014-02-01

    With the NHS having committed to reduce its carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Alan Newman, a partner at building services engineers, Troup Bywaters + Anders (TB+A), describes how, with the company's expertise and help, customer, the East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust, 'surpassed the targets two years in advance'. As he explains, the key element of an ambitious carbon reduction scheme that won the 2013 IHEEM Healthcare Estates Sustainability Award (HEJ - November 2013) was a new combined heat and power-based energy centre at the Trust's Lister Hospital in Stevenage. PMID:24620490

  15. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  16. Maximize the benefit of SNCR: Combine SNCR with combustion optimization and achieve 50% NOx reduction from a low NOx burner baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Trego, P.; Schindler, E.

    2000-07-01

    PECO Energy Company operates one coal fired boiler at its Cromby Generating Facility. Cromby Unit 1 is a B and W front fired unit rated at 160 MW. The units boiler has been retrofitted with low NOx burners and overfire air ports. Due to NOx allowance pricing, PECO began evaluating options for reducing Cromby's NOx emissions. SNCR was evaluated at the best option for the plant even though the furnace exit temperatures and CO were high at practical injection locations. RJM Corporation, a Fuel Tech NOxOUT{trademark} Implementer, was selected to supply the system because of their extensive experience in solving combustion problems and applying NOxOUT SNCR systems on utility boilers. In order to reduce emissions during the 1999 NOx season, the deadline for an operational system was set at June 2nd. The project was issued on a fast track schedule starting February 2, 1999. The boiler was started up on June 2 on schedule after a six week maintenance outage. The project's 25% NOx reduction target was achieved after two weeks of combustion optimization. Combustion optimization was followed by NOxOUT A reagent injection system optimization which resulted in a 50% combined NOx reduction. Other benefits included a reduction in CO to less than 100 ppm and a 33% reduction in LOI.

  17. Synthesis of substantially monodispersed colloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Stoeva, Savka (Inventor); Sorensen, Christopher (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of forming ligated nanoparticles of the formula Y(Z).sub.x where Y is a nanoparticle selected from the group consisting of elemental metals having atomic numbers ranging from 21-34, 39-52, 57-83 and 89-102, all inclusive, the halides, oxides and sulfides of such metals, and the alkali metal and alkaline earth metal halides, and Z represents ligand moieties such as the alkyl thiols. In the method, a first colloidal dispersion is formed made up of nanoparticles solvated in a molar excess of a first solvent (preferably a ketone such as acetone), a second solvent different than the first solvent (preferably an organic aryl solvent such as toluene) and a quantity of ligand moieties; the first solvent is then removed under vacuum and the ligand moieties ligate to the nanoparticles to give a second colloidal dispersion of the ligated nanoparticles solvated in the second solvent. If substantially monodispersed nanoparticles are desired, the second dispersion is subjected to a digestive ripening process. Upon drying, the ligated nanoparticles may form a three-dimensional superlattice structure.

  18. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  19. Addition of fumaric acid and sodium benzoate as an alternative method to achieve a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Comes, Justin E; Beelman, Robert B

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to develop a preservative treatment capable of the Food and Drug Administration-mandated 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider. Unpreserved apple cider was treated with generally recognized as safe acidulants and preservatives before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 in test tubes and subjected to mild heat treatments (25, 35, and 45 degrees C) followed by refrigerated storage (4 degrees C). Fumaric acid had significant (P < 0.05) bactericidal effect when added to cider at 0.10% (wt/vol) and adjusted to pH 3.3, but citric and malic acid had no effect. Strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.96) between increasing undissociated fumaric acid concentrations and increasing log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider indicated the undissociated acid to be the bactericidal form. The treatment that achieved the 5-log reduction in three commercial ciders was the addition of fumaric acid (0.15%, wt/vol) and sodium benzoate (0.05%, wt/vol) followed by holding at 25 degrees C for 6 h before 24 h of refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Subsequent experiments revealed that the same preservatives added to cider in flasks resulted in a more than 5-log reduction in less than 5 and 2 h when held at 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The treatment also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced total aerobic counts in commercial ciders to populations less than those of pasteurized and raw ciders from the same source (after 5 and 21 days of refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C, respectively). Sensory evaluation of the same ciders revealed that consumers found the preservative-treated cider to be acceptable. PMID:11899046

  20. 29 CFR 1990.145 - Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substance any substantial new issues upon which the Secretary did not reach a conclusion in the rulemaking... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new... of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence. (a) Substantial new issues....

  1. 29 CFR 1990.145 - Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substance any substantial new issues upon which the Secretary did not reach a conclusion in the rulemaking... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new... of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence. (a) Substantial new issues....

  2. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times duemore » to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.« less

  3. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1-x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  4. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1−x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  5. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  6. TIGRE: Combinator graph reduction on the RTX 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopman, Philip, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient evaluation technique is examined for lazy functional programs based on combinator graph reduction. Graph reduction is widely believed to be slow and inefficient, but an abstract machine called the Threaded Interpretive Graph Reduction Engine (TIGRE) achieves a substantial speedup over previous reduction techniques. The runtime system of TIGRE is a threaded system that permits self-modifying program execution with compiler-guaranteed safety. This paper describes an implementation of TIGRE in Forth for the Harris RTX 2000 stack processor.

  7. Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the California Transportation Sector: Dynamics in Vehicle Fleet and Energy Supply Transitions to Achieve 80% Reduction in Emissions from 1990 Levels by 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighty, Wayne Waterman

    California's "80in50" target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by the year 2050 is based on climate science rather than technical feasibility of mitigation. As such, it raises four fundamental questions: is this magnitude of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions possible, what energy system transitions over the next 40 years are necessary, can intermediate policy goals be met on the pathway toward 2050, and does the path of transition matter for the objective of climate change mitigation? Scenarios for meeting the 80in50 goal in the transportation sector are modelled. Specifically, earlier work defining low carbon transport scenarios for the year 2050 is refined by incorporating new information about biofuel supply. Then transition paths for meeting 80in50 scenarios are modelled for the light-duty vehicle sub-sector, with important implications for the timing of action, rate of change, and cumulative greenhouse gas emissions. One aspect of these transitions -- development in the California wind industry to supply low-carbon electricity for plug-in electric vehicles -- is examined in detail. In general, the range of feasible scenarios for meeting the 80in50 target is narrow enough that several common themes are apparent: electrification of light-duty vehicles must occur; continued improvements in vehicle efficiency must be applied to improving fuel economy; and energy carriers must de-carbonize to less than half of the carbon intensity of gasoline and diesel. Reaching the 80in50 goal will require broad success in travel demand reduction, fuel economy improvements and low-carbon fuel supply, since there is little opportunity to increase emission reductions in one area if we experience failure in another. Although six scenarios for meeting the 80in50 target are defined, only one also meets the intermediate target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2020. Furthermore, the transition path taken to reach any

  8. Building Eco-Informatics: Examining the Dynamics of Eco-Feedback Design and Peer Networks to Achieve Sustainable Reductions in Energy Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Rishee K.

    2013-01-01

    The built environment accounts for a substantial portion of energy consumption in the United States and in many parts of the world. Due to concerns over rising energy costs and climate change, researchers and practitioners have started exploring the area of eco-informatics to link information from the human, natural and built environments.…

  9. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  10. Substantially Oxygen-Free Contact Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  11. 77 FR 39452 - Substantial Business Activities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., June 12, 2012 (77 FR 34887) regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities...- 107889-12), which was the subject of FR. Doc. 2012-14238, is corrected as follows: On page 34887, column.... Lyons, (202) 622-3860; and David A. Levine, (202) 622-3860, and regarding the submission of...

  12. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following questions must be answered: (i) What harmful effects to the company's or institution's competitive...? How substantial would the harmful effects of disclosure be? What is the causal relationship between the disclosure and the harmful effects? (ii) Has the identity of the microorganism been...

  13. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following questions must be answered: (i) What harmful effects to the company's or institution's competitive...? How substantial would the harmful effects of disclosure be? What is the causal relationship between the disclosure and the harmful effects? (ii) Has the identity of the microorganism been...

  14. Using a two-step hydride transfer to achieve 1,4-reduction in the catalytic hydrogenation of an acyl pyridinium cation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Anthony P; Ryland, Bradford L; Franklin, Mary J; Norton, Jack R; Chen, Judy Y-C; Hall, Michelle Lynn

    2008-12-19

    The stoichiometric reduction of N-carbophenoxypyridinium tetraphenylborate (6) by CpRu(P-P)H (Cp = eta(5)-cyclopentadienyl; P-P = dppe, 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane, or dppf, 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene), and Cp*Ru(P-P)H (Cp* = eta(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl; P-P = dppe) gives mixtures of 1,2- and 1,4-dihydropyridines. The stoichiometric reduction of 6 by Cp*Ru(dppf)H (5) gives only the 1,4-dihydropyridine, and 5 catalyzes the exclusive formation of the 1,4-dihydropyridine from 6, H(2), and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine. In the stoichiometric reductions, the ratio of 1,4 to 1,2 product increases as the Ru hydrides become better one-electron reductants, suggesting that the 1,4 product arises from a two-step (e(-)/H(*)) hydride transfer. Calculations at the UB3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd)//UB3LYP/6-31G* level support this hypothesis, indicating that the spin density in the N-carbophenoxypyridinium radical (13) resides primarily at C4, while the positive charge in 6 resides primarily at C2 and C6. The isomeric dihydropyridines thus result from the operation of different mechanisms: the 1,2 product from a single-step H(-) transfer and the 1,4 product from a two-step (e(-)/H(*)) transfer. PMID:18986202

  15. Using a Two-Step Hydride Transfer to Achieve 1,4 Reduction in the Catalytic Hydrogenation of an Acyl Pyridinium Cation

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Anthony P.; Ryland, Bradford L.; Franklin, Mary J.; Norton, Jack R.; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Hall, Michelle Lynn

    2008-01-01

    The stoichiometric reduction of N-carbophenoxypyridinium tetraphenylborate (6) by CpRu(P–P)H (Cp = η5-cyclopentadienyl; P–P = dppe, 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane or dppf, 1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) and Cp*Ru(P–P)H (Cp* = η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl; P–P = dppe) gives mixtures of 1,2- and 1,4-dihydropyridines. The stoichiometric reduction of 6 by Cp*Ru(dppf)H (5) gives only the 1,4-dihydropyridine, and 5 catalyzes the exclusive formation of the 1,4-dihydropyridine from 6, H2, and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine. In the stoichiometric reductions, the ratio of 1,4 to 1,2 product increases as the Ru hydrides become better one-electron reductants, suggesting that the 1,4 product arises from a two-step (e−/H•) hydride transfer. Calculations at the UB3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd)//UB3LYP/6-31G* level support this hypothesis, indicating that the spin density in the N-carbophenoxypyridinium radical (13) resides primarily at C4, while the positive charge in 6 resides primarily at C2 and C6. The isomeric dihydropyridines thus result from the operation of different mechanisms: the 1,2 product from a single-step H− transfer and the 1,4 product from a two-step (e−/H•) transfer. PMID:18986202

  16. 640 Gbaud (1.28 Tbit/s/ch) optical Nyquist pulse transmission over 525 km with substantial PMD tolerance.

    PubMed

    Harako, Koudai; Seya, Daiki; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2013-09-01

    We report a substantial increase in PMD tolerance in a single-channel ultrahigh-speed transmission using optical Nyquist pulses. We demonstrate both analytically and experimentally a large reduction in depolarization-induced crosstalk with optical Nyquist pulses, which is one of the major obstacles facing polarization-multiplexed ultrashort pulse transmission. By taking advantage of the high PMD tolerance, a low-penalty 1.28 Tbit/s/ch optical Nyquist TDM transmission at 640 Gbaud was achieved over 525 km.

  17. Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

    2015-05-18

    We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65 °C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (P<0.0001). Increases in heat and RH were associated with corresponding reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and in germination rate (P<0.05). The order of lethality for the different treatments was generally as follows: no treatment <55 °C/25-65% RH ≒60 °C/25-45% RH ≒65 °C/25% RH <55 °C/85% RH =60 °C/65% RH <55 °C/100% RH =60 °C/85-100% RH =65 °C/45-100% RH. The most effective condition, 65 °C/45% RH, completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds (7.0 log CFU/g reduction) and had no significant effect on the germination rate (85.4%; P>0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm. PMID:25732001

  18. Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

    2015-05-18

    We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65 °C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (P<0.0001). Increases in heat and RH were associated with corresponding reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and in germination rate (P<0.05). The order of lethality for the different treatments was generally as follows: no treatment <55 °C/25-65% RH ≒60 °C/25-45% RH ≒65 °C/25% RH <55 °C/85% RH =60 °C/65% RH <55 °C/100% RH =60 °C/85-100% RH =65 °C/45-100% RH. The most effective condition, 65 °C/45% RH, completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds (7.0 log CFU/g reduction) and had no significant effect on the germination rate (85.4%; P>0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm.

  19. Modelling pathogen log10 reduction values achieved by activated sludge treatment using naïve and semi naïve Bayes network models.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Guido; Roser, David J; Sisson, Scott A; Keegan, Alexandra; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-11-15

    Risk management for wastewater treatment and reuse have led to growing interest in understanding and optimising pathogen reduction during biological treatment processes. However, modelling pathogen reduction is often limited by poor characterization of the relationships between variables and incomplete knowledge of removal mechanisms. The aim of this paper was to assess the applicability of Bayesian belief network models to represent associations between pathogen reduction, and operating conditions and monitoring parameters and predict AS performance. Naïve Bayes and semi-naïve Bayes networks were constructed from an activated sludge dataset including operating and monitoring parameters, and removal efficiencies for two pathogens (native Giardia lamblia and seeded Cryptosporidium parvum) and five native microbial indicators (F-RNA bacteriophage, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci). First we defined the Bayesian network structures for the two pathogen log10 reduction values (LRVs) class nodes discretized into two states (< and ≥ 1 LRV) using two different learning algorithms. Eight metrics, such as Prediction Accuracy (PA) and Area Under the receiver operating Curve (AUC), provided a comparison of model prediction performance, certainty and goodness of fit. This comparison was used to select the optimum models. The optimum Tree Augmented naïve models predicted removal efficiency with high AUC when all system parameters were used simultaneously (AUCs for C. parvum and G. lamblia LRVs of 0.95 and 0.87 respectively). However, metrics for individual system parameters showed only the C. parvum model was reliable. By contrast individual parameters for G. lamblia LRV prediction typically obtained low AUC scores (AUC < 0.81). Useful predictors for C. parvum LRV included solids retention time, turbidity and total coliform LRV. The methodology developed appears applicable for predicting pathogen removal efficiency in water treatment

  20. A Class Size Reduction (CSR) Implementation Plan Based on an Evaluative Study of CSRs for the Improvement of Third Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandyke, Barbara Adrienne

    2009-01-01

    For too long, educators have been left to their own devices when implementing educational policies, initiatives, strategies, and interventions, and they have longed to see the full benefits of these programs, especially in reading achievement. However, instead of determining whether a policy/initiative is working, educators have been asked to…

  1. Does Pluto have a substantial atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of CH4 ice on Pluto implies that Pluto may have a substantial atmosphere consisting of heavy gases. Without such an atmosphere, sublimation of the CH4 ice would be so rapid on a cosmogonic time scale that either such an atmosphere would soon develop through the exposure of gases trapped in the CH4 ice or else the surface CH4 ice would soon be all sublimated away as other, more stable, ices became exposed. If such stable ices were present from the beginning, the existence of CH4 frosts would also imply that Pluto's present atmosphere contains a remnant of its primordial atmosphere.

  2. Selective reduction.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Krivchenia, Eric L; Gelber, Shari E; Wapner, Ronald J

    2003-03-01

    Multifetal pregnancy reduction continues to be controversial. Attitudes about MFPR have not, in our experience, followed a simple "pro-choice/pro-life" dichotomy. As far back as the mid to late 1980s, opinions about the subject were varied. Even then, when much less was known about the subject, opinions did not always parallel the usual pro-choice/theological boundaries. We believe that the real debate over the next 5 to 10 years will not be whether or not MFPR should be performed with triplets or more. The fact is that MFPR does improve those outcomes. A serious debate will emerge over whether or not it is appropriate to offer MFPR routinely for twins, even natural ones, for whom the outcome is commonly considered "good enough." Our data suggest that reduction of twins to a singleton improves the outcome of the remaining fetus. No consensus on appropriateness of routine 2-1 reductions is ever likely to emerge. The ethical issues surrounding MFPR will always be controversial. Over the years, much has been written on the subject. Opinions will always vary from outraged condemnation to complete acceptance. No short paragraph could do justice to the subject other than to state that most proponents do not believe this is a frivolous procedure but do believe in the principle of proportionality ie, therapy to achieve the most good for the least harm). Over the past 15 years, MFPR has become a well-established and integral part of infertility therapy and attempts to deal with the sequelae of aggressive infertility management. In the mid 1980s, the risks and benefits of the procedure could only be guessed. We now have clear and precise data on the risks and benefits of the procedure and an understanding that the risks increase substantially with the starting and finishing number of fetuses in multifetal pregnancies. The collaborative loss rate numbers (ie, 4.5% for triplets, 8% for quadruplets. 11% for quintuplets, and 15% for sextuplets or more) seem reasonable to present

  3. Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi

    2014-03-28

    High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report on the long-term health effects of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), whereas it is only 126 mm Hg among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, whereas none in the treatment group are affected. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. PMID:24675955

  4. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  5. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  6. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced, and within 2 s, reductions below the detection limit (<10 CFU) were reached. Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit with only 1 s of treatment. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment was also applied on two different types of plastic modular conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high

  7. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced, and within 2 s, reductions below the detection limit (<10 CFU) were reached. Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit with only 1 s of treatment. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment was also applied on two different types of plastic modular conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high

  8. Dollars for Sense: Assessing Achievement Gaps in Arkansas in the Context of Substantial Funding Increases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Joshua; Jensen, Nathan C.; Ritter, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-four of the fifty states have experienced school finance lawsuits as a consequence of funding gaps between rich and poor districts. In some states, such as Kentucky, lawsuits brought about by property-poor districts have resulted in a statewide remedy that reforms the property tax system and seeks to provide every child with an adequate…

  9. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.141 Substantial gainful...

