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Sample records for achieved varying degrees

  1. Faculty's Degrees, Experience and Research Vary with Specialty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; Counts, Tim; Carey, Arlen; Santana, Maria Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues of professional experience, degrees, research, and productivity for journalism and mass communication faculty members, separating and comparing different specialties. Finds that requirements regarding academic degrees and research vary from specialty to specialty and that 53% of those teaching in advertising, radio/television, and…

  2. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Training Devices With Varying Degrees of Fidelity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunwald, Walter

    A study was made of the relative effectiveness of five selected training devices with varying degrees of fidelity in the learning of a psychomotor task in which manipulative skill was not vital. The hypothesis was this: an increase in fidelity may not produce a corresponding increase in effectiveness, whereas such factors as ability to engage a…

  3. Pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in patients with varying degrees of renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, G W; Dennis, M J; Gabriel, R

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with varying degrees of renal insufficiency were given a single intravenous dose of metronidazole (500 mg). Plasma and urinary concentrations of metronidazole and two major metabolites were determined using a specific high performance liquid chromatographic assay. The pharmacokinetic parameters of metronidazole elimination half-life, area under the metronidazole concentration against time curve, apparent volume of distribution, metronidazole clearance and predicted degree of accumulation of metronidazole on repeated dosing were not statistically significantly affected by renal inadequacy of any degree. The urinary excretion of metronidazole in patients with moderate or severe renal insufficiency was approximately half the value in healthy volunteers. The renal clearance of metronidazole was significantly greater in healthy volunteers compared to renally insufficient patients, but accounted for less than 10% of the total metronidazole clearance in all groups. The elimination half-life and predicted accumulation (on three times daily dosing) of metabolite I [1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-hydroxymethyl-5-nitroimidazole] were significantly increased with decreasing renal function from 9.2 h and 2.3, respectively, in healthy volunteers to 34 h and 6.7, respectively, in patients with total renal failure. The degree of accumulation of this metabolite on repeated dosing is probably of limited clinical significance in all patients except those with severe or total renal failure for reasons detailed in the text. The elimination half-life and predicted accumulation on three times daily dosing of metabolite II, [2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole-1-acetic acid] increased rapidly with decreasing renal function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3986078

  4. Effect of Varied Animated Enhancement Strategies in Facilitating Achievement of Different Educational Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Chih-Lung; Dwyer, Francis

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional effectiveness of computer animated instruction, complemented by varied types of instructional strategies (advance organizers and adjunct questions and feedback) on learner achievement of different types of educational objectives. Ninety-three undergraduate students were randomly assigned…

  5. Consumer acceptance of visual appearance of broiler breast meat with varying degrees of white striping.

    PubMed

    Kuttappan, V A; Lee, Y S; Erf, G F; Meullenet, J-F C; McKee, S R; Owens, C M

    2012-05-01

    White striping is a condition associated with heavier broiler breast fillets and is observed grossly as white striations seen parallel to the direction of the muscle fibers. The present study was intended to assess the consumer acceptance of broiler fillets with different degrees of white striping condition. High resolution digital images of fillets, representative of varying degrees of white striping, were shown to 75 consumers in a blind study. Individual images were presented using a completely randomized design. There were 4 replicates of individual fillets within each white striping category (normal = NORM, moderate = MOD, and severe = SEV) and one picture of tray pack (3 fillets) for each category. The consumers were asked to express their overall liking for appearance with a 9-point hedonic scale (9 = like extremely; 1 = dislike extremely) and purchase intent using a 5-point scale (5 = definitely would buy; 1 = definitely would not buy). An open-ended comments section was also included. The results showed that NORM fillets had a significantly higher hedonic score (6.9) than the MOD fillets (6.1), which was also significantly higher than the SEV fillets (4.5), indicating that as severity of white striping increased, the consumer acceptance decreased. From the distribution of the responses, 10.7, 22.4, and 56.7% of the consumers disliked the NORM, MOD, and SEV fillets, respectively. Furthermore, the average purchase intent score for the NORM fillets (3.6) was significantly higher than those with 2 degrees of white striping (2.4 and 2.5, respectively), suggesting that the consumers were more likely to buy NORM fillets. Over 50% of the consumers indicated that they would probably not or definitely not buy MOD or SEV fillets. The correspondence analysis of open-ended comments revealed the major reasons for the dislike of the white-striped meat was that the fillets had a more fatty or marbled appearance. The results of the study suggest that the white striping

  6. Evaluation and interpretation of the effects of environmental enrichment utilizing varying degrees of sampling effort.

    PubMed

    Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth M

    2013-01-01

    Documenting the effects of novel forms of enrichment is becoming increasingly important within the field of environmental enrichment. Appropriate documentation and evaluation must accompany any enrichment research project in order for accurate results to be obtained. The objective of the present study was to provide an example of how the level of effort in documenting the effect of enrichment is linked to how it is evaluated. This study was carried out on eight cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) at Fota Wildlife Park, Ireland. Temporal feeding variation was the enrichment type used during this study. Behavior data were collected in five different ways in order to simulate varying degrees of effort. Randomization tests were utilized to analyze behavior data. Significant behavioral differences were observed in the first four sampling methods with patterns of behavior remaining similar in all five methods. However, only the most time intensive method concurred with findings previously published utilizing this form of enrichment. No significant differences in behavior were detected when the least time intensive method was used. Between 1 and 2 hr of data collection daily is necessary to evaluate temporal feeding variation accurately. However, 30-45 min of data collection also gave an insight into the effectiveness of the enrichment. Methods of evaluation can influence the interpretations of the strength of the enriching effect of the treatment. Appropriate evaluation and accurate reporting of enrichment is crucial for the future development of the environmental enrichment field. PMID:22383365

  7. Growth mixture modeling of academic achievement in children of varying birth weight risk.

    PubMed

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Charak, David; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry

    2009-07-01

    The extremes of birth weight and preterm birth are known to result in a host of adverse outcomes, yet studies to date largely have used cross-sectional designs and variable-centered methods to understand long-term sequelae. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) that utilizes an integrated person- and variable-centered approach was applied to identify latent classes of achievement from a cohort of school-age children born at varying birth weights. GMM analyses revealed 2 latent achievement classes for calculation, problem-solving, and decoding abilities. The classes differed substantively and persistently in proficiency and in growth trajectories. Birth weight was a robust predictor of class membership for the 2 mathematics achievement outcomes and a marginal predictor of class membership for decoding. Neither visuospatial-motor skills nor environmental risk at study entry added to class prediction for any of the achievement skills. Among children born preterm, neonatal medical variables predicted class membership uniquely beyond birth weight. More generally, GMM is useful in revealing coherence in the developmental patterns of academic achievement in children of varying weight at birth and is well suited to investigations of sources of heterogeneity. PMID:19586210

  8. The estimation of adaptive capacity of plants - halophytes, depending on the varying degrees of soil salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononova, Natalia; Pechurkin, Nickolay

    2012-07-01

    The high osmotic pressure of soil solution and toxic salts restrict the possible growth of the most plant species. However, the plant halophytes are able to grow on soil with a very high degree of salinity. The object of this study is a halophytic vegetation located near the coastal zone of the Lake Kurinka (the South Siberia, Khakasia). The total lake mineralization varies from 72 to 108 g / l. Type of salinity - sulfate-soda (the content of SO42-- 0,086%; HCO3-- 1,74%). It was observed that each plant communitie are located on soils with the different soil salinity degree (0.2 - 7.16 g / l). That is why, they have a different species richness and structural organization. It is shown that the average values of above-ground dry phytomass of plant communities (over five years of research) changed to a limited extent by changing the size of a projective cover of the dominant species. It is noted that in Suaeda plant community (dominant Suaeda corniculata) productivity ranges from 100 to 210 g/m2. It was calculated the possible accumulation of plant community phytomass (taking into account changes in soil salinity) so if in this territory grows only one species, that in a real community was a dominant. Estimated phytomass of the monodominant (Sueda corniculata) in 2004 and 2008 (143 and 188 g/m2 for years, respectively) was comparable with the real growth of the community (174 and 201 g/m2 for years, respectively). For Puccinellia tenuissima, that is subdominant in this plant communities, characterized by a small increasing of phytomass and in the likely absence of competition, the total phytomass this plant communities are amounted to 54 and 111 g/m2, respectively, over the years. This values are almost two times lower than the actual value. It is obvious that the existing conditions of salinity are sufficiently extreme to Puccinellia tenuissima and its monospecific community would be able to compete with the real dominant - Suaeda corniculata.

  9. School Context, Precollege Educational Opportunities, and College Degree Attainment among High-Achieving Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Valija C.

    2013-01-01

    Access to high-quality educational opportunities is central to growing postsecondary degree attainment. This study employs secondary data analysis of the public-use National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/00) to examine how school context and precollege educational opportunities influence college degree attainment among high-achieving Black…

  10. Genetic burden associated with varying degrees of disease severity in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Yadav; Attia, John; Gordon, Scott D.; Henders, Anjali K.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; MacGregor, Stuart; Martin, Nicholas G.; McEvoy, Mark; Morris, Andrew P.; Scott, Rodney J.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nyholt, Dale R.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is primarily characterized by the presence of tissue resembling endometrium outside the uterine cavity and is usually diagnosed by laparoscopy. The most commonly used classification of disease, the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) system to grade endometriosis into different stages based on disease severity (I to IV), has been questioned as it does not correlate well with underlying symptoms, posing issues in diagnosis and choice of treatment. Using two independent European genome-wide association (GWA) datasets and top-level classification of the endometriosis cases based on rAFS [minimal or mild (Stage A) and moderate-to-severe (Stage B) disease], we previously showed that Stage B endometriosis has greater contribution of common genetic variation to its aetiology than Stage A disease. Herein, we extend our previous analysis to four endometriosis stages [minimal (Stage I), mild (Stage II), moderate (Stage III) and severe (Stage IV) disease] based on the rAFS classification system and compared the genetic burden across stages. Our results indicate that genetic burden increases from minimal to severe endometriosis. For the minimal disease, genetic factors may contribute to a lesser extent than other disease categories. Mild and moderate endometriosis appeared genetically similar, making it difficult to tease them apart. Consistent with our previous reports, moderate and severe endometriosis showed greater genetic burden than minimal or mild disease. Overall, our results provide new insights into the genetic architecture of endometriosis and further investigation in larger samples may help to understand better the aetiology of varying degrees of endometriosis, enabling improved diagnostic and treatment modalities. PMID:25882541

  11. Downstream fish assemblage response to river impoundment varies with degree of hydrologic alteration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    River impoundments alter downstream hydrology and habitat, often resulting in significant changes in stream communities. The degree of impact of a river impoundment on downstream hydrology and biological communities can be dependent on many factors, including underlying natural hydrologic regimes an...

  12. Program Proposal: Certificates of Competence, Certificate of Achievement, Associate in Applied Science Degree in Sustainable Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.; Ainsworth, Don

    This document proposes a program in sustainable technology at Maui Community College (Hawaii). This new career program would be designed to provide four Certificates of Competence, a Certificate of Achievement, and an Associate in Applied Science degree. The primary objectives of the program are to meet student, county, and state needs for…

  13. Modeling, Comparison and Analysis of Multi-body Parafoil Models with Varying Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, Chrystine M.

    Guided parafoils are comprised of two primary bodies, a payload and parafoil. While the parafoil generates the majority of aerodynamic loads, the sensor systems used for guidance are located away from the parafoil near the payload. Using Newtonian dynamics, models ranging from six to nine degrees-of-freedom were developed in parallel. For the first time, miniature wireless sensors were developed to investigate the canopy and payload during flight and to directly measure the parafoil-payload relative motion to verify the models. Experimental data was compared to models to investigate and determine system configuration dynamics that could affect the parafoil control system and its corresponding degree-of-freedom model. In addition, classical flight modes similar to those in aircraft flight dynamics were developed for the conventional rigid parafoil-payload system for the first time which include short period and phugoid longitudinal modes and roll subsidence, spiral, and dutch roll lateral modes. Similar linearization of a seven degree-of-freedom model was shown to have an additional lightly damped lateral payload mode.

  14. The Relation of Erythropoietin Towards Hemoglobin and Hematocrit in Varying Degrees of Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Panjeta, Mirsad; Tahirovic, Ismet; Karamehic, Jasenko; Sofic, Emin; Ridic, Ognjen; Coric, Jozo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hypoxia is a basic stimulant in production of erythropoietin (EPO). The primary function of erythrocytes is the transport of oxygen to tissues. Erythropoietin stimulates erythropoiesis which leads to increased production of erythrocytes- their total mass. This increases the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen, reduces the hypoxic stimulus and provides a negative feedback of stopping EPO production. The aim of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between the concentration of erythropoietin, hemoglobin and hematocrit in different values of renal insufficiency. Material and methods: The survey was conducted on 562 subjects divided into two groups: with and without renal insufficiency. EPO, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum creatinine and additional parameters iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid were determined by using immunochemical and spectrophotometric methods and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated as well. Results: EPO values (median) grow to the first degree of renal insufficiency, as compared to EPO values of healthy subjects, this increase is statistically significant, p=0.002. With further deterioration of renal function the values of EPO between all pathological groups are decreasing, and this decrease is statistically significant between first and second degree of renal insufficiency (RI) p<0.001. In the group of healthy subjects EPO is correlated rho = -0.532, p <0.0005 with hematocrit. The correlations are negative and strong and can be predicted by regression line (EP0 = 41.375- Hct * .649; EPO = 61.41–Hb * 0.355). In the group of subjects with the first degree of renal insufficiency EPO is in correlation with hematocrit rho=-0.574, p<0, 0005. It is also correlated with hemoglobin rho=-0.580, p< 0.0005. The correlation is negative (EP0= 42.168- Hct * 0.678). In the group of subjects with the third degree of renal insufficiency EPO is in correlation with hemoglobin rho=0.257, p=0.028. The correlation is medium

  15. Central recirculation zone analysis in an unconfined tangential swirl burner with varying degrees of premixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Kay, P.; Griffiths, A.

    2011-06-01

    Swirl-stabilised combustion is one of the most widely used techniques for flame stabilisation, uses ranging from gas turbine combustors to pulverised coal-fired power stations. In gas turbines, lean premixed systems are of especial importance, giving the ability to produce low NOx systems coupled with wide stability limits. The common element is the swirl burner, which depends on the generation of an aerodynamically formed central recirculation zone (CRZ) and which serves to recycle heat and active chemical species to the root of the flame as well as providing low-velocity regions where the flame speed can match the local flow velocity. Enhanced mixing in and around the CRZ is another beneficial feature. The structure of the CRZ and hence that of the associated flames, stabilisation and mixing processes have shown to be extremely complex, three-dimensional and time dependent. The characteristics of the CRZ depend very strongly on the level of swirl (swirl number), burner configuration, type of flow expansion, Reynolds number (i.e. flowrate) and equivalence ratio. Although numerical methods have had some success when compared to experimental results, the models still have difficulties at medium to high swirl levels, with complex geometries and varied equivalence ratios. This study thus focuses on experimental results obtained to characterise the CRZ formed under varied combustion conditions with different geometries and some variation of swirl number in a generic swirl burner. CRZ behaviour has similarities to the equivalent isothermal state, but is strongly dependent on equivalence ratio, with interesting effects occurring with a high-velocity fuel injector. Partial premixing and combustion cause more substantive changes to the CRZ than pure diffusive combustion.

  16. Impact of National Board Certification, Advanced Degree, and Socio-Economic Status on the Literacy Achievement Rate of 11th Grade Students in Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Merlina Tamara

    2011-01-01

    The researcher explored whether there was a significant difference between the literacy achievement rates among eleventh grade students taught by National Board Certified Teachers versus students taught by non-National Board Certified Teachers with or without advanced degrees and of varied socio-economic levels. The researcher also explored the…

  17. Hemostatic efficacy evaluation of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan and chitosan with varying degrees of substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito; Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle M.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl derivatives of kappa-carrageenan and chitosan, with varying degrees of substitution, were synthesized by multi-step reaction technique and evaluated for hemostatic efficacy through in vitro assays. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl group while 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated degrees of substitution ranging from 1.15-1.58 and 0.45-0.51 for carboxymethyl-κ-carrageenan and carboxymethylchitosan, respectively. Derivatives formed into paste consistency (30% w/v) were successfully crosslinked by gamma irradiation at 30 kGy. The data obtained from whole blood clotting and platelet adhesion assays showed a significant increase in hemostatic capability of κ-carrageenan and chitosan as a consequence of carboxymethylation and crosslinking modifications. In addition, the level of efficacy was comparable to that of a chitosan-based commercial product. These results suggest the potential of κ-carrageenan and chitosan derivatives for development into hemostatic agents.

  18. Relationship between the Pathogenic Representatives of Periodontal Pockets Microbiocenosis in Patients with Periodontitis with Varying Degrees of Severity

    PubMed Central

    Zorina, O.A.; Kulakov, A.A.; Boriskina, O.A.; Rebrikov, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common disease that is considered to be a manifestation of the distortion of the ratio between the normal and conditionally pathogenic microflora of periodontal pockets. In this study, the ratio between the six most important periodontal pathogens and the total microflora of the periodontal pocket in healthy individuals and patients with varying severity of periodontitis was ascertained by quantitative real-time PCR. It was ascertained that the relative content ofPorphyromonas gingivalis,Prevotella intermedia, andTannerella forsythensis(Bacteroides forsythus) persistently develops in the total microflora of the periodontal pocket upon progressing periodontitis; this value is higher than that in the control group by more than two orders of magnitude upon a severe degree of chronic generalized periodontitis. PMID:22649688

  19. A cross-sectional study of HIV-seropositive patients with varying degrees of proteinuria in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Han, T M; Naicker, S; Ramdial, P K; Assounga, A G

    2006-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is the most common finding on renal biopsy in HIV-infected black patients and is also the commonest cause of end-stage renal disease in these patients. Early detection of HIVAN may be beneficial in evaluating early treatment. This study examined the pattern of renal diseases in HIV-infected South Africans and also attempted to diagnose HIVAN at an early stage. In this single-center cross-sectional study, 615 HIV-infected patients were screened for proteinuria. Thirty patients with varying degrees of proteinuria underwent renal biopsy. Patients with diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled hypertension, known causes of chronic kidney disease, and serum creatinine above 250 mumol/l were excluded. Patients in this study were not on antiretroviral therapy. HIVAN was found in 25 (83%) patients. Six of them (24%) had microalbuminuria. Altogether, seven patients with persistent microalbuminuria were biopsied and six (86%) showed HIVAN. Other biopsy findings included membranoproliferative nephropathy in two (7%) and interstitial nephritis in three (10%). Four patients with HIVAN had associated membranous nephropathy. HIVAN is the commonest biopsy finding among our study patients with HIV infection who present with varying degrees of proteinuria. Microalbuminuria is a manifestation of HIVAN in our study patients. Therefore, microalbuminuria may be an early marker of HIVAN, and screening for its presence may be beneficial. Renal biopsy may be considered in seropositive patients who present with persistent microalbuminuria, especially with low CD4 counts irrespective of good renal function. This will allow diagnosis and treatment of HIVAN at an early stage and may prevent further disease progression. PMID:16672914

  20. The Instructional Effect of Stimulus-Explicitness in Facilitating Student Achievement of Varied Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Thomas C.; Dwyer, Francis M.

    In order to investigate the relative effectiveness of specific media attributes on student performance on criterion tests, a comparison was made of the effectiveness of two levels of stimulus explicitness in visuals in facilitating student achievement on criterion tests of knowledge, comprehension, and total understanding. Subjects were 171…

  1. Effect of Prior Knowledge and Varied Rehearsal Strategies on Student Achievement of Different Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Charles E.; Dwyer, Francis M.

    1995-01-01

    A study of 132 university students in four treatment groups using instructional modules on the human heart found little interaction between prior knowledge and instructional treatment. The visuals-only group produced higher scores than others on each dependent measure. Concludes prior knowledge affects achievement but how it interacts with…

  2. The Effect of Varied Visual Cueing Strategies in Facilitating Student Achievement on Different Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Thomas; Dwyer, Francis M.

    The effectiveness of elaborate visual cueing and reduced step size (i.e., increasing the number of visual cues) in facilitating student achievement on different instructional tasks was examined. The hypothesis proposed that instructional treatments utilizing reduced step size and elaborate visual cueing alone and in combination would be superior…

  3. The Effect of Varied Cueing Strategies in Complementing Animated Visual Imagery in Facilitating Achievement of Different Educational Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Russ; Dwyer, Francis

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of varied visual cueing strategies, used to complement animation, on cognitive processing and achievement of specific educational objectives. An instructional heart material was utilized in this study. Four criterion tests were used in this study, namely: (1) Drawing Test; (2)…

  4. The "D.C. Study": A Longitudinal Look at Children's Development and Achievement under Varying Educational and Familial Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    This longitudinal research study summarizes how inner-city children's development and achievement are affected by preschool attendance, varying educational models, parent involvement, and identified risk-factors. The study of Washington, DC schools began with 3 cohorts of 4-year-olds enrolled in 3 different preschool models: child initiated,…

  5. TD-DFT calculations and thermal effects on conformers of calmagite in protic solvents varying the degree of protonation.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-García, Z N; Mara Non-Ruiz, V F; Rodríguez-Zavala, J G

    2016-08-01

    The main absorption peaks were obtained for 1-(1-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-phenylazo)-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid. Generalized gradient approximation, hybrid, semi-empirical, and Coulomb attenuating methods were utilized to compare theoretical electronic transitions and experimental absorption spectra at different pH. The main peaks and shoulders observed in experimental spectra were assigned to its correct conformer. In order to find the most populated conformer, thermal effects on stability calculations were investigated to obtain molar fractions of possible isomers present at room and higher temperature. Theoretical electronic transitions at distinct pH could be obtained varying the protonation a deprotonation degree. It was found that generalized gradient approximation performs very well the first transition peak at neutral pH. For higher pH, all methodologies got a bathochromic shift in agreement with experiment and finally, from these theoretical results, it was obtained that this azo dye is hardly protonated in experiments since results presented here, predict a variation of absorption spectra for all proposed methodologies when the molecule is protonated, which is different to experimental results. Graphical Abstract Calculated electronic transitions of azo and hydrazone tautomers in water implicit solvent (BLYP/6-311G(2d,p) methodology). PMID:27460921

  6. Cognitive and performance-based treatments for panic attacks in people with varying degrees of agoraphobic disability.