  10. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.141 Substantial gainful...

  11. Clozapine-induced dysphagia with secondary substantial weight loss.

    PubMed

    Osman, Mugtaba; Devadas, Vekneswaran

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is listed as a 'rare' side effect following clozapine treatment. In this case report, we describe how significant clozapine-induced dysphagia has led to significant reduction of nutritional intake with subsequent substantial weight loss. An 18-year-old single man with an established diagnosis of treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia recovered well on a therapeutic dose of clozapine. However, he was noted to lose weight significantly (up to 20% of his original weight) as the dose was uptitrated. This was brought about by development of dysphagia, likely to be due to clozapine. Addition of nutritional supplementary liquids and initiation of a modified behavioural dietary/swallowing programme, while repeatedly mastering the Mendelsohn manoeuvre technique, alleviated the swallowing difficulties and restored his weight. PMID:27543610

  12. [Population policy: substantial but insufficient advances].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Y Gonzalez, A

    1988-01-01

    Population policy was revised in Mexico in 1973 following the introduction of family planning and the abolition of rules prohibiting contraceptives. The laws of 1936 and 1947 favored population growth, but it was due to the improvement of public health (and the resulting drop in mortality rates), agricultural reform, and industrialization that an accelerated demographic expansion occurred. The National Council on Population (CONAPO) was created whose activities include family planning with modern contraceptive technology and maternal-infant health care. In accordance with the goals set in 1977, population growth is sought to be reduced to 1%/year by the year 2000. Public educational programs about reproduction, the family, and the community have been launched. The integration of women into the development of the country under the aegis of the Comision Nacional de las Mujer has not been fully achieved. The processing and analysis of demographic information for longterm policy development has also been limited. The lack of clear guidance from CONAPO has limited the involvement of state and municipal councils in the solution of Mexico's population problems. Future challenges will focus on the legal framework for reconciling public and private interests, and the interaction of population programs and economic and social development. The centralized decision making of population policy has involved more organizations, but still more needs to be done.

  13. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  17. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing...

  18. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416....910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for...

  19. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  20. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  1. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  2. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  3. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416....910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for...

  4. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  5. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  6. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  7. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  8. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  9. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  10. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  11. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  12. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designation from the head of the agency. Examples include a Chief Human Capital Officer, an Assistant..., consistent with agency human capital goals; (3) The date on which the agency expects to effect the... agency's human capital plan, which must outline its intended use of voluntary separation...

  13. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unacceptable performance; (iv) Is separated from the service voluntarily during a period in which, as... may be made based on the following criteria: (A) 1 or more organizational units; (B) 1 or more occupational series or levels; (C) 1 or more geographical locations; (D) Specific periods; (E)...

  14. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... that such employee is to be involuntarily separated for misconduct or unacceptable performance; (iv) Is... voluntary early retirement, which may be made based on the following criteria: (A) 1 or more organizational... periods; (E) Skills, knowledge, or other factors related to a position; or (F) Any appropriate...

  15. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designation from the head of the agency. Examples include a Chief Human Capital Officer, an Assistant..., consistent with agency human capital goals; (3) The date on which the agency expects to effect the... agency's human capital plan, which must outline its intended use of voluntary separation...

  16. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designation from the head of the agency. Examples include a Chief Human Capital Officer, an Assistant..., consistent with agency human capital goals; (3) The date on which the agency expects to effect the... agency's human capital plan, which must outline its intended use of voluntary separation...

  17. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... designation from the head of the agency. Examples include a Chief Human Capital Officer, an Assistant..., consistent with agency human capital goals; (3) The date on which the agency expects to effect the... agency's human capital plan, which must outline its intended use of voluntary separation...

  18. Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Substantial Reduction of Lead Content

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chong; Fan, Jiandong; Li, Hongliang; Zhang, Cuiling; Mai, Yaohua

    2016-01-01

    Despite organometal halide perovskite solar cells have recently exhibited a significant leap in efficiency, the Sn-based perovskite solar cells still suffer from low efficiency. Here, a series homogeneous CH3NH3Pb(1−x)SnxI3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) perovskite thin films with full coverage were obtained via solvent engineering. In particular, the intermediate complexes of PbI2/(SnI2)∙(DMSO)x were proved to retard the crystallization of CH3NH3SnI3, thus allowing the realization of high quality Sn-introduced perovskite thin films. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of as-prepared solar cells were demonstrated to extend a broad absorption minimum over 50% in the wavelength range from 350 to 950 nm accompanied by a noteworthy absorption onset up to 1050 nm. The CH3NH3Pb0.75Sn0.25I3 perovskite solar cells with inverted structure were consequently realized with maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.12%. PMID:27752138

  19. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... statutes, regulations, administrative procedures and practices, organizational structures, internal control... 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A State must come into substantial...

  20. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., organizational structures, internal control mechanisms, resource assignments (facilities, equipment, and... come into substantial compliance with 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A...

  1. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  2. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675 Section 404.1675 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding...

  4. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Substantiality test. 1.528-4 Section 1.528-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Homeowners Associations § 1.528-4 Substantiality test. (a) In general. In...

  5. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  6. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  7. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  8. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  9. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  10. Reduction of aircraft gas turbine engine pollutant emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    To accomplish simultaneous reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen, required major modifications to the combustor. The modification most commonly used was a staged combustion technique. While these designs are more complicated than production combustors, no insurmountable operational difficulties were encountered in either high pressure rig or engine tests which could not be resolved with additional normal development. The emission reduction results indicate that reductions in unburned hydrocarbons were sufficient to satisfy both near and far-termed EPA requirements. Although substantial reductions were observed, the success in achieving the CO and NOx standards was mixed and depended heavily on the engine/engine cycle on which it was employed. Technology for near term CO reduction was satisfactory or marginally satisfactory. Considerable doubt exists if this technology will satisfy all far-term requirements.

  11. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  12. The reduction of surface plasmon losses in quasi-suspended graphene

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovkin, Alexander M.; Tao, Jin; Chao Yu, Xue; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Jie Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Highly confined surface plasmons on graphene attract substantial interest as potential information carriers for highly integrated photonic data processing circuits. However, plasmon losses remain the main obstacle for implementation of such devices. In near-field microscopic experiments performed at the wavelength of 10 μm we show that a substantial reduction of plasmon damping can be achieved by placing a nanometric polymer nano-dots spacer between the graphene layer and the supporting silicon oxide slab making graphene quasi-suspended. We argue that reduction of plasmon losses is attributed to weaker coupling with substrate phonons in the quasi-suspended graphene. PMID:25943185

  13. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  14. Noise Reduction of Aircraft Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.

  15. Achieving population-level violence declines: implications of the international crime drop for prevention programming.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Manuel; Nivette, Amy; Murray, Aja Louise; Krisch, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations for the period 2016-2030 aim to achieve a substantial reduction of interpersonal violence. An increasing body of evidence of what works, emerging from randomized controlled trials, can inform public health policy decisions. However, there is very limited evidence on the kinds of mechanisms that lead to sustained declines in interpersonal violence at the population level. We discuss the implications of what is known about recent major declines in violence to guide violence-reduction policies. PMID:27638243

  16. Achieving population-level violence declines: implications of the international crime drop for prevention programming.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Manuel; Nivette, Amy; Murray, Aja Louise; Krisch, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations for the period 2016-2030 aim to achieve a substantial reduction of interpersonal violence. An increasing body of evidence of what works, emerging from randomized controlled trials, can inform public health policy decisions. However, there is very limited evidence on the kinds of mechanisms that lead to sustained declines in interpersonal violence at the population level. We discuss the implications of what is known about recent major declines in violence to guide violence-reduction policies.

  17. Results of the pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A program was performed to evolve and demonstrate advanced combustor technology aimed at achieving the 1979 EPA standards for turboprop engines (Class P2). The engine selected for this program was the 501-D22A turboprop. Three combustor concepts were designed and tested in a combustor rig at the exact combustor operating conditions of the 50-D22A engine over the EPA landing-takeoff cycle. Each combustor concept exhibited pollutant emissions well below the EPA standards, achieving substantial reductions in unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and smoke emissions compared with emissions from the production combustor of this engine. Oxides of nitrogen emissions remained well below the EPA standards, also.

  18. Method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water

    DOEpatents

    Chapman-Irwin, Patricia; Feist, Thomas Paul

    2002-04-02

    A method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water is disclosed. The method includes providing a multilayer cell comprising two solid, non porous current collectors, separated by two porous electrodes with a separator between the two electrodes, sealing the cell with a reclosable hermetic closure. Water inside the closure is dissociated by an applied voltage to the cell and escapes in the form of hydrogen and oxygen when the closure is unmated, the closure is then mated to hermetically seal the cell which is substantially free of water.

  19. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  20. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  1. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  2. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  3. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  4. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a substantial owner. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for... does not exceed the limitation (as of the date the reportable event occurs) under section...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  10. 40 CFR 350.7 - Substantiating claims of trade secrecy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiating claims of trade secrecy. 350.7 Section 350.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... by providing a specific answer including, where applicable, specific facts, to each of the...

  11. Mistreatment in Assisted Living Facilities: Complaints, Substantiations, and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Linda R.; Guo, Guifang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Use archived public data from Arizona to explore relationships among selected institutional and resident risk and situation-specific factors and complaints and substantiated allegations of various types of mistreatment in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Design and Methods: An exploratory/descriptive 2-group design was…

  12. 76 FR 38961 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ...: Demonstrating Substantial Equivalence for Tobacco Products'' (76 FR 789, January 6, 2011); those comments will... Register of January 6, 2011 (76 FR 737), FDA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish a... Products'' (76 FR 789, January 6, 2011)) will ``impose an incredible and unnecessary administrative...

  13. Substantiated Best Practices in Transition: Fifteen Plus Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landmark, Leena Jo; Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun

    2010-01-01

    Since the transition movement in the 1980s, numerous transition practices have been developed. Kohler (1993) provided a comprehensive review and analysis of transition best practices and divided them into substantiated and implied practices based on the existence of empirical evidence. Since that review was published, the field of transition has…

  14. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  15. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  16. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  17. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  18. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  4. Exemplar pediatric collaborative improvement networks: achieving results.

    PubMed

    Billett, Amy L; Colletti, Richard B; Mandel, Keith E; Miller, Marlene; Muething, Stephen E; Sharek, Paul J; Lannon, Carole M

    2013-06-01

    A number of pediatric collaborative improvement networks have demonstrated improved care and outcomes for children. Regionally, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Physician Hospital Organization has sustained key asthma processes, substantially increased the percentage of their asthma population receiving "perfect care," and implemented an innovative pay-for-performance program with a large commercial payor based on asthma performance measures. The California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative uses its outcomes database to improve care for infants in California NICUs. It has achieved reductions in central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), increased breast-milk feeding rates at hospital discharge, and is now working to improve delivery room management. Solutions for Patient Safety (SPS) has achieved significant improvements in adverse drug events and surgical site infections across all 8 Ohio children's hospitals, with 7700 fewer children harmed and >$11.8 million in avoided costs. SPS is now expanding nationally, aiming to eliminate all events of serious harm at children's hospitals. National collaborative networks include ImproveCareNow, which aims to improve care and outcomes for children with inflammatory bowel disease. Reliable adherence to Model Care Guidelines has produced improved remission rates without using new medications and a significant increase in the proportion of Crohn disease patients not taking prednisone. Data-driven collaboratives of the Children's Hospital Association Quality Transformation Network initially focused on CLABSI in PICUs. By September 2011, they had prevented an estimated 2964 CLABSI, saving 355 lives and $103,722,423. Subsequent improvement efforts include CLABSI reductions in additional settings and populations.

  5. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dispersal of radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite... facility or device and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the... and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the values...

  6. Substantial Life Extension and the Fair Distribution of Healthspans.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    One of the strongest objections to the development and use of substantially life-extending interventions is that they would exacerbate existing unjust disparities of healthy lifespans between rich and poor members of society. In both popular opinion and ethical theory, this consequence is sometimes thought to justify a ban on life-prolonging technologies. However, the practical and ethical drawbacks of banning receive little attention, and the viability of alternative policies is seldom considered. Moreover, where ethicists do propose alternatives, there is scant effort to consider their merits in light of developing world priorities. In response to these shortcomings, I distinguish four policy options and, on the basis of a plausible intuition about fairness, evaluate their implications for a fair distribution of healthy lifespans. I claim that even in developing nations it would be fairest to favor policies that promote equal access to at least one promising category of substantially life-extending intervention: calorie restriction mimetics. PMID:27465775

  7. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    PubMed

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. PMID:25312387

  8. Substantiating the Need to Apply a Sociocultural Lens to the Preparation of Teachers in an Effort to Achieve Science Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, sociocultural study examines how teacher preparation programs may have deliberate impact on science reform by unearthing the complex layers of diversity inherent in the contextual reality of education. This study was conducted in one of the largest school districts in the Southeastern United States, serving a predominately…

  9. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... agency that refuses to participate in the development or implementation of a program improvement plan, as... of funds withheld by the Department, in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR 30.13....

  10. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL... seven systemic factors that continues in nonconformity since the immediately preceding child and...

  11. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL... the immediately preceding child and family services review; (ii) The increased withholding of...

  12. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL... the immediately preceding child and family services review; (ii) The increased withholding of...

  13. A College Degree: Does it Substantially Enhance the Economic Achievement of Chicanos? Center for Business Services Occasional Paper No. 503.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goho, Tom; Smith, David

    Determining the earning patterns of 2 major Southwestern groups--Anglos and Chicanos--the study assessed the relative values of higher education to each group. Male alumni between the ages of 22 to 55 from New Mexico State University were studied. Of the 30% response return in December 1972, approximately 89% were from Anglos and 11% from…

  14. Substantiating the need to apply a sociocultural lens to the preparation of teachers in an effort to achieve science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Mara

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative, sociocultural study examines how teacher preparation programs may have deliberate impact on science reform by unearthing the complex layers of diversity inherent in the contextual reality of education. This study was conducted in one of the largest school districts in the Southeastern United States, serving a predominately Hispanic population comprising 65 % of its student body, followed by African Americans at 24 %. The representative subjects utilized for this study were elementary education undergraduate students and later a percentage of the same subjects, as practicing teachers in the field. All subjects were exposed to inquiry based methodology in science teaching as part of their undergraduate studies with emphasis on the learning cycle, facilitation of student voice and exposure to the nature of science. The goal of science education was emphasized to students as purposeful in promoting scientific literacy. This study is framed by sociocultural theory grounded in a social constructivist paradigm with the understanding that science learning takes place within social and collaborative processes leading to internalization and greater sense of self-efficacy. The study examines the perception of education students' beliefs about scientists as well as reflections on their own learning of science as elementary students themselves. As present practicing teachers, perspectives from their position in the field were obtained via interviews. Interviews served to elicit reflections on present practice as related to previous perceptions, in order to analyze whether these were pervasive in framing practice as well as self-perceptions related to science. A lack of change of these perceptions may underscore the importance of an emphasis on issues of gender, culture and social factors within teacher preparation, specific to science teaching and learning. Cognizance of such factors are believed to support internalization and hence greater understanding of the complexities framing science teaching and learning, leading to an actual paradigm shift in our elementary science classrooms.

  15. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL... administrative costs for the foster care program under title IV-E. (b) Determination of the amount of Federal... the title IV-E agency's Federal claims for title IV-E foster care administrative costs for each of...

  16. [Substantiation of active surgical tactics for patients with puerperal endometritis].

    PubMed

    Nikonov, A P; Ankirskaia, A S

    1991-01-01

    An active surgical tactics for managing patients (uterine wash and its cavity content vacuum aspiration) was applied in 34 patients with postnatal endometritis. Echography and hysteroscopy demonstrated that in 28 of 34 patients, the endometritis developed in the presence of pathological involvements into the uterine cavity, which made the use of surgical endometrial treatment justifiable. In addition, the surgical treatment substantially decreased the bacterial dissemination of the content in the uterine cavity. The proposed procedure enabled uterine extirpation to be avoided in 5 of 6 patients with partial suture inadequacy. PMID:2042714

  17. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  18. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  19. RF Sputtering for preparing substantially pure amorphous silicon monohydride

    DOEpatents

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1982-10-12

    A process for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous silicon hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  20. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  1. Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.

  2. NASA refan program status. [for noise reduction of JT8D turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalla, K. L.; Yuska, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the refan program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of substantially reducing the noise levels of existing JT8D powered aircraft. The program consists of the design, manufacturing and testing of the refan engines and modified nacelles and airplanes. Experimental testing was completed for the refan engine both at sea level and at altitude conditions. Ground testing for the B727 side- and center-engine installations and flight testing of the DC-9 with refan engines and acoustic nacelles were performed. Preliminary results presented show that substantial noise reductions were achieved.

  3. Metal-Catalyzed β-Functionalization of Michael Acceptors through Reductive Radical Addition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Streuff, Jan; Gansäuer, Andreas

    2015-11-23

    Transition-metal-catalyzed radical reactions are becoming increasingly important in modern organic chemistry. They offer fascinating and unconventional ways for connecting molecular fragments that are often complementary to traditional methods. In particular, reductive radical additions to α,β-unsaturated compounds have recently gained substantial attention as a result of their broad applicability in organic synthesis. This Minireview critically discusses the recent landmark achievements in this field in context with earlier reports that laid the foundation for today's developments.