    PubMed

    Williams, S L; Falbo, J

    1996-03-01

    Compared the effectiveness of cognitive therapy and performance-based exposure as treatments for panic attacks. Subjects were 48 panicky individuals selected without regard to agoraphobic disability, and who varied widely in that respect. Subjects were assigned randomly to either cognitive treatment, performance-based exposure treatment, a combined cognitive/performance treatment, or a no-treatment control condition. All three treatments led to marked and enduring improvements in panic, and did not differ from one another in effectiveness, whereas the control condition produced little benefit. However, on several measures of phobia and panic-related cognitions, performance exposure was significantly more effective than cognitive therapy. Degree of agoraphobic disability had a significant bearing on panic treatment effectiveness. Whereas 94% of the low agoraphobia Ss were free of panic after treatment, only 52% of the high agoraphobia Ss became panic-free. The findings suggest that when panic treatment research excludes people with serious phobias, as it has routinely done in recent years, an overly positive estimate of panic treatment effectiveness can result. PMID:8881094

  7. Response of selected binomial coefficients to varying degrees of matrix sparseness and to matrices with known data interrelationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, A.W.; Maples, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous departures from ideal relationships are revealed by Monte Carlo simulations of widely accepted binomial coefficients. For example, simulations incorporating varying levels of matrix sparseness (presence of zeros indicating lack of data) and computation of expected values reveal that not only are all common coefficients influenced by zero data, but also that some coefficients do not discriminate between sparse or dense matrices (few zero data). Such coefficients computationally merge mutually shared and mutually absent information and do not exploit all the information incorporated within the standard 2 ?? 2 contingency table; therefore, the commonly used formulae for such coefficients are more complicated than the actual range of values produced. Other coefficients do differentiate between mutual presences and absences; however, a number of these coefficients do not demonstrate a linear relationship to matrix sparseness. Finally, simulations using nonrandom matrices with known degrees of row-by-row similarities signify that several coefficients either do not display a reasonable range of values or are nonlinear with respect to known relationships within the data. Analyses with nonrandom matrices yield clues as to the utility of certain coefficients for specific applications. For example, coefficients such as Jaccard, Dice, and Baroni-Urbani and Buser are useful if correction of sparseness is desired, whereas the Russell-Rao coefficient is useful when sparseness correction is not desired. ?? 1989 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  8. Two-degree-of-freedom flow-induced vibrations on isolated and tandem cylinders with varying natural frequency ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yan; Huang, Cheng; Zhou, Dai; Tu, Jiahuang; Han, Zhaolong

    2012-11-01

    A numerical study is performed on the flow-induced vibrations of isolated and tandem elastically mounted cylinders having two degrees of freedom and a variety of the in-line to the transverse natural frequency ratio, fnx/fny. The characteristic-based-split finite element method is utilized to obtain the solution of the incompressible flow equations in primitive variables. The Reynolds number, based on the upstream flow velocity U∞ and the diameter of the cylinder D, is fixed at Re=150, and for a tandem arrangement, the centre-to-centre distance between the cylinders is 5.0D. The computation is carried out at a lower reduced mass ratio of Mr=2.0 and for a wide range of reduced velocities (Ur=3.0-12.0). The structural damping ratio is set to zero to maximize the vortex-induced response of the bodies. In this study, we mainly focused on the effect of the natural frequency ratio on the characteristics of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) responses, including wake frequencies, orbital trajectories, response amplitudes, hydrodynamic forces and wake mode patterns. The natural frequency ratio is varied in the range of fnx/fny=1.0-2.0 with an increment of 0.25. We found that the condition of the occurrence of a dual-resonant response exists over a broad range of tested natural frequency ratios. A third harmonic frequency component appears in the lift fluctuation, along with additional multi-harmonics, which also interact with the drag frequency. Instead of double response peaks, multiple small peaks occur in the amplitude response of the cylinder. These peaks are distributed over a narrow range of Ur from 4.45 to 5.15, and their magnitudes increase with the increase in Ur. For a tandem arrangement, the response characteristic of the upstream cylinder is similar to that of a single cylinder, whereas that of the downstream cylinder is greatly affected by the upstream wake. For a downstream cylinder, the in-line dynamic response is more sensitive to the natural frequency ratio

  9. Teacher Qualifications and Early Learning: Effects of Certification, Degree, and Experience on First-Grade Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croninger, Robert G.; Rice, Jennifer King; Rathbun, Amy; Nishio, Masako

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental issue inherent to education policy is whether teacher qualifications such as certification status, degree level, preparation, and experience predict student achievement. While existing research provides some direction regarding the potential importance of these qualifications for productivity in secondary schools, less is known about…

  10. Degrees of Resilience: Profiling Psychological Resilience and Prospective Academic Achievement in University Inductees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Dominey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    University inductees may be increasingly vulnerable to stressors during transition into higher education (HE), requiring psychological resilience to achieve academic success. This study aimed to profile inductees' resilience and to investigate links to prospective end of year academic outcomes. Scores for resilience were based on a validated…

  11. A Comparison of Attitudes and Exercise Habits of Alumni from Colleges with Varying Degrees of Physical Education Activity Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.; Brynteson, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Study compared the exercise attitudes and habits of alumni from four colleges with varying physical education activity (PEA) requirements. Survey results indicated the type of PEA programs offered influenced alumni attitudes toward fitness and exercise behaviors. Students from colleges with higher PEA requirements had more positive exercise…

  12. Quantification of PEGylated proteases with varying degree of conjugation in mixtures: An analytical protocol combining protein precipitation and capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Josefine; Busch, Markus; Baumann, Pascal; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    PEGylation, i.e. the covalent attachment of chemically activated polyethylene glycol (PEG) to proteins, is a technique commonly used in biopharmaceutical industry to improve protein stability, pharmacokinetics and resistance to proteolytic degradation. Therefore, PEGylation represents a valuable strategy to reduce autocatalysis of biopharmaceutical relevant proteases during production, purification and storage. In case of non-specific random conjugation the existence of more than one accessible binding site results in conjugates which vary in position and number of attached PEG molecules. These conjugates may differ considerably in their physicochemical properties. Optimizing the reaction conditions with respect to the degree of PEGylation (number of linked PEG molecules) using high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies requires a fast and reliable analytical method which allows stopping the reaction at defined times. In this study an analytical protocol for PEGylated proteases is proposed combining preservation of sample composition by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation with high-throughput capillary gel electrophoresis (HT-CGE). The well-studied protein hen egg-white lysozyme served as a model system for validating the newly developed analytical protocol for 10kDa mPEG-aldehyde conjugates. PEGamer species were purified by chromatographic separation for calibrating the HT-CGE system. In a case study, the serine protease Savinase(®) which is highly sensitive to autocatalysis was randomly modified with 5kDa and 10kDa mPEG-aldehyde and analyzed. Using the presented TCA protocol baseline separation between PEGamer species was achieved allowing for the analysis of heterogeneous PEGamer mixtures while preventing protease autocatalysis. PMID:27521256

  13. Do Intervention Impacts on Academic Achievement Vary by School Climate? Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2015-01-01

    Given established links between social-emotional skills and academic achievement, there is growing support for implementing universal social/behavioral interventions in early schooling (Jones & Bouffard, 2012). Advocates have been particularly interested in implementing such programming in low income urban schools where students are likely to…

  14. The Effect of Varied Rehearsal Strategies Used to Complement Visualized Instruction in Facilitating Achievement of Different Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Romero, Lisba L. Pineda; Dwyer, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Even though simple line drawing by itself, has been found to be effective in improving learning visualization, it is not always sufficient for optimizing student achievement. Under these types of conditions it becomes necessary to incorporate other instructional strategies to complement the visualized instruction. Visuals allow for mental…

  15. In vitro Evaluation of the Accuracy of Seating Cast Metal Fixed Partial Denture on the Abutment Teeth with Varying Degree of Convergence Angle

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Raina, Seema; Gubrellay, Priyanka; Gupta, Naveen; Asopa, Swati Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The prime goal of a diligent prosthodontist is to obtain adequate marginal fit while restoring lost tooth structure. The marginal fit of the restoration, in turn depends upon the geometrical morphology of the tooth preparation. Objective To determine the effect of varying degree of convergence angle on the marginal seating of the single crown, three-unit fixed partial denture and multiple-unit fixed partial denture with pier abutment. Materials and Methods Three dies, of same convergence angle, were placed in an arch form on a base. In this way, four arch forms were prepared for four different convergence angles i.e. 0°, 6°, 12°, and 20°. Five castings each were made for single crown, 3-unit fixed partial denture and multiple-unit fixed partial denture (FPD) with pier abutment for each convergence angle. The castings were seated on their respective dies and vertical marginal discrepancy was measured at four points for each casting with the help of an optical microscope. Results The results showed that 200 convergence angle showed better marginal seating of the single crown, 3-unit FPD as well as for the multiple unit FPD. Conclusion There was a possibility that the retention and resistance may be compromised with 200 taper. Hence 120 taper is suggested for crowns and fixed partial denture retainers as the marginal discrepancy is reasonable and retention and resistance is optimum. There was a high statistical significant difference in the values obtained for the different convergence angles. PMID:26393207

  16. College Expectations for All? The Early Adult Outcomes of Low-Achieving Adolescents Who Expect to Earn a Bachelor's Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo

    2016-01-01

    Critics of the college-for-all ethos argue that it encourages low-achieving adolescents to develop unrealistically high expectations. This argument posits that low-achievers waste time and money, and risk disappointment and self-recrimination, pursuing college when they are unlikely to complete it. The present study uses two national data…

  17. The relationship among teacher classroom management behavior, student engagement, and student achievement of middle and high school science students of varying aptitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarity, John R., Jr.; Butts, David P.

    This study was designed to determine the relationship among teacher classroom management behavior, student engagement, and student achievement of middle and high school science students. These variables were investigated across varying levels of academic aptitude. Two week long units were taught by 30 experienced science teachers. During this period of time teacher classroom management behavior, student achievement (n = 570), student engagement (n = 269), and student academic aptitude (n = 649) were measured. Twelve selected management indicators from Georgia Teachers Performance Assessment Indicators (TPAI) were used to measure teacher classroom management behaviors. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the variables, and appropriate post hoc procedures were used. Analyses showed that there was a significant relationship among all variables. Post hoc analysis showed that these results were consistent across levels of aptitude. Other relationships found were between student engagement and achievement, student aptitude and achievement, and student aptitude and engagement. Correlation coefficients were obtained for each individual management indicators. Those particular management behaviors which were correlated with achievement and engagement are: identifies students who do not understand directions and helps them individually, maintains learner involvement in lessons, reinforces and encourages the efforts of learners to maintain involvement, attends to routine tasks, uses instructional time efficiently, provides feedback to learners about their behavior, manages disruptive behavior among learners.

  18. Evaluation of the Stress Induced in Tooth, Periodontal Ligament & Alveolar Bone with Varying Degrees of Bone Loss During Various Types of Orthodontic Tooth Movements

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Shalu; Verma, Santosh; Bhardwaj, Preeti; Sharma, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The force applied on to a tooth with periodontal bone loss may generate different magnitude and pattern of stresses in the periodontium when compared to a tooth with no bone loss & under the same force system. The intensity of the forces and moment to force ratios needed to be applied during an Orthodontic treatment must be adapted to obtain the same movement as in a tooth with a healthy periodontal support. Aim Evaluation and assessment of the stress distribution during various types of Orthodontic tooth movement on application of Orthodontic force, at various levels of alveolar bone loss; & determination of the most ideal force system producing the Optimum Stress (i.e., stress within optimum range), uniformly (conducive to bodily movement of maxillary canine with varying degrees of bone loss). Materials and Methods A human maxillary canine tooth of right side was simulated by means of Finite Element Method (FEM). Five different models were constructed with bone loss ranging from 0mm in model 1, to 8mm in model 5 (progressing at 2mm per model). Ten different loading conditions were applied on these models and the stress generated was charted at various occluso-gingival levels and surfaces around the tooth. The evaluation and assessment of the stress distribution during various types of Orthodontic tooth movement on application of Orthodontic force, at various levels of alveolar bone loss was done. Results The results showed that there was a high positive correlation between the increase in bone loss & the stress generated, suggesting an elevation in the stress with advancing bone loss. Additionally, the type of tooth movement was found to be changed with bone loss. During the determination of ideal force system it was found that the centre of resistance of the canine migrated apically with bone loss and an increase in the moment to force ratio (Mc:F) was required to control the root position in these cases. Conclusion A high positive correlation

  19. A Comparative Study of the Employee Skills/Training Acceptable to Employers Under Varying Degrees of Labor Market Stringencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, W. Halder; And Others

    The purposes of this stud y were to test the dependability of stated employee selection criteria, to ascertain the degree of congruence between stated and actual selection criteria, and to determine the degree of change in criteria due to "looseness" or "tightness" of the local labor market. Seven test labor market areas representing a variety of…

  20. Psychometric Functioning of the MMPI-2-RF VRIN-r and TRIN-r Scales with Varying Degrees of Randomness, Acquiescence, and Counter-Acquiescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Richard W.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Tellegen, Auke; Archer, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the authors evaluated the effects of increasing degrees of simulated non-content-based (random or fixed) responding on scores on the newly developed Variable Response Inconsistency-Revised (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency-Revised (TRIN-r) scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form…

  1. Simultaneous stability and sensitivity in model cortical networks is achieved through anti-correlations between the in- and out-degree of connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Juan C.; Houweling, Arthur R.; Tiesinga, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal networks in rodent barrel cortex are characterized by stable low baseline firing rates. However, they are sensitive to the action potentials of single neurons as suggested by recent single-cell stimulation experiments that reported quantifiable behavioral responses in response to short spike trains elicited in single neurons. Hence, these networks are stable against internally generated fluctuations in firing rate but at the same time remain sensitive to similarly-sized externally induced perturbations. We investigated stability and sensitivity in a simple recurrent network of stochastic binary neurons and determined numerically the effects of correlation between the number of afferent (“in-degree”) and efferent (“out-degree”) connections in neurons. The key advance reported in this work is that anti-correlation between in-/out-degree distributions increased the stability of the network in comparison to networks with no correlation or positive correlations, while being able to achieve the same level of sensitivity. The experimental characterization of degree distributions is difficult because all pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons have to be identified and counted. We explored whether the statistics of network motifs, which requires the characterization of connections between small subsets of neurons, could be used to detect evidence for degree anti-correlations. We find that the sample frequency of the 3-neuron “ring” motif (1→2→3→1), can be used to detect degree anti-correlation for sub-networks of size 30 using about 50 samples, which is of significance because the necessary measurements are achievable experimentally in the near future. Taken together, we hypothesize that barrel cortex networks exhibit degree anti-correlations and specific network motif statistics. PMID:24223550

  2. Grass-specific CD4+ T-cells exhibit varying degrees of cross-reactivity, implications for allergen-specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Archila, LD; DeLong, JH; Wambre, E; James, EA; Robinson, DM; Kwok, WW

    2014-01-01

    Background Conceptually, allergic responses may involve cross-reactivity by antibodies or T-cells. While IgE cross-reactivity amongst grass pollen allergens has been observed, cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific T-cell level has been less documented. Identification of the patterns of cross-reactivity may improve our understanding, allowing optimization of better immunotherapy strategies. Objectives We use Phleum pratense as model for the studying of cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific CD4+ T cell level amongst DR04:01 restricted Pooideae grass pollen T-cell epitopes. Methods After In vitro culture of blood mononucleated cells from Grass-pollen allergic subjects with specific Pooideae antigenic epitopes, dual tetramer staining with APC-labeled DR04:01/Phleum pratense tetramers and PE-labeled DR04:01/Pooideae grass homolog tetramers was assessed to identify cross-reactivity amongst allergen-specific DR04:01-restricted T-cells in 6 subjects. Direct ex vivo staining enabled the comparison of frequency and phenotype of different Pooideae grass pollen reactive T-cells. Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays were also used to examine phenotypes of these T-cells. Results T-cells with various degree of cross reactive profiles could be detected. Poa p 1 97-116, Lol p 1 221-240, Lol p 5a 199-218, and Poa p 5a 199-218 were identified as minimally-cross-reactive T-cell epitopes that do not show cross reactivity to Phl p 1 and Phl p 5a epitopes. Ex vivo tetramer staining assays demonstrated T-cells that recognized these minimally-cross reactive T-cell epitopes are present in Grass-pollen allergic subjects. Conclusions Our results suggest that not all Pooideae grass epitopes with sequence homology are cross-reactive. Non-cross reactive T-cells with comparable frequency, phenotype and functionality to Phl p-specific T-cells, suggest that a multiple allergen system should be considered for immunotherapy instead of a mono allergen system. PMID:24708411

  3. THE EFFECT OF FOUR PROGRAMS OF READING INSTRUCTION WITH VARYING EMPHASIS ON THE REGULARITY OF GRAPHEME-PHONEME CORRESPONDENCES AND THE RELATION OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURE TO MEANING ON ACHIEVEMENT IN FIRST GRADE READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUDDELL, ROBERT B.

    THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT UPON WORD RECOGNITION AND READING COMPREHENSION SKILLS OF FOUR READING PROGRAMS. THESE PROGRAMS VARIED IN (1) THE DEGREE OF REGULARITY OF GRAPHEME-PHONEME CORRESPONDENCES PROGRAMED INTO THE VOCABULARY PRESENTED AND (2) THE EMPHASIS ON LANGUAGE STRUCTURE AS RELATED TO MEANING. FOUR…

  4. An Analysis of the Effects of Varying Levels of Implementation of Disciplines Associated with Learning Organizations and Student Achievement at California Schools with Similar Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe, measure, compare, and contrast the perceptions of elementary teachers and principals regarding the degree to which the schools in which they are employed have implemented learning organizations conforming to Senge's (1990) 5 disciplines: mental models, personal mastery, shared vision, team…

  5. The impact of time-varying phosphorus doping on ZnMgO thin films and achievement of dominant acceptor-bound-exciton peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S.; Nagar, S.; Gupta, S. K.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2014-03-01

    ZnO is a highly efficient and promising semiconductor material because of its large bandgap (3.37 eV) and exciton binding energy (60 meV). MgO also has a very high bandgap (7.8 eV), and the incorporation of Mg into ZnO can result in an alloy with a bandgap of more than 4 eV . We used plasma immersion ion implantation to dope phosphorus into Zn0.85Mg0.15O for achieving p-type ZnMgO. RF sputtering was used to deposit ZnMgO on a Si substrate. Phosphorus doping was conducted from 10 s to 70 s. Rapid thermal annealing of the samples was performed to remove any implantation defects. A highly dominant acceptor-bound-exciton peak was observed at 3.36 eV by photoluminescence measurements, which continued to dominate from low temperature to room temperature. Donor-bound acceptor and free-electron acceptor peaks were also observed at 3.24 eV and 3.28 eV, respectively.

  6. The Effects of Blended Learning with a CMS on the Development of Autonomous Learning: A Case Study of Different Degrees of Autonomy Achieved by Individual Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodin, Navaporn S.

    2013-01-01

    The findings of this study support the argument made by many learner autonomy scholars that the road to autonomy is a process conditioned by each individual's zone of proximal development (ZPD) and that there are different degrees of autonomy. The description of behavioural patterns found from the experiment supports this notion. The findings show…

  7. A Study of Relationship between Principals' Self-Reported Degree of Transformational Leadership and Students' Mathematics and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onorato, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A non-experimental research study was performed in which the researcher investigated the relationship between principals' use of transformational leadership practices and students' reading and mathematics achievement. A sample of principals from 2,500 randomly selected elementary, middle, and high schools in New York State were recruited…

  8. Online Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezalek, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the trend of trainers who are getting degrees through online courses delivered via the Internet. Addresses accreditation issues and what to ask before enrolling in online degree programs. (JOW)

  9. Dishonorary Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2008-01-01

    If an honorary degree lacks values to begin with, does withdrawing it deliver a rebuke to the recipient? Is whatever honor that comes with the distinction embedded in the fancy paper, or is it wholly in the eye of the degree holder? Are honorary degrees really such silly things that individuals should mock their bestowal or withdrawal? The case of…

  10. [EFFICACY OF STANDARD TWO-YEAR COMPREHENSIVE THERAPY TO ACHIEVE TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE AND REGRESSION DEGREES OF REMODELING OF THE LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION WITH COMORBID HYPERTENSION].

    PubMed

    Denesiuk, E V

    2015-01-01

    The study involved 23 men after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with comorbid arterial hypertension (AH). Mean age of patients was 56.7 years. Recurrent myocardial infarction was determined in 38.4%, cardiac failure I-III functional classes--100% of the cases. All patients underwent clinical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography, blood lipid profile. Standard comprehensive treatment for two years included an perindopril 5-10 mg/day, beta-blocker bisoprolol--5-10 mg/day, antisclerotic drug atorvastatin--20 mg/day and aspirin--75 mg/day. The patients after treatment was determined by a gradual increase towards the target of AT at 3, 6 and 12 to 24 months. Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) before treatment was determined in 47.8%, eccentric--in 52.2% of patients. In the study of degrees of LVH I (initial) the extent to treatment was determined by 4.3%, II (moderate)--26.1%, III (large)--at 69.6%, indicating the development of cardiac remodeling. After the treatment was determined by marked reduction III (large) degree and transfer it in the II (moderate) and I (small) degree of left ventricular hypertrophy due to more or less pronounced changes remodeling left ventricular. The obtained data allow a more detailed and adequately assess the structural and functional outcome variables and determine the regression of myocardial hypertrophy in the background to achieve target blood pressure, which is important in practical cardiology. PMID:27491146

  11. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  12. Children'scomponent Selection with Varying Degrees of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Gordon A.; Taweel, Suzanne, S.

    1974-01-01

    The component selection procedure developed by Hale and Morgan was used to assess children's use of selective attention at six levels of learning ranging from undertraining to overtraining. This function was examined at each of ages 4, 8, and 12. (SBT)

  13. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  14. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  15. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  16. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  17. Varying constants quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P. E-mail: abalcerz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2015-02-01

    We discuss minisuperspace models within the framework of varying physical constants theories including Λ-term. In particular, we consider the varying speed of light (VSL) theory and varying gravitational constant theory (VG) using the specific ansätze for the variability of constants: c(a) = c{sub 0} a{sup n} and G(a)=G{sub 0} a{sup q}. We find that most of the varying c and G minisuperspace potentials are of the tunneling type which allows to use WKB approximation of quantum mechanics. Using this method we show that the probability of tunneling of the universe ''from nothing'' (a=0) to a Friedmann geometry with the scale factor a{sub t} is large for growing c models and is strongly suppressed for diminishing c models. As for G varying, the probability of tunneling is large for G diminishing, while it is small for G increasing. In general, both varying c and G change the probability of tunneling in comparison to the standard matter content (cosmological term, dust, radiation) universe models.

  18. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  19. Top 100 Degree Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2000-01-01

    Lists institutions of higher education that confer the most postsecondary degrees to students of color. Tables are provided for associate degrees (all minorities); baccalaureate degrees (all minorities); baccalaureate degrees for African Americans, American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic; and baccalaureate degrees by subject area and…

  20. Time-varying BRDFs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials. PMID:17356224

  1. Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

  2. Top 100 Degree Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Provides data on bachelor's degrees awarded to minority students in 1999-2000. Tables include total minority degrees and degrees awarded to African Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans, and Hispanics by type of school (uses Carnegie classification). Another table presents top disciplines by race/ethnicity. (EV)

  3. Associate Degree Preferred.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale, Ed.

    Designed to encourage dialogue and inform decision making about the associate degree, this book presents perspectives on the role of the associate degree in the nation's two-year colleges. First, "Toward a Greater Degree: A Plan of Action," by Dale Parnell, suggests a plan for preserving and enhancing the value of the education being provided by…

  4. Growing degree day calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  5. Varying potential silicon carbide gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrocarbon gas detection device operates by dissociating or electro-chemically oxidizing hydrocarbons adsorbed to a silicon carbide detection layer. Dissociation or oxidation are driven by a varying potential applied to the detection layer. Different hydrocarbon species undergo reaction at different applied potentials so that the device is able to discriminate among various hydrocarbon species. The device can operate at temperatures between 100.degree. C. and at least 650.degree. C., allowing hydrocarbon detection in hot exhaust gases. The dissociation reaction is detected either as a change in a capacitor or, preferably, as a change of current flow through an FET which incorporates the silicon carbide detection layers. The silicon carbide detection layer can be augmented with a pad of catalytic material which provides a signal without an applied potential. Comparisons between the catalytically produced signal and the varying potential produced signal may further help identify the hydrocarbon present.

  6. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  7. 360-degree Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a 'geometrically improved' version of the 360- degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

    The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. On the horizon the double 'Twin Peaks' are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock 'Couch' is the dark, curved rock at right of Twin Peaks. Another Lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock 'Barnacle Bill', which scientists found to be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a volcanic rock (a true andesite) or a physical mixture of particles. Just beyond Barnacle Bill, rover tracks lead to Sojourner, shown using its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument to study the large rock 'Yogi'. Yogi, low in quartz content, appears to be more primitive than Barnacle Bill, and appears more like the common basalts found on Earth.

    The tracks and circular pattern in the soil

  8. The External Degree Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. School of Management.

    An external degree is one granted on the basis of academic work undertaken through independent and flexible study and pursued in whole or in part outside of the framework of existing college and university courses. A person's qualifications for an external degree are measured not by a list of accumulated formal courses taken and passed, but by an…

  9. What price a degree?

    PubMed

    Corbett, Kevin

    2016-05-25

    Let's face it, nurse education is big business for British universities. The lobby group of universities offering nursing degrees, the Council of Deans of health (CoDH), argues that the true cost of nursing degrees is subsidised by their members. PMID:27224609

  10. Degree Accreditation in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Dave

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, the meaning and origin of the Canadian university degree was well understood by Canadians and around the world. Degrees were only offered by universities and the use of the label university was controlled by legislation in each of the ten provinces and three territories. Institutional membership in the Association of Universities…

  11. GATEWAYS: Degree program alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, K.R.; Thayer, M.M.

    1991-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is using non-traditional solutions to assist employees in attaining degrees required for essential Laboratory operations. Varieties of distance learning technologies have been implemented to meet some degree needs. While distance learning is not always a perfect solution, it enables the Laboratory to provide education that would otherwise not be practical for full-time employees. The Laboratory has also formed partnerships with local colleges to design programs to fill particular needs. Meeting the challenge of providing cost-effective, viable degree programs in an isolated location requires both patience and innovation.

  12. Complementary resistive switching behavior induced by varying forming current compliance in resistance random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yi-Ting; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Ting-Chang; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Kai-Huang; Chen, Jung-Hui; Li, Yu-Chiuan; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hung, Ya-Chi; Syu, Yong-En; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Sze, Simon M.

    2015-05-01

    In this study of resistance random access memory in a resistive switching film, the breakdown degree was controlled by varying forming current compliance. A SiOx layer was introduced into the ZnO layer of the structure to induce both typical bipolar resistive switching (RS) and complementary resistive switching (CRS). In addition, the SiOx layer-generated vacuum spaces in typical bipolar RS can be verified by electrical characteristics. Changing forming current compliance strikingly modifies the oxygen storage capacity of the inserted SiOx layer. CRS can be achieved, therefore, by tuning the oxygen ion storage behavior made possible by the SiOx layer.

  13. Degree by Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtis, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a student's experience with a research project on the synthesis and reactions of an organo-platinum complex with an organo-Group IV linkage, including the advantages and disadvantages of such a degree by thesis course. (CC)

  14. Latitude 90 Degrees North to 90 Degrees South and Longitude -180 Degrees to 0 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The coordinates of the Lambert azimuthal equal area projection are latitude 90 degrees N. to 90 degrees S. and longitude -180 degrees to 0 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap of the Planum Boreum region, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at top. The upper part is marked by large depression, Isidis basin, which contains light-colored plains. The upper part also includes the light-colored smooth plains of Elysium Planitia and dark plains of Vastitas Borealis. Together, these form a vast expanse of contiguous plains. Toward the bottom, on the other hand, the southern hemisphere is almost entirely made up of heavily cratered highlands. Toward the bottom, a conspicuous, relatively bright circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin.

  15. Latitude 90 Degrees North to 90 Degrees South and Longitude 0 Degrees to 180 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The coordinates of the Lambert azimuthal equal area projection are latitude 90 degrees N. to 90 degrees S. and longitude 0 degree to 180 degrees. Both polar residual ice caps are seen at top and bottom. The central part is dominated by the four largest and youngest volcanoes on Mars--Olympus, Arsia, Pavonis, and Ascraeus Montes--and by a vast system of canyons several thousand kilometers long--Valles Marineris. Directly to the northeast of Valles Marineris, several large outflow channels terminate at a dark depression, Chryse basin. The lower-right corner is marked by the large Argyre basin, defined by an expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across.

  16. Differences in STEM degree attainment by region, ethnicity, and degree type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koledoye, Kimberly A.

    significant differences identified in all STEM degree areas. Women had more increases than other URMs, and degree attainment by geographic region varied widely. Given the strong national need for more STEM graduates, reason for concerns are raised by the results of this investigation. KEY WORDS: STEM degrees, Associate, Bachelor, IPEDS

  17. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  18. One Degree of Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A 2011 survey of young adults conducted by Public Agenda found that a cluster of obstacles have prevented many of them from competing college. The author describes the opportunity, college awareness, and funding gaps that put a postsecondary degree out of the reach of so many young people. For example, just 3 in 10 non-college-completers are aware…

  19. Charting Journalism Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    1998-01-01

    Data are presented on the numbers of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and total minority group members receiving associate, bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees in journalism and mass communication in 1997-98. Colleges and universities graduating the most minorities are also ranked. (MSE)

  20. Feedback at 360 Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manatt, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Multirater or 360-degree feedback is a sampling technique that can be used at three levels: for developmental purposes, appraisal, and compensation. It was designed to be small-scale, personalized, and occasional. Implementation tips and pitfalls for districts are described. (MLH)

  1. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  2. Top Hispanic Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy students at the Indiana University Bloomington. For the year 2012, the listings focus on Hispanic students. Data for…

  3. BA Degree Handbook, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    This 1978 Open University BA degree Handbook begins with information about the university organization, correspondence materials, assignments and examinations, television and radio broadcasts, audio-cassette loan service, books and libraries, study centers, the computing service, handicapped students, tutor-counselors and course tutors, tuition,…

  4. Digital varying-frequency generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Generator employs up/down counters, digital-to-analog converters, and integrator to determine frequency and time duration of output. Circuit can be used where varying signal must be controlled accurately over long period of time.

  5. Examining the Stability of Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Edwards, Ordene

    2009-01-01

    We examined stability and change in students' achievement goal orientations over varying tasks. Two naturalistic longitudinal studies were conducted in undergraduate courses. Students completed self-reports designed to measure their achievement goals. Achievement goals were measured four times: prior to two assignments and two exams. Four…

  6. Linear Parameter Varying Control for Actuator Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Wu, N. Eva; Belcastro, Christine; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A robust linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis is carried out for an HiMAT vehicle subject to loss of control effectiveness. The scheduling parameter is selected to be a function of the estimates of the control effectiveness factors. The estimates are provided on-line by a two-stage Kalman estimator. The inherent conservatism of the LPV design is reducing through the use of a scaling factor on the uncertainty block that represents the estimation errors of the effectiveness factors. Simulations of the controlled system with the on-line estimator show that a superior fault-tolerance can be achieved.

  7. Environmental Influences on Minority Degree Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Patricia H.

    1992-01-01

    Reports findings to date from a study under the auspices of the National Center for Postsecondary Governance and Finance concerning environmental actors relating to minority degree achievement in predominantly white four-year colleges and universities. Examines whether research results can really be linked to specific suggestions to improve campus…

  8. Control of Cell Attachment and Spreading on Poly(acrylamide) Brushes with Varied Grafting Density.

    PubMed

    Lilge, Inga; Schönherr, Holger

    2016-01-26

    To achieve spatial control of fibroblast cell attachment and spreading on a biocompatible polymer coating, the effect of poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) brushes with varied grafting density was investigated. The synthesis of the brushes was performed by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Gold substrates were modified with binary self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of an initiator and 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) as an "inert" thiol to initiate the ATRP of AAm. By using different mixtures for the binary SAMs, a series of polymer brushes with varied grafting densities were prepared. The fractional coverage of surface bound initiator was determined by grazing incidence Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and contact angle measurements. A linear relationship between the Br/S ratio determined by XPS and ToF-SIMS versus the fraction of initiator on the surface determined by water contact angle measurements was observed. The varied initiation concentration on the gold substrates yielded PAAm brushes with different thicknesses, indicating a transition from mushroom to brush regimes with increasing grafting density. Thereby we achieved exquisite control of the degree of cell adhesion. Cell attachment experiments with NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells revealed cell spreading on PAAm brushes with low grafting densities (initiator fractional coverage <0.2) as well as a complete passivation by polymer brushes with higher grafting densities. PMID:26771447

  9. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  10. Replication Protein A Unfolds G-Quadruplex Structures with a Varying Degree of Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Mohammad H.; Ray, Sujay; Sewell, Abby L.; Basu, Soumitra; Balci, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    Replication Protein A (RPA) is known to interact with G-rich sequences that adopt G-quadruplex (GQ) structures. Most studies in the literature have been performed on GQ formed by homogenous sequences, such as the human telomeric repeat, and RPA’s ability to unfold GQ structures of differing stability is not known. We compared the thermal stability of three potential GQ forming DNA sequences (PQS) to their stability against RPA mediated unfolding using single molecule FRET and bulk biophysical and biochemical experiments. One of these sequences is the human telomeric repeat and the other two located in the promoter region of tyrosine hydroxylase gene are highly heterogeneous sequences, which better represent PQS in the genome. The three GQ constructs have thermal stabilities that are significantly different from each other. Our measurements showed that the most thermally stable structure (Tm= 86 °C) was also the most stable against RPA mediated unfolding, although the least thermally stable structure (Tm= 69 °C) had at least an order of magnitude higher stability against RPA mediated unfolding compared to the structure with intermediate thermal stability (Tm= 78 °C). The significance of this observation becomes more evident when considered within the context of cellular environment where protein-DNA interactions can be an important determinant of GQ viability. Considering these, we conclude that thermal stability is not necessarily an adequate criterion for predicting physiological viability of GQ structures. Finally, we measured the time it takes for an RPA molecule to unfold a GQ from a fully folded to a fully unfolded conformation using a single molecule stopped-flow type method. All three GQ structures were unfolded within Δt≈0.30±0.10 sec, a surprising result as the unfolding time does not correlate with thermal stability or stability against RPA mediated unfolding. These results suggest that the limiting step in G-quadruplex unfolding by RPA is simply the accessibility of the structure to the RPA protein. PMID:22500657

  11. Nutrient response of Bacopa monnieri (water hyssop) to varying degrees of soil saturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissue concentrations of N and P were measured in Bacopa monnieri subjected to four progressive levels of flooding: well-drained Control, Intermittently Flooded, Partially Flooded, and Continuously Flooded. Soil redox potential (Eh) decreased in all flooded treatments at 30 cm depth, becoming anoxic...

  12. Establishing Differences between Diversity Requirements and Other Courses with Varying Degrees of Diversity Inclusivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Laird, Thomas F.; Engberg, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how diversity requirements differ from courses that are highly inclusive or less inclusive of diversity. Results suggest that instructor characteristics are statistically different and that highly inclusive and less inclusive diversity courses score highest and lowest, respectively, on measures of effective teaching compared…

  13. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  14. Transient, spatially varied groundwater recharge modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Kibreab Amare; Woodbury, Allan D.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to integrate field data and modeling tools in producing temporally and spatially varying groundwater recharge in a pilot watershed in North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using the Richards equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D), ArcGIS™, ROSETTA, in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture, and a long-term gridded climate data. The public version of HYDUS-1D and another version with detailed freezing and thawing module are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack, and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGIS™ to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8 mm/year. Previous studies in the Okanagan Basin used Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance without any attempt of model performance evaluation, notwithstanding its inherent limitations. Thus, climate change impact results from this previous study and similar others, such as Jyrkama and Sykes (2007), need to be interpreted with caution.

  15. Two Universities, Two Degrees: A Dual Degree Program for Pharmacists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milio, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Describes a dual degree program between Towson University and the University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, which allows a student to receive both a B.S. degree in Medicinal Chemistry and a Doctor of Pharmacy degree in a combined 7-year program. It also allows flexibility in pursuing alternate career goals. (EV)

  16. Motion Editing for Time-Varying Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Yamasaki, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Kiyoharu

    2008-12-01

    Recently, time-varying mesh (TVM), which is composed of a sequence of mesh models, has received considerable interest due to its new and attractive functions such as free viewpoint and interactivity. TVM captures the dynamic scene of the real world from multiple synchronized cameras. However, it is expensive and time consuming to generate a TVM sequence. In this paper, an editing system is presented to reuse the original data, which reorganizes the motions to obtain a new sequence based on the user requirements. Hierarchical motion structure is observed and parsed in TVM sequences. Then, the representative motions are chosen into a motion database, where a motion graph is constructed to connect those motions with smooth transitions. After the user selects some desired motions from the motion database, the best paths are searched by a modified Dijkstra algorithm to achieve a new sequence. Our experimental results demonstrate that the edited sequences are natural and smooth.

  17. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  18. Top 100--Graduate Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2009-01-01

    The Top 100 degree tables published in this edition of Diverse, and the many more detailed tables included on the Diverse Web site, delineate the institutions that have conferred the most master's, doctoral and first professional degrees to students of color in academic year 2007-2008. Each table shows the number of degrees for a specific minority…

  19. Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

  20. Nonlinear Varying Coefficient Models with Applications to Studying Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kürüm, Esra; Li, Runze; Wang, Yang; SEntürk, Damla

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by a study on factors affecting the level of photosynthetic activity in a natural ecosystem, we propose nonlinear varying coefficient models, in which the relationship between the predictors and the response variable is allowed to be nonlinear. One-step local linear estimators are developed for the nonlinear varying coefficient models and their asymptotic normality is established leading to point-wise asymptotic confidence bands for the coefficient functions. Two-step local linear estimators are also proposed for cases where the varying coefficient functions admit different degrees of smoothness; bootstrap confidence intervals are utilized for inference based on the two-step estimators. We further propose a generalized F test to study whether the coefficient functions vary over a covariate. We illustrate the proposed methodology via an application to an ecology data set and study the finite sample performance by Monte Carlo simulation studies. PMID:24976756

  1. Nonlinear Varying Coefficient Models with Applications to Studying Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kürüm, Esra; Li, Runze; Wang, Yang; ŞEntürk, Damla

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by a study on factors affecting the level of photosynthetic activity in a natural ecosystem, we propose nonlinear varying coefficient models, in which the relationship between the predictors and the response variable is allowed to be nonlinear. One-step local linear estimators are developed for the nonlinear varying coefficient models and their asymptotic normality is established leading to point-wise asymptotic confidence bands for the coefficient functions. Two-step local linear estimators are also proposed for cases where the varying coefficient functions admit different degrees of smoothness; bootstrap confidence intervals are utilized for inference based on the two-step estimators. We further propose a generalized F test to study whether the coefficient functions vary over a covariate. We illustrate the proposed methodology via an application to an ecology data set and study the finite sample performance by Monte Carlo simulation studies. PMID:24976756

  2. Parallel (delta + 1) coloring of constant-degree graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A.V.; Plotkin, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    This paper presents parallel algorithms for coloring a constant-degree graph with a maximum degree of delta in (delta + 1) colors and for finding a maximal independent set in a constant-degree graph. Given a graph with n vertices, the algorithms run in O (lg*n) time on EREW PRAM with O(n) processors. The algorithms use only local communication and achieve the same complexity bounds when implemented in the distributed model of parallel computation.

  3. The Relationship between Perceptions of Premenstrual Syndrome and Degree Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl-Novell, Sarah L.; Jessop, Donna C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores whether female undergraduates self-reported experiences of pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) were associated with degree performance, operationalized as degree class outcome, in a sample of 'high achieving' students (N = 55). Students reported that PMS was disruptive to academic work (comprising lectures, seminars, writing essays,…

  4. Teacher and Administrator Performance Evaluation: Benefits of 360-Degree Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manatt, Richard P.; Benway, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Employing multiple approaches and data sources, School Improvement Model (SIM) researchers have worked with selected districts nationwide to implement a new 360-degree feedback model favored by many companies. This article describes how 360-degree feedback (from students, peers, self-evaluation, supervisors, parents, and student achievement) can…

  5. Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…

  6. High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations.

    PubMed

    Timme, Nicholas M; Ito, Shinya; Myroshnychenko, Maxym; Nigam, Sunny; Shimono, Masanori; Yeh, Fang-Chin; Hottowy, Pawel; Litke, Alan M; Beggs, John M

    2016-05-01

    Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree) or sends out (out-degree). To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series) and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts) to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to which a neuron

  7. High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations

    PubMed Central

    Timme, Nicholas M.; Ito, Shinya; Shimono, Masanori; Yeh, Fang-Chin; Litke, Alan M.; Beggs, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree) or sends out (out-degree). To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series) and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts) to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to which a neuron

  8. Adolescent obesity and future college degree attainment.

    PubMed

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G; Ngo, Long H; Phillips, Russell S; Wee, Christina C

    2010-06-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14-18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also analyzed an older, similarly structured cohort of over 3,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 16-18) in 1981. Our primary outcome was college degree completion. We found that in the older cohort (adolescents in 1979), there were no differences in college degree attainment by adolescent weight status before and after adjustment. However, unadjusted analysis of the contemporary cohort (adolescents in 1997) demonstrated that those who were normal weight as adolescents had a higher prevalence of college degree attainment at follow-up compared to obese adolescents (24% vs. 10%). After adjustment for socio-demographic variables (age, sex, race, height, parental income-to-poverty ratio, parental education, aptitude test scores), obese adolescents were less likely to have attained a college degree compared to normal weight peers (adjusted risk ratio 0.61 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.83). Expectations for a future college degree did not vary by weight status and did not explain this observation. In conclusion, adolescent obesity is associated with lower likelihood of college completion. This relationship was not observed in an older cohort of adolescents. PMID:20035280

  9. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  10. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  11. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  12. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  13. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  14. NLN: Celebrating Associate Degree Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddick, Nancy A.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a project celebrating the thirtieth anniversary of associate degree nursing (ADN) education. Reviews the efforts and plans of two national associations to identify and resolve recurring ADN issues and recognize the associate degree nurse's contributions. Describes the forums and publications planned to meet these objectives. Includes…

  15. Degree, Yes--Education, No

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheahan, Sister Dorothy

    1974-01-01

    The external degree program, based solely on test proficiency, offers to its students not an educational opportunity; not a learning situation but a schema for securing a degree, with any kind of socialization into the profession conspicuously missing from the program. (Author/DS)

  16. Top 100 Degree Producers 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Phaedra; Borden, Victor M. H.

    2001-01-01

    Descriptive text and numerous tables provide information on higher education degrees awarded to minority students in 1999-2000. Data are provided on masters, doctoral, and first professional degrees for minorities in 1999-2000 by gender, state, race/ethnicity, school type, individual school, and major. Data for previous years are provided for…

  17. Employers Often Distrust Online Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This article explains why employers are reluctant to accept potential employees with online degrees. The results of several surveys of those who evaluate potential employees and make hiring decisions indicate a bias against online degrees, even as more and more colleges are offering programs online. To those officials, the words "online education"…

  18. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  19. Six Degrees of "Visual" Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Whether referring to psychologist Stanley Milgram's intriguing theory, John Guare's successful play and film, or Kevin Bacon's party game, six degrees of separation may also be used as a way to help students make visual connections. The six degrees of separation is the concept that everyone is connected to everyone else in the world by only six…

  20. Children's Reading Achievement as a Function of Varying Specificity of Purpose Setting Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Margaret B.

    This study was designed to confirm the hypothesis that objectives which focused on items of information best facilitated reading retention among a population of elementary school children while controlling for the children's reading level rather than for the "density" of the reading passage. Two 550-word reading passages taken from "Life in the…

  1. The Effect of Varied Elaboration Strategies in Facilitating Student Achievement of Different Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert G.; Dwyer, Francis M.