  4. Metal-Catalyzed β-Functionalization of Michael Acceptors through Reductive Radical Addition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Streuff, Jan; Gansäuer, Andreas

    2015-11-23

    Transition-metal-catalyzed radical reactions are becoming increasingly important in modern organic chemistry. They offer fascinating and unconventional ways for connecting molecular fragments that are often complementary to traditional methods. In particular, reductive radical additions to α,β-unsaturated compounds have recently gained substantial attention as a result of their broad applicability in organic synthesis. This Minireview critically discusses the recent landmark achievements in this field in context with earlier reports that laid the foundation for today's developments. PMID:26471460

  5. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    SciTech Connect

    Bharacharya, R.; Parilla, P.A.; Blaugher, R.D.

    1995-12-19

    A process is disclosed for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material. 3 figs.

  6. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    SciTech Connect

    Bharacharya, Raghuthan; Parilla, Philip A.; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material.

  7. Familial Influences on Recantation in Substantiated Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P; Rivard, Jillian R; Lyon, Thomas D; Quas, Jodi A

    2016-08-01

    The underlying reasons for recantation in children's disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) have been debated in recent years. In the present study, we examined the largest sample of substantiated CSA cases involving recantations to date (n = 58 cases). We specifically matched those cases to 58 nonrecanters on key variables found to predict recantation in prior research (i.e., child age, alleged parent figure perpetrator, and caregiver unsupportiveness). Bivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when they were (1) initially removed from home postdisclosure and (2) initially separated from siblings postdisclosure. Multivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed belief in the children's allegations and more likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed disbelief in the allegations and when visitations with the alleged perpetrator were recommended at their first hearing. Results have implications for understanding the complex ways in which social processes may motivate some children to retract previous reports of sexual abuse. PMID:27234520

  8. Television noise reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, B. L.; Stamps, J. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A noise reduction system that divides the color video signal into its luminance and chrominance components is reported. The luminance component of a given frame is summed with the luminance component of at least one preceding frame which was stored on a disc recorder. The summation is carried out so as to achieve a signal amplitude equivalent to that of the original signal. The averaged luminance signal is then recombined with the chrominance signal to achieve a noise-reduced television signal.

  9. ''Substantial Margin of Safety'': A New Approach to HLW Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M. S.

    2002-02-28

    In the Spring of 2001, the National Research Council published ''Disposition of High-Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Continuing Societal and Technical Challenges.'' (1) While finding the technical case for deep geologic disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel robust, the report focused new attention on societal issues and decision-making. The report appeared against a backdrop of heightened controversy about the development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper identifies three principal reasons for the National Research Council committee's finding that ''Difficulties in achieving public support have been seriously underestimated in the past, and opportunities to gain public trust have been missed.''

  10. The design of probiotic studies to substantiate health claims.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Glenn R; Brummer, Robert J; Isolauri, Erika; Lochs, Herbert; Morelli, Lorenzo; Ockhuizen, Theo; Rowland, Ian R; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Stanton, Catherine; Verbeke, Kristin

    2011-09-01

    The EC Regulation No. 1924/2006 on Nutrition and Health claims made on foods has generated considerable debate and concern among scientists and industry. At the time of writing, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has not approved any probiotic claims despite numerous human trials and meta-analyses showing evidence of beneficial effects. On 29th and 30th September 2010, ten independent, academic scientists with a documented record in probiotic research, met to discuss designs for future probiotic studies to demonstrate health benefits for gut and immune function. The expert panel recommended the following: (i) always formulate a precise and concrete hypothesis, and appropriate goals and parameters before starting a trial; (ii) ensure trials have sufficient sample size, such that they are adequately powered to reach statistically significant conclusions, either supporting or rejecting the a priori hypothesis, taking into account adjustment for multiple testing (this might necessitate more than one recruitment site); (iii) ensure trials are of appropriate duration; (iv) focus on a single, primary objective and only evaluate multiple parameters when they are hypothesis-driven. The panel agreed that there was an urgent need to better define which biomarkers are considered valuable for substantiation of a health claim. As a first step, the panel welcomed the publication on the day of the meeting of EFSA's draft guidance document on immune and gut health, although it came too late for study designs and dossiers to be adjusted accordingly. New validated biomarkers need to be identified in order to properly determine the range of physiological functions influenced by probiotics. In addition, validated biomarkers reflecting risk factors for disease, are required for article 14 claims (EC Regulation No. 1924/2006). Finally, the panel concluded that consensus among scientists is needed to decide appropriate clinical endpoints for trials. PMID:22067941

  11. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.

  12. Role of dynamics in enzyme catalysis: substantial versus semantic controversies.

    PubMed

    Kohen, Amnon

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: The role of the enzyme's dynamic motions in catalysis is at the center of heated contemporary debates among both theoreticians and experimentalists. Resolving these apparent disputes is of both intellectual and practical importance: incorporation of enzyme dynamics could be critical for any calculation of enzymatic function and may have profound implications for structure-based drug design and the design of biomimetic catalysts. Analysis of the literature suggests that while part of the dispute may reflect substantial differences between theoretical approaches, much of the debate is semantic. For example, the term "protein dynamics" is often used by some researchers when addressing motions that are in thermal equilibrium with their environment, while other researchers only use this term for nonequilibrium events. The last cases are those in which thermal energy is "stored" in a specific protein mode and "used" for catalysis before it can dissipate to its environment (i.e., "nonstatistical dynamics"). This terminology issue aside, a debate has arisen among theoreticians around the roles of nonstatistical vs statistical dynamics in catalysis. However, the author knows of no experimental findings available today that examined this question in enzyme catalyzed reactions. Another source of perhaps nonsubstantial argument might stem from the varying time scales of enzymatic motions, which range from seconds to femtoseconds. Motions at different time scales play different roles in the many events along the catalytic cascade (reactant binding, reprotonation of reactants, structural rearrangement toward the transition state, product release, etc.). In several cases, when various experimental tools have been used to probe catalytic events at differing time scales, illusory contradictions seem to have emerged. In this Account, recent attempts to sort the merits of those questions are discussed along with possible future directions. A possible summary of current

  13. Financing Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Class size reduction has been shown to, among other things, improve academic achievement for all students and particularly for low-income and minority students. With the No Child Left Behind Act's heavy emphasis on scientifically based research, adequate yearly progress, and disaggregated results, one wonders why all children aren't enrolled in…

  14. Substantial optical dielectric enhancement by volume compression in LiAsSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fan; Brehm, John A.; Young, Steve M.; Kim, Youngkuk; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-05-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, we predict a substantial increase in the optical dielectric function of LiAsSe2 under pressure. We find that the optical dielectric constant is enhanced threefold under compression along all three axes by 3%. This enhancement is mainly due to the dimerization strength reduction of the one-dimensional (1D) As-Se chains in LiAsSe2, which significantly alters the wave function phase mismatch between two neighboring chains and changes the transition intensity. By developing a tight-binding model of the interacting 1D chains, the essential features of the low-energy electronic structure of LiAsSe2 are captured. Our findings are important for understanding the fundamental physics of LiAsSe2 and provide a feasible way to enhance the material optical response that can be applied to light harvesting for energy applications.

  15. Using scenario tree modelling for targeted herd sampling to substantiate freedom from disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to optimise the cost-effectiveness of active surveillance to substantiate freedom from disease, a new approach using targeted sampling of farms was developed and applied on the example of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) in Switzerland. Relevant risk factors (RF) for the introduction of IBR and EBL into Swiss cattle farms were identified and their relative risks defined based on literature review and expert opinions. A quantitative model based on the scenario tree method was subsequently used to calculate the required sample size of a targeted sampling approach (TS) for a given sensitivity. We compared the sample size with that of a stratified random sample (sRS) with regard to efficiency. Results The required sample sizes to substantiate disease freedom were 1,241 farms for IBR and 1,750 farms for EBL to detect 0.2% herd prevalence with 99% sensitivity. Using conventional sRS, the required sample sizes were 2,259 farms for IBR and 2,243 for EBL. Considering the additional administrative expenses required for the planning of TS, the risk-based approach was still more cost-effective than a sRS (40% reduction on the full survey costs for IBR and 8% for EBL) due to the considerable reduction in sample size. Conclusions As the model depends on RF selected through literature review and was parameterised with values estimated by experts, it is subject to some degree of uncertainty. Nevertheless, this approach provides the veterinary authorities with a promising tool for future cost-effective sampling designs. PMID:21843367

  16. Reducing the White-Nonwhite Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Madelaine

    It is well documented that there continues to be a gap between white and nonwhite student achievement. A study develops and tests a measure of white-nonwhite achievement gap reduction. The ultimate purpose is to use the measure as the dependent variable in a qualitative study of what works in reducing the gap. The strategy used in addressing this…

  17. Reduction of wind tunnel wall interference by controlled wall flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, S. (Editor); Joppa, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    An alternate method of testing was developed in which flow through the porous walls of the tunnel was actively controlled so as to approximate free air conditions in the neighborhood of the model during the test. The amount and distribution of the controlled flow through the walls is computed using a potential flow representation of the model based on the measured lift. Theoretical analysis is presented to prove the convergence of the method to free air conditions and to substantiate the general three-dimensional theory of operation when the normal flow distribution is continuous. A two-dimensional tunnel was constructed to evaluate the concept. Results show that substantial reduction of wall interference may be achieved with relatively low values of porosity of actively controlled walls.

  18. Why cirrus cloud seeding cannot substantially cool the planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Blaž; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    The net warming effect of cirrus clouds has driven part of the geoengineering research toward the idea of decreasing their occurrence frequency by seeding them with efficient ice nucleating particles. We study responses of cirrus clouds to simplified global seeding strategies in terms of their radiative fluxes with the help of the ECHAM-HAM general circulation model. Our cirrus scheme takes into account the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, preexisting ice crystals, and the full spectrum of updraft velocities. While we find that the cirrus cloud radiative effect evaluated from our model is positive and large enough (5.7 W/m2) to confirm their geoengineering potential, none of the seeding strategies achieves a significant cooling due to complex microphysical mechanisms limiting their climatic responses. After globally uniform seeding is applied, we observe an increase in cirrus cloud cover, a decrease in ice crystal number concentration, and a decrease in ice crystal radius. An analysis of their respective radiative contributions points to the ice crystal radius decrease as the main factor limiting seeding effectiveness.

  19. Characterizing the distribution and rates of microbial sulfate reduction at Middle Valley hydrothermal vents

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kiana L; Rogers, Daniel R; Olins, Heather C; Vidoudez, Charles; Girguis, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have directly measured sulfate reduction at hydrothermal vents, and relatively little is known about how environmental or ecological factors influence rates of sulfate reduction in vent environments. A better understanding of microbially mediated sulfate reduction in hydrothermal vent ecosystems may be achieved by integrating ecological and geochemical data with metabolic rate measurements. Here we present rates of microbially mediated sulfate reduction from three distinct hydrothermal vents in the Middle Valley vent field along the Juan de Fuca Ridge, as well as assessments of bacterial and archaeal diversity, estimates of total biomass and the abundance of functional genes related to sulfate reduction, and in situ geochemistry. Maximum rates of sulfate reduction occurred at 90 °C in all three deposits. Pyrosequencing and functional gene abundance data revealed differences in both biomass and community composition among sites, including differences in the abundance of known sulfate-reducing bacteria. The abundance of sequences for Thermodesulfovibro-like organisms and higher sulfate reduction rates at elevated temperatures suggests that Thermodesulfovibro-like organisms may have a role in sulfate reduction in warmer environments. The rates of sulfate reduction presented here suggest that—within anaerobic niches of hydrothermal deposits—heterotrophic sulfate reduction may be quite common and might contribute substantially to secondary productivity, underscoring the potential role of this process in both sulfur and carbon cycling at vents. PMID:23535916

  20. Characterizing the distribution and rates of microbial sulfate reduction at Middle Valley hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Frank, Kiana L; Rogers, Daniel R; Olins, Heather C; Vidoudez, Charles; Girguis, Peter R

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have directly measured sulfate reduction at hydrothermal vents, and relatively little is known about how environmental or ecological factors influence rates of sulfate reduction in vent environments. A better understanding of microbially mediated sulfate reduction in hydrothermal vent ecosystems may be achieved by integrating ecological and geochemical data with metabolic rate measurements. Here we present rates of microbially mediated sulfate reduction from three distinct hydrothermal vents in the Middle Valley vent field along the Juan de Fuca Ridge, as well as assessments of bacterial and archaeal diversity, estimates of total biomass and the abundance of functional genes related to sulfate reduction, and in situ geochemistry. Maximum rates of sulfate reduction occurred at 90 °C in all three deposits. Pyrosequencing and functional gene abundance data revealed differences in both biomass and community composition among sites, including differences in the abundance of known sulfate-reducing bacteria. The abundance of sequences for Thermodesulfovibro-like organisms and higher sulfate reduction rates at elevated temperatures suggests that Thermodesulfovibro-like organisms may have a role in sulfate reduction in warmer environments. The rates of sulfate reduction presented here suggest that--within anaerobic niches of hydrothermal deposits--heterotrophic sulfate reduction may be quite common and might contribute substantially to secondary productivity, underscoring the potential role of this process in both sulfur and carbon cycling at vents.

  1. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gill, Brian; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Teh, Bing-ru

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is an influential and rapidly growing nationwide network of charter schools serving primarily disadvantaged minority students. Prominent elements of KIPP's educational model include high expectations for student achievement and behavior, and a substantial increase in time in school. KIPP is being watched…

  2. Comparative RNA sequencing reveals substantial genetic variation in endangered primates

    PubMed Central

    Perry, George H.; Melsted, Páll; Marioni, John C.; Wang, Ying; Bainer, Russell; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Michelini, Katelyn; Zehr, Sarah; Yoder, Anne D.; Stephens, Matthew; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Gilad, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genomic studies in primates have yielded important insights into the evolutionary forces that shape genetic diversity and revealed the likely genetic basis for certain species-specific adaptations. To date, however, these studies have focused on only a small number of species. For the majority of nonhuman primates, including some of the most critically endangered, genome-level data are not yet available. In this study, we have taken the first steps toward addressing this gap by sequencing RNA from the livers of multiple individuals from each of 16 mammalian species, including humans and 11 nonhuman primates. Of the nonhuman primate species, five are lemurs and two are lorisoids, for which little or no genomic data were previously available. To analyze these data, we developed a method for de novo assembly and alignment of orthologous gene sequences across species. We assembled an average of 5721 gene sequences per species and characterized diversity and divergence of both gene sequences and gene expression levels. We identified patterns of variation that are consistent with the action of positive or directional selection, including an 18-fold enrichment of peroxisomal genes among genes whose regulation likely evolved under directional selection in the ancestral primate lineage. Importantly, we found no relationship between genetic diversity and endangered status, with the two most endangered species in our study, the black and white ruffed lemur and the Coquerel's sifaka, having the highest genetic diversity among all primates. Our observations imply that many endangered lemur populations still harbor considerable genetic variation. Timely efforts to conserve these species alongside their habitats have, therefore, strong potential to achieve long-term success. PMID:22207615

  3. British Universities' Responses to Financial Reductions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizer, John

    1987-01-01

    The impact on nine British universities' of substantial financial reductions in 1980-81 and the policy implications for national funding agencies are examined. Implementation of institutional retrenchment plans and the role of high-level administrators are discussed. (MSE)

  4. Substantiation of Reference Method For Determining Concrete's Freeze-Thaw Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolskiy, S.; Pertseva, O.

    2016-04-01

    It has been analytically proved that using concrete's rate of set e as a measure of damage, instead of decreasing of tensile strength R, increases freeze-thaw resistance's accuracy of estimation a lot under otherwise equal conditions by the time of freeze-thaw cycling. Also it has been experimentally shown that ratio of relative decreasing R to ε in direction, perpendicular to compression, is assumed to be independent on values R and ε for a given concrete and on the ways of achieving them during mechanical or freeze-thaw cycling. Taking this into account patented methods for estimation of concrete's freeze-thaw resistance as per values R and e received after freezing and thawing cycles of some specimens and their postliminary failure by linear compression was substantiated.

  5. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2012-12-01

    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

  6. GRAPHIC REANALYSIS OF THE TWO NINDS-TPA TRIALS CONFIRMS SUBSTANTIAL TREATMENT BENEFIT

    PubMed Central

    Saver, Jeffrey L.; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Starkman, Sidney

    2010-01-01

    Background of Comment/Review Multiple statistical analyses of the two NINDS-TPA Trials have confirmed study findings of benefit of fibrinolytic therapy. A recent graphic analysis departed from best practices in the visual display of quantitative information by failing to take into account the skewed functional importance NIH Stroke Scale raw scores and by scaling change axes at up to twenty times the range achievable by individual patients. Methods Using the publicly available datasets of the 2 NINDS-TPA Trials, we generated a variety of figures appropriate to the characteristics of acute stroke trial data. Results A diverse array of figures all visually delineated substantial benefits of fibrinolytic therapy, including: bar charts of normalized gain and loss; stacked bar, bar, and matrix plots of clinically relevant ordinal ranks; a time series stacked line plot of continuous scale disability weights; and line plot, bubble chart, and person icon array graphs of joint outcome table analysis. The achievable change figure showed substantially greater improvement among TPA than placebo patients, median 66.7% (IQR 0–92.0) vs 50.0% (IQR −7.1 – 80.0), p=0.003. Conclusions On average, under 3 hour patients treated with TPA recovered two-thirds while placebo patients improved only half of the way towards fully normal. Graphical analyses of the two NINDS-TPA trials, when performed according to best practices, is a useful means of conveying details about patient response to therapy not fully delineated by summary statistics, and confirms a valuable treatment benefit of under 3 hour fibrinolytic therapy in acute stroke. PMID:20829518

  7. Analysis of the substantial reduction of strain-induced mobility enhancement in (110)-oriented ultrathin double-gate MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sujin; Sun, Wookyung; Shin, Hyungsoon

    2016-01-01

    The stress effect in uniaxially strained (100)- and (110)-oriented double-gate silicon-on-insulator nMOSFETs is analyzed. A model of the silicon-thickness-dependent deformation potential (D\\text{ac\\_T\\text{Si}}) is used to accurately calculate the mobility by considering the quantum confinement effect. The mobility enhancements in the (100) and (110) orientations were found to exhibit considerably different silicon thickness dependencies. As the silicon thickness decreases, the mobility enhancement in the (100) case exhibits a second peak, whereas it diminishes in the (110) case. This phenomenon results from differences in the quantization mass that affect the energy differences between the first subbands of two- and four-fold degenerate valleys.

  8. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  9. Circuit life versus bleeding risk: the impact of achieved activated partial thromboplastin time versus achieved filtration fraction.

    PubMed

    MacEwen, Clare; Watkinson, Peter; Winearls, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Whilst prolonging hemofilter (circuit) life, heparin increases bleeding risk. The impact of achieved activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) on circuit life and bleeding risk has not been assessed in a modern critically ill cohort. Lowering filtration fraction may be an alternative means of prolonging circuit life, but is often overlooked in critical care. An observational study of 309 consecutive circuits in a general intensive care unit was conducted using a wide target APTT range. Multilevel modeling was used to predict circuit life and bleeding according to achieved APTT and filtration fraction. Independent predictors of circuit failure (i.e. unplanned ending of treatment) included filtration fraction (P<0.001, HR 1.07 per 1% increase), peak APTT (P<0.001, HR 0.8 per 10 s increase or 0.3 APTR increase) and baseline PT (P=0.014, HR 0.91 for every 50% increase). The only significant predictor of bleeding was peak APTT (P=0.017, OR 1.05 per 10 s increase). Every 10 s APTT increase was associated with a 20% reduction in circuit failure, but a 5% increase in hemorrhage. A 3% reduction in filtration fraction was associated with the same improvement in circuit life as a 10 s increase in APTT. Increasing APTT prolongs circuit life but carries a substantial risk of bleeding even in modern practice. Filtration fraction has a large impact on circuit life in the critically ill: a 3% reduction in filtration fraction, e.g. by increasing blood flow or delivering some of the clearance via dialysis, would be expected to reduce circuit failure as much as a 10 s increase in APTT.

  10. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  11. Achieving cost reductions in EOSDIS operations through technology evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsome, Penny; Moe, Karen; Harberts, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The earth observing system (EOS) data information system (EOSDIS) mission includes the cost-effective management and distribution of large amounts of data to the earth science community. The effect of the introduction of new information system technologies on the evolution of EOSDIS is considered. One of the steps taken by NASA to enable the introduction of new information system technologies into the EOSDIS is the funding of technology development through prototyping. Recent and ongoing prototyping efforts and their potential impact on the performance and cost-effectiveness of the EOSDIS are discussed. The technology evolution process as it related to the effective operation of EOSDIS is described, and methods are identified for the support of the transfer of relevant technology to EOSDIS components.

  12. Optimising resources by reduction: the FRAME Reduction Committee.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Sylvia

    2004-06-01

    The Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME) Reduction Committee, formed in 1998, comprises experienced professionals in the fields of statistics, experimental design, animal welfare and alternatives. The committee undertakes projects designed to contribute to reduction by addressing the implementation of recommendations made at an European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) workshop on reducing the use of laboratory animals. The use of improved experimental design and statistical analysis techniques are key means of achieving reduction. Literature surveys have shown that there is scope for improvement in these areas. Projects include organising workshops that explain how these techniques can be used to achieve reduction, the creation of guidelines for journal editors and the compilation of a directory of training material on experimental design and statistical analysis. The first FRAME Reduction Committee international symposium will be held in October 2002. PMID:23577468

  13. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints. PMID:24268002

  14. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints.

  15. Waste Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Marilyn; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that focus on waste reduction in the school and community. The ideas are divided into grade level categories. Sample activities include Techno-Trash, where children use tools to take apart broken appliances or car parts, then reassemble them or build new creations. Activities are suggested for areas including language arts and…

  16. Alliance for a Healthy Border: factors related to weight reduction and glycemic success.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Ghaddar, Suad; Brown, Cynthia; Pagán, José A; Balboa, Marvelia

    2012-04-01

    We examined the factors related to success in achieving weight reduction and glycemic control in Alliance for a Healthy Border (AHB), a chronic disease prevention program implemented from 2006 to 2009 through 12 federally qualified community health centers serving primarily Hispanics in communities located along the US-Mexico border region. We analyzed data from Phase I of AHB using logistic regression to examine the determinants of success in achieving weight reduction and glycemic control among the participants in AHB programs. Factors affecting weight reduction success were sex, age, employment status, income, insurance, diabetes, baseline body mass index (BMI), smoking status, family history of diabetes, session type, program duration, and physical activity changes. Factors affecting achievement of glycemic success included sex, age, employment status, diabetes, baseline BMI, family history of diabetes, program duration, and physical activity changes. We found that the AHB interventions were more successful in reducing participants' HbA1c level than BMI. In addition to sociodemographic factors, participants with better baseline health conditions (ie, participants without diabetes or family history of diabetes, normal BMI, former smokers) were more likely to achieve success after the interventions. Of the 4 key features defining each of the 12 interventions, session type and program duration were associated with success. Within a relatively short time period, physical activity improvements had a stronger effect on weight reduction and glycemic success than improvements in dietary habits. The effectiveness of diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevention programs can be improved substantially by considering these factors during program design and structure.

  17. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  15. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  16. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  17. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  18. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  19. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  20. Exploring potential mortality reductions in 9 European countries by improving diet and lifestyle: A modelling approach

    PubMed Central

    O'Flaherty, M.; Bandosz, P.; Critchley, J.; Capewell, S.; Guzman-Castillo, M.; Aspelund, T.; Bennett, K.; Kabir, K.; Björck, L.; Bruthans, J.; Hotchkiss, J.W.; Hughes, J.; Laatikainen, T.; Palmieri, L.; Zdrojewski, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) death rates have fallen across most of Europe in recent decades. However, substantial risk factor reductions have not been achieved across all Europe. Our aim was to quantify the potential impact of future policy scenarios on diet and lifestyle on CHD mortality in 9 European countries. Methods We updated the previously validated IMPACT CHD models in 9 European countries and extended them to 2010–11 (the baseline year) to predict reductions in CHD mortality to 2020(ages 25–74 years). We compared three scenarios: conservative, intermediate and optimistic on smoking prevalence (absolute decreases of 5%, 10% and 15%); saturated fat intake (1%, 2% and 3% absolute decreases in % energy intake, replaced by unsaturated fats); salt (relative decreases of 10%, 20% and 30%), and physical inactivity (absolute decreases of 5%, 10% and 15%). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Under the conservative, intermediate and optimistic scenarios, we estimated 10.8% (95% CI: 7.3–14.0), 20.7% (95% CI: 15.6–25.2) and 29.1% (95% CI: 22.6–35.0) fewer CHD deaths in 2020. For the optimistic scenario, 15% absolute reductions in smoking could decrease CHD deaths by 8.9%–11.6%, Salt intake relative reductions of 30% by approximately 5.9–8.9%; 3% reductions in saturated fat intake by 6.3–7.5%, and 15% absolute increases in physical activity by 3.7–5.3%. Conclusions Modest and feasible policy-based reductions in cardiovascular risk factors (already been achieved in some other countries) could translate into substantial reductions in future CHD deaths across Europe. However, this would require the European Union to more effectively implement powerful evidence-based prevention policies. PMID:26812643

  1. Future runoff from glacierized catchments in the Central Andes could substantially decrease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Marlene; Schauwecker, Simone; Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Drenkhan, Fabian; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Kaser, Georg; Suarez, Wilson; García Hernández, Javier; Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Ayros, Edwin; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    during the dry season when glacier melt water used to represent substantial amounts of total runoff in high Andean catchments. Seasonal shifts of water availability may be mitigated by artificial reservoirs, but possible reductions of annual runoff cannot be compensated by such constructions. Furthermore, these possible water shortages may interact with other climatic and non-climatic stressors as well as socioeconomic drivers such as agroindustrial development leading to an increased need of comprehensive adaptation strategies.

  2. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. Your work may be... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity... Activity § 416.972 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is...

  3. 24 CFR 115.201 - The two phases of substantial equivalency certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The two phases of substantial... ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.201 The two phases of.... The Department has developed a two-phase process of substantial equivalency certification....

  4. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E...

  5. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E...

  6. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E (section 671...

  7. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E...

  8. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E...

  9. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  10. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  11. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  12. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  13. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  14. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining substantial financial risk and majority...-Sponsored Organizations § 422.356 Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest. (a) Determining substantial financial risk. The PSO must demonstrate to CMS's satisfaction that it apportions...

  15. [Hygienic substantiation of maximum permissible concentrations of oil products in the soils of the Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Rubin, V M; Il'yukova, I I; Kremko, L M; Prismotrov, Yu A; Samsonova, A S; Volod'ko, I K; Lukashev, O V

    2013-01-01

    Oil products are the one out of major pollutants in soil. For reduction of the technogenic load on human beings and performing preventive measures in the Republic of Belarus differentiated hygienic rate setting for oil products in the soil have been scientifically substantiated for follows different categories of Lands: agricultural lands, defense lands, lands for recreation, historical and cultural purpose, forest lands, lands of water fund, reserve lands--50 mg/kg; settlements sand, garden housing and dacha cooperatives,--100 mg/kg; industrial, transport, communication, energy, defense and other appointments lands--500 mg/kg.

  16. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  17. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  18. Warming in the Yukon River Basin is Likely to Release Substantial Amounts of Soil Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juday, G. P.; Huntington, T. G.

    2005-12-01

    In recent decades the Yukon River Basin (YRB) in northwestern Canada and central Alaska has experienced a substantial warming trend resulting in a variety of geophysical and biological responses. Climatologic measurements consistent with rapid warming in the YRB during the last several decades of the 20th century include surface air temperature (especially daily minima), number of frost-free days, and the number of very warm days. During the 20th century daily maxima in the warm season in the YRB have increased only weakly, and modest autumn cooling occurred. Indirect indicators of warming include shrinkage in lake area, decreases in glacier mass, increased fire frequency and annual area burned, and changes in permafrost thickness and permafrost temperature. Changes in tree growth rates and susceptibility to pests have been related to warming and drying in interior Alaska. Oral histories of Alaska Natives have also revealed many other warming related changes in the YRB. If ongoing warming trends continue there is a concern that large stores of soil organic carbon (SOC) will be at risk for release to the atmosphere through heterotrophic decomposition. Warming tends to accelerate microbial decomposition at a faster rate than net primary productivity. One of the most important effects of warming in the YRB is likely to be its influence on the hydrologic and cryospheric regimes. Warming may be accompanied by soil drying and lowering of the water table in wetlands and lakes exposing more SOC to aerobic decomposition. A substantial portion of the YRB is underlain by permafrost that thaws to a variable depth (active layer) each summer. Increasing the thickness of the active layer exposes more SOC to microbial decomposition. Increasing the burned area results in direct SOC losses by oxidation during the fire and decreases albedo that warms surface soils and increases the thickness of the active layer. Warming and increasing length of the growing season increases seasonal

  19. Industrial Waste Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-24

    US industry generates over 12 billion tons of wastes each year. These wastes consist of undesirable by-products of industrial production that are discarded into our environment. Energy is an integral part of these wastes; it is found in the embodied energy of industrial feedstocks not optimally used, in the energy content of the wastes themselves, and in the energy needed to transport, treat, and dispose of wastes. Estimates of the potential energy savings from reducing industrial wastes range from three to four quadrillion Btu per year -- enough to meet the annual energy needs of 30 million American homes. This document presents a plan for the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which has been designed to help achieve national goals for energy efficiency and waste minimization. The objective of the program is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial processes through cost-effective waste reduction. The initial program focus is on waste reduction opportunities in the production and use of chemicals, due to the significant amount of energy used in these activities and the large amounts of hazardous and toxic wastes they generate. The chemical industry will be the initial subject of a series of waste reduction opportunity assessments conducted as part of the program. Assessments of other industries and waste problems will follow.

  20. Soil respiration contributes substantially to urban carbon fluxes in the greater Boston area.

    PubMed

    Decina, Stephen M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Reinmann, Andrew B; Short Gianotti, Anne G; Templer, Pamela H

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are the dominant source of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions. In the absence of binding international treaties or decisive U.S. federal policy for greenhouse gas regulation, cities have also become leaders in greenhouse gas reduction efforts through climate action plans. These plans focus on anthropogenic carbon flows only, however, ignoring a potentially substantial contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from biological respiration. Our aim was to measure the contribution of CO2 efflux from soil respiration to atmospheric CO2 fluxes using an automated CO2 efflux system and to use these measurements to model urban soil CO2 efflux across an urban area. We find that growing season soil respiration is dramatically enhanced in urban areas and represents levels of CO2 efflux of up to 72% of FFCO2 within greater Boston's residential areas, and that soils in urban forests, lawns, and landscaped cover types emit 2.62 ± 0.15, 4.49 ± 0.14, and 6.73 ± 0.26 μmolCO2 m(-2) s(-1), respectively, during the growing season. These rates represent up to 2.2 times greater soil respiration than rates found in nearby rural ecosystems in central Massachusetts (MA), a potential consequence of imported carbon amendments, such as mulch, within a general regime of landowner management. As the scientific community moves rapidly towards monitoring, reporting, and verification of CO2 emissions using ground based approaches and remotely-sensed observations to measure CO2 concentrations, our results show that measurement and modeling of biogenic urban CO2 fluxes will be a critical component for verification of urban climate action plans.

  1. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  2. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  3. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  4. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  5. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  6. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  7. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  8. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  9. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  10. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  11. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  12. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  13. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  14. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  15. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  16. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  17. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  18. 78 FR 20855 - State Implementation Plans: Response to Petition for Rulemaking; Findings of Substantial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... February 22, 2013 (78 FR 12460) must be received on or before May 13, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit your comments...; Findings of Substantial Inadequacy; and SIP Calls To Amend Provisions Applying to Excess Emissions During...; Findings of Substantial Inadequacy; and SIP Calls to Amend Provisions Applying to Excess Emissions...

  19. 12 CFR 366.5 - What causes a substantial loss to a federal deposit insurance fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... deposit insurance fund? 366.5 Section 366.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... § 366.5 What causes a substantial loss to a federal deposit insurance fund? You cause a substantial loss to the Deposit Insurance Fund (or any predecessor deposit insurance fund) under § 366.3(d) when...

  20. 12 CFR 366.5 - What causes a substantial loss to a federal deposit insurance fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... deposit insurance fund? 366.5 Section 366.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... § 366.5 What causes a substantial loss to a federal deposit insurance fund? You cause a substantial loss to the Deposit Insurance Fund (or any predecessor deposit insurance fund) under § 366.3(d) when...

  1. 24 CFR 247.10 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired. 247.10 Section 247.10 Housing and Urban... SUBSIDIZED AND HUD-OWNED PROJECTS HUD-Owned Projects § 247.10 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation... of substantial rehabilitation or demolition. Nothing in this subpart should be construed to affect...

  2. 26 CFR 1.7874-3T - Substantial business activities (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rules in § 1.7874-2T(g), as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 12, 2012, or the rules set... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substantial business activities (temporary). 1... Substantial business activities (temporary). (a) Scope. This section provides rules regarding whether...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary... liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary). (a) through (b)(7) For further guidance, see § 1.6043-3(a) through (b)(7)....

  4. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary). (a) through (b)(7) For further guidance, see § 1.6043-3(a) through (b)(7). (b)(8)...

  5. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  6. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  7. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... youngest child birth date as applicable to the option elected. At or before the time of his retirement, he... age of the dependents must be substantiated by a birth certificate or other competent evidence. The birth date of a member must be verified by his service record. All required substantiating evidence...

  8. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... youngest child birth date as applicable to the option elected. At or before the time of his retirement, he... age of the dependents must be substantiated by a birth certificate or other competent evidence. The birth date of a member must be verified by his service record. All required substantiating evidence...

  9. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    DOEpatents

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  10. 26 CFR 1.6662-5T - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1 (temporary). 1.6662-5T Section 1.6662-5T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6662-5T Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under...

  11. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition....

  12. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition....

  13. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6662-4 Substantial understatement of income tax. (a) In general. If any portion...

  14. 26 CFR 1.162-17 - Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting and substantiation of certain business... Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-17 Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees... reporting of information on income tax returns by taxpayers who pay or incur ordinary and necessary...

  15. What Criteria Do Child Protective Services Investigators Use to Substantiate Exposure to Domestic Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…

  16. 26 CFR 601.507 - Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged... Practice Requirements § 601.507 Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized... perjury) that the recognized representative prepared such submission and that the facts contained...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1080 - Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure. 416.1080 Section 416.1080 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Hearings and Appeals § 416.1080 Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure....

  3. 20 CFR 416.1080 - Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure. 416.1080 Section 416.1080 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Hearings and Appeals § 416.1080 Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure....

  4. Grain size reduction by electromagnetic stirring inside gold alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, R.; Mangelinck-Noël, N.; Hamburger, J.; Garnier, C.; Ramoni, P.