    1995-01-01

    A study of 144 college students divided into high and low prior-knowledge groups and assigned to four treatment groups found (1) little interaction between prior knowledge of the human cardiovascular system and treatment and (2) significant effects on the drawing test. Terminology and elaboration tests revealed little effects among treatments.…

  2. Degree Options and Requirements in Master's Degree Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, David E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of 158 master's degree programs in mass communication disciplines regarding: thesis, project, and coursework-only options; course requirements; and core courses most frequently required. Compares these findings with those from earlier studies. (SR)

  3. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 30 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 30 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at the top. The central part is characterized by a dark depression, Chryse basin, where several large outflow channels terminate. The lower-left corner is marked by a vast system of canyons, Valles Marineris, which extends eastward for several thousand kilometers.

  4. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South., Longitude 330 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 330 degrees. Heavily cratered highlands dominate this view. Toward the lower right, a conspicuous light-colored circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin. Directly northeast of Hellas, several large ancient impacts dot the landscape, including Cassini, Schiaparelli, and Huygens. Several large outflow channels are located in the upper left-hand corner. The permanent, residual south polar ice cap is located near the bottom.

  5. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South, Longitude 210 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 210 degrees. Toward the top, the lowland plains of Elysium and Utopia Planitiae are separated from the darker heavily cratered highlands by a broad escarpment. The far bottom left is marked by the large light-colored ancient Hellas impact basin. The permanent south polar residual ice cap is located near the bottom.

  6. 360-degree physician performance assessment.

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Isser; Jennings, Kelly; Greengarten, Moshe; Brans, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Few jurisdictions have a robust common approach to assessing the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of physician performance. In this article, we examine the need for 360-degree physician performance assessment and review the literature supporting comprehensive physician assessment. An evidence-based, "best practice" approach to the development of a 360-degree physician performance assessment framework is presented, including an overview of a tool kit to support implementation. The focus of the framework is to support physician career planning and to enhance the quality of patient care. Finally, the legal considerations related to implementing 360-degree physician performance assessment are explored. PMID:20357549

  7. Killing Horizons Kill Horizon Degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, L.; Grumiller, D.

    Frequently, it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this essay, we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space, it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  8. Latino Male Ethnic Subgroups: Patterns in College Enrollment and Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponjuan, Luis; Palomin, Leticia; Calise, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Latino male ethnic subgroups and their college enrollment and degree completion patterns. The chapter also offers recommendations to improve Latino male ethnic subgroups' educational achievement.

  9. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  10. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  11. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  12. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  13. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  7. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  8. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  9. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  12. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  13. Robustness of networks of networks with degree-degree correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byungjoon; Canals, Santiago; Makse, Hernan

    Many real-world complex systems ranging from critical infrastructure and transportation networks to living systems including brain and cellular networks are not formed by an isolated network but by a network of networks. Randomly coupled networks with interdependency between different networks may easily result in abrupt collapse. Here, we seek a possible explanation of stable functioning in natural networks of networks including functional brain networks. Specifically, we analyze the robustness of networks of networks focused on one-to-many interconnections between different networks and degree-degree correlation. Implication of the network robustness on functional brain networks of rats is also discussed.

  14. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South, Longitude 90 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 90 degrees. The top half is dominated by the Tharsis Montes volcanoes, the large Alba Patera shield volcano, the dark Chryse basin, and a vast canyon system, Valles Marineris. In the central part, a prominent physiographic feature, Thaumasia plateau, includes a complex array of small- and large-scale faults and ridges and ancient volcanoes. The large conspicuous Argyre basin, southeast of the Thaumasia plateau, contains a broad expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across. The permanent south polar ice cap is located near the bottom.

  15. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 150 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 150 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs and surrounded by the dark lowland plains of Vastitas Borealis, is located at the top. The right-central part is dominated by the Tharsis Montes volcanoes. The most prominent of the Tharsis Montes volcanoes is the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons. The light-colored lowland plains of Amazonis, Elysium, and Arcadia Planitiae lies north and west of Olympus Mons. The heavily cratered highlands dominate the lower one-third.

  16. Flexural wave cloaking via embedded cylinders with systematically varying thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungjin; Yang, Wonseok; Lee, Sinyeob; Park, Junhong

    2016-06-01

    Simulations of flexural wave cloaking from multiple scattering events that are achieved by embedded cylinders in a thin plate are performed. Minimization of refraction is performed using small surrounding cylinders with varying thickness in radial and angular directions, respectively. The thickness variations render the effective wave speed lower in the radial direction and higher in the angular direction compared to the speed in the surrounding media, which results in the cloaking effect. In order to verify the feasibility of this approach, 15 layers of cylinders are placed around the blocked area. The multiple-scattering method is used to predict wave propagations and to take the interactions between cylinders into account. The effects of the thickness variation on the cloaking performance are analyzed. The results demonstrate that minimal scattering is achieved when the area of interest is surrounded by the thickness-varying cylinders. PMID:27369157

  17. Phenotypic complexity and local variations in neutral degree.

    PubMed

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Haddow, Pauline C

    2007-02-01

    Neutrality is important in natural, molecular and artificial evolution. This work studies how local neutral degree varies over the genospace in a simple class of Lindenmayer-systems, and investigates whether this variation relates to Lempel-Ziv complexity of the phenotype. PMID:17188803

  18. The Summative Assessment Diet: How We Assess in Mathematics Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Much research and many papers on mathematics pedagogy have discussed assessment and, in particular, the need to provide a varied diet of methods by which students are assessed for the award of their degree. In this article, we explore the mix of assessment methods provided across a range of UK university mathematics departments. We examine the…

  19. Training, Degrees, and Credentials in the Hiring of School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'donnell, Patrick S.; Dunlap, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    A national sample of 246 Directors of Pupil Personnel Services and Directors of Special Education were surveyed to assess the importance they place on training, degrees, and credentials in the hiring of school psychologists. High, but varying, levels of importance were found for the content knowledge and skill areas in the National Association of…

  20. Top 100 Degree Producers 2003. Part II: Graduate Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Articles in this theme issue discuss the current status of graduate education in the United States, exploring whether there is or is not a crisis and discussing economic factors that affect participation in graduate study. Featured is the annual list of the top 100 producers of graduate degrees for black students. (SLD)

  1. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  2. A novel topology control approach to maintain the node degree in dynamic wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanjiang; Martínez, José-Fernán; Díaz, Vicente Hernández; Sendra, Juana

    2014-01-01

    Topology control is an important technique to improve the connectivity and the reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) by means of adjusting the communication range of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a novel Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (FTC) is proposed to achieve any desired average node degree by adaptively changing communication range, thus improving the network connectivity, which is the main target of FTC. FTC is a fully localized control algorithm, and does not rely on location information of neighbors. Instead of designing membership functions and if-then rules for fuzzy-logic controller, FTC is constructed from the training data set to facilitate the design process. FTC is proved to be accurate, stable and has short settling time. In order to compare it with other representative localized algorithms (NONE, FLSS, k-Neighbor and LTRT), FTC is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that: firstly, similar to k-Neighbor algorithm, FTC is the best to achieve the desired average node degree as node density varies; secondly, FTC is comparable to FLSS and k-Neighbor in terms of energy-efficiency, but is better than LTRT and NONE; thirdly, FTC has the lowest average maximum communication range than other algorithms, which indicates that the most energy-consuming node in the network consumes the lowest power. PMID:24608008

  3. A Novel Topology Control Approach to Maintain the Node Degree in Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanjiang; Martínez, José-Fernán; Díaz, Vicente Hernández; Sendra, Juana

    2014-01-01

    Topology control is an important technique to improve the connectivity and the reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) by means of adjusting the communication range of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a novel Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (FTC) is proposed to achieve any desired average node degree by adaptively changing communication range, thus improving the network connectivity, which is the main target of FTC. FTC is a fully localized control algorithm, and does not rely on location information of neighbors. Instead of designing membership functions and if-then rules for fuzzy-logic controller, FTC is constructed from the training data set to facilitate the design process. FTC is proved to be accurate, stable and has short settling time. In order to compare it with other representative localized algorithms (NONE, FLSS, k-Neighbor and LTRT), FTC is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that: firstly, similar to k-Neighbor algorithm, FTC is the best to achieve the desired average node degree as node density varies; secondly, FTC is comparable to FLSS and k-Neighbor in terms of energy-efficiency, but is better than LTRT and NONE; thirdly, FTC has the lowest average maximum communication range than other algorithms, which indicates that the most energy-consuming node in the network consumes the lowest power. PMID:24608008

  4. Varying electric charge in multiscale spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Magueijo, João; Fernández, David Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    We derive the covariant equations of motion for Maxwell field theory and electrodynamics in multiscale spacetimes with weighted Laplacian. An effective spacetime-dependent electric charge of geometric origin naturally emerges from the theory, thus giving rise to a varying fine-structure constant. The theory is compared with other varying-coupling models, such as those with a varying electric charge or varying speed of light. The theory is also confronted with cosmological observations, which can place constraints on the characteristic scales in the multifractional measure. We note that the model considered here is fundamentally different from those previously proposed in the literature, either of the varying-e or varying-c persuasion.

  5. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  6. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  7. Effect of Varying the Angle of Attack of the Scales on a Biomimetic Shark Skin Model on Embedded Vortex Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelus, Jennifer; Lang, Amy; Bradshaw, Michael; Jones, Emily; Afroz, Farhana; Motta, Philip; Habegger, Maria

    2012-11-01

    The skin of fast-swimming sharks is proposed to have mechanisms to reduce drag and delay flow separation. The skin of fast-swimming and agile sharks is covered with small teeth-like denticles on the order of 0.2 mm. The shortfin mako is one of the fastest and most agile ocean predators creating the need to minimize its pressure drag by controlling flow separation. Biological studies of the shortfin mako skin have shown the passive bristling angle of their denticles to exceed 50 degrees in areas on the flank corresponding to the locations likely to experience separation first. It has been shown that for an angle of attack of 90 degrees, vortices form within these cavities and impose a partial slip condition at the surface of the cavity. This experiment focuses on smaller angles of attack for denticle bristling, closer to the range thought to be achieved on real shark skin. A 3-D bristled shark skin model with varying angle of attack, embedded below a boundary layer, was used to study the formation of cavity vortices through fluorescent dye visualization and Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The effect of varying angle of attack on vortex formation will be discussed.

  8. Life after a Humanities Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  9. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…

  10. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first time, it has…

  11. Degrees of Success in Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourner, Jill; Bourner, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of degree awards in Great Britain shows considerable inconsistency across disciplines and poor results in the accounting field. The implications for the labor market and accounting employment prospects are examined, and a reexamination of the application of equivalent standards across subjects is recommended. (MSE)

  12. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 270 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 270 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap of the Planum Boreum region, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at top. The upper part is marked by a large depression, Isidis basin, which contains light-colored plains. The upper part also includes the light-colored smooth plains of Elysium Planitia and dark plains of Vastitas Borealis. Together, these form a vast expanse of contiguous plains. Toward the bottom, on the other hand, the southern hemisphere is almost entirely made up of heavily cratered highlands. At bottom left, a conspicuous, relatively bright circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin.

  13. Degree of satisfaction among hearing aid users

    PubMed Central

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Rocha, Andressa Vital; Honório, Heitor Marques

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Hearing loss (HL) is defined as the complete or partial loss of hearing ability. Aims: To characterize (1) the degree of satisfaction among adult and elderly hearing aid (HA) users who were treated by a public hearing health service and (2) the relationship between satisfaction and the variables of gender, age, degree of HL, and type of HA. Method: The clinical and experimental study included the administration of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) questionnaire to 110 patients who had used HAs for more than 3 months and were 18 years of age or older. Results: Test patients were sex-balanced (48% were women) and had a mean age of 67 years. A relatively high incidence of sensorineural moderate HL was detected in the study patients (66%) and device B was the most commonly used HA type (48%). No significant differences were evident between HA satisfaction and sex. The importance placed on services/costs and personal image varied between age groups. Correlation was evident at all levels between user satisfaction and amplification. Decreased satisfaction was observed in individuals with severe and/or profound HL. The type of HA used yielded statistically significant differences in the positive effects referring. Conclusion: No correlations were evident between the different factors proposed. HA users exhibited high levels of satisfaction in all SADL areas. PMID:25991994

  14. Time varying market efficiency of the GCC stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charfeddine, Lanouar; Khediri, Karim Ben

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the time-varying levels of weak-form market efficiency for the GCC stock markets over the period spanning from May 2005 to September 2013. We use two empirical approaches: (1) the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity in mean (GARCH-M) model with state space time varying parameter (Kalman filter), and (2) a rolling technique sample test of the fractional long memory parameter d. As long memory estimation methods, we use the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) technique, the modified R/S statistic, the exact local whittle (ELW) and the feasible Exact Local Whittle (FELW) methods. Moreover, we use the Bai and Perron (1998, 2003) multiple structural breaks technique to test and date the time varying behavior of stock market efficiency. Empirical results show that GCC markets have different degrees of time-varying efficiency, and also have experiencing periods of efficiency improvement. Results also show evidence of structural breaks in all GCC markets. Moreover, we observe that the recent financial shocks such as Arab spring and subprime crises have a significant impact on the time path evolution of market efficiency.

  15. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Sadana, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  16. Time-varying causal network of the Korean financial system based on firm-specific risk premiums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jae Wook; Ko, Bonggyun; Cho, Poongjin; Chang, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the Korean financial system based on time-varying causal network. We discover many stylized facts by utilizing the firm-specific risk premiums for measuring the causality direction from a firm to firm. At first, we discover that the interconnectedness of causal network is affected by the outbreak of financial events; the co-movement of firm-specific risk premium is strengthened after each positive event, and vice versa. Secondly, we find that the major sector of the Korean financial system is the Depositories, and the financial reform in June-2011 achieves its purpose by weakening the power of risk-spillovers of Broker-Dealers. Thirdly, we identify that the causal network is a small-world network with scale-free topology where the power-law exponents of out-Degree and negative event are more significant than those of in-Degree and positive event. Lastly, we discuss that the current aspects of causal network are closely related to the long-term future scenario of the KOSPI Composite index where the direction and stability are significantly affected by the power of risk-spillovers and the power-law exponents of degree distributions, respectively.

  17. Fracture toughness of V-5Cr-5Ti alloy at room temperature and 100{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Jones, R.H.; Hirth, J.P.

    1994-09-01

    The critical mixed-mode I/III fracture toughness, J-integrals (J{sub MC}), at room temperature (RT) and 100{degrees}C were examined for a V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. Fracture toughness at 100{degrees}C was evaluated with a J-integral test and at RT with a K (the stress intensity factor) test. The determination of J{sub MC} was made using modified compact-tension specimens. Different ratios of tension/shear stress were achieved by varying the principal axis of the crack plane between 0 and 45 from the load line. Crack angles used in this study were 0, 15, and 45 degrees. A specimen with 0 degree crack angle is the same as a standard mode I compact tension specimen. In this limit, J{sub MC} becomes J{sub IC}. Specimens were annealed at 1125{degrees}C for 1 hour in a vacuum of 10{sup {minus}7} torr. J{sub MC} and mixed-mode tearing moduli (T{sub M}) were determined at 100{degrees}C with the single specimen technique. Crack lengths were calculated with partial unloading compliances. The J{sub MC} values at RT were calculated from critical stress intensity factors (K{sub C}). The results showed that at RT the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy was brittle and experienced unstable crack growth with a mixture of intergranular, cleavage and some microvoid coalescence (MVC) fracture while at 100{degrees}C it exhibited high fracture toughness and fractured with a mixture of MVC and intergranular failure. SEM investigation showed that some cleavage facets initiated at grain boundaries. The results suggest a low intergranular fracture strength and tendency towards cleavage fracture at room temperature. Preliminary data from Auger electron microscopy showed significant sulfur segregation on grain boundaries. The possible mechanism which might reduce intergranular fracture strength is discussed.

  18. Physics Doctorates One Year after Degree: Data from the Follow-up Survey of Degree Recipients from the Classes of 2013 and 2014. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pold, Jack; Mulvey, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This report presents trend data on the status of physics PhDs one year after receiving their degree. For the last decade postdoctoral fellowships were the most commonly reported positions taken by physics PhDs in the year after receiving their degree. The type of initial employment for of physics PhDs varied depending on the subfield of their…

  19. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  20. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1999-03-16

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

  1. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  2. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  3. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  4. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  5. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  6. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  7. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  8. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  9. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  10. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  11. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  12. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  13. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  14. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  15. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  16. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  17. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  18. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  19. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  20. New Associate Degree Requirements. The Advisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This document contains a brief history of the development of the associate degree in British Columbia and reviews the degrees presently conferred. A major portion of the document focuses on newly approved (May 30, 2000) requirements for the Associate Degree of Arts (AA) and the Associate Degree of Science (AS). The associate degree formally became…

  1. Degree Attainment. Snapshot™ Report, Winter 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report presents information on student degree attainment in science and engineering disciplines for 2004 and 2014. It offers data on the following: (1) Science and Engineering Degrees as Percentage of All Degrees; (2) Gender Distribution of Science and Engineering Degrees by Level; (3) Gender Distribution of Bachelor's Degrees in…

  2. Statistical Methods with Varying Coefficient Models

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenyang

    2008-01-01

    The varying coefficient models are very important tool to explore the dynamic pattern in many scientific areas, such as economics, finance, politics, epidemiology, medical science, ecology and so on. They are natural extensions of classical parametric models with good interpretability and are becoming more and more popular in data analysis. Thanks to their flexibility and interpretability, in the past ten years, the varying coefficient models have experienced deep and exciting developments on methodological, theoretical and applied sides. This paper gives a selective overview on the major methodological and theoretical developments on the varying coefficient models. PMID:18978950

  3. Shape control of manipulators with hyper degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Mochiyama, Hiromi; Shimemura, Etsujiro; Kobayashi, Hisato

    1999-06-01

    This paper provides a theoretical framework for controlling a manipulator with hyper degrees of freedom (HDOF) . An HDOF manipulator has the capability to achieve various kinds of tasks. To make full use of its capability, shape control is proposed here; that is, not only the tip of a manipulator, but also its whole body is controlled. To formulate control objectives for shape control, the authors define a shape correspondence between an HDOF manipulator and a spatial curve that prescribes a desired shape. The shape correspondence is defined by using solutions of a nonlinear optimization problem termed the shape-inverse problem. They give theorems on the existence of the solutions, and on an existence region that allows them to convert shape-control problems into more tractable ones. A shape-regulation control problem is considered first to bring an HDOF manipulator onto a given time-invariant curve. The idea of estimating the desired curve parameters is the crucial key to solving the problem by Lyapunov design. The derived shape-regulation law includes the estimator, which infers the desired curve parameters corresponding to the desired joint positions on the curve. The idea of the desired curve-parameter estimation is also effective for shape tracking where a time-varying curve is used for prescribing a moving desired shape. Considering an estimator with second-order dynamics enables the authors to find two shape-tracking control laws by utilizing conventional tracking methods in manipulator control. They show the simulation results of applying the derived shape-tracking control laws to a 20-DOF manipulator.

  4. Achievement as a Function of Abstractness and Cognitive Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, David E.

    A multiple choice achievement test was constructed in which both cognitive level and degree of abstractness were controlled. Subjects were 75 students from a major university in the Southwest. A group of 13 judges, also university students, classified the concepts for degree of abstractness. Results indicated that both cognitive level and degree…

  5. Work Placements and Academic Achievement: Undergraduate Computing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Nayna; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Coughlan, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and understand whether students who complete a work placement as part of their degree course achieve a better classification of degree than those students who do not include a placement. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted by extracting the profiles of computing students from…

  6. Active Control of Liner Impedance by Varying Perforate Orifice Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuji, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The present work explored the feasibility of controlling the acoustic impedance of a resonant type acoustic liner. This was accomplished by translating one perforate over another of the same porosity creating a totally new perforate that had an intermediate porosity. This type of adjustable perforate created a variable orifice perforate whose orifices were non-circular. The key objective of the present study was to quantify, the degree of attenuation control that can be achieved by applying such a concept to the buried septum in a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) acoustic liner. An additional objective was to examine the adequacy of the existing impedance models to explain the behavior of the unique orifice shapes that result from the proposed silding perforate concept. Different orifice shapes with equivalent area were also examined to determine if highly non-circular orifices had a significant impact on the impedance.

  7. The IB Diploma and UK University Degree Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank-Gemmill, Gerda

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma has become widely accepted as a university-entry qualification in the UK, but there has been little quantitative research into the achievements of IB students at degree level. This study investigates IB students from one selective independent school who entered UK universities between…

  8. 360-Degree Feedback: A New Approach to Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manatt, Richard P.; Kemis, Mari

    1997-01-01

    The School Improvement Model launched by the Iowa State University College of Education in 1964 uses a total-system approach to measure and report teacher performance. SIM focuses on student achievement and emphasizes validity, reliability, discrimination, and 360-degree feedback from principals, other teachers, parents, and students. A Wyoming…

  9. Predicting genetics achievement in nonmajors college biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Angela; Lawson, Anton E.

    Students enrolled in a non-majors college biology course were pretested to determine their level of intellectual development, degree of field independence, mental capacity, amount of prior genetics knowledge, and amount of fluid intelligence. They were then taught a unit on Mendelian genetics. The only student variables found to not account for a significant amount of variance on a test of reading comprehension and/or a test of genetics achievement was amount of prior genetics knowledge. Developmental level was found to be the most consistent predictor of performance, suggesting that a lack of general hypothetico-deductive reasoning ability is a major factor limiting achievement among these students.

  10. Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159342.html Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age Right amount leads to ... June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A good night's sleep makes for perkier, better-behaved children. But how ...

  11. Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159342.html Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age Right amount leads to ... June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A good night's sleep makes for perkier, better-behaved children. But how ...

  12. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  13. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  14. Placement Year Academic Benefit Revisited: Effects of Demographics, Prior Achievement and Degree Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Peter; Moores, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of whether students taking undergraduate work placements show greater academic improvement than those who do not have shown inconsistent results. In most studies, sample sizes have been relatively small and few studies have taken into account pre-existing student differences. Here data from over 6000 students at one university over…

  15. An Achievement Degree Analysis Approach to Identifying Learning Problems in Object-Oriented Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allinjawi, Arwa A.; Al-Nuaim, Hana A.; Krause, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Students often face difficulties while learning object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts. Many papers have presented various assessment methods for diagnosing learning problems to improve the teaching of programming in computer science (CS) higher education. The research presented in this article illustrates that although max-min composition is…

  16. The Effect of Classroom and Clinical Learning Approaches on Academic Achievement in Associate Degree Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrick, Jo Anne

    2010-01-01

    While many students compete aggressively to enter into nursing schools, those who succeed have no guarantee they will be successful in their nursing studies, graduating, and passing the National Council Licensing Exam for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN[R]). This study's objective was to gain a better understanding of how nursing students approach…

  17. Fault detection in reciprocating compressor valves under varying load conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Kurt; Lughofer, Edwin; Pichler, Markus; Buchegger, Thomas; Klement, Erich Peter; Huschenbett, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for detecting cracked or broken reciprocating compressor valves under varying load conditions. The main idea is that the time frequency representation of vibration measurement data will show typical patterns depending on the fault state. The problem is to detect these patterns reliably. For the detection task, we make a detour via the two dimensional autocorrelation. The autocorrelation emphasizes the patterns and reduces noise effects. This makes it easier to define appropriate features. After feature extraction, classification is done using logistic regression and support vector machines. The method's performance is validated by analyzing real world measurement data. The results will show a very high detection accuracy while keeping the false alarm rates at a very low level for different compressor loads, thus achieving a load-independent method. The proposed approach is, to our best knowledge, the first automated method for reciprocating compressor valve fault detection that can handle varying load conditions.

  18. Investing in a master's degree.

    PubMed

    Hodges, L C; Ganchorre, C; Hodges, E A

    1997-10-01

    One of the most important decisions you will ever make is the decision to invest your time and money in a master's degree. It is a big investment and often requires real sacrifice for you and your family. Since this decision is of paramount importance over the life of your career, it should be approached as a major topic to research. The first step in the process is a thorough review of your own goals and career expectations. Once you decide returning to graduate school is right for you, then you must turn your attention to finding the school that meets your goals for specialized study, as well as the location that best suits your lifestyle. A good place to start the search is in the library among a number of up-to-date references on master's nursing programs. A second source is the Internet. To find out more about the school locations, two good sources are the city's chamber of commerce and the Internet. Acquiring a master's degree in nursing will be a challenge, but one that will pay big dividends in your future nursing career. PMID:9384158

  19. The Kilo-Degree Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; Applegate, D.; Begeman, K.; Belikov, A.; Blake, C.; Bout, J.; Boxhoorn, D.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Buddendiek, A.; Cacciato, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Choi, A.; Cordes, O.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Edge, A.; Erben, T.; Franse, J.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Deraps, J.; Helmich, E.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Köhlinger, F.; Kitching, T.; La Barbera, F.; Lacerda, P.; McFarland, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Peacock, J.; Pila-Diez, B.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.; Sifon, C.; Sikkema, G.; Simon, P.; Sutherland, W.; Tudorica, A.; Valentijn, E.; van der Burg, R.; van Uitert, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.; Kleijn, G. V.; Viola, M.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2013-12-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), a 1500-square-degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), is described. KiDS will image two fields in u-,g-,r- and i-bands and, together with the VIKING survey, produce nine-band (u- to K-band) coverage over two fields. For the foreseeable future the KiDS/VIKING combination of superb image quality with wide wavelength coverage will be unique for surveys of its size and depth. The survey has been designed to tackle some of the most fundamental questions of cosmology and galaxy formation of today. The main science driver is mapping the dark matter distribution in the Universe and putting constraints on the expansion of the Universe and the equation of state of dark energy, all through weak gravitational lensing. However, the deep and wide imaging data will facilitate a wide variety of science cases.

  20. Policy Statements for the Associate Degree, the Associate in Applied Science Degree, and the Associate Degree in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The policy statements contained in this document present the position of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC) on the Associate Degree, the Associate in Applied Science Degree (AAS), and the Associate Degree in Nursing. In its statement on the Associate Degree, the AACJC: (1) stresses the responsibility of faculty and…

  1. Does lambda sub 2,2 vary?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    An attempt has been made to find a secular drift in lambda sub 2,2, or the phase of the low order and degree portion of the geogravity field. This portion may be associated with mass anomalies near the core-mantle boundary. From the geomagnetic evidence, such anomalies might have westward drifts on the order of 0.5 degrees/year. Tracking data on 8 synchronous satellite over a period of 6 years were examined for residual accelerations which might be explained by a drift of the lambda sub 2,2 gravity phase angle. No conclusive movement of lambda sub 2,2 was detected. But a measured upper bound on the drift of less than 0.05 degrees/year is still compatible with possible slow moving irregularities in the region of the core-mantle boundary.

  2. Detection of endometrial lesions by degree of linear polarization maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Walsh, Joseph T.

    2010-02-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common causes of chronic pelvic pain and infertility and is characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterine cavity. A novel laparoscopic polarization imaging system was designed to detect endometriosis by imaging endometrial lesions. Linearly polarized light with varying incident polarization angles illuminated endometrial lesions. Degree of linear polarization image maps of endometrial lesions were constructed by using remitted polarized light. The image maps were compared with regular laparoscopy image. The degree of linear polarization map contributed to the detection of endometriosis by revealing structures inside the lesion. The utilization of rotating incident polarization angle (IPA) for the linearly polarized light provides extended understanding of endometrial lesions. The developed polarization system with varying IPA and the collected image maps could provide improved characterization of endometrial lesions via higher visibility of the structure of the lesions and thereby improve diagnosis of endometriosis.

  3. Recursive time-varying filter banks for subband image coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark J. T.; Chung, Wilson C.

    1992-01-01

    Filter banks and wavelet decompositions that employ recursive filters have been considered previously and are recognized for their efficiency in partitioning the frequency spectrum. This paper presents an analysis of a new infinite impulse response (IIR) filter bank in which these computationally efficient filters may be changed adaptively in response to the input. The filter bank is presented and discussed in the context of finite-support signals with the intended application in subband image coding. In the absence of quantization errors, exact reconstruction can be achieved and by the proper choice of an adaptation scheme, it is shown that IIR time-varying filter banks can yield improvement over conventional ones.

  4. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  5. Teachers as Researchers: Does the DRP Predict Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, R. Harvey; Pennington, Susan C.

    In order to test claims made regarding the Degrees of Reading Power Test (DRP), a study posed two research questions: (1) How well does the DRP correlate with the more venerable Stanford Achievement Test (SAT)? and (2) How well do these instruments predict students' academic classroom achievement? Three hundred sixty-nine students from two middle…

  6. How Much Can Spatial Training Improve STEM Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Uttal, David

    2015-01-01

    Spatial training has been indicated as a possible solution for improving Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) achievement and degree attainment. Advocates for this approach have noted that the correlation between spatial ability and several measures of STEM achievement suggests that spatial training should focus on improving…

  7. Effect modification by time-varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Robins, James M; Hernán, Miguel A; Rotnitzky, Andrea

    2007-11-01

    Marginal structural models (MSMs) allow estimation of effect modification by baseline covariates, but they are less useful for estimating effect modification by evolving time-varying covariates. Rather, structural nested models (SNMs) were specifically designed to estimate effect modification by time-varying covariates. In their paper, Petersen et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:985-993) describe history-adjusted MSMs as a generalized form of MSM and argue that history-adjusted MSMs allow a researcher to easily estimate effect modification by time-varying covariates. However, history-adjusted MSMs can result in logically incompatible parameter estimates and hence in contradictory substantive conclusions. Here the authors propose a more restrictive definition of history-adjusted MSMs than the one provided by Petersen et al. and compare the advantages and disadvantages of using history-adjusted MSMs, as opposed to SNMs, to examine effect modification by time-dependent covariates. PMID:17875581

  8. IS Degrees - Sociotechnical or Technosocial?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coady, Jenny; Pooley, Rob

    It is widely agreed that information systems is a field requiring knowledge and competence, spanning business processes, information infrastructure and technical processes, uniting these to deliver information needs of organisations. In designing curricula which will educate new IS professionals appropriately, we are faced with a daunting range and volume of material. Despite attempts to structure and scope this, the problems remain and become worse with time. We revisit such a degree course, noting that many existing courses are based in management and business schools. We, however, are based in a computer science department. We have experience of convincing technologically focused students that understanding organisational and social issues is crucial to successful software engineering and students with an interest in organisations and people that they need technical understanding of information systems. We review some key proposals for IS model curricula and conclude with a proposal suited to the students we recruit.

  9. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  10. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  11. Professional Schools Seek Degrees of Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how professional schools, faced with a shortage of students and an increased demand for cross-disciplinary training, are teaming up to offer joint degrees. Examples include joint medical and business degrees, joint social work and law degrees, and joint medical and law degrees. (EV)

  12. Comparison of static and dynamic disinfection models for bacteria and viruses in water of varying quality.

    PubMed

    Springthorpe, S; Sander, M; Nolan, K; Sattar, S A

    2001-01-01

    Disinfection studies rarely use natural waters due to demands exerted on the applied disinfectants and lack of consistent disinfectant residuals. This study compared the degree of disinfection achieved in natural waters between conventional batch (static) models and a system of similar volume where disinfectant residuals were maintained at constant levels (dynamic). In the latter, disinfectant was delivered through a hollow fibre cartridge from a slipstream of a full-scale (chloramine) or pilot (chlorine) water treatment plant. The test organisms (hepatitis A virus, poliovirus, MS-2, Mycobacterium terrae and Enterococcus durans) were selected with different resistance to the disinfectants. In general, for water of "good" quality, the differences between the two systems were often small or not apparent for monochloramine. However, for low chlorine residuals, or when additional demand was placed on the disinfectant, differences between the two systems became more apparent. Little difference was seen between disinfection of the test organisms singly or in mixtures, but injury of vegetative bacteria with monochloramine was very apparent. This system could be useful for understanding the fluctuations in disinfection efficacy that may occur in source water of varying quality, or in distribution systems, as disinfectant residuals decline. PMID:11464744

  13. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  14. Tech-Prep/Associate Degree Program Guide: Tech Prep Associate Degree Program, Business Administration Associate Degree Program, Office Administration Associate Degree Program, Allied Health Associate Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmaras, Judy; Neri, Pat

    The Tech-Prep Associate Degree Program (TPAD) at the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) in Warwick, is a high school/community college partnership providing high school students with an alternative program of study focused on goal setting, basic academic skills development, and the skills needed to pursue a career in a technical, business or…

  15. Hydrologic characterization of desert soils with varying degrees of pedogenesis: 2. Inverse modeling for eff ective properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirus, B.B.; Perkins, K.S.; Nimmo, J.R.; Singha, K.

    2009-01-01

    To understand their relation to pedogenic development, soil hydraulic properties in the Mojave Desert were investi- gated for three deposit types: (i) recently deposited sediments in an active wash, (ii) a soil of early Holocene age, and (iii) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. Eff ective parameter values were estimated for a simplifi ed model based on Richards' equation using a fl ow simulator (VS2D), an inverse algorithm (UCODE-2005), and matric pressure and water content data from three ponded infi ltration experiments. The inverse problem framework was designed to account for the eff ects of subsurface lateral spreading of infi ltrated water. Although none of the inverse problems converged on a unique, best-fi t parameter set, a minimum standard error of regression was reached for each deposit type. Parameter sets from the numerous inversions that reached the minimum error were used to develop probability distribu tions for each parameter and deposit type. Electrical resistance imaging obtained for two of the three infi ltration experiments was used to independently test fl ow model performance. Simulations for the active wash and Holocene soil successfully depicted the lateral and vertical fl uxes. Simulations of the more pedogenically developed Pleistocene soil did not adequately replicate the observed fl ow processes, which would require a more complex conceptual model to include smaller scale heterogeneities. The inverse-modeling results, however, indicate that with increasing age, the steep slope of the soil water retention curve shitis toward more negative matric pressures. Assigning eff ective soil hydraulic properties based on soil age provides a promising framework for future development of regional-scale models of soil moisture dynamics in arid environments for land-management applications. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  16. Learning and memory in the forced swimming test: effects of antidepressants having varying degrees of anticholinergic activity.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Nurhan; Yamantürk-Çelik, Pınar; Nurten, Asiye; Güney, Dilvin Berrak

    2016-07-01

    The antidepressant-induced reduction in immobility time in the forced swimming test may depend on memory impairment due to the drug's anticholinergic efficacy. Therefore, the present study evaluated learning and memory of the immobility response in rats after the pretest and test administrations of antidepressants having potent, comparatively lower, and no anticholinergic activities. Immobility was measured in the test session performed 24 h after the pretest session. Scopolamine and MK-801, which are agents that have memory impairing effects, were used as reference drugs for a better evaluation of the memory processes in the test. The pretest administrations of imipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (7.5 and 15 mg/kg), trazodone (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg), and moclobemide (10 and 20 mg/kg) were ineffective, whereas the pretest administrations of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time suggesting impaired "learning to be immobile" in the animals. The test administrations of imipramine (30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (15 mg/kg), moclobemide (10 mg/kg), scopolamine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time, which suggested that the drugs exerted antidepressant activity or the animals did not recall that attempting to escape was futile. The test administrations of trazodone (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) produced no effect on immobility time. Even though the false-negative and positive responses made it somewhat difficult to interpret the findings, this study demonstrated that when given before the pretest antidepressants with or without anticholinergic activity seemed to be devoid of impairing the learning process in the test. PMID:27037827

  17. Comparative analysis of extractable proteins from Clostridium perfringens type A and type C strains showing varying degree of virulence.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Pratistha; Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Kumar, Om; Kumar, Ravi Bhushan

    2015-10-01

    The prevailing scenario of bioterrorism warrants development of medical countermeasures with expanded coverage of select agents. Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen of medical, veterinary and military importance, and has been listed as Validated Biological Agent. We employed 2DE-MS approach to identify a total of 134 unique proteins (529 protein spot features) from the extractable proteome of four type A and type C strains. Proteins showing altered expression under host-simulated conditions from virulent type A strain (ATCC13124) were also elucidated. Significant among the differentially expressed proteins were elongation factor, molecular chaperones, ribosomal proteins, carbamoyl phosphate synthase, clpB protein, choloylglycine hydrolase, phosphopyruvate hydratase, and trigger factor. Predictive elucidation, of putative virulence associated proteins and sequence conservation pattern of selected candidates, was carried out using homologous proteins from other bacterial select agents to screen for the commonality of putative antigenic determinants. Pathogens (17 select agents) were observed to form three discrete clusters; composition of I and II being consistent in most of the phylogenetic reconstructions. This work provides a basis for further validation of putative candidate proteins as prophylactic agents and for their ability to provide protection against clusters of pathogenic select bacterial agents; aimed at mitigating the shadows of biothreat. PMID:26238688

  18. A comparison of attitudes and exercise habits of alumni from colleges with varying degrees of physical education activity programs.

    PubMed

    Adams, T M; Brynteson, P

    1992-06-01

    A survey of alumni attitudes about their college physical education activity (PEA) program and current exercise habits was sent to a representative sample (N = 3169) of alumni who had graduated between 1970 and 1984 from four private colleges. The percent returned was 48, 31, 43, and 41 from Colleges A-D, respectively. Three of the four colleges had required PEA programs. College A had an eight-credit-hour requirement, College B required four credit-hours, College C required two credits, and College D did not have a PEA requirement. Results indicated a significant difference among the four colleges in the alumni's perceived value of their college PEA program in terms of its contribution to their knowledge about fitness, attitude towards fitness, and current exercise habits. Additionally, alumni differed in their perception of the health value of exercise and in their frequency of weekly exercise. When alumni exercise behaviors were quantified by aerobic points and classified according to type of activity, no statistically significant differences were found. The conclusion of the study was that the attitudes and exercise behaviors of alumni are related to the type of college PEA requirement; however, aerobic points earned are not affected. Students graduating from colleges with higher PEA requirements demonstrate more positive exercise attitudes and behaviors. PMID:1585061

  19. Nutrient and growth responses of Leersia oryzoides, rice cutgrass, to varying degrees of soil saturation and water nitrogen concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass) is an obligate wetland plant common to agricultural ditches. The objective of this greenhouse study was to quantify the allocation of nutrients and biomass to different plant components exposed to various soil moisture and aqueous N input regimes. Plants in the con...

  20. (Re-)Conceptualisation in Asperger's Syndrome and Typical Individuals with Varying Degrees of Autistic-Like Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Hollie G.; Jellema, Tjeerd

    2013-01-01

    The abilities to form new concepts from scratch (conceptualisation), and to flexibly switch from one concept to another (re-conceptualisation), were investigated in adults with Asperger's Syndrome and in typically-developed adults with low and high autism spectrum quotients. In consecutively presented morphs, containing increasing percentages of…

  1. Hydrologic characterization of desert soils with varying degrees of pedogenesis: 1. field experiments evaluating plant-relevant soil water behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Perkins, K.S.; Schmidt, K.M.; Miller, D.M.; Stock, J.D.; Singha, K.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the eff ect of pedogenesis on the soil moisture dynamics infl uencing the character and quality of ecological habitat, we conducted infi ltration and redistribution experiments on three alluvial deposits in the Mojave National Preserve: (i) recently deposited active wash sediments, (ii) a soil of early Holocene age, and (iii) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. At each, we ponded water in a 1-m-diameter infi ltration ring for 2.3 h and monitored soil water content and matric pressure during and atier infi ltration, using probes and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). Infi ltration and downward fl ow rates were greater in younger material, favoring deep-rooted species. Deep-rooted species tend to colonize the margins of washes, where they are unaff ected by sediment transport that inhibits colonization. The ERI results support important generalizations, for example that shallower than 0.5 m, infi ltrated water persists longer in highly developed soil, favoring shallow-rooted species. Soil moisture data for the two youngest soils suggested that saturation overshoot, which may have signifi cant but unexplored hydroecologic and pedogenic eff ects, occurred at the horizontally advancing weting front. Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties generally increased with pedogenic development. Evidence suggested that some early-stage developmental processes may promote uniformity; the intermediate- age soil appeared to have the least heterogeneity in terms of textural variation with depth, and also the least anisotropy. Lateral heterogeneity was pronounced in older soil, having a multitude of eff ects on the distribution and retention of soil water, and may facilitate certain water-conserving strategies of plants over what would be possible in a laterally homogeneous soil. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  2. Structural Design Considerations for Tubular Power Tower Receivers Operating at 650 Degrees C: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Neises, T. W.; Wagner, M. J.; Gray, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    Research of advanced power cycles has shown supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles may have thermal efficiency benefits relative to steam cycles at temperatures around 500 - 700 degrees C. To realize these benefits for CSP, it is necessary to increase the maximum outlet temperature of current tower designs. Research at NREL is investigating a concept that uses high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide as the heat transfer fluid to achieve a 650 degrees C receiver outlet temperature. At these operating conditions, creep becomes an important factor in the design of a tubular receiver and contemporary design assumptions for both solar and traditional boiler applications must be revisited and revised. This paper discusses lessons learned for high-pressure, high-temperature tubular receiver design. An analysis of a simplified receiver tube is discussed, and the results show the limiting stress mechanisms in the tube and the impact on the maximum allowable flux as design parameters vary. Results of this preliminary analysis indicate an underlying trade-off between tube thickness and the maximum allowable flux on the tube. Future work will expand the scope of design variables considered and attempt to optimize the design based on cost and performance metrics.

  3. Exploiting spatiotemporal degrees of freedom for far-field subwavelength focusing using time reversal in fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Matthieu; Lemoult, Fabrice; Fink, Mathias; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2016-05-01

    Materials which possess a high local density of states varying at a subwavelength scale theoretically permit the focusing of waves onto focal spots much smaller than the free space wavelength. To do so, metamaterials—manmade composite media exhibiting properties not available in nature—are usually considered. However, this approach is limited to narrow bandwidths due to their resonant nature. Here, we prove that it is possible to use a fractal resonator alongside time reversal to focus microwaves onto λ /15 subwavelength focal spots from the far field, on extremely wide bandwidths. We first numerically prove that this approach can be realized using a multiple-channel time reversal mirror that utilizes all the degrees of freedom offered by the fractal resonator. Then, we experimentally demonstrate that this approach can be drastically simplified by coupling the fractal resonator to a complex medium, here a cavity, that efficiently converts its spatial degrees of freedom into temporal ones. This makes it possible to achieve deep subwavelength focusing of microwave radiation by time reversing a single channel. Our method can be generalized to other systems coupling complex media and fractal resonators.

  4. A case of reversible third-degree AV block due to Lyme carditis.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Stefan A J; Boswijk, Dirk J; Kimman, Geert P; Germans, Tjeerd

    2016-01-01

    The most common manifestation of Lyme carditis is a varying degree of atrioventricular (AV) conduction block. This case describes a 45-year-old male with third-degree AV block due to Lyme carditis. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics resulted in complete normalization of AV conduction, thereby averting permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:27215649

  5. The Perceived Degree Satisfaction and Job Preparedness of On-Campus and Distance Campus Graduates from the Bachelor of Science in Interdisciplinary Studies Degree Program at Mississippi State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Michael Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that perceived degree satisfaction and perceived job preparedness are related to positive experiences from undergraduate degree programs. Research also suggests that perceived levels of degree satisfaction and job preparedness may vary based on whether the student was a traditional or nontraditional student. Therefore the purpose…

  6. Area of 360 degree color panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This portion of the 360-degree gallery panorama shows Pathfinder's rear ramp, the rock Barnacle Bill at left, and rover tracks leading up to the large rock Yogi. Rover Sojourner is seen using its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument to study Yogi's composition. Rover tracks and circular patterns in the soil are from Sojourner's soil mechanics experiments, in which varying amounts of pressure were applied to the rover's wheels in order to determine physical properties of the soil. The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over sols 8, 9, and 10, using the red, green and blue filters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  7. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  8. Chiral Sensor for Enantiodiscrimination of Varied Acids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huayin; Bian, Guangling; Zong, Hua; Wang, Yabai; Yang, Shiwei; Yue, Huifeng; Song, Ling; Fan, Hongjun

    2016-06-01

    A chiral thiophosphoroamide 4 derived from (1R,2R)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane is used as a highly effective chiral sensor for the chiral recognition of varied acids via ion-pairing and hydrogen-bonding interactions using (1)H, (19)F and (31)P NMR. PMID:27192021

  9. Regularizing cosmological singularities by varying physical constants

    SciTech Connect

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Marosek, Konrad E-mail: k.marosek@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2013-02-01

    Varying physical constant cosmologies were claimed to solve standard cosmological problems such as the horizon, the flatness and the Λ-problem. In this paper, we suggest yet another possible application of these theories: solving the singularity problem. By specifying some examples we show that various cosmological singularities may be regularized provided the physical constants evolve in time in an appropriate way.