    2005-06-01

    The final properties of cast materials depend greatly on the solidification process undergone by the material. In this paper, we study gold alloys dedicated to the watch industry and jewellery in the framework of a research collaboration with the Metalor Company. The aim is to improve the concentration homogeneity of the ingots by controlling the solidification step. It can be achieved by reducing segregations by a decrease in the grain size. For this purpose, we set up a multiphase electromagnetic stirring of the melt to favour the growth of finer grains and improve the homogeneity of the composition. We first design an electromagnetic stirrer by numerical simulation. The stirrer is then implemented on a model experiment. Eventually, the alloys are characterised by metallography and etching to evidence the grain structure. As expected, we obtain a substantial reduction of the grain size although, some work remains to be done to attain the final goal of even finer grains.

  5. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature

  6. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  7. Reduction of turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A. (Inventor); Brookfield, John M. (Inventor); Sell, Julian (Inventor); Hayden, Belva J. (Inventor); Ingard, K. Uno (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    In the invention, propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise characteristic of interaction of a turbomachine blade wake, produced by a turbomachine blade as the blade rotates, with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade, are reduced. This is accomplished by injection of fluid into the blade wake through a port in the rotor blade. The mass flow rate of the fluid injected into the blade wake is selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake. With this fluid injection, reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved. In a further noise reduction technique, boundary layer fluid is suctioned into the turbomachine blade through a suction port on the side of the blade that is characterized as the relatively low-pressure blade side. As with the fluid injection technique, the mass flow rate of the fluid suctioned into the blade is here selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake; reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved with this suction technique. Blowing and suction techniques are also provided in the invention for reducing noise associated with the wake produced by fluid flow around a stationary blade upstream of a rotating turbomachine.

  8. Child protection decisions to substantiate hospital child protection teams' reports of suspected maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Jedwab, Merav; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Siegal, Gil; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-02-01

    The present study focuses on the way child protection officers (CPOs) in Israel assess suspected abuse and neglect (SCAN) reports made by hospital child protection teams (CPTs), to determine whether the alleged maltreatment is substantiated. The study was conducted in six medical centers and included 358 reports investigated by CPOs for SCAN. A structured questionnaire was completed by hospital CPTs to capture all relevant information on each child referred to the CPTs. Structured phone interviews were conducted with each of the CPOs who received a CPT report. Bivariate associations and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the substantiation rate of cases reported by CPTs and the types of maltreatment substantiated, as well as to identify case characteristics of the child and the family that were associated with the CPOs' substantiation decision. CPO follow-up investigations revealed a substantiation rate of 53.5%. The maltreatment type most commonly substantiated was neglect. The case characteristics associated with substantiation included socio-demographic background, parents' health and functioning, previous contact with social services, characteristics of the hospital referral, medical findings and an assessment of the parents' behaviors. The findings of the study highlighted the importance of cooperation between the health and welfare services and the policy makers. This cooperation is essential for identifying early signs of maltreatment. Enhanced cooperation and effective information transfer between various professionals would help prevent or at least reduce the recurrence of maltreatment and would ensure that the children and their families are treated appropriately. PMID:25550100

  9. Experimental assessment of drag reduction by traveling waves in a turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auteri, F.; Baron, A.; Belan, M.; Campanardi, G.; Quadrio, M.

    2010-11-01

    We experimentally assess the capabilities of an active, open-loop technique for drag reduction in turbulent wall flows recently introduced by Quadrio et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 627, 161 (2009)]. The technique consists of generating streamwise-modulated waves of spanwise velocity at the wall, which travels in the streamwise direction. A proof-of-principle experiment has been devised to measure the reduction of turbulent friction in a pipe flow, in which the wall is subdivided into thin slabs that rotate independently in the azimuthal direction. Different speeds of nearby slabs provide, although in a discrete setting, the desired streamwise variation of transverse velocity. Our experiment confirms the available DNS results, and in particular, demonstrates the possibility of achieving large reductions of friction in the turbulent regime. Reductions up to 33% are obtained for slowly forward-traveling waves; backward-traveling waves invariably yield drag reduction, whereas a substantial drop of drag reduction occurs for waves traveling forward with a phase speed comparable to the convection speed of near-wall turbulent structures. A Fourier analysis is employed to show that the first harmonics introduced by the discrete spatial waveform that approximates the sinusoidal wave are responsible for significant effects that are indeed observed in the experimental measurements. Practical issues related to the physical implementation of this control scheme and its energetic efficiency are briefly discussed.

  10. The Reciprocal Relations between Self-Concept, Motivation and Achievement: Juxtaposing Academic Self-Concept and Achievement Goal Orientations for Mathematics Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…

  11. Exploring the spatial dynamics of alcohol outlets and Child Protective Services referrals, substantiations, and foster care entries.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Remer, Lillian G; Lery, Bridgette; Needell, Barbara

    2007-05-01

    Controlling for neighborhood demographic characteristics, this study examined the relationship of alcohol outlets with rates of Child Protective Services (CPS) referrals, substantiations, and foster care entries from 1998-2003 in 579 zip codes in California. Data for this panel study were analyzed using spatial random effects panel models. Zip codes with higher concentrations of off-premise alcohol outlets (e.g., convenience or liquor stores) and proportions of Black residents had higher rates of maltreatment. Higher average household size and median household income were generally related to lower child maltreatment rates. More specifically, the model derived estimates that an average decrease of one off-premise outlet per zip code would reduce total referrals to CPS in the 579 zip codes by 1,040 cases, substantiations by 180 cases, and foster care entries by 93 cases. Characteristics of adjacent zip codes also were related to maltreatment rates in local neighborhoods, indicating a spatial dynamic to this relationship. Reductions in number of alcohol outlets per zip code, particularly off-premise outlets, may result in lower rates of child maltreatment.

  12. Controlled-release fertilizer composition substantially coated with an impermeable layer

    DOEpatents

    Ankeny, Mark

    2016-03-29

    A controlled-release fertilizer composition is provided that is substantially coated with an impermeable layer. The fertilizer composition may further include one or more hollow sections to allow for root penetration and efficient delivery of nutrients.

  13. 77 FR 65169 - Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Forest Service Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public... needed. The Government benefits if defaulted timber sale contracts, mill closures, and bankruptcies can be avoided by granting extensions. Having numerous, economically viable, timber sale...

  14. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...

  15. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...

  16. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...

  17. Preload substantially influences the intervertebral disc stiffness in loading-unloading cycles of compression.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hendrik; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Schilling, Christoph; Dreischarf, Marcel

    2016-06-14

    Disc hydration is controlled by fluid imbibition and exudation and hence by applied load magnitude and history, internal osmotic pressure and disc conditions. It affects both the internal load distribution and external load-bearing of a disc while variations therein give rise to the disc time-dependent characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of changes in compression preload magnitude on the disc axial cyclic compression stiffness under physiological loading. After 20h of free hydration, effects of various preload magnitudes (no preload, 0.06 and 0.28MPa, applied for eight hours) and disc-bone preparation conditions on disc height and axial stiffness were investigated using 36 disc-bone and 24 isolated disc (without bony endplates) bovine specimens. After preloading, specimens were subjected to ten loading/unloading cycles each of 7.5min compression at 0.5MPa followed by 7.5min at 0.06MPa. Under 0.06MPa preload, the specimen height losses during high loading periods of cyclic loading were greater than corresponding height recoveries during low loading phases. This resulted in a progressive reduction in the specimen height and increase in its stiffness. Differences between disc height losses in high cyclic loads and between stiffness in both load increase and release phases were significant for 0 and 0.06MPa vs. 0.28MPa preload. Results highlight the significant role of disc preload magnitude/history and hence disc height and hydration on disc stiffness in loading/unloading and disc height loss in loading periods. Proper preconditioning and hence hydration level should be achieved if recovery in height loss similar to in vivo conditions is expected. PMID:27209550

  18. Strategic focus on 3R principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

  19. Strategic focus on 3R principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level.

  20. Bosch CO2 Reduction System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. F.; King, C. D.; Keller, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    Development of a Bosch process CO2 reduction unit was continued, and, by means of hardware modifications, the performance was substantially improved. Benefits of the hardware upgrading were demonstrated by extensive unit operation and data acquisition in the laboratory. This work was accomplished on a cold seal configuration of the Bosch unit.

  1. Examining the evidence: reporter identity, allegation type, and sociodemographic characteristics as predictors of maltreatment substantiation.

    PubMed

    King, Bryn; Lawson, Jennifer; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily

    2013-11-01

    Using linked administrative data from child protection and birth records in California, this study examined whether the mandated status and type of reporter are independent predictors of substantiation among infants and young children across maltreatment types and after adjusting for characteristics of the child and family. Of the 59,413 children born in 2002 who were reported and investigated for maltreatment before the age of 5 years, 26% were substantiated. Reports originating from mandated sources were 2.5 times as likely (95% confidence interval, CI [2.40, 2.60]) to be substantiated as those from nonmandated reporters. Findings demonstrated that children whose allegations were reported by law enforcement, medical professionals, and workers in public agencies were consistently substantiated at higher rates than allegations from other mandated reporters. Results also indicated that the relationship between reporter type and the likelihood of substantiation varied by maltreatment type. Children reported by law enforcement for physical abuse were 6.3 times as likely (95% CI [4.86, 8.04]) to be substantiated as those reported by nonmandated sources. PMID:24121416

  2. [SUBSTANTIATION OF DOSE LIMITS FOR A NEW NORMATIVE DOCUMENT ON RADIATION SAFETY OF LONG-DURATION SPACE MISSIONS AT ORBIT ALTITUDES OF UP TO 500 KM].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Grigoriev, Yu G; Shafirkin, A V; Shurshakov, V A

    2016-01-01

    Review of the data of experimental radiobiology and epidemiological follow-up of large groups of people subjected to radiation exposures on Earth has been undertaken to substantiate dose limits for critical organs of cosmonauts in order to ensure good performance and vitality while on long-duration orbital missions. The career dose limits for cosmonauts and astronauts established earlier in the USSR and USA amounted to nothing more but banning the risk of cancer death increase to 3%. To apply more rigorous criteria of delayed radiation risks, the Russian limits for cosmonauts were revised to substantiate a 4-fold reduction of the average tissue equivalent dose maximum to 1 Sv. The total of cancer and non-cancer radiation risks over lifetime and probable reduction of mean life expectancy (MLE) were calculated using the model of radiation-induced mortality for mammals and taken as the main damage to health. The established dose limit is equal to the career dose for nuclear industry personnel set forth by Russian standard document NRB 99/2009. For better agreement of admissible threshold doses to critical human organs (bone marrow, lens and skin) in the revised radiation limits for long-duration space missions and radiation safety limits on Earth, reduction of dose limits for the critical organs were substantiated additionally; these limits comply with those for planned over-exposure on Earth in document NRB 99/2009. PMID:27347592

  3. [SUBSTANTIATION OF DOSE LIMITS FOR A NEW NORMATIVE DOCUMENT ON RADIATION SAFETY OF LONG-DURATION SPACE MISSIONS AT ORBIT ALTITUDES OF UP TO 500 KM].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Grigoriev, Yu G; Shafirkin, A V; Shurshakov, V A

    2016-01-01

    Review of the data of experimental radiobiology and epidemiological follow-up of large groups of people subjected to radiation exposures on Earth has been undertaken to substantiate dose limits for critical organs of cosmonauts in order to ensure good performance and vitality while on long-duration orbital missions. The career dose limits for cosmonauts and astronauts established earlier in the USSR and USA amounted to nothing more but banning the risk of cancer death increase to 3%. To apply more rigorous criteria of delayed radiation risks, the Russian limits for cosmonauts were revised to substantiate a 4-fold reduction of the average tissue equivalent dose maximum to 1 Sv. The total of cancer and non-cancer radiation risks over lifetime and probable reduction of mean life expectancy (MLE) were calculated using the model of radiation-induced mortality for mammals and taken as the main damage to health. The established dose limit is equal to the career dose for nuclear industry personnel set forth by Russian standard document NRB 99/2009. For better agreement of admissible threshold doses to critical human organs (bone marrow, lens and skin) in the revised radiation limits for long-duration space missions and radiation safety limits on Earth, reduction of dose limits for the critical organs were substantiated additionally; these limits comply with those for planned over-exposure on Earth in document NRB 99/2009.

  4. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  5. Reduction of pathogen indicator organisms in dairy wastewater using an ecological treatment system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer A; Hoet, Armando E; Wittum, Thomas E; Monahan, Clifton M; Martin, Jay F

    2008-01-01

    Ecological treatment systems can provide a sustainable, plant-based alternative to traditional wastewater treatment. One factor essential to the success of these systems is ensuring their ability to reduce coliform concentrations in wastewater. Wastewater is the primary source of fecal contamination in aquatic ecosystems, containing total and fecal coliforms on the order of 10(8)-10(10) and 10(7)-10(9) CFU L(-1), respectively. This study assessed the ability of an ecological treatment system to reduce concentrations of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from dairy wastewater. Low strength wastewater was pumped into the system during July of 2005 and high strength in September 2005. Wastewater passes through a series of anaerobic, aerobic, and clarifier reactors and wetland cells before exiting the system. Regardless of wastewater strength, average total coliform and E. coli concentrations were consistently reduced by at least 99% from influent to effluent, with the majority of the reduction (76%) occurring in the first two reactors. Relationships between internal concentrations of solids and coliforms indicated that increased reduction of solids may further reduce coliform concentrations. Although U.S. Environmental Protection Agency discharge requirements for E. coli were not always met, the substantial reductions achieved indicate that ecological treatment systems have the potential to successfully reduce coliforms in wastewater to meet discharge limits. The results from this study will be used to guide design and management of future ecological treatment systems, so that larger and more consistent coliform reductions can be achieved.

  6. Scenario analysis to vehicular emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiurui; Fu, Liwei; Ji, Muse; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-09-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are increasingly becoming one of the important factors affecting the urban air quality in China. It is necessary and useful to policy makers to demonstrate the situation given the relevant pollutants reduction measures are taken. This paper predicted the reduction potentials of conventional pollutants (PM10, NOx, CO, HC) under different control strategies and policies in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during 2011-2020. There are the baseline and 5 control scenarios designed, which presented the different current and future possible vehicular emissions control measures. Future population of different kinds of vehicles were predicted based on the Gompertz model, and vehicle kilometers travelled estimated as well. After that, the emissions reduction under the different scenarios during 2011-2020 could be estimated using emission factors and activity level data. The results showed that, the vehicle population in the BTH region would continue to grow up, especially in Tianjin and Hebei. Comparing the different scenarios, emission standards updating scenario would achieve a substantial reduction and keep rising up for all the pollutants, and the scenario of eliminating high-emission vehicles can reduce emissions more effectively in short-term than in long-term, especially in Beijing. Due to the constraints of existing economical and technical level, the reduction effect of promoting new energy vehicles would not be significant, especially given the consideration of their lifetime impact. The reduction effect of population regulation scenario in Beijing cannot be ignorable and would keep going up for PM10, CO and HC, excluding NOx. Under the integrated scenario considering all the control measures it would achieve the maximum reduction potential of emissions, which means to reduce emissions of PM10, NOx, CO, HC, by 56%, 59%, 48%, 52%, respectively, compared to BAU scenario for the whole BTH region in 2020. PMID:27325548

  7. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  8. The Australian paradox: a substantial decline in sugars intake over the same timeframe that overweight and obesity have increased.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-04-01

    Ecological research from the USA has demonstrated a positive relationship between sugars consumption and prevalence of obesity; however, the relationship in other nations is not well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in obesity and sugar consumption in Australia over the past 30 years and to compare and contrast obesity trends and sugar consumption patterns in Australia with the UK and USA. Data on consumption of sugar in Australia, the UK and USA were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization for the years 1980-2003. The prevalence of obesity has increased 3 fold in Australians since 1980. In Australia, the UK and USA, per capita consumption of refined sucrose decreased by 23%, 10% and 20% respectively from 1980 to 2003. When all sources of nutritive sweeteners, including high fructose corn syrups, were considered, per capita consumption decreased in Australia (-16%) and the UK (-5%), but increased in the USA (+23%). In Australia, there was a reduction in sales of nutritively sweetened beverages by 64 million liters from 2002 to 2006 and a reduction in percentage of children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages between 1995 and 2007. The findings confirm an "Australian Paradox"--a substantial decline in refined sugars intake over the same timeframe that obesity has increased. The implication is that efforts to reduce sugar intake may reduce consumption but may not reduce the prevalence of obesity. PMID:22254107

  9. The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Alan W.; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-01-01

    Ecological research from the USA has demonstrated a positive relationship between sugars consumption and prevalence of obesity; however, the relationship in other nations is not well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in obesity and sugar consumption in Australia over the past 30 years and to compare and contrast obesity trends and sugar consumption patterns in Australia with the UK and USA. Data on consumption of sugar in Australia, the UK and USA were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization for the years 1980-2003. The prevalence of obesity has increased 3 fold in Australians since 1980. In Australia, the UK and USA, per capita consumption of refined sucrose decreased by 23%, 10% and 20% respectively from 1980 to 2003. When all sources of nutritive sweeteners, including high fructose corn syrups, were considered, per capita consumption decreased in Australia (−16%) and the UK (−5%), but increased in the USA (+23%). In Australia, there was a reduction in sales of nutritively sweetened beverages by 64 million liters from 2002 to 2006 and a reduction in percentage of children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages between 1995 and 2007. The findings confirm an “Australian Paradox”-a substantial decline in refined sugars intake over the same timeframe that obesity has increased. The implication is that efforts to reduce sugar intake may reduce consumption but may not reduce the prevalence of obesity. PMID:22254107

  10. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  11. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  12. Academic Achievement Programs and Youth Development: A Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Zakia; Cochran, Stephanie; Hair, Elizabeth; Moore, Kristin

    Based on the view that programs with a strong academic component may reduce the substantial educational disparities for American students from disadvantaged backgrounds or in chronically underperforming schools and school districts, this synthesis of research on academic achievement programs describes how such programs may help children and…

  13. High-Achieving Middle Schools for Latino Students in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesse, Dan; Davis, Alan; Pokorny, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the characteristics of middle schools in which Latino students from low-income families made substantial achievement gains. Nine schools in Texas were selected where Latino students had shown strong gains in the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills. Data from onsite interviews, focus groups, and documents were…

  14. Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie

    2009-07-14

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25.degree. C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

  15. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Brown, David W.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure layer of an implantable element in a substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation.