  10. The Varied Uses of Readability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward

    Readability formulas have varied uses. In education they are used to match children's reading ability to the difficulty level of material, select stories and books for classroom use and for individual students' particular needs, select textbooks and other reading materials, aid educational research, and check reading materials of newly literate…

  11. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  12. Components in time-varying graphs.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis. PMID:22757508

  13. Components in time-varying graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

  14. Examining Charter Student Achievement Effects across Seven States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Ron; Gill, Brian; Booker, Kevin; Lavertu, Stephane; Witte, John

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, charter schools have been a lighting rod for controversy, with much of the debate revolving around their effectiveness in improving student achievement. Previous research has shown mixed results for student achievement; this could be the consequence of different policy environments or varying methodological approaches with…

  15. University Access and After: Explaining the Social Composition of Degree Programmes and the Contrasting Expectations of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troiano, Helena; Elias, Marina

    2014-01-01

    University expansion in higher education has been hierarchically differentiated. There is some concentration of certain social profiles in some degrees of study, so social composition between degrees can vary considerably. This article describes in terms of social composition 10 degrees of four public universities in the metropolitan area of…

  16. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  17. Doctorate nursing degree in Spain

    PubMed Central

    López-Montesinos, Mª José; Maciá-Soler, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Analytical and descriptive study of the process of change being experienced in the Spanish university system over the last decade (2005-2014). OBJECTIVE: To describe the structural changes occurring in Nursing Education in Spain, reaching access to doctoral studies from the European Convergence Process and the subsequent legislative development. METHODOLOGY: Bibliographical review of royal decrees and reference literature on the subject of study and descriptive analysis of the situation. RESULTS: Carries various changes suffered in the curricula of nursing education in the last decade, the legislation of the European Higher Education sets the guidelines for current studies of Masters and Doctorates. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the Master and Doctorate stages after a basic degree, which is now possible with the new legislation. A formal beginning made of scientific nursing in order to generate their own lines of research led by Doctors of nursing who can integrate in research groups under the same condition as other researcher, yet now, from the nursing discipline itself. PMID:26312628

  18. Efficient Encoding and Rendering of Time-Varying Volume Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Smith, Diann; Shih, Ming-Yun; Shen, Han-Wei

    1998-01-01

    Visualization of time-varying volumetric data sets, which may be obtained from numerical simulations or sensing instruments, provides scientists insights into the detailed dynamics of the phenomenon under study. This paper describes a coherent solution based on quantization, coupled with octree and difference encoding for visualizing time-varying volumetric data. Quantization is used to attain voxel-level compression and may have a significant influence on the performance of the subsequent encoding and visualization steps. Octree encoding is used for spatial domain compression, and difference encoding for temporal domain compression. In essence, neighboring voxels may be fused into macro voxels if they have similar values, and subtrees at consecutive time steps may be merged if they are identical. The software rendering process is tailored according to the tree structures and the volume visualization process. With the tree representation, selective rendering may be performed very efficiently. Additionally, the I/O costs are reduced. With these combined savings, a higher level of user interactivity is achieved. We have studied a variety of time-varying volume datasets, performed encoding based on data statistics, and optimized the rendering calculations wherever possible. Preliminary tests on workstations have shown in many cases tremendous reduction by as high as 90% in both storage space and inter-frame delay.

  19. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  20. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    SciTech Connect

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-04

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  1. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  2. Force Measurements of a varying camber hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najdzin, Derek; Bardet, Philippe M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2013-11-01

    The swimming motion of cetaceans (dolphins, whales) is capable of producing large amounts of thrust as observed in nature. This project aims to determine the propulsive efficiency of this swimming motion through force and power measurements. A mechanism was constructed to replicate this motion by applying a combination of pitching and heaving motions to a varying camber hydrofoil. A novel force balance allows the measurement of three direction force and moments as the fin oscillates. A range of Reynolds and Strouhal numbers were tested to identify the most efficient conditions. Allowing the camber of the hydrofoil to vary has shown to increase lift generated, while generating similar thrust forces when compared to a constant camber hydrofoil.

  3. Learning Time-Varying Coverage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nan; Liang, Yingyu; Balcan, Maria-Florina; Song, Le

    2015-01-01

    Coverage functions are an important class of discrete functions that capture the law of diminishing returns arising naturally from applications in social network analysis, machine learning, and algorithmic game theory. In this paper, we propose a new problem of learning time-varying coverage functions, and develop a novel parametrization of these functions using random features. Based on the connection between time-varying coverage functions and counting processes, we also propose an efficient parameter learning algorithm based on likelihood maximization, and provide a sample complexity analysis. We applied our algorithm to the influence function estimation problem in information diffusion in social networks, and show that with few assumptions about the diffusion processes, our algorithm is able to estimate influence significantly more accurately than existing approaches on both synthetic and real world data. PMID:25960624

  4. Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, M. R.

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant, in flat and non-flat background geometry. We extract the exact differential equations determining the evolution of the dark energy density-parameter, which include G-variation correction terms. Performing a low-redshift expansion of the dark energy equation of state, we provide the involved parameters as functions of the current density parameters, of the holographic dark energy constant and of the G-variation.

  5. The Complex Case of Positioning the Foundation Degree: Making Sense of a Degree That Is Not a Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadembo, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    The Foundation degree was launched in 2001 and has enjoyed growth but remains a controversial qualification. Foundation Degree Forward, the body charged by the UK government with providing a "national network or expertise to support the development and validation of high-quality Foundation degrees" is championing the marketing of the…

  6. Physics Graduate Degrees: Results from the Enrollments and Degrees & the Degree Recipient Follow-Up Surveys. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2011-01-01

    Each fall the Statistical Research Center conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the US and Puerto Rico to provide information concerning the number of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In the academic year 2007-08 there were 252…

  7. TEACH (Train to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maulitz, Russell; Santarelli, Thomas; Barnieu, Joanne; Rosenzweig, Larry; Yi, Na Yi; Zachary, Wayne; OConnor, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Personnel from diverse ethnic and demographic backgrounds come together in both civilian and military healthcare systems, facing diagnoses that at one level are equalizers: coronary disease is coronary disease, breast cancer is breast cancer. Yet the expression of disease in individuals from different backgrounds, individual patient experience of disease as a particular illness, and interactions between patients and providers occurring in any given disease scenario, all vary enormously depending on the fortuity of the equation of "which patient happens to arrive in whose exam room." Previously, providers' absorption of lessons-learned depended on learning as an apprentice would when exposed over time to multiple populations. As a result, and because providers are often thrown into situations where communications falter through inadequate direct patient experience, diversity in medicine remains a training challenge. The questions then become: Can simulation and virtual training environments (VTEs) be deployed to short-track and standardize this sort of random-walk problem? Can we overcome the unevenness of training caused by some providers obtaining the valuable exposure to diverse populations, whereas others are left to "sink or swim"? This paper summarizes developing a computer-based VTE called TEACH (Training to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare). TEACH was developed to enhance healthcare providers' skills in delivering culturally sensitive care to African-American women with breast cancer. With an authoring system under development to ensure extensibility, TEACH allows users to role-play in clinical oncology settings with virtual characters who interact on the basis of different combinations of African American sub-cultural beliefs regarding breast cancer. The paper reports on the roll-out and evaluation of the degree to which these interactions allow providers to acquire, practice, and refine culturally appropriate communication skills and to

  8. Elliptical varied line-space (EVLS) gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Roger J.

    2004-10-01

    Imaging spectroscopy at wavelengths below 2000 Å offers an especially powerful method for studying many extended high-temperature astronomical objects, like the Sun and its outer layers. But the technology to make such measurements is also especially challenging, because of the poor reflectance of all standard materials at these wavelengths, and because the observation must be made from above the absorbing effects of the Earth's atmosphere. To solve these problems, single-reflection stigmatic spectrographs for XUV wavelengths have bee flown on several space missions based on designs with toroidal uniform line-space (TULS) or spherical varied line-space (SVLS) gratings that operate at near normal-incidence. More recently, three solar EUV/UV instruments have been selected that use toroidal varied line-space (TVLS) gratings; these are SUMI and RAISE, both sounding rocket payloads, and NEXUS, a SMEX satellite-mission. The next logical extension to such designs is the use of elliptical surfaces for varied line-space (EVLS) rulings. In fact, EVLS designs are found to provide superior imaging even at very large spectrograph magnifications and beam-speeds, permitting extremely high-quality performance in remarkably compact instrument packages. In some cases, such designs may be optimized even further by using a hyperbolic surface for the feeding telescope. The optical characteristics of two solar EUV spectrometers based on these concepts are described: EUS and EUI, both being developed as possible instruments for ESA's Solar Orbiter mission by consortia led by RAL and by MSSL, respectively.

  9. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. PMID:21143474

  10. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  11. Flutter calculations in three degrees of freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Garrick, I E

    1942-01-01

    The present paper is a continuation of the general study of flutter published in NACA reports nos. 496 and 685. The paper is mainly devoted to flutter in three degrees of freedom (bending, torsion, and aileron) for which a number of selected cases have been calculated and presented in graphical form. The results are analyzed and discussed with regard to the effects of structural damping, of fractional-span ailerons, and of mass-balancing. The analysis shows that more emphasis should be put on the effect of structural damping and less on mass-balancing. The conclusion is drawn that a definite minimum amount of structural damping, which is usually found to be present, is essential in the calculations for an adequate description of the flutter case. Theoretical flutter predictions are thus brought into closer agreement with the facts of experience. A brief discussion is included of a particular biplane that had experienced flutter at about 200 miles per hour. Some simplifications have been achieved in the method of calculation. (author)

  12. Attenuation of the Squared Canonical Correlation Coefficient under Varying Estimates of Score Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Celia M.

    2010-01-01

    Research pertaining to the distortion of the squared canonical correlation coefficient has traditionally been limited to the effects of sampling error and associated correction formulas. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of attenuation of the squared canonical correlation coefficient under varying conditions of score reliability.…

  13. Effects of Varying Interactive Strategies Provided by Computer-Based Tutorials for a Software Application Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiemann, Philip W.; Markle, Susan M.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of interaction in computer-based tutorials (CBT) focuses on a study that compared the performance of adult learners from training with three CBTs that varied the level of interactivity. The degrees of learner control, system control, and domain control are discussed, and the Lotus spreadsheet tutorials used are described. (24…

  14. FLAVONOIDS OF ZOYSIAGRASS (ZOYSIA SPP) CULTIVARS VARYING IN FALL ARMYWORM (SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA)RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous cultivars of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp) have been developed for the turf industry in the United States. These cultivars have varying degrees of biotic and abiotic stress tolerances. One pest of importance to zoysiagrass is the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith). Cultivars suc...

  15. Optimal satisfaction degree in energy harvesting cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zan; Liu, Bo-Yang; Si, Jiang-Bo; Zhou, Fu-Hui

    2015-12-01

    A cognitive radio (CR) network with energy harvesting (EH) is considered to improve both spectrum efficiency and energy efficiency. A hidden Markov model (HMM) is used to characterize the imperfect spectrum sensing process. In order to maximize the whole satisfaction degree (WSD) of the cognitive radio network, a tradeoff between the average throughput of the secondary user (SU) and the interference to the primary user (PU) is analyzed. We formulate the satisfaction degree optimization problem as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. The satisfaction degree optimization problem is solved by using differential evolution (DE) algorithm. The proposed optimization problem allows the network to adaptively achieve the optimal solution based on its required quality of service (Qos). Numerical results are given to verify our analysis. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61301179), the Doctorial Programs Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20110203110011), and the 111 Project (Grant No. B08038).

  16. Sources and Information on Transfer Associate Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayon, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of articles about the effects of transfer associate degrees and related statewide transfer and articulation policies. It also provides links to transfer degree legislation in several states.

  17. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related...

  18. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related...

  19. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related...

  20. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related...

  1. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related...

  2. An object-based approach to delineate wetlands across landscapes of varied disturbance with high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mui, Amy; He, Yuhong; Weng, Qihao

    2015-11-01

    Mapping wetlands across both natural and human-altered landscapes is important for the management of these ecosystems. Though they are considered important landscape elements providing both ecological and socioeconomic benefits, accurate wetland inventories do not exist in many areas. In this study, a multi-scale geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) approach was employed to segment three high spatial resolution images acquired over landscapes of varying heterogeneity due to human-disturbance to determine the robustness of this method to changing scene variability. Multispectral layers, a digital elevation layer, normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI) layer, and a first-order texture layer were used to segment images across three segmentation scales with a focus on accurate delineation of wetland boundaries and wetland components. Each ancillary input layer contributed to improving segmentation at different scales. Wetlands were classified using a nearest neighbor approach across a relatively undisturbed park site and an agricultural site using GeoEye1 imagery, and an urban site using WorldView2 data. Successful wetland classification was achieved across all study sites with an accuracy above 80%, though results suggest that overall a higher degree of landscape heterogeneity may negatively affect both segmentation and classification. The agricultural site suffered from the greatest amount of over and under segmentation, and lowest map accuracy (kappa: 0.78) which was partially attributed to confusion among a greater proportion of mixed vegetated classes from both wetlands and uplands. Accuracy of individual wetland classes based on the Canadian Wetland Classification system varied between each site, with kappa values ranging from 0.64 for the swamp class and 0.89 for the marsh class. This research developed a unique approach to mapping wetlands of various degrees of disturbance using GEOBIA, which can be applied to study other wetlands of similar

  3. Induction Heating of Hypervelocity Impact Samples to 2500 Degrees Centigrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Joshua; Pardo, Art; Henderson, Don; Rodriguez, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The Remote Hypervelocity Test Laboratory (RHTL) at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was asked to heat samples up to 2500 degrees Centigrade (4532 degrees Fahrenheit) to simulate reentry scenarios of crafts where heated shields are impacted with single small particles ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 millimeters (.008 to.039 inches) of various materials. The team decided an electromagnetic induction (induction heater) was the best method to achieve and control the temperatures in a rapid manner. The samples consisted of three-dimensional carbon-carbon and two-dimensional carbon-phenolic, which are both electrically conductive. After several attempts the team was able to achieve over 2500 degrees Centigrade (4532 degrees Fahrenheit) in ambient atmosphere. When the system was moved to the target chamber and the vacuum system evacuated down to 250 millitorr, arcing occurred between the bus bars and tank, the feedthrough fittings that carried the coolant and current, and between the target sample and coil. To overcome this arcing, conformal coatings, room temperature vulcanization (RTV) silicone, and other non-conductive materials were used to isolate the electromagnetic fields.

  4. First Professional Degree Awards to Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.

    Changes in the percentage representation of women among recipients of first professional degrees are examined between the academic years 1970-71 and 1975-76. The data were collected through the annual Survey of Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred. A first professional degree is one that "signifies completion of the academic requirements for…

  5. The Top 100 Bachelor's Degree Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Each year in the Top 100 series, researchers highlight the institutions that confer the most degrees to students of color. In this edition, they focus on the most prevalent degree conferred: the bachelor's degree. Among the types of colleges and universities that they examine--those that have Title IV status (recognized by the U.S. Department of…

  6. The Top 100: Graduate Degrees Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2010-01-01

    To advance to the highest level of most professional and technical careers, an individual needs more than a bachelor's degree. The post-baccalaureate degrees recognized in this edition of "Diverse"--master's, doctoral and first professional degrees--are more than just tickets to better-paying jobs. They provide the skills and credentials needed…

  7. How Adult Online Graduates Portray Their Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated how adult graduates of online Bachelor's degree programs describe the online aspect of their degree. Online education is promoted as a method for adult students to access the benefits of a college degree. Therefore, it is important for prospective online students, higher education institutions and…

  8. Profile of the Nontraditional Doctoral Degree Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    What type of individual pursues a nontraditional doctoral degree? Although answering this question is the main purpose of this chapter, there is an underlying story that provides context for how and why these individuals came to pursue a doctoral degree. The tremendous growth in the number of doctoral students and doctoral degree-granting…

  9. A User Guide to 360 Degree Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, David

    1996-01-01

    Describes 360-degree feedback that provides performance data from multiple points of reference. Topics include reasons for performance improvement; what needs improvement; how to improve; choosing a reliable 360-degree instrument; and applications of 360-degree feedback, including personal development, team development, change, and needs…

  10. Engineering and Technology Degrees, 1972-73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, John D.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the 1972-73 degree statistics broken down by curriculum and degree for four levels of engineering and four of technology programs. Included are a summary of degree statistics science 1949 and a list of United States engineering schools with the number of graduates and the control and accreditation status reported. (CC)

  11. Early Adolescents' Enjoyment Experienced in Learning Situations at School and Its Relation to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagenauer, Gerda; Hascher, Tina

    2014-01-01

    While many studies confirm that positive emotions, including enjoyment, lead to better student achievement, less empirical evidence exists about possible mediator variables that link achievement to enjoyment. It is proposed that achievement and enjoyment form a circular dependency; enjoyment in learning leads to higher achievement but a degree of…

  12. Optimum design of ninety degree bends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modi, Vijay; Cabuk, Hayri; Huan, Jian-Chun; Quadracci, Richard

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm for the optimum design of an internal flow component to obtain the maximum pressure rise is presented. Maximum pressure rise in a duct with simultaneous turning and diffusion is shown to be related to the control of flow separation on the passage walls. Such a flow is usually associated with downstream conditions that are desirable in turbomachinery and propulsion applications to ensure low loss and stable performance. The algorithm requires the solution of an 'adjoint' problem in addition to the 'direct' equations governing the flow in a body, which in the present analysis are assumed to be the laminar Navier-Stokes equations. The theoretical framework and computational algorithms presented in this study are for the steady Navier-Stokes equations. A procedure is developed for the numerical solution of the adjoint equations. This procedure is coupled with a direct solver in a design iteration loop, that provides a new shape with a higher pressure rise. This procedure is first validated for the design of optimum plane diffusers in two-dimensional flow. The direct Navier-Stokes and the 'adjoint' equations are solved using a finite volume formulation for spatial discretization in an artificial compressibility framework. A simplified version of the above approach is then utilized to design ninety degree diffusing bends. Calculations were carried out for a mean radius ratio at inlet of 2.5 and Reynolds numbers varying from 100 to 500. While at this stage laminar flows is assumed, it is shown that a similar approach can be conceived for turbulent flows.

  13. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibret, B.; Premaratne, M.; Lewis, P. M.; Thomson, R.; Fitzgerald, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications.

  14. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  15. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  16. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  17. Controlling Contagion Processes in Time Varying Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Suyu; Perra, Nicola; Karsai, Marton; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    The vast majority of strategies aimed at controlling contagion and spreading processes on networks consider the connectivity pattern of the system as quenched. In this paper, we consider the class of activity driven networks to analytically evaluate how different control strategies perform in time-varying networks. We consider the limit in which the evolution of the structure of the network and the spreading process are simultaneous yet independent. We analyze three control strategies based on node's activity patterns to decide the removal/immunization of nodes. We find that targeted strategies aimed at the removal of active nodes outperform by orders of magnitude the widely used random strategies. In time-varying networks however any finite time observation of the network dynamics provides only incomplete information on the nodes' activity and does not allow the precise ranking of the most active nodes as needed to implement targeted strategies. Here we develop a control strategy that focuses on targeting the egocentric time-aggregated network of a small control group of nodes.The presented strategy allows the control of spreading processes by removing a fraction of nodes much smaller than the random strategy while at the same time limiting the observation time on the system.

  18. Varying execution discipline to increase performance

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.L.; Maccabe, A.B.

    1993-12-22

    This research investigates the relationship between execution discipline and performance. The hypothesis has two parts: 1. Different execution disciplines exhibit different performance for different computations, and 2. These differences can be effectively predicted by heuristics. A machine model is developed that can vary its execution discipline. That is, the model can execute a given program using either the control-driven, data-driven or demand-driven execution discipline. This model is referred to as a ``variable-execution-discipline`` machine. The instruction set for the model is the Program Dependence Web (PDW). The first part of the hypothesis will be tested by simulating the execution of the machine model on a suite of computations, based on the Livermore Fortran Kernel (LFK) Test (a.k.a. the Livermore Loops), using all three execution disciplines. Heuristics are developed to predict relative performance. These heuristics predict (a) the execution time under each discipline for one iteration of each loop and (b) the number of iterations taken by that loop; then the heuristics use those predictions to develop a prediction for the execution of the entire loop. Similar calculations are performed for branch statements. The second part of the hypothesis will be tested by comparing the results of the simulated execution with the predictions produced by the heuristics. If the hypothesis is supported, then the door is open for the development of machines that can vary execution discipline to increase performance.

  19. Infinite-degree-corrected stochastic block model.

    PubMed

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel N; Mørup, Morten

    2014-09-01

    In stochastic block models, which are among the most prominent statistical models for cluster analysis of complex networks, clusters are defined as groups of nodes with statistically similar link probabilities within and between groups. A recent extension by Karrer and Newman [Karrer and Newman, Phys. Rev. E 83, 016107 (2011)] incorporates a node degree correction to model degree heterogeneity within each group. Although this demonstrably leads to better performance on several networks, it is not obvious whether modeling node degree is always appropriate or necessary. We formulate the degree corrected stochastic block model as a nonparametric Bayesian model, incorporating a parameter to control the amount of degree correction that can then be inferred from data. Additionally, our formulation yields principled ways of inferring the number of groups as well as predicting missing links in the network that can be used to quantify the model's predictive performance. On synthetic data we demonstrate that including the degree correction yields better performance on both recovering the true group structure and predicting missing links when degree heterogeneity is present, whereas performance is on par for data with no degree heterogeneity within clusters. On seven real networks (with no ground truth group structure available) we show that predictive performance is about equal whether or not degree correction is included; however, for some networks significantly fewer clusters are discovered when correcting for degree, indicating that the data can be more compactly explained by clusters of heterogenous degree nodes. PMID:25314493

  20. Energy-to-peak state estimation for Markov jump RNNs with time-varying delays via nonsynchronous filter with nonstationary mode transitions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixian; Zhu, Yanzheng; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the problem of energy-to-peak state estimation for a class of discrete-time Markov jump recurrent neural networks (RNNs) with randomly occurring nonlinearities (RONs) and time-varying delays is investigated. A practical phenomenon of nonsynchronous jumps between RNNs modes and desired mode-dependent filters is considered, and a nonstationary mode transition among the filters is used to model the nonsynchronous jumps to different degrees that are also mode dependent. The RONs are used to model a class of sector-like nonlinearities that occur in a probabilistic way according to a Bernoulli sequence. The time-varying delays are supposed to be mode dependent and unknown, but with known lower and upper bounds a priori. Sufficient conditions on the existence of the nonsynchronous filters are obtained such that the filtering error system is stochastically stable and achieves a prescribed energy-to-peak performance index. Further to the recent study on the class of nonsynchronous estimation problem, a monotonicity is observed in obtaining filtering performance index, while changing the degree of nonsynchronous jumps. A numerical example is presented to verify the theoretical findings. PMID:25576580

  1. On the thermalization achieved in the reactions involving superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Rajni

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we aim to explore the role of Coulomb potential on the thermalization achieved in the reactions involving superheavy nuclei. Particularly, we shall study the degree of the equilibrium attained in a reaction by the 3D density plots, anisotropy ratio as well as by the rapidity distribution of the nucleons. Our study reveals that the degree of the equilibrium attained in the central reactions of the superheavy nuclei remains unaffected by the Coulomb potential.