  16. Alliance for a Healthy Border: factors related to weight reduction and glycemic success.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Ghaddar, Suad; Brown, Cynthia; Pagán, José A; Balboa, Marvelia

    2012-04-01

    We examined the factors related to success in achieving weight reduction and glycemic control in Alliance for a Healthy Border (AHB), a chronic disease prevention program implemented from 2006 to 2009 through 12 federally qualified community health centers serving primarily Hispanics in communities located along the US-Mexico border region. We analyzed data from Phase I of AHB using logistic regression to examine the determinants of success in achieving weight reduction and glycemic control among the participants in AHB programs. Factors affecting weight reduction success were sex, age, employment status, income, insurance, diabetes, baseline body mass index (BMI), smoking status, family history of diabetes, session type, program duration, and physical activity changes. Factors affecting achievement of glycemic success included sex, age, employment status, diabetes, baseline BMI, family history of diabetes, program duration, and physical activity changes. We found that the AHB interventions were more successful in reducing participants' HbA1c level than BMI. In addition to sociodemographic factors, participants with better baseline health conditions (ie, participants without diabetes or family history of diabetes, normal BMI, former smokers) were more likely to achieve success after the interventions. Of the 4 key features defining each of the 12 interventions, session type and program duration were associated with success. Within a relatively short time period, physical activity improvements had a stronger effect on weight reduction and glycemic success than improvements in dietary habits. The effectiveness of diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevention programs can be improved substantially by considering these factors during program design and structure. PMID:22506803

  17. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U), i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.

  18. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U),more » i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.« less

  19. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction.

    PubMed

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth's history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U), i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth's crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. Additionally, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.

  20. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    PubMed Central

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U), i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. Additionally, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium. PMID:25902522

  1. Reduction of motion artifacts during in vivo two-photon imaging of brain through heartbeat triggered scanning.

    PubMed

    Paukert, Martin; Bergles, Dwight E

    2012-07-01

    Two-photon imaging of fluorescence in brain enables analysis of the structure and dynamic activity of neurons and glial cells in living animals. However, vital functions such as beating of the heart cause pulsations in brain tissue, leading to image distortion and loss of resolution. We find that synchronizing imaging scans to the cardiac cycle reduces motion artifacts, significantly improving the resolution of cellular structures. By interlacing multiple heartbeat triggered imaging scans, it was possible to image large brain volumes with negligible distortion. This approach can be readily incorporated into conventional microscopes to achieve substantial reductions in motion artifacts during two-photon imaging.

  2. Single-walled carbon nanotube transparent conductive films fabricated by reductive dissolution and spray coating for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Ostfeld, Aminy E.; Arias, Ana Claudia; Catheline, Amélie; Ligsay, Kathleen; Kim, Kee-Chan; Fogden, Siân; Chen, Zhihua; Facchetti, Antonio

    2014-12-22

    Solutions of unbundled and unbroken single-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared using a reductive dissolution process. Transparent conductive films spray-coated from these solutions show a nearly twofold improvement in the ratio of electrical conductivity to optical absorptivity versus those deposited from conventional aqueous dispersions, due to substantial de-aggregation and sizable nanotube lengths. These transparent electrodes have been utilized to fabricate P3HT-PCBM organic solar cells achieving power conversion efficiencies up to 2.3%, comparable to those of solar cells using indium tin oxide transparent electrodes.

  3. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  4. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  5. 77 FR 25109 - Notice of Information and Evidence Necessary To Substantiate Claim

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Register (74 FR 65702), notifying the public of VA's intent to amend its regulations regarding its duty to... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN46 Notice of Information and Evidence Necessary To Substantiate Claim... amend its regulations regarding VA's duty to notify a claimant of the information and evidence...

  6. 76 FR 21639 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Utah State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Register (75 FR 70888) in which we proposed to find the Utah SIP substantially inadequate to attain or... over the years. See 75 FR 70889-891. We direct the reader there for such background information. We..., 2010. We subsequently extended the public comment period through January 3, 2011. See 75 FR...

  7. 40 CFR 68.152 - Substantiating claims of confidential business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substantiating claims of confidential business information. 68.152 Section 68.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan §...

  8. 18 CFR 292.210 - Petition alleging commitment of substantial monetary resources before October 16, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... commitment of substantial monetary resources before October 16, 1986. 292.210 Section 292.210 Conservation of... THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 REGULATIONS UNDER SECTIONS 201 AND 210 OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 WITH REGARD TO SMALL POWER PRODUCTION AND...

  9. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.103 Significant and substantial harm... of oil into or on the navigable waters or adjoining shorelines if; the pipeline is greater than...

  10. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.103 Significant and substantial harm... of oil into or on the navigable waters or adjoining shorelines if; the pipeline is greater than...

  11. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.103 Significant and substantial harm... of oil into or on the navigable waters or adjoining shorelines if; the pipeline is greater than...

  12. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.103 Significant and substantial harm... of oil into or on the navigable waters or adjoining shorelines if; the pipeline is greater than...

  13. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  14. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  15. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  16. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  17. 76 FR 32215 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Substantiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... the time of obtaining substantiation. In the Federal Register of January 6, 2000 (65 FR 1000), FDA... products marketed in the U.S. (65 FR 1000 at 1045). Assuming that the flow of new products is 10 percent..., most probably a structure/ function claim (65 FR 1000 at 1046). Therefore, we assume that...

  18. 19 CFR 10.41b - Clearance of serially numbered substantial holders or outer containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... RATE, ETC. General Provisions International Traffic § 10.41b Clearance of serially numbered substantial... accessories such as twenty and forty foot containers of general use and “igloo” air freight containers. The... such requirement pursuant to an application approved under 19 CFR 10.41b(b).” Also, pallets and...

  19. Methane production in Dutch freshwater sediments: No substantial contribution by ciliates

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, A.H.A.M. van; Hackstein, J.H.P.; Drift, C. vd

    1996-12-31

    Methanogenesis, the presence of ciliates, and a number of biotic and abiotic parameters were monitored over the course of a year in four different freshwater sediments near Nijmegen, The Netherlands. All sample places exhibited substantial biotic and abiotic differences. Whereas three of the sample places contained several species of ciliates, one location was devoid of substantial numbers of anaerobic protozoa. This location had the highest content of photosynthetic organisms, the lowest conductivity and lacked all kinds of ciliates. The degrees of pollution and the amounts of organic material present in the four sediments differed substantially. The annual course of the in situ temperature of the sediments was comparable, and neither superficial freezing of the sample places nor elevated summer temperatures caused dramatic variations in the methanogenic potential of the sediments. Direct counts of ciliates, their removal by electromigration, and the selective killing of protozoa by heat shock allowed the authors to calculate the contribution by the anaerobic ciliates to the methane emissions. In all three sediments that contained substantial amounts of ciliates, the contribution by these protozoa was less than 5--10%. Only during one exceptional month, the contribution by ciliates raised to 25% of the methane emissions.

  20. 75 FR 79327 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Utah State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... 19, 2010 (75 FR 70888). In the November 19, 2010 document, EPA proposed a finding that the Utah State... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Utah State... additional information on submitting comments, see the November 19, 2010 (75 FR 70888) proposed rule....

  1. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6662-5 - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under chapter 1. 1.6662-5 Section 1.6662-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Assessable Penalties § 1.6662-5 Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1. (a) In general... imposed under chapter 1 of subtitle A of the Code that is required to be shown on a return is...

  3. Cumulative Stress and Substantiated Maltreatment: The Importance of Caregiver Vulnerability and Adult Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocme, Nico

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and…

  4. 29 CFR 15.5 - Administrative claim; evidence or information to substantiate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administrative claim; evidence or information to substantiate. 15.5 Section 15.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL... of a claim for personal injury, including pain and suffering, the claimant is required to submit...

  5. 26 CFR 48.6421-7 - Records to be kept in substantiation of credits or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Records to be kept in substantiation of credits... Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6421-7 Records to be... or payment under section 6421 must keep records sufficient to enable the district director...

  6. 26 CFR 48.6427-5 - Records to be kept in substantiation of credits or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Records to be kept in substantiation of credits... Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-5 Records to be... or payment under section 6427 must keep records sufficient to enable the district director...

  7. 24 CFR 901.200 - Events or conditions that constitute substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Events or conditions that..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM § 901.200 Events or conditions that constitute substantial default. (a) The Department may determine that events have occurred...

  8. Substantiated and Unsubstantiated Cases of Child Maltreatment: Do Their Consequences Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated differences in school and delinquency outcomes according to proportion of maltreatment reports that have been substantiated. Data on school and delinquency outcomes from over 2,000 maltreated children and comparison samples of school children and juvenile Department of Social Services clients revealed no significant differences by…

  9. 26 CFR 1.103-11 - Bonds held by substantial users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... subleases space to a restaurant operator at an annual rental of $25,000 for the operation of a canteen and... by the restaurant operator are more than 5 percent of the respective amounts with respect to the entire facility. Both X and the restaurant operator are substantial users. However, absent...

  10. 26 CFR 1.103-11 - Bonds held by substantial users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... subleases space to a restaurant operator at an annual rental of $25,000 for the operation of a canteen and... by the restaurant operator are more than 5 percent of the respective amounts with respect to the entire facility. Both X and the restaurant operator are substantial users. However, absent...

  11. 26 CFR 1.103-11 - Bonds held by substantial users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... subleases space to a restaurant operator at an annual rental of $25,000 for the operation of a canteen and... by the restaurant operator are more than 5 percent of the respective amounts with respect to the entire facility. Both X and the restaurant operator are substantial users. However, absent...

  12. 42 CFR 414.222 - Items requiring frequent and substantial servicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Items requiring frequent and substantial servicing. 414.222 Section 414.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH...

  13. A New Future for Children with Substantial Handicaps: The Second Wave of "Least Restrictive Environment."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliton, Gilbert; Schroeder, Henry J.

    Developed as part of the Indiana Least Restrictive Environment Project, this document is concerned with issues relating to the education and community integration of persons with substantial handicaps. The paper traces the development of the movement to provide those special education services necessary to integrate the disabled into the general…

  14. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents. 48.302 Section 48.302 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION...

  15. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents. 48.302 Section 48.302 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION...

  16. Theoretical-and-Methodological Substantiation of Multilingual Model Activity in Kazakhstan Higher School Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ospanova, Bikesh Revovna; Azimbayeva, Zhanat Amantayevna; Timokhina, Tatyana Vladimirovna; Seydakhmetova, Zergul Koblandiyevna

    2016-01-01

    The need of implementing the model of professional development in training an expert in the conditions of multilingualism is considered. The possibility of using the multilingual approach in the context of present day education with the use of innovative technologies of training is substantiated, the definition of "multilingual…

  17. 34 CFR 692.41 - What standards may a State use to determine substantial financial need?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What standards may a State use to determine substantial financial need? 692.41 Section 692.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) LEVERAGING...

  18. 20 CFR 404.446 - Definition of “substantial services” and “services.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âsubstantial servicesâ and âservices.â 404.446 Section 404.446 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... business; (5) The type of business establishment involved; (6) The amount of capital invested in the...

  19. 16 CFR 1115.12 - Information which should be reported; evaluating substantial product hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in accordance with § 1115.11, about product use, experience, performance, design, or manufacture... of the product, and the population group exposed to the product (e.g., children, elderly, handicapped...; evaluating substantial product hazard. 1115.12 Section 1115.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT...

  20. 16 CFR 1115.12 - Information which should be reported; evaluating substantial product hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in accordance with § 1115.11, about product use, experience, performance, design, or manufacture... of the product, and the population group exposed to the product (e.g., children, elderly, handicapped...; evaluating substantial product hazard. 1115.12 Section 1115.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT...

  1. 16 CFR 1115.12 - Information which should be reported; evaluating substantial product hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in accordance with § 1115.11, about product use, experience, performance, design, or manufacture... of the product, and the population group exposed to the product (e.g., children, elderly, handicapped...; evaluating substantial product hazard. 1115.12 Section 1115.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT...

  2. 16 CFR 1115.12 - Information which should be reported; evaluating substantial product hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in accordance with § 1115.11, about product use, experience, performance, design, or manufacture... of the product, and the population group exposed to the product (e.g., children, elderly, handicapped...; evaluating substantial product hazard. 1115.12 Section 1115.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT...

  3. 16 CFR 1115.12 - Information which should be reported; evaluating substantial product hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in accordance with § 1115.11, about product use, experience, performance, design, or manufacture... of the product, and the population group exposed to the product (e.g., children, elderly, handicapped...; evaluating substantial product hazard. 1115.12 Section 1115.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT...

  4. 20 CFR 404.447 - Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... services test. 404.447 Section 404.447 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test. In determining whether an individual's services... calendar month was not more than 45 hours, the individual's services in that month are not...

  5. 20 CFR 404.447 - Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... services test. 404.447 Section 404.447 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test. In determining whether an individual's services... calendar month was not more than 45 hours, the individual's services in that month are not...

  6. 20 CFR 404.447 - Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... services test. 404.447 Section 404.447 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test. In determining whether an individual's services... calendar month was not more than 45 hours, the individual's services in that month are not...

  7. 20 CFR 404.447 - Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... services test. 404.447 Section 404.447 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test. In determining whether an individual's services... calendar month was not more than 45 hours, the individual's services in that month are not...

  8. Same data, different structures: diastereoisomers with substantially identical NMR data from nature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan-Xi; Chen, Guo-Dong; Feng, Chun-Chi; He, Rong-Rong; Qin, Sheng-Ying; Hu, Dan; Chen, He-Ru; Liu, Xing-Zhong; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

    2016-01-21

    Fusarins G1/G2 (1/2) and G3/G4 (3/4), two sets of interesting examples of diastereoisomers with substantially identical NMR data, were discovered from natural products. The reason was discussed and the generally applicable determinant conditions were proposed. The minimum interval for stereoclusters to be entirely segregated was also discussed.

  9. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... not take into account the reasonable cause exception under § 1.6664-4: Example 1. In 1990, Individual..., files a return for 1990 that fails to include income reported on an information return, Form 1099,...

  10. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... not take into account the reasonable cause exception under § 1.6664-4: Example 1. In 1990, Individual..., files a return for 1990 that fails to include income reported on an information return, Form 1099,...

  11. 29 CFR 4219.18 - Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under this section shall be determined pursuant to § 4219.13. (c) Plan sponsor's obligations. The plan... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all... GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND...

  12. 29 CFR 4219.18 - Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under this section shall be determined pursuant to § 4219.13. (c) Plan sponsor's obligations. The plan... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all... GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND...

  13. 29 CFR 4219.18 - Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under this section shall be determined pursuant to § 4219.13. (c) Plan sponsor's obligations. The plan... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all... GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND...

  14. Evaluating the Policies that Lead to Substantial Tuition Variation at Public Land-Grant Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Brent

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the current state of, and the causes for, the substantial variation in the tuition rates of America's land-grant universities. This aim was pursued with the objective of trying to identify consistent and revealing policies and external characteristics related to the high level of variation that exists among…

  15. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  16. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  17. Will health fund rationalisation lead to significant premium reductions?

    PubMed

    Hanning, Brian

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that rationalisation of health funds will generate significant albeit unquantified cost savings and thus hold or reduce health fund premiums. 2001-2 Private Health Industry Administration Council (PHIAC) data has been used to analyse these suggestions. Payments by funds for clinical services will not vary after fund rationalisation. The savings after rationalisation will arise from reductions in management expenses, which form 10.9% of total fund expenditure. A number of rationalisation scenarios are considered. The highest theoretical industry wide saving found in any plausible scenario is 2.5%, and it is uncertain whether this level of saving could be achieved in practice. If a one off saving of this order were achieved, it would have no medium and long term impact on fund premiums increases given funds are facing cost increases of 4% to 5% per annum due to demographic changes and age standardised utilization increases. It is suggested discussions on fund amalgamation divert attention from the major factors increasing fund costs, which are substantially beyond fund control.

  18. Leaky domino-modes in regular arrays of substantially thick metal nanostrips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voroshilov, Pavel M.; Simovski, Constantin R.

    2016-07-01

    In previous works, an efficient light trapping performed by arrays of metal nanoantennas whose building block was a slightly tapered (trapezoidal) substantially thick nanostrip was revealed. This light trapping implied a broad spectrum of solar light concentrated in a subwavelength depth of the semiconductor substrate. This is a very advantageous feature allowing our structure to enhance thin-film solar cells. However, the physics of the broadband resonant absorption in the substrate was not investigated. In the present paper, we show that our arrays support so-called leaky domino-modes, responsible for such the light trapping. These modes are multipole oscillations of the array of substantially thick nanostrips. In this work we have thoroughly studied these leaky modes relating them to resonances of high-order multipole moments and to broadband light-trapping effect.

  19. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Musket, R.G.; Brown, D.W.; Munir, Z.A.

    1990-12-11

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure layer of an implantable element in a substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation. 2 figs.