  2. Perceptions of Community of Associate Degree Nurse Learners in an RN-to-BSN Online Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebar, Cherie R.

    2010-01-01

    Registered Nurses (RNs), when educated in an Associate Degree (AD) program, learn in a face-to-face environment. Today's preferred standard of education for RNs is to achieve a minimum of a Bachelor's degree. For convenience while they continue working, numerous AD-prepared nurses seek online education to complete their Bachelor of Science in…

  3. Experimental Evidence on the Effect of Childhood Investments on Postsecondary Attainment and Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan; Hyman, Joshua; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of early childhood investments on college enrollment and degree completion. We used the random assignment in Project STAR (the Tennessee Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio experiment) to estimate the effect of smaller classes in primary school on college entry, college choice, and degree completion. We improve on…

  4. The varying nature of fluorine oxygen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julia, Timothy J. Lee; Rice Christopher, E.; Dateo, E.

    The singles and doubles coupled cluster method that includes a per turbational estimate of the effects of connected triple excitations CCSD T together with a triple zeta double polarized TZ2P one particle basis set is used to determine the geometries harmonic frequencies infrared intensities and dipole moments of HOF F O HOOF FOOF ClOOF Agreement with experiment is very good with the exception that the currently accepted experimental assignment of the symmetric and antisymmetric O F stretches in FOOF is shown to be reversed and to be consistent with an earlier experimental study Very accurate heats of formation of HOOF FOOF and ClOOF are also computed using the CCSD T method in conjunction with large atomic natural orbital basis sets The F O bond distances quadratic force constants bond energies and fluorine and oxygen atomic charges from the above five molecules and six previously studied molecules FONO trans FONO cis FONO FOCl FOBr and FON are compared and used to deduce a simple model of F O bonding The unusual relationship between the F O bond distance and quadratic force constant shows that F O bonding is a function of at least three effects which are degree of covalent character degree of ionic character and extent of lone electron pair repulsions All of the data are qualitatively consistent with this simple model The bonding in cis FONO is even more complicated involving also dispersion interactions between fluorine and the terminal oxygen It is suggested that the general importance of lone pair repulsions in F O bonding and the additional importance of intra molecular dispersion interactions explains why many density functionals have difficulty in describing the geometry of cis FONO

  5. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  6. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  7. Development of a medical academic degree system in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lijuan; Wang, Youxin; Peng, Xiaoxia; Song, Manshu; Guo, Xiuhua; Nelson, Hugh; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Context The Chinese government launched a comprehensive healthcare reform to tackle challenges to health equities. Medical education will become the key for successful healthcare reform. Purpose We describe the current status of the Chinese medical degree system and its evolution over the last 80 years. Content Progress has been uneven, historically punctuated most dramatically by the Cultural Revolution. There is a great regional disparity. Doctors with limited tertiary education may be licensed to practice, whereas medical graduates with advanced doctorates may have limited clinical skills. There are undefined relationships between competing tertiary training streams, the academic professional degree, and the clinical residency training programme (RTP). The perceived quality of training in both streams varies widely across China. As the degrees of master or doctor of academic medicine is seen as instrumental in career advancement, including employability in urban hospitals, attainment of this degree is sought after, yet is often unrelated to a role in health care, or is seen as superior to clinical experience. Meanwhile, the practical experience gained in some prestigious academic institutions is deprecated by the RTP and must be repeated before accreditation for clinical practice. This complexity is confusing both for students seeking the most appropriate training, and also for clinics, hospitals and universities seeking to recruit the most appropriate applicants. Conclusion The future education reforms might include: 1) a domestic system of ‘credits’ that gives weight to quality clinical experience vs. academic publications in career advancement, enhanced harmonisation between the competing streams of the professional degree and the RTP, and promotion of mobility of staff between areas of excellence and areas of need; 2) International – a mutual professional and academic recognition between China and other countries by reference to the Bologna Accord

  8. Varied Clinical Manifestations of Amebic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Chad J; Fleming, Rhonda; Boman, Darius A; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    Invasive amebiasis is common worldwide, but infrequently observed in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We review the clinical and endoscopic manifestations of amebic colitis to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations of this potentially life-threatening disease. Copyright ©Most patients present with watery or bloody diarrhea. Less common presentations of amebic colitis include abdominal pain, overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, or the incidental association with colon cancer. Amebic liver abscesses are the most frequent complication. Rectosigmoid involvement may be found on colonoscopy; however, most case series have reported that the cecum is the most commonly involved site, followed by the ascending colon. Endoscopic evaluation should be used to assist in the diagnosis, with attention to the observation of colonic inflammation, ulceration, and amebic trophozoites on histopathological examination. PMID:26539949

  9. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Amit; Kumar, Manish; Senthilkumaran, P.; Joseph, Joby

    2016-04-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  10. Climate dynamics: Why does climate vary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, climate change has become a major focus of public and political discussion. Ongoing scientific inquiry, revolving predominantly around understanding the anthropogenic effects of rising greenhouse gas levels, coupled with how successfully findings are communicated to the public, has made climate science both contentious and exigent. In the AGU monograph Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary?, editors De-Zheng Sun and Frank Bryan reinforce the importance of investigating the complex dynamics that underlie the natural variability of the climate system. Understanding this complexity—particularly how the natural variability of climate may enhance or mask anthropogenic warming—could have important consequences for the future. In this interview, Eos talks to De-Zheng Sun.

  11. Fractional diffusions with time-varying coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garra, Roberto; Orsingher, Enzo; Polito, Federico

    2015-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the fractionalized diffusion equations governing the law of the fractional Brownian motion BH(t). We obtain solutions of these equations which are probability laws extending that of BH(t). Our analysis is based on McBride fractional operators generalizing the hyper-Bessel operators L and converting their fractional power Lα into Erdélyi-Kober fractional integrals. We study also probabilistic properties of the random variables whose distributions satisfy space-time fractional equations involving Caputo and Riesz fractional derivatives. Some results emerging from the analysis of fractional equations with time-varying coefficients have the form of distributions of time-changed random variables.

  12. Experiences from a Varied Career in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, Katherine

    2006-04-01

    I received my doctorate in Experimental High Energy Physics from Michigan State Univeristy. My thesis was based on my work with QCD jet physics at the D0 collider experiment at Fermi National Laboratory. My first postdoctoral position was with Oxford University working on solar neutrino oscillations at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Following this, I joined what is now the Nuclear Nonproliferation Safeguards, Science and Technology group (N-1) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Over this time, I've worked on a wide range of physics topics in a wide range of physical and social environments. I would like to share some of the experiences I've had working in such varied environment and the thoughts that have guided me on my path that eventually led me from basic research to a more applied field.

  13. Varying ghost dark energy and particle creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, M.

    2016-02-01

    One of the models of dark energy is the ghost dark energy, which has a geometrical origin. Recently, a certain type of phenomenological modification of ghost dark energy has been suggested which motivated us for this work. The goal of this paper is twofold. First, we would like to study the cosmological scenario involving interacting varying ghost dark energy. A cosmographic analysis of a non-interacting model is also performed. Then, we study the particle creation following the straight analogy between quantization in Minkowski background and canonical quantization of a scalar field in curved dynamical backgrounds. Particular attention will be paid to massless-particle production from a radiation-dominated universe (according to our toy model) which evolves to our large-scale universe. Constraints on the parameters of the models obtained during the cosmographic analysis did allow to demonstrate the possibility of a massless-particle creation in a radiation-dominated universe.

  14. Random walk with an exponentially varying step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, A. C.; Maltz, A.; Mártin, H. O.; Catuogno, P.; García-Mata, I.

    2000-12-01

    A random walk with exponentially varying step, modeling damped or amplified diffusion, is studied. Each step is equal to the previous one multiplied by a step factor s (01/s relating different processes. For s<1/2 and s>2, the process is retrodictive (i.e., every final position can be reached by a unique path) and the set of all possible final points after infinite steps is fractal. For step factors in the interval [1/2,2], some cases result in smooth density distributions, other cases present overlapping self-similarity and there are values of the step factor for which the distribution is singular without a density function.

  15. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Dubey, Manvendra K; Lesins, Glen; Wang, Muyin

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  16. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  17. Fundamental Investigation of Circumferentially Varying Stator Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, John A. N.

    2011-12-01

    The fundamentals of circumferentially varying stator cascades and their interactions with a downstream fixed pitch propeller were investigated experimentally utilizing multiple measurement techniques. The flow physics associated with the isolated circumferentially varying, or cyclic, stator cascade was studied in a wind tunnel environment through string tuft flow visualization, 2-D PIV, Stereoscopic PIV, and static surface pressure measurements. The coupled wake physics of the cyclic stator cascade with propeller were then investigated in a water tunnel using Stereo PIV. Finally, the global performance of components and the coupled system were quantified through force and moment measurements on the model in the water tunnel. A cyclic distribution of the stators' deflections resulted in non-axisymmetric distributions of the surface pressure and the flow field downstream of the stator array. In the model near wake the flow field is associated with secondary flow patterns in the form of coherent streamwise vortical structures that can be described by potential flow mechanisms. The collective pitch distribution of the stators produces a flow field that resembles a potential Rankine vortex, whereas the cyclic pitch distribution generates a flow pattern that can be described by a potential vortex pair in a cross flow. The stator distribution alone produces a significant side force that increases linearly with stator pitch amplitude. When a propeller is incorporated downstream from the cyclic cascade the side force from the stator cascade is reduced, but a small vertical force and pitching moment are created. The generation of these secondary forces and moments can be related to the redistribution of the tangential flow from the cyclic cascade into the axial direction by the retreating and advancing blade states of the fixed pitch propeller.

  18. Progress report on the design of a varying temperature irradiation experiment for operation in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A.L.; Muroga, T.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to determine effects of temperature variation during irradiation on microstructure and mechanical properties of potential fusion reactor structural materials. A varying temperature irradiation experiment is being performed under the framework of the Japan-USA Program of Irradiation Tests for fusion Research (JUPITER) to study the effects of temperature variation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of candidate fusion reactor structural materials. An irradiation capsule has been designed for operation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will allow four sets of metallurgical test specimens to be irradiated to exposure levels ranging from 5 to 10 dpa. Two sets of specimens will be irradiated at constant temperature of 500{degrees}C and 350{degrees}C. Matching specimen sets will be irradiated to similar exposure levels, with 10% of the exposure to occur at reduced temperatures of 300{degrees}C and 200{degrees}C.

  19. Parallel Rendering of Large Time-Varying Volume Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbutt, Alexander E.

    2005-01-01

    Interactive visualization of large time-varying 3D volume datasets has been and still is a great challenge to the modem computational world. It stretches the limits of the memory capacity, the disk space, the network bandwidth and the CPU speed of a conventional computer. In this SURF project, we propose to develop a parallel volume rendering program on SGI's Prism, a cluster computer equipped with state-of-the-art graphic hardware. The proposed program combines both parallel computing and hardware rendering in order to achieve an interactive rendering rate. We use 3D texture mapping and a hardware shader to implement 3D volume rendering on each workstation. We use SGI's VisServer to enable remote rendering using Prism's graphic hardware. And last, we will integrate this new program with ParVox, a parallel distributed visualization system developed at JPL. At the end of the project, we Will demonstrate remote interactive visualization using this new hardware volume renderer on JPL's Prism System using a time-varying dataset from selected JPL applications.

  20. Shrinkage Estimation of Varying Covariate Effects Based On Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Limin; Xu, Jinfeng; Kutner, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Varying covariate effects often manifest meaningful heterogeneity in covariate-response associations. In this paper, we adopt a quantile regression model that assumes linearity at a continuous range of quantile levels as a tool to explore such data dynamics. The consideration of potential non-constancy of covariate effects necessitates a new perspective for variable selection, which, under the assumed quantile regression model, is to retain variables that have effects on all quantiles of interest as well as those that influence only part of quantiles considered. Current work on l1-penalized quantile regression either does not concern varying covariate effects or may not produce consistent variable selection in the presence of covariates with partial effects, a practical scenario of interest. In this work, we propose a shrinkage approach by adopting a novel uniform adaptive LASSO penalty. The new approach enjoys easy implementation without requiring smoothing. Moreover, it can consistently identify the true model (uniformly across quantiles) and achieve the oracle estimation efficiency. We further extend the proposed shrinkage method to the case where responses are subject to random right censoring. Numerical studies confirm the theoretical results and support the utility of our proposals. PMID:25332515

  1. Size-varying small target detection for infrared image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Ran; Long, Yunli; An, Wei; Zhou, Yiyu

    2015-10-01

    IRST (Infrared Search and Track) has been applied to many military or civil fields such as precise guidance, aerospace, early warning. As a key technique, small target detection based on infrared image plays an important role. However, infrared targets have their own characteristics, such as target size variation, which make the detection work quite difficult. In practical application, the target size may vary due to many reasons, such as optic angle of sensors, imaging distance, environment and so on. For conventional detection methods, it is difficult to detect such size-varying targets, especially when the backgrounds have strong clutters. This paper presents a novel method to detect size-varying infrared targets in a cluttered background. It is easy to find that the target region is salient in infrared images. It means that target region have a signature of discontinuity with its neighboring regions and concentrates in a relatively small region, which can be considered as a homogeneous compact region, and the background is consistent with its neighboring regions. Motivated by the saliency feature and gradient feature, we introduce minimum target intensity (MTI) to measure the dissimilarity between different scales, and use mean gradient to restrict the target scale in a reasonable range. They are integrated to be multiscale MTI filter. The proposed detection method is designed based on multiscale MTI filter. Firstly, salient region is got by morphological low-pass filtering, where the potential target exists in. Secondly, the candidate target regions are extracted by multiscale minimum target intensity filter, which can effectively give the optimal target size. At last, signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) is used to segment targets, which is computed based on optimal scale of candidate targets. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve both higher detection precision and robustness in complex background.

  2. Bayesian Variable Selection for Multivariate Spatially-Varying Coefficient Regression

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Brian J.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Herring, Amy H.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Physical activity has many well-documented health benefits for cardiovascular fitness and weight control. For pregnant women, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists currently recommends 30 minutes of moderate exercise on most, if not all, days; however, very few pregnant women achieve this level of activity. Traditionally, studies have focused on examining individual or interpersonal factors to identify predictors of physical activity. There is a renewed interest in whether characteristics of the physical environment in which we live and work may also influence physical activity levels. We consider one of the first studies of pregnant women that examines the impact of characteristics of the built environment on physical activity levels. Using a socioecologic framework, we study the associations between physical activity and several factors including personal characteristics, meteorological/air quality variables, and neighborhood characteristics for pregnant women in four counties of North Carolina. We simultaneously analyze six types of physical activity and investigate cross-dependencies between these activity types. Exploratory analysis suggests that the associations are different in different regions. Therefore we use a multivariate regression model with spatially-varying regression coefficients. This model includes a regression parameter for each covariate at each spatial location. For our data with many predictors, some form of dimension reduction is clearly needed. We introduce a Bayesian variable selection procedure to identify subsets of important variables. Our stochastic search algorithm determines the probabilities that each covariate’s effect is null, non-null but constant across space, and spatially-varying. We found that individual level covariates had a greater influence on women’s activity levels than neighborhood environmental characteristics, and some individual level covariates had spatially-varying associations with

  3. Teaching First Degree Functions - Experiment, Free Software and Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, Denilso; Rocha, Josy

    2011-07-01

    This work provides students the opportunity to develop the ability to establish relationships between different fields of knowledge through activities involving mathematics and physics. We engage students in a series of activities that lead them to understand the concept of function, particularly the first-degree function and its applications. We begin the study of the functions with an experimental approach that links the study of uniform motion in physics to the study of the first degree function in the mathematics. Winplot software is subsequently used to consolidate the concept of the function, as well as analyse the effect on the graph of varying the parameters in the equation that describes it. Finally, students are invited to select and analyse graphs from published sources (e.g. newspapers and magazines) applying the skills developed.

  4. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  5. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  6. Assembly for Rutherford backscattering at exactly 180{degree}

    SciTech Connect

    Ellmer, H.; Fischer, W.; Klose, A.; Semrad, D.

    1996-05-01

    We describe a facility which allows us to measure projectiles scattered at an angle arbitrarily near 180{degree}. The backscattered projectiles are deflected in the horizontal plane out of the incoming beam by a combination of electric and magnetic fields. The charged particles, which are spatially dispersed according to their energy, are detected by a cooled 300 mm{sup 2} ion implanted silicon detector. By a judicious choice of the relative strength of both fields we ensure that the essential parts of the spectrum will not be distorted due to an energy dependent percentage of projectiles missing the detector. As the projectiles are also dispersed according to their charge state we are able to distinguish between, e.g., singly and doubly charged He projectiles as they hit the detector at different positions. The detector can be moved in the vertical direction to continuously vary the backscattering angle between 180{degree} and 178.5{degree}. This experimental result shows for the first time the angular range to which the 180{degree} enhancement is confined. Such a device is ideally suited for investigating single crystals by uniaxial channeling blocking. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  8. Core temperature response to immersed bicycle ergometer exercise at water temperatures of 21 degrees, 25 degrees, and 29 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Israel, D J; Heydon, K M; Edlich, R F; Pozos, R S; Wittmers, L E

    1989-01-01

    A bicycle ergometer modified for aquatic exercise was used to determine the effects of immersion on core temperature during submaximal exercise at different water temperatures. An exercise intensity (60% of maximal oxygen consumption) and duration (30 minutes) considered appropriate for cardiovascular conditioning were used. These data will be useful in cardiovascular and leg-strengthening hydrotherapy programs. Rectal temperature, skin temperature, and a rating of thermal comfort were studied in five normal men (14.8% +/- 5.6% fat) during headout immersion at water temperatures of 21.1 degrees, 25.3 degrees, and 29.4 degrees C and exercise in air of 21.1 degrees C. Subjects were immersed for 30 minutes during static and exercise (63% +/- 0.6% maximal oxygen consumption) conditions. Data were collected every 5 minutes and analyzed by repeated measured analysis of variance. At water temperatures, rectal temperature fell from control during static immersion (p less than or equal to 0.05) and was lower than control at the end of the 30-minute recovery period (p less than or equal to 0.05). During exercise there was no change in rectal temperature at water temperatures of 21.1 degrees and 25.3 degrees C; however, rectal temperature rose at water temperatures of 29.4 degrees (p less than or equal to 0.05) and air 21.1 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.05). At the end of recovery rectal temperature was lower than control at water temperatures 21.1 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.05) and greater than control at water temperatures 29.4 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.05). There was no change from control in rectal temperatures at water temperatures 25.3 degrees C and air at 21.1 degrees C. These results indicate that immersion in 25.3 degrees and 21.1 degrees C water effectively attenuates the rise in rectal temperature during exercise at 63% of maximal oxygen consumption, whereas immersion in 29.4 degrees C water does not. In addition, both skin and rectal

  9. Degree landscapes in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsen, Jacob Bock; Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Rosvall, Martin; Sneppen, Kim; Trusina, Ala

    2006-09-01

    We generalize the degree-organizational view of real-world networks with broad degree distributions in a landscape analog with mountains (high-degree nodes) and valleys (low-degree nodes). For example, correlated degrees between adjacent nodes correspond to smooth landscapes (social networks), hierarchical networks to one-mountain landscapes (the Internet), and degree-disassortative networks without hierarchical features to rough landscapes with several mountains. To quantify the topology, we here measure the widths of the mountains and the separation between different mountains. We also generate ridge landscapes to model networks organized under constraints imposed by the space the networks are embedded in, associated to spatial or in molecular networks to functional localization.

  10. The Top 100 Associate Degrees Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Academic year 2009-2010 was a banner year for associate degree conferrals in the United States. In just one year, the total number of degrees awarded increased from slightly less than 790,000 to nearly 850,000, an increase of 8 percent. Minorities receive one-third of all associate degrees conferred in the U.S., with nearly equal numbers going to…

  11. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  12. Strong coupling problem with time-varying sound speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin

    2011-10-01

    For a single scalar field with unit sound speed minimally coupled to Einstein gravity, there are exactly three distinct cosmological solutions which produce a scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations in a dynamical attractor background, assuming vacuum initial conditions: slow-roll inflation; a slowly contracting adiabatic ekpyrotic phase, described by a rapidly-varying equation of state; and an adiabatic ekpyrotic phase on a slowly expanding background. Of these three, only inflation remains weakly coupled over a wide range of modes, while the other scenarios can produce at most 12 e-folds of scale invariant and Gaussian modes. In this paper, we investigate how allowing the speed of sound of fluctuations to evolve in time affects this classification. While in the presence of a variable sound speed there are many more scenarios which are scale invariant at the level of the two-point function, they generically suffer from strong coupling problems similar to those in the canonical case. There is, however, an exceptional case with superluminal sound speed, which suppresses non-Gaussianities and somewhat alleviates strong coupling issues. We focus on a particular realization of this limit and show these scenarios are constrained and only able to produce at most 28 e-folds of scale invariant and Gaussian perturbations. A similar bound should hold more generally—the condition results from the combined requirements of matching the observed amplitude of curvature perturbations, demanding that the Hubble parameter remain sub-Planckian and keeping non-Gaussianities under control. We therefore conclude that inflation remains the unique cosmological scenario, assuming a single degree of freedom on an attractor background, capable of producing arbitrarily many scale invariant modes while remaining weakly coupled. Alternative mechanisms must inevitably be unstable or rely on multiple degrees of freedom.