  20. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Brown, David W.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure monocrystalline layer of an implantable element in a monocrystalline substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a monocrystalline substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation. Also disclosed is an article made by the process.

  1. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  2. Patient health causes substantial portion of geographic variation in Medicare costs.

    PubMed

    Collado, Megan

    2013-10-01

    Key findings. (1) Substantial geographic variation exists in Medicare costs, but to determine the source and extent of this variation requires proper accounting for population health differences. (2) While physician practice patterns likely affect Medicare geographic cost variations, population health explains at least 75 to 85 percent of the variations—more than previously estimated. (3) Policy strategies should consider the magnitude of the impact of beneficiary health status on Medicare costs in order to address geographic variation.

  3. Do convective schemes substantially alter simulated global climate and cloud feedback?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, S. C.; Webb, M.; Lock, A.; Bretherton, C. S.; Bony, S.; Cole, J. N.; Idelkadi, A.; Kang, S. M.; Koshiro, T.; Kawai, H.; Ogura, T.; Roehrig, R.; Shin, Y.; Mauritsen, T.; Vial, J.; Watanabe, M.; Woelfle, M.; Zhao, M.; Cairns, C. W.; Vallis, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate CFMIP-2 AMIP and AMIP+4K experiments with ten climate models which have had their convective parametrizations turned off. Previous studies have suggested that parameterized convection may be a leading source of inter-model spread in cloud feedbacks and other aspects. We find that model biases in 'ConvOff' runs (those with the convective schemes switched off), for example in tropical lapse rate and relative humidity, are generally smaller than intermodel differences in these fields, in spite of the fact that these fields are widely thought to be controlled by convective processes. This suggests that, to a considerable extent, explicitly resolved convection is able to do most of the overall job of convection in modern climate models at least with respect to phenomena at large scales. We find moreover that 'ConvOff' models have a similar overall range of cloud feedbacks compared to the standard configurations. Furthermore, applying a simple bias correction method to allow for differences in present day global cloud radiative effects substantially reduces the differences between the cloud feedbacks with and without parametrized convection in the individual models. We conclude that, while parametrized convection influences the strength of the cloud feedbacks substantially in some models, other processes must also contribute substantially to the overall inter-model spread. The positive shortwave cloud feedbacks seen in the models in subtropical regimes associated with shallow clouds are still present in the ConvOff experiments. Inter-model spread in shortwave cloud feedback increases slightly in regimes associated with trade cumulus in the ConvOff experiments but is quite similar in the most stable sub-tropical regimes associated with stratocumulus clouds. Inter-model spread in longwave cloud feedbacks in strongly precipitating regions of the tropics is substantially reduced in the ConvOff experiments however, indicating a considerable local contribution

  4. Harming the Best: How Schools Affect the Black-White Achievement Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 14211

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    Sizeable achievement differences by race appear in early grades, but substantial uncertainty exists about the impact of school quality on the black-white achievement gap and particularly about its evolution across different parts of the achievement distribution. Texas administrative data show that the overall growth in the achievement gap between…

  5. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  6. Analog VLSI system for active drag reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, B.; Goodman, R.; Jiang, F.; Tai, Y.C.; Tung, S.; Ho, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    In today`s cost-conscious air transportation industry, fuel costs are a substantial economic concern. Drag reduction is an important way to reduce costs. Even a 5% reduction in drag translates into estimated savings of millions of dollars in fuel costs. Drawing inspiration from the structure of shark skin, the authors are building a system to reduce drag along a surface. Our analog VLSI system interfaces with microfabricated, constant-temperature shear stress sensors. It detects regions of high shear stress and outputs a control signal to activate a microactuator. We are in the process of verifying the actual drag reduction by controlling microactuators in wind tunnel experiments. We are encouraged that an approach similar to one that biology employs provides a very useful contribution to the problem of drag reduction. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  7. Preliminary reduction of oxidized nickel ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, R. A.; Starykh, R. V.

    2014-11-01

    The laws of gas reduction of oxidized nickel ores (ONOs) are studied. The theoretical prerequisites of the selective reduction of ONO nickel, which are based on the difference between the oxygen partial pressures over the NiO-Ni and FeO-Fe systems, are discussed. The effect of the oxygen partial pressure during reducing roasting of ONOs of ferruginous and magnesia types on the reduction parameters and the quality of the ferronickel formed upon subsequent melting of cinders is experimentally investigated. The optimum conditions of preliminary gas reduction of ONOs are determined. Melting of the cinder of reducing roasting leads to the formation of nickel-rich ferronickel (20-50 wt % Ni for various types of ores) upon the extraction of nickel into ferronickel of >95%, which substantially exceeds the parameters of the existing commercial processes.

  8. Ancient DNA reveals substantial genetic diversity in the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) prior to a population bottleneck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Elia, Jesse; Haig, Susan M.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Miller, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Critically endangered species that have undergone severe population bottlenecks often have little remaining genetic variation, making it difficult to reconstruct population histories to apply in reintroduction and recovery strategies. By using ancient DNA techniques, it is possible to combine genetic evidence from the historical population with contemporary samples to provide a more complete picture of a species' genetic variation across its historical range and through time. Applying this approach, we examined changes in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (526 base pairs) of the endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). Results showed a >80% reduction in unique haplotypes over the past 2 centuries. We found no spatial sorting of haplotypes in the historical population; the periphery of the range contained haplotypes that were common throughout the historical range. Direct examination of mtDNA from California Condor museum specimens provided a new window into historical population connectivity and genetic diversity showing: (1) a substantial loss of haplotypes, which is consistent with the hypothesis that condors were relatively abundant in the nineteenth century, but declined rapidly as a result of human-caused mortality; and (2) no evidence of historical population segregation, meaning that the available genetic data offer no cause to avoid releasing condors in unoccupied portions of their historical range.

  9. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  10. 47 CFR 1.65 - Substantial and significant changes in information furnished by applicants to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... types of applications, whenever there has been a substantial change as to any other matter which may be... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substantial and significant changes in... Application Procedures § 1.65 Substantial and significant changes in information furnished by applicants...

  11. 26 CFR 1.678(a)-1 - Person other than grantor treated as substantial owner; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Person other than grantor treated as substantial... Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(a)-1 Person other than grantor treated as substantial owner; general... treated under section 678(a) as the owner of that portion, except as provided in section 678(b)...

  12. 26 CFR 1.678(a)-1 - Person other than grantor treated as substantial owner; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Person other than grantor treated as substantial... Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(a)-1 Person other than grantor treated as substantial owner; general... treated under section 678(a) as the owner of that portion, except as provided in section 678(b)...

  13. 26 CFR 1.678(a)-1 - Person other than grantor treated as substantial owner; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Person other than grantor treated as substantial... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(a)-1 Person other than grantor treated as substantial owner; general rule....

  14. 26 CFR 1.678(a)-1 - Person other than grantor treated as substantial owner; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Person other than grantor treated as substantial... Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(a)-1 Person other than grantor treated as substantial owner; general... treated under section 678(a) as the owner of that portion, except as provided in section 678(b)...

  15. 26 CFR 1.678(a)-1 - Person other than grantor treated as substantial owner; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Person other than grantor treated as substantial... Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(a)-1 Person other than grantor treated as substantial owner; general... treated under section 678(a) as the owner of that portion, except as provided in section 678(b)...

  16. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  17. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  18. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  19. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  20. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  1. 29 CFR 4022.25 - Five-year phase-in of benefit guarantee for participants other than substantial owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other than substantial owners. 4022.25 Section 4022.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... participants other than substantial owners. (a) Scope. This section applies to the guarantee of benefit... substantial owners. (b) Phase-in formula. The amount of a benefit increase computed pursuant to §...

  2. 29 CFR 4022.25 - Five-year phase-in of benefit guarantee for participants other than substantial owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other than substantial owners. 4022.25 Section 4022.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... participants other than substantial owners. (a) Scope. This section applies to the guarantee of benefit... substantial owners. (b) Phase-in formula. The amount of a benefit increase computed pursuant to §...

  3. Drag reduction of a hairy disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jun; Hu, David L.

    2011-10-01

    We investigate experimentally the hydrodynamics of a hairy disk immersed in a two-dimensional flowing soap film. Drag force is measured as a function of hair length, density, and coating area. An optimum combination of these parameters yields a drag reduction of 17%, which confirms previous numerical predictions (15%). Flow visualization indicates the primary mechanism for drag reduction is the bending, adhesion, and reinforcement of hairs trailing the disk, which reduces wake width and traps "dead water." Thus, the use of hairy coatings can substantially reduce an object's drag while negligibly increasing its weight.

  4. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  5. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  6. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  7. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  8. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  9. Ultrasound-Assisted Distal Radius Fracture Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Socransky, Steve; Skinner, Andrew; Bromley, Mark; Smith, Andrew; Anawati, Alexandre; Middaugh, Jeff; Ross, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Closed reduction of distal radius fractures (CRDRF) is a commonly performed emergency department (ED) procedure. The use of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) to diagnose fractures and guide reduction has previously been described. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the addition of PoCUS to CRDRF changed the perception of successful initial reduction. This was measured by the rate of further reduction attempts based on PoCUS following the initial clinical determination of achievement of best possible reduction. Methods  We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study, using a convenience sample of adult ED patients presenting with a distal radius fracture to five Canadian EDs. All study physicians underwent standardized PoCUS training for fractures. Standard clinically-guided best possible fracture reduction was initially performed. PoCUS was then used to assess the reduction adequacy. Repeat reduction was performed if deemed indicated. A post-reduction radiograph was then performed. Clinician impression of reduction adequacy was scored on a 5 point Likert scale following the initial clinically-guided reduction and following each PoCUS scan and the post-reduction radiograph. Results  There were 131 patients with 132 distal radius fractures. Twelve cases were excluded prior to analysis. There was no significant difference in the assessment of the initial reduction status by PoCUS as compared to the clinical exam (mean score: 3.8 vs. 3.9; p = 0.370; OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.46 to 1.72; p = 0.87). Significantly fewer cases fell into the uncertain category with PoCUS than with clinical assessment (2 vs 12; p = 0.008). Repeat reduction was performed in 49 patients (41.2%). Repeat reduction led to a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in the PoCUS determined adequacy of reduction (mean score: 4.3 vs 3.1; p < 0.001). In this group, the odds ratio for adequate vs. uncertain or inadequate reduction assessment using PoCUS was 12.5 (95% CI 3

  10. Ultrasound-Assisted Distal Radius Fracture Reduction.

    PubMed

    Socransky, Steve; Skinner, Andrew; Bromley, Mark; Smith, Andrew; Anawati, Alexandre; Middaugh, Jeff; Ross, Peter; Atkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Closed reduction of distal radius fractures (CRDRF) is a commonly performed emergency department (ED) procedure. The use of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) to diagnose fractures and guide reduction has previously been described. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the addition of PoCUS to CRDRF changed the perception of successful initial reduction. This was measured by the rate of further reduction attempts based on PoCUS following the initial clinical determination of achievement of best possible reduction. Methods  We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study, using a convenience sample of adult ED patients presenting with a distal radius fracture to five Canadian EDs. All study physicians underwent standardized PoCUS training for fractures. Standard clinically-guided best possible fracture reduction was initially performed. PoCUS was then used to assess the reduction adequacy. Repeat reduction was performed if deemed indicated. A post-reduction radiograph was then performed. Clinician impression of reduction adequacy was scored on a 5 point Likert scale following the initial clinically-guided reduction and following each PoCUS scan and the post-reduction radiograph. Results  There were 131 patients with 132 distal radius fractures. Twelve cases were excluded prior to analysis. There was no significant difference in the assessment of the initial reduction status by PoCUS as compared to the clinical exam (mean score: 3.8 vs. 3.9; p = 0.370; OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.46 to 1.72; p = 0.87). Significantly fewer cases fell into the uncertain category with PoCUS than with clinical assessment (2 vs 12; p = 0.008). Repeat reduction was performed in 49 patients (41.2%). Repeat reduction led to a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in the PoCUS determined adequacy of reduction (mean score: 4.3 vs 3.1; p < 0.001). In this group, the odds ratio for adequate vs. uncertain or inadequate reduction assessment using PoCUS was 12.5 (95% CI 3

  11. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  12. Air quality and human health improvements from reductions in deforestation-related fire in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddington, C. L.; Butt, E. W.; Ridley, D. A.; Artaxo, P.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-10-01

    Roughly 15% of the Brazilian Amazon was deforested between 1976 and 2010. Fire is the dominant method through which forests and vegetation are cleared. Fires emit large quantities of particulate matter into the atmosphere, which degrades air quality and affects human health. Since 2004, Brazil has achieved substantial reductions in deforestation rates and associated deforestation fires. Here we assess the impact of this reduction on air quality and human health during non-drought years between 2001 and 2012. We analyse aerosol optical depth measurements obtained with satellite and ground-based sensors over southwest Brazil and Bolivia for the dry season, from August to October. We find that observed dry season aerosol optical depths are more than a factor of two lower in years with low deforestation rates in Brazil. We used a global aerosol model to show that reductions in fires associated with deforestation have caused mean surface particulate matter concentrations to decline by ~30% during the dry season in the region. Using particulate matter concentration response functions from the epidemiological literature, we estimate that this reduction in particulate matter may be preventing roughly 400 to 1,700 premature adult deaths annually across South America.

  13. Temporal and spatial trends in freshwater fish tissue mercury concentrations associated with mercury emissions reductions.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Michael S; Smith, C Mark; Rose, Jane; Batdorf, Carol; Pancorbo, Oscar; West, Carol Rowan; Strube, Joseph; Francis, Corey

    2014-02-18

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were monitored from 1999 to 2011 in largemouth bass (LMB) and yellow perch (YP) in 23 lakes in Massachusetts USA during a period of significant local and regional Hg emissions reductions. Average LMB tissue Hg concentration decreases of 44% were seen in 13 of 16 lakes in a regional Hg "hotspot" area. YP in all lakes sampled in this area decreased 43% after the major emissions reductions. Comparative decreases throughout the remainder of the state were 13% and 19% for LMB and YP respectively. Annual tissue mercury concentration rate decreases were 0.029 (LMB) and 0.016 mg Hg/kg/yr (YP) in the hotspot. In lakes around the rest of the state, LMB showed no trend and YP Hg decreased 0.0068 mg Hg/kg/yr. Mercury emissions from major point sources in the hotspot area decreased 98%, and 93% in the rest of the state from the early 1990s to 2008. The significant declines in fish Hg concentrations in many lakes occurred over the second half of a two decade decrease in Hg emissions primarily from municipal solid waste combustors and, secondarily, from other combustion point sources. In addition to the substantial Hg emissions reductions achieved in Massachusetts, further regional, national and global emissions reductions are needed for fish Hg levels to decrease below fish consumption advisory levels. PMID:24494622

  14. Operating Cost Reduction from Large Bore Snubber Reduction/Elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Brice-Nash, Richard; Dowdell, Michael; Swamy, Seth

    2006-07-01

    Large bore snubbers have typically been used in Nuclear Power plants to support the reactor coolant piping and equipment during dynamic loadings (seismic and postulated pipe break events) while also allowing free thermal expansion. However, these large bore snubbers require frequent inspection and testing to demonstrate operability. This paper will discuss the typical costs associated with maintenance and inspection and show how reduction in O and M costs can be achieved by reducing or eliminating the number of large bore snubbers in the nuclear power plant. This paper will also explain the basis for the reduction and/or elimination of these large bore snubbers and how alternate means of support may be provided, without compromising plant safety. Briefly stated, advances in fracture mechanics technology, developments in computational techniques, advancements in computer technology, and developments in industry standards and practices enable this application. (authors)

  15. Heritability Estimates Identify a Substantial Genetic Contribution to Risk and Outcome of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Devan, William J.; Falcone, Guido J.; Anderson, Christopher D.; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M.; Schmidt, Helena; Hansen, Björn M.; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Soriano, Carolina; Ayres, Alison M.; Schwab, Kristin; Kassis, Sylvia Baedorf; Valant, Valerie; Pera, Joanna; Urbanik, Andrzej; Viswanathan, Anand; Rost, Natalia S.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Freudenberger, Paul; Stögerer, Eva-Maria; Norrving, Bo; Tirschwell, David L.; Selim, Magdy; Brown, Devin L.; Silliman, Scott L.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Meschia, James F.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Montaner, Joan; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Delgado, Pilar; Greenberg, Steven M.; Roquer, Jaume; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan; Biffi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Previous studies suggest that genetic variation plays a substantial role in occurrence and evolution of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Genetic contribution to disease can be determined by calculating heritability using family-based data, but such an approach is impractical for ICH because of lack of large pedigree-based studies. However, a novel analytic tool based on genome-wide data allows heritability estimation from unrelated subjects. We sought to apply this method to provide heritability estimates for ICH risk, severity, and outcome. Methods We analyzed genome-wide genotype data for 791 ICH cases and 876 controls, and determined heritability as the proportion of variation in phenotype attributable to captured genetic variants. Contribution to heritability was separately estimated for the APOE (encoding apolipoprotein E) gene, an established genetic risk factor, and for the rest of the genome. Analyzed phenotypes included ICH risk, admission hematoma volume, and 90-day mortality. Results ICH risk heritability was estimated at 29% (SE, 11%) for non-APOE loci and at 15% (SE, 10%) for APOE. Heritability for 90-day ICH mortality was 41% for non-APOE loci and 10% (SE, 9%) for APOE. Genetic influence on hematoma volume was also substantial: admission volume heritability was estimated at 60% (SE, 70%) for non-APOE loci and at 12% (SE, 4%) for APOE. Conclusions Genetic variation plays a substantial role in ICH risk, outcome, and hematoma volume. Previously reported risk variants account for only a portion of inherited genetic influence on ICH pathophysiology, pointing to additional loci yet to be identified. PMID:23559261

  16. The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component.

    PubMed

    Davis, Oliver S P; Band, Gavin; Pirinen, Matti; Haworth, Claire M A; Meaburn, Emma L; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Docherty, Sophia J; Hanscombe, Ken B; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Curtis, Charles J C; Strange, Amy; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz A Z; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Barroso, Ines; Peltonen, Leena; Dale, Philip S; Petrill, Stephen A; Schalkwyk, Leonard S; Craig, Ian W; Lewis, Cathryn M; Price, Thomas S; Donnelly, Peter; Plomin, Robert; Spencer, Chris C A

    2014-07-08

    Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children's ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child's cognitive abilities at age twelve.

  17. The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component.

    PubMed

    Davis, Oliver S P; Band, Gavin; Pirinen, Matti; Haworth, Claire M A; Meaburn, Emma L; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Docherty, Sophia J; Hanscombe, Ken B; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Curtis, Charles J C; Strange, Amy; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz A Z; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Barroso, Ines; Peltonen, Leena; Dale, Philip S; Petrill, Stephen A; Schalkwyk, Leonard S; Craig, Ian W; Lewis, Cathryn M; Price, Thomas S; Donnelly, Peter; Plomin, Robert; Spencer, Chris C A

    2014-01-01

    Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children's ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child's cognitive abilities at age twelve. PMID:25003214

  18. Radiation and hygienic principles for substantiation of sizes and functioning of observation areas of NPPs.

    PubMed

    Bonchuk, Iu V

    2015-12-01

    The article analyzes the requirements of legislative and regulatory documents of Ukraine regarding purposes of observation areas of nuclear power plants, radiation and hygienic principles for substantiation of their sizes and other aspects of their functioning. It was considered in detail the layering of requirements for observation areas, which combine their "monitoring" purposes and "emergency" functionality. The proposals for changes in legislative and regulatory documents of Ukraine are given. Their implementation will not only solve the problem of zoning around NPPs and other radiation and nuclear facilities, but also to harmonize the legislation of Ukraine with the reg ulatory requirements of the European Union.

  19. Radiation and hygienic principles for substantiation of sizes and functioning of observation areas of NPPs.

    PubMed

    Bonchuk, Iu V

    2015-12-01

    The article analyzes the requirements of legislative and regulatory documents of Ukraine regarding purposes of observation areas of nuclear power plants, radiation and hygienic principles for substantiation of their sizes and other aspects of their functioning. It was considered in detail the layering of requirements for observation areas, which combine their "monitoring" purposes and "emergency" functionality. The proposals for changes in legislative and regulatory documents of Ukraine are given. Their implementation will not only solve the problem of zoning around NPPs and other radiation and nuclear facilities, but also to harmonize the legislation of Ukraine with the reg ulatory requirements of the European Union. PMID:26695892

  20. The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Oliver S. P.; Band, Gavin; Pirinen, Matti; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Docherty, Sophia J.; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Curtis, Charles J. C.; Strange, Amy; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz A. Z.; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Barroso, Ines; Peltonen, Leena; Dale, Philip S.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Schalkwyk, Leonard S.; Craig, Ian W.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Price, Thomas S.; Donnelly, Peter; Plomin, Robert; Spencer, Chris C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children’s ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child’s cognitive abilities at age twelve. PMID:25003214

  1. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  2. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  3. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  4. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  5. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  7. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  8. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. Classroom Composition and Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    Third-grade students in high ability groups in mathematics achieved greater gains than students in low ability groups. The opposite results occurred in reading achievement. Possible reasons for this difference include different instructional techniques for reading and math and the effect of home environment on learning. (IS)

  10. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  11. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  12. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  13. Sample size estimation to substantiate freedom from disease for clustered binary data with a specific risk profile.

    PubMed

    Kostoulas, P; Nielsen, S S; Browne, W J; Leontides, L

    2013-06-01

    Disease cases are often clustered within herds or generally groups that share common characteristics. Sample size formulae must adjust for the within-cluster correlation of the primary sampling units. Traditionally, the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC), which is an average measure of the data heterogeneity, has been used to modify formulae for individual sample size estimation. However, subgroups of animals sharing common characteristics, may exhibit excessively less or more heterogeneity. Hence, sample size estimates based on the ICC may not achieve the desired precision and power when applied to these groups. We propose the use of the variance partition coefficient (VPC), which measures the clustering of infection/disease for individuals with a common risk profile. Sample size estimates are obtained separately for those groups that exhibit markedly different heterogeneity, thus, optimizing resource allocation. A VPC-based predictive simulation method for sample size estimation to substantiate freedom from disease is presented. To illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach we give two examples with the analysis of data from a risk factor study on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, in Danish dairy cattle and a study on critical control points for Salmonella cross-contamination of pork, in Greek slaughterhouses.

  14. Engine bleed air reduction in DC-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    An 0.8 percent fuel savings was achieved by a reduction in engine bleed air through the use of cabin air recirculation. The recirculation system was evaluated in revenue service on a DC-10. The cabin remained comfortable with reductions in cabin fresh air (engine bleed air) as much as 50 percent. Flight test verified the predicted fuel saving of 0.8 percent.

  15. Cost reduction programs for capital asset management.

    PubMed

    Bluemke, D H

    1993-01-01

    Mr. Bluemke argues that healthcare institutions should include capital asset management in their CQI/TQM programs to gain the best cost reduction from those programs. He cites a recent survey of hospital executives that asked which of the potential benefits of capital asset management programs would have the most value for their institutions. Mr. Bluemke believes that cost reduction can be better achieved by hospitals finding more efficient ways of doing business than through government intervention.

  16. NOx reduction methods and apparatuses

    DOEpatents

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, M. Lou; Maupin, Gary D.

    2004-10-26

    A NO.sub.x reduction method includes treating a first gas containing NO.sub.x, producing a second gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second gas to N.sub.2, and producing a third gas containing less NO.sub.x than the first gas, substantially all of the third gas NO.sub.x being NO. The method also includes treating the third gas, producing a fourth gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the fourth gas to N.sub.2, and producing a fifth gas containing less NO.sub.x than the third gas, substantially all of the fifth gas NO.sub.x being NO. Treating the first and/or third gas can include treatment with a plasma. Reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second and/or fourth gas can include reducing with a catalyst. The method can further include controlling energy consumption of the plasmas independent of each other.

  17. Claim substantiation and efficiency of hydrating body lotions and protective creams.

    PubMed

    de Paepe, K; Derde, M P; Roseeuw, D; Rogiers, V

    2000-04-01

    In the present work a practical claim substantiation study is shown by the example of 5 commercially available body lotions. Their efficacy with respect to effects on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum (SC) hydration of ageing skin has been examined. Results were obtained after single and repeated application (14 days, 2 x a day). The best performing product was then selected and further tested for its potential effects on sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-damaged skin. This was done in a younger population and the recovery of the impaired barrier function was followed by TEWL measurements. The selected body lotion had a high efficacy, improving both the TEWL and SC hydration of ageing skin by more than 30%. When applied to SLS-damaged skin, the product was able to improve skin barrier repair in comparison with physiological barrier repair. The results of this study show that a combination of non-invasive objective measurements can be used to substantiate product claims. Claims can be made with respect to protective and preventive properties of products, but also as to effectiveness of topical skin treatment in the case of abnormal barrier function or barrier restoration.

  18. [Exploring the substantial basis of the features yinxu huowang in girls with precocious puberty].

    PubMed

    Cai, D P; Shi, Y M

    1991-07-01

    Differential diagnosis to 75 girls with true precocious puberty was made using method of TCM. It was observed that each girl had Yinxu Huowang (intense internal heat due to deficiency of vital essence) to a certain extent, these features were very remarkable in most of them. To explore the substantial basis of the features, the functions of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis were determined. The results showed that the levels of serum FSH, LH, E2 in the girls rise significantly than those in normal girls of the same age, and LHRH stimulating test displays characteristic changes of excessive activity. Treated with TCM of Ziyin Xiehuo, (nourish vital essence reducing intense internal heat) and remitted, the levels of serum FSH, LH, E2 descend significantly, the volume of uterus and ovary reduce markedly, secondary sexual characteristics retrogress evidently, while the features of intense internal heat due to deficiency of vital essence mitigate obviously. According to the above mentioned, the authors consider that the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis starting beforehand and being hyperfunction are likely to be the substantial basis of the features--that deficiency of Shen Yin, (vital essence) accompanied with intense Fire of the Vital Gate--of the girls with true precocious puberty.

  19. Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Beth E; Goerge, Robert M; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, S V; Holton, John K; Duncan, Dustin T; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood's children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois' child protection agency, 1995-2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis-an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models-with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation-revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone.

  20. Videolaryngoscopes differ substantially in illumination of the oral cavity: A manikin study

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Barbe MA; van Zundert, André AJ

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Insufficient illumination of the oral cavity during endotracheal intubation may result in suboptimal conditions. Consequently, suboptimal illumination and laryngoscopy may lead to potential unwanted trauma to soft tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. We investigated illumination of the oral cavity by different videolaryngoscopes (VLS) in a manikin model. Methods: We measured light intensity from the mouth opening of a Laerdal intubation trainer comparing different direct and indirect VLS at three occasions, resembling optimal to less-than-optimal intubation conditions; at the photographer's dark room, in an operating theatre and outdoors in bright sunlight. Results: Substantial differences in luminance were detected between VLS. The use of LED light significantly improved light production. All VLS produced substantial higher luminance values in a well-luminated environment compared to the dark photographer's room. The experiments outside-in bright sunlight-were interfered with by direct sunlight penetration through the synthetic material of the manikin, making correct measurement of luminance in the oropharynx invalid. Conclusion: Illumination of the oral cavity differs widely among direct and indirect VLS. The clinician should be aware of the possibility of suboptimal illumination of the oral cavity and the potential risk this poses for the patient. PMID:27212719

  1. Pedigree error due to extra-pair reproduction substantially biases estimates of inbreeding depression.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jane M; Keller, Lukas F; Marr, Amy B; Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Sardell, Rebecca J; Arcese, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of inbreeding and inbreeding depression requires unbiased estimation of inbreeding depression across diverse mating systems. However, studies estimating inbreeding depression often measure inbreeding with error, for example, based on pedigree data derived from observed parental behavior that ignore paternity error stemming from multiple mating. Such paternity error causes error in estimated coefficients of inbreeding (f) and reproductive success and could bias estimates of inbreeding depression. We used complete "apparent" pedigree data compiled from observed parental behavior and analogous "actual" pedigree data comprising genetic parentage to quantify effects of paternity error stemming from extra-pair reproduction on estimates of f, reproductive success, and inbreeding depression in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Paternity error caused widespread error in estimates of f and male reproductive success, causing inbreeding depression in male and female annual and lifetime reproductive success and juvenile male survival to be substantially underestimated. Conversely, inbreeding depression in adult male survival tended to be overestimated when paternity error was ignored. Pedigree error stemming from extra-pair reproduction therefore caused substantial and divergent bias in estimates of inbreeding depression that could bias tests of evolutionary theories regarding inbreeding and inbreeding depression and their links to variation in mating system.

  2. Substantial equivalence--an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Harry A; Kleter, Gijs A; Noteborn, Hub P J M; Kok, Esther J

    2002-12-27

    Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards but does not assess them. The outcome of the comparative exercise will further guide the safety assessment, which may include (immuno)toxicological and biochemical testing. Application of the concept of substantial equivalence may encounter practical difficulties: (i) the availability of near-isogenic parental lines to compare the genetically modified food with; (ii) limited availability of methods for the detection of (un)intended effects resulting from the genetic modification; and (iii) limited information on natural variations in levels of relevant crop constituents. In order to further improve the methodology for identification of unintended effects, new 'profiling' methods are recommended. Such methods will allow for the screening of potential changes in the modified host organism at different integration levels, i.e. at the genome level, during gene expression and protein translation, and at the level of cellular metabolism.

  3. Evaluation of additional cooking procedures to achieve lethality microbiological performance standards for large, intact meat products.

    PubMed

    Haneklaus, A N; Harris, K B; Cuervo, M P; Ilhak, O I; Lucia, L M; Castillo, A; Hardin, M D; Osburn, W N; Savell, J W

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) has a specific lethality performance standard for ready-to-eat products. To assist meat processing establishments in meeting the performance standard, USDA-FSIS developed Appendix A, which provides guidelines for cooking temperatures, times, and relative humidity. This project determined whether the USDA-FSIS performance standards for lethality were met when using parameters other than those identified in Appendix A to cook large hams and beef inside rounds. The effects of alternative lethality parameters on the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and coliforms and on the toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Large (9- to 12-kg) cured bone-in hams (n = 80) and large (8- to 13-kg) uncured beef inside rounds (n = 80) were used in this study. The products were subjected to 1 of 10 treatments defined by combinations of final internal product temperatures (48.9, 54.4, 60.0, 65.6, or 71.1°C) and batch oven relative humidities (50 or 90 % ). For all treatments, at least a 6.5-log reduction in Salmonella Typhimurium was achieved. The coliform counts were also substantially reduced for both hams and rounds. Across all treatments for both products, S. aureus toxin production was not detected. The relative humidity did not alter the lethality effectiveness for any of the treatments. The final internal temperatures and relative humidity combinations used in this project achieved the lethality performance standard established by USDA-FSIS for fully cooked, ready-to-eat products. PMID:22004824

  4. Russian electrometallurgy: Achievements, problems, prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utochkin, Yu. I.; Semin, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in the Russian metallurgy, in particular, electric furnace steelmaking, having occurred in the recent years are analyzed. The main increase in the steelmaking output is due to putting into operation of new electric furnaces in new miniworks and enterprises equipped earlier with open-hearth furnaces. Reaching the rated capacity of a furnace in Russia substantially lags behind foreign enterprises. Only 30-35% of the Russian market of corrosion-resistant steel are provided by Russian metal.

  5. MCNP variance reduction overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code.

  6. [Substantiation of the choice of technical means in reduction of implementation costs of the project "Full automation of a central municipal hospital"].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Iu D; Ovchinnikov, A V

    1998-01-01

    A way of reducing the cost price of hospital automation is proposed. It is not necessary for it to update the whole equipment, but only a small part--the workstations used by programmers for their work, which support the stability of hospital automation; the working places of operators should be kept without modifications, but to allot them properties to inherit a potency and modernity of the purchased equipment; for this purpose they should be equipped with virtual machines copying properties of workstations being arrange in accordance with the pyramidal structure. A UNIX which represents a multi-user, multitask operational operative system providing an access on several pseudoterminals is simultaneously installed on the PENTIUM 100/133 workstation. A graphic terminal of the AMR "UnTerminal" firm (USA) is proposed for use as working places. Their advantage is that they have a special adapter connected directly to the bus of PC extension. Each user is allotted a video adapter, a keyboard controller, sequential and parallel interfaces for connection of the printer and manipulator. Each working place supports multitasking and it can be equipped with a printer, a "mouse" or modem. The image is transmitted on work places with a very high velocity-77 mehabits/sec that supports not only a text mode, but also VGA or SVGA graphics. Certainly, graphic terminals are more expensive than text terminals, but their capacities are similar to those of the main computer, here, the workstation. They may be located from the main computer at a distance of up to 75 meters or more and do not require adjustment during their installation. PMID:9949988

  7. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.

  8. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  9. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOEpatents

    Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  10. Teaching Beer's Law and Absorption Spectrophotometry with a Smart Phone: A Substantially Simplified Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Jacobson, Erik C.

    2016-01-01

    A very simple protocol for teaching Beer's Law and absorption spectrophotometry using a smart phone is described. Materials commonly found in high school chemistry laboratories or even around the house may be used. Data collection and analysis is quick and easy. Despite the simple nature of the experiment, excellent results can be achieved.

  11. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affiliated providers, with the aim of achieving utilization management and cost containment goals... the PSO meets its utilization management or cost containment goals for the specified time period. (D) To be distributed among affiliated providers if the PSO meets its utilization management or...

  12. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... affiliated providers, with the aim of achieving utilization management and cost containment goals... the PSO meets its utilization management or cost containment goals for the specified time period. (D) To be distributed among affiliated providers if the PSO meets its utilization management or...

  13. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., with the aim of achieving utilization management and cost containment goals. Permissible methods... utilization management or cost containment goals for the specified time period. (D) To be distributed among affiliated providers if the PSO meets its utilization management or cost-containment goals for the...

  14. Active{sup 3} noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-06-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Attribute Reduction Based on Property Pictorial Diagram

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qing; Wei, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly studies attribute reduction which keeps the lattice structure in formal contexts based on the property pictorial diagram. Firstly, the property pictorial diagram of a formal context is defined. Based on such diagram, an attribute reduction approach of concept lattice is achieved. Then, through the relation between an original formal context and its complementary context, an attribute reduct of complementary context concept lattice is obtained, which is also based on the property pictorial diagram of the original formal context. Finally, attribute reducts in property oriented concept lattice and object oriented concept lattice can be acquired by the relations of attribute reduction between these two lattices and concept lattice of complementary context. In addition, a detailed illustrative example is presented. PMID:25247200

  16. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  17. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  18. Mastery Achievement of Intellectual Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, Richard J.; White, Richard T.

    1979-01-01

    Mastery learning techniques were improved through mathematics instruction based on a validated learning hierarchy, presenting tasks in a sequence consistent with the requirements of the hierarchy, and requiring learners to demonstrate achievement before being allowed to proceed. (Author/GDC)

  19. Achieving Standards through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Most states do not have the time or resources to develop environmental education standards from scratch. Highlights the role that environmental education and its interdisciplinary nature can play in helping students achieve. (DDR)

  20. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.