  13. Bacterial Communities Vary between Sinuses in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Joss, Tom V.; Burke, Catherine M.; Hudson, Bernard J.; Darling, Aaron E.; Forer, Martin; Alber, Dagmar G.; Charles, Ian G.; Stow, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common and potentially debilitating disease characterized by inflammation of the sinus mucosa for longer than 12 weeks. Bacterial colonization of the sinuses and its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is an ongoing area of research. Recent advances in culture-independent molecular techniques for bacterial identification have the potential to provide a more accurate and complete assessment of the sinus microbiome, however there is little concordance in results between studies, possibly due to differences in the sampling location and techniques. This study aimed to determine whether the microbial communities from one sinus could be considered representative of all sinuses, and examine differences between two commonly used methods for sample collection, swabs, and tissue biopsies. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was applied to both swab and tissue samples from multiple sinuses of 19 patients undergoing surgery for treatment of CRS. Results from swabs and tissue biopsies showed a high degree of similarity, indicating that swabbing is sufficient to recover the microbial community from the sinuses. Microbial communities from different sinuses within individual patients differed to varying degrees, demonstrating that it is possible for distinct microbiomes to exist simultaneously in different sinuses of the same patient. The sequencing results correlated well with culture-based pathogen identification conducted in parallel, although the culturing missed many species detected by sequencing. This finding has implications for future research into the sinus microbiome, which should take this heterogeneity into account by sampling patients from more than one sinus. PMID:26834708

  14. Effective degrees of freedom: a flawed metaphor

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Lucas; Fithian, William; Hastie, Trevor J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary To most applied statisticians, a fitting procedure’s degrees of freedom is synonymous with its model complexity, or its capacity for overfitting to data. In particular, it is often used to parameterize the bias-variance tradeoff in model selection. We argue that, on the contrary, model complexity and degrees of freedom may correspond very poorly. We exhibit and theoretically explore various fitting procedures for which degrees of freedom is not monotonic in the model complexity parameter, and can exceed the total dimension of the ambient space even in very simple settings. We show that the degrees of freedom for any non-convex projection method can be unbounded. PMID:26977114

  15. An Analysis of Java Programming Behaviors, Affect, Perceptions, and Syntax Errors among Low-Achieving, Average, and High-Achieving Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Andallaza, Thor Collin S.; Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G.; Armenta, Marc Lester V.; Dy, Thomas T.; Jadud, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we quantitatively and qualitatively analyze a sample of novice programmer compilation log data, exploring whether (or how) low-achieving, average, and high-achieving students vary in their grasp of these introductory concepts. High-achieving students self-reported having the easiest time learning the introductory programming…

  16. Does the Newtonian Gravity "Constant" G Vary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noerdlinger, Peter D.

    2015-08-01

    A series of measurements of Newton's gravity constant, G, dating back as far as 1893, yielded widely varying values, the variation greatly exceeding the stated error estimates (Gillies, 1997; Quinn, 2000, Mohr et al 2008). The value of G is usually said to be unrelated to other physics, but we point out that the 8B Solar Neutrino Rate ought to be very sensitive. Improved pulsar timing could also help settle the issue as to whether G really varies. We claim that the variation in measured values over time (1893-2014 C.E.) is a more serious problem than the failure of the error bars to overlap; it appears that challenging or adjusting the error bars hardly masks the underlying disagreement in central values. We have assessed whether variations in the gravitational potential due to (for example) local dark matter (DM) could explain the variations. We find that the required potential fluctuations could transiently accelerate the Solar System and nearby stars to speeds in excess of the Galactic escape speed. Previous theories for the variation in G generally deal with supposed secular variation on a cosmological timescale, or very rapid oscillations whose envelope changes on that scale (Steinhardt and Will 1995). Therefore, these analyses fail to support variations on the timescale of years or spatial scales of order parsecs, which would be required by the data for G. We note that true variations in G would be associated with variations in clock rates (Derevianko and Pospelov 2014; Loeb and Maoz 2015), which could mask changes in orbital dynamics. Geringer-Sameth et al (2014) studied γ-ray emission from the nearby Reticulum dwarf galaxy, which is expected to be free of "ordinary" (stellar, black hole) γ-ray sources and found evidence for DM decay. Bernabei et al (2003) also found evidence for DM penetrating deep underground at Gran Sasso. If, indeed, variations in G can be tied to variations in gravitational potential, we have a new tool to assess the DM density.

  17. Prevalence and degree of bother from pelvic floor disorders in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Emily L.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Nager, Charles W.; Luber, Karl M.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence and bother from pelvic floor disorders (PFD) by obesity severity, hypothesizing that both would increase with higher degrees of obesity. We performed a secondary analysis of 1,155 females enrolled in an epidemiologic study that used a validated questionnaire to identify PFD. Prevalence and degree of bother were compared across three obesity groups. Logistic regression assessed the contribution of degree of obesity to the odds of having PFD. Prevalence of any PFD was highest in morbidly (57%) and severely (53%) obese compared to obese women (44%). Regression models demonstrated higher prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse, overactive bladder, stress urinary incontinence, and any PFD in morbidly compared to obese women and higher prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in severely obese compared to obese women. Degree of bother did not vary by degree of obesity. Prevalence of PFD increases with higher degrees of obesity. PMID:19002365

  18. Color enhanced version of 360-degree panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a 'geometrically improved, color enhanced' version of the 360-degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

    The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image. The color was digitally balanced according to the color transmittance capability of a high-resolution TV at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and is dependent on that device. In this color enhanced version of the panorama, detail in surface features are brought out via changes to saturation and intensity, holding the original hue constant. A threshold was applied to avoid changes to the sky.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. On the horizon the double 'Twin Peaks' are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock 'Couch' is the dark, curved rock at right of Twin Peaks. Another Lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock 'Barnacle Bill', which scientists found to be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a

  19. Improved MPF 360-degree Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This is a more recent 'geometrically improved, color enhanced' version of the 360-degree 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama. In this version of the panorama, much of the discontinuity that was due to parallax has been corrected, particularly along the lower tiers of the mosaic containing the Lander features. Distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this panorama.

    The three color images were first digitally balanced according to the transmittance capabilities of a specific high-definition TV device at JPL, and then enhanced via changes to saturation and intensity while retaining the hue. A threshold was applied to avoid changes to the sky. An MTF filter was applied to sharpen feature edges.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. On the horizon the double 'Twin Peaks' are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock 'Couch' is the dark, curved rock at right of Twin Peaks. Another Lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock 'Barnacle Bill', which scientists found be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a volcanic rock (a true andesite) or a physical mixture of particles. Just beyond Barnacle Bill, rover tracks

  20. Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

  1. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  2. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  3. Microsatellites in varied arenas of research

    PubMed Central

    Remya, K. S.; Joseph, Sigimol; Lakshmi, P. K.; Akhila, S.

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) or short-tandem repeats (STRs), represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world. PMID:21814449

  4. Device for varying engine valve timing

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, K.

    1988-07-05

    A device is described for angularly displacing a camshaft relative to the crankshaft of an IC engine to vary the engine valve timing, comprising; a hub member; means to attach the hub member to the engine crankshaft; a drive member rotatably mounted on the hub member, and means connecting the drive member in driving relationship with the engine crankshaft; an advancing member; a first means interconnecting the advancing member with the hub member affecting limited axial movement of the advancing member relative to the hub member; a second means interconnecting the advancing member with the drive member which upon axial movement of the advancing member causes limited rotation of the drive member relative to the hub member; an annular means mounted on the hub member, the advancing member mounted on the annular means; coacting meshing means formed in part on the annular means for moving the advancing member axially relative to the hub upon limited rotation of the annular means relative to the hub; and a non-rotational retarder means which when actuated applies a retarding torque to the annular means causing limited rotation of the annular means relative to the hub and thus cause the advancing member to move axially of the hub whereby the drive member is moved a limited angular distance relative to the hub member.

  5. Vector curvaton with varying kinetic function

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Karciauskas, Mindaugas; Wagstaff, Jacques M.

    2010-01-15

    A new model realization of the vector curvaton paradigm is presented and analyzed. The model consists of a single massive Abelian vector field, with a Maxwell-type kinetic term. By assuming that the kinetic function and the mass of the vector field are appropriately varying during inflation, it is shown that a scale-invariant spectrum of superhorizon perturbations can be generated. These perturbations can contribute to the curvature perturbation of the Universe. If the vector field remains light at the end of inflation it is found that it can generate substantial statistical anisotropy in the spectrum and bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. In this case the non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbation is predominantly anisotropic, which will be a testable prediction in the near future. If, on the other hand, the vector field is heavy at the end of inflation then it is demonstrated that particle production is approximately isotropic and the vector field alone can give rise to the curvature perturbation, without directly involving any fundamental scalar field. The parameter space for both possibilities is shown to be substantial. Finally, toy models are presented which show that the desired variation of the mass and kinetic function of the vector field can be realistically obtained, without unnatural tunings, in the context of supergravity or superstrings.

  6. Enhancement of fluoroscopic images with varying contrast.

    PubMed

    Ozanian, T O; Phillips, R

    2001-04-01

    A heuristic algorithm for enhancement of fluoroscopic images of varying contrast is proposed. The new technique aims at identifying a suitable type of enhancement for different locations in an image. The estimation relies on simple preliminary classification of image parts into one of the following types: uniform, sharp (with sufficient contrast), detail-containing (structure present) and unknown (for the cases where it is difficult to make a decision). Different smoothing techniques are applied locally in the different types of image parts. For those parts that are classified as detail-containing, probable object boundaries are identified and local sharpening is carried out to increase the contrast at these places. The adopted approach attempts to improve the quality of an image by reducing available noise and simultaneously increasing the contrast at probable object boundaries without increasing the overall dynamic range. In addition, it allows noise to be cleaned, that at some locations is stronger than the fine structure at other locations, whilst preserving the details. PMID:11223147

  7. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  8. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  9. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  10. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  11. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    different volcanic disturbances were attributable to varying degrees of mortality and subsequent availability of substrate, quantity of light and removal of competitors. While sensitive to disturbance, lichens are apparently resilient to and can quickly recolonize after a variety of large, violent volcanic disturbances.

  12. Practitioner-Focused Degrees in Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, John

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to explore practitioner-focused degrees in politics. It begins by defining the term and outlining the key features in comparison to other politics degrees. The underlying pedagogical principles that inform the design of teaching, learning, and assessment are then explored, before the article moves on to discuss the development of…

  13. The Top 100: Graduate Degrees Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.; Hu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Master's and doctoral degrees are required credentials for entry into the professional class. Although they do not guarantee the recipient an intrinsically rewarding career or a position of leadership, it is increasingly difficult to attain those positions without a graduate degree. The representation of persons of color among graduate degree…

  14. The Top 100 Associate Degrees Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 250,000 students of color received associate degrees in academic year 2008-09. This represents 30 percent of all associate degree recipients, which is just slightly below the 33 percent representation of these racial/ethnic groups in the general U.S. population. In this edition of the Top 100 series, researchers highlight the institutions…

  15. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Deborah H.; And Others

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the number of bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded in academic year 1981-82 from 72 United States institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented as well are historical data for the last decade…

  16. Experiencing Higher Degree Research Supervision as Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This article describes higher degree research supervisors' experiences of supervision as teaching. While research education is considered central to the higher degree research experience, comparatively little is known to date of the teaching lenses adopted by supervisors as they go about their supervision. We worked with 35 supervisors…

  17. Competency-Based Business Degree. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2015, thirteen Washington community colleges launched an online, competency-based business transfer degree--the first in the state's community and technical college system. This issue brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the new competency-based degree.

  18. New High in Engineering Degree Production. Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Several of the state's key industry sectors depend heavily on employees with advanced scientific, analytic and technical knowledge. Among the fields closely related to these sectors, engineering degrees have posted the largest gain. This paper presents details on the following facts: (1) 2009 represented a record high for engineering degrees; (2)…

  19. Improving Performance with 360-Degree Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santeusanio, Richard

    1998-01-01

    A Connecticut superintendent convinced his staff to try 360-degree feedback by using it first on himself. Having the collective opinion of several stakeholders made appraisal conference more meaningful. Additionally, 360-degree feedback identified and measured standards, stimulated collegiality and trust among administrators and teachers,…

  20. Master's Degree Studies: Expectations versus Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanepoel, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, higher education in South Africa has been affected drastically by transformation. An issue that has specifically been influenced is master's degrees. A significant increase in the demand for access to course work master's degrees has been experienced, while universities themselves have been confronted with a new…

  1. First Degrees by Part-Time Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styler, W. E.

    Degrees granted for part-time study are minimal in Britain and have been mainly awarded by London University. A small amount of part-time degree work is also carried on by Goldsmiths' College, West Ham College of Technology, and the Universities of Manchester, Durham, and Belfast. The establishment of the National Council for Academic Awards has…

  2. An Evaluation of a Degree Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinero, C. Mar; Portilla, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    Employs a sample of 140 graduates from 2 subject areas (economics and accounting/management science) at Southampton University (England) to investigate the university's degree classification system using various statistical analysis techniques. Since students perform best in core subjects, those with little variety in degree courses have…

  3. Adult Degrees and the Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehl, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This overview of the adult degree movement since World War II focuses on factors of creation before 1970, the adult degree revolution of the 1970s, the post-baby boomer enrollments in the 1980s, and globalization and technology-based distance learning in the 1990s.

  4. The Top 100 Bachelor's Degrees Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents this year's Top 100 institutions that conferred the most bachelor's degrees to students of color in academic year 2009-2010. It shows the total number of bachelor's degrees for a specific minority group or for total minorities, with subtotals for women and men in that ethnic group. The author also includes the prior year…

  5. The Doctorate: Talking about the Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinham, Steve; Scott, Catherine

    This qualitative study examined experiences of 139 individuals with doctoral degrees to identify factors that inhibit and/or facilitate students' success in doctoral programs. The study used an e-mail survey which asked about personal background, entry/structure of degree, university/other support, supervision of program, the process, and overall…

  6. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  7. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  8. The Maryland nuclear science baccalaureate degree program: The utility perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    In the early 1980s, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (WPSC) made a firm commitment to pursue development and subsequent delivery of an appropriate, academically accredited program leading to a baccalaureate degree in nuclear science for its nuclear operations personnel. Recognizing the formidable tasks to be accomplished, WPSC worked closely with the University of Maryland University College (UMUC) in curriculum definition, specific courseware development for delivery by computer-aided instruction, individual student evaluation, and overall program implementation. Instruction began on our nuclear plant site in the fall of 1984. The university anticipates conferring the first degrees from this program at WPSC in the fall of 1989. There are several notable results that WPSC achieved from this degree program. First and most importantly, an increase in the level of education of our employees. It should be stated that this program has been well received by WPSC operator personnel. These employees, now armed with plant experience, a formal degree in nuclear science, and professional education in management are real candidates for advancement in our nuclear organization.

  9. Audibility of time-varying signals in time-varying backgrounds: Model and data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Brian C. J.; Glasberg, Brian R.

    2001-05-01

    We have described a model for calculating the partial loudness of a steady signal in the presence of a steady background sound [Moore et al., J. Audio Eng. Soc. 45, 224-240 (1997)]. We have also described a model for calculating the loudness of time-varying signals [B. R. Glasberg and B. C. J. Moore, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 50, 331-342 (2002)]. These two models have been combined to allow calculation of the partial loudness of a time-varying signal in the presence of a time-varying background. To evaluate the model, psychometric functions for the detection of a variety of time-varying signals (e.g., telephone ring tones) have been measured in a variety of background sounds sampled from everyday listening situations, using a two-alternative forced-choice task. The different signals and backgrounds were interleaved, to create stimulus uncertainty, as would occur in everyday life. The data are used to relate the detectability index, d', to the calculated partial loudness. In this way, the model can be used to predict the detectability of any signal, based on its calculated partial loudness. [Work supported by MRC (UK) and by Nokia.

  10. How specific halide adsorption varies hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Stock, Philipp; Müller, Melanie; Utzig, Thomas; Valtiner, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Hydrophobic interactions (HI) are driven by the water structure around hydrophobes in aqueous electrolytes. How water structures at hydrophobic interfaces and how this influences the HI was subject to numerous studies. However, the effect of specific ion adsorption on HI and hydrophobic interfaces remains largely unexplored or controversial. Here, the authors utilized atomic force microscopy force spectroscopy at well-defined nanoscopic hydrophobic interfaces to experimentally address how specific ion adsorption of halide ions as well as NH4 (+), Cs(+), and Na(+) cations alters interaction forces across hydrophobic interfaces. Our data demonstrate that iodide adsorption at hydrophobic interfaces profoundly varies the hydrophobic interaction potential. A long-range and strong hydration repulsion at distances D > 3 nm, is followed by an instability which could be explained by a subsequent rapid ejection of adsorbed iodides from approaching hydrophobic interfaces. In addition, the authors find only a weakly pronounced influence of bromide, and as expected no influence of chloride. Also, all tested cations do not have any significant influence on HI. Complementary, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quartz-crystal-microbalance with dissipation monitoring showed a clear adsorption of large halide ions (Br(-)/I(-)) onto hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Interestingly, iodide can even lead to a full disintegration of SAMs due to specific and strong interactions of iodide with gold. Our data suggest that hydrophobic surfaces are not intrinsically charged negatively by hydroxide adsorption, as it was generally believed. Hydrophobic surfaces rather interact strongly with negatively charged large halide ions, leading to a surface charging and significant variation of interaction forces. PMID:26753786

  11. Saccadic adaptation to a systematically varying disturbance.

    PubMed

    Cassanello, Carlos R; Ohl, Sven; Rolfs, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Saccadic adaptation maintains the correct mapping between eye movements and their targets, yet the dynamics of saccadic gain changes in the presence of systematically varying disturbances has not been extensively studied. Here we assessed changes in the gain of saccade amplitudes induced by continuous and periodic postsaccadic visual feedback. Observers made saccades following a sequence of target steps either along the horizontal meridian (Two-way adaptation) or with unconstrained saccade directions (Global adaptation). An intrasaccadic step-following a sinusoidal variation as a function of the trial number (with 3 different frequencies tested in separate blocks)-consistently displaced the target along its vector. The oculomotor system responded to the resulting feedback error by modifying saccade amplitudes in a periodic fashion with similar frequency of variation but lagging the disturbance by a few tens of trials. This periodic response was superimposed on a drift toward stronger hypometria with similar asymptotes and decay rates across stimulus conditions. The magnitude of the periodic response decreased with increasing frequency and was smaller and more delayed for Global than Two-way adaptation. These results suggest that-in addition to the well-characterized return-to-baseline response observed in protocols using constant visual feedback-the oculomotor system attempts to minimize the feedback error by integrating its variation across trials. This process resembles a convolution with an internal response function, whose structure would be determined by coefficients of the learning model. Our protocol reveals this fast learning process in single short experimental sessions, qualifying it for the study of sensorimotor learning in health and disease. PMID:27098027

  12. Time varied gain functions for pulsed sonars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLennan, D. N.

    1986-11-01

    The time varied gain (TVG) of a sonar is intended to remove the range dependence of echo strength. The conventional "40 log R" and "20 log R" TVG functions, which apply to single and distributed targets respectively, provide exact compensation only at infinite range. At short range, the conventional functions are inexact due to bandwidth related delays and the change in receiver gain over a pulse length. The theory of echo formation is used to derive exact gain functions which make the echo energy integral independent of the target range. In the case of randomly distributed targets, the linear form of the exact function is shown to be ( t)= ct exp (α ct/2)√{(1- T 1/t ) 2-( T 2/t ) 2}, for sound speed c and absorption coefficient α. T1 and T2 are constants for a given sonar and target. The ct exp ( αct/2) term is equivalent to "20 log R+2 αR". The single target function is similarly the conventional function multiplied by a polynomial expression in 1/ t. Analytic functions are derived for systems with simple transfer functions. As the pulse length bandwidth product increases, the exact function tends to that of the wideband ideal system for which T1= T/2 and T2 = T/√(12), T being the transmitter pulse length. Exact TVG functions are derived numerically for two echo sounders used in fishery research and are compared with the measured gain variation. The TVG function realized in sonars may depart considerably from the exact form. Delaying the start of the TVG ramp may reduce the error. The delay required for exact compensation depends upon the target range and is at least half the pulse length.

  13. Time-varying long term memory in the European Union stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensoy, Ahmet; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a new efficiency index to model time-varying inefficiency in stock markets. We focus on European stock markets and show that they have different degrees of time-varying efficiency. We observe that the 2008 global financial crisis has an adverse effect on almost all EU stock markets. However, the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis has a significant adverse effect only on the markets in France, Spain and Greece. For the late members, joining EU does not have a uniform effect on stock market efficiency. Our results have important implications for policy makers, investors, risk managers and academics.

  14. Virtual displays for 360-degree video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Stephen; Boonsuk, Wutthigrai; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach for comparing users' spatial cognition when using different depictions of 360- degree video on a traditional 2D display. By using virtual cameras within a game engine and texture mapping of these camera feeds to an arbitrary shape, we were able to offer users a 360-degree interface composed of four 90-degree views, two 180-degree views, or one 360-degree view of the same interactive environment. An example experiment is described using these interfaces. This technique for creating alternative displays of wide-angle video facilitates the exploration of how compressed or fish-eye distortions affect spatial perception of the environment and can benefit the creation of interfaces for surveillance and remote system teleoperation.

  15. NARAC SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE: ADAPTING FORMALISM TO MEET VARYING NEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Nasstrom, J S; Homann, S G

    2007-11-20

    The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provides tools and services that predict and map the spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC is a full function system that can meet a wide range of needs with a particular focus on emergency response. The NARAC system relies on computer software in the form of models of the atmosphere and related physical processes supported by a framework for data acquisition and management, user interface, visualization, communications and security. All aspects of the program's operations and research efforts are predicated to varying degrees on the reliable and correct performance of this software. Consequently, software quality assurance (SQA) is an essential component of the NARAC program. The NARAC models and system span different levels of sophistication, fidelity and complexity. These different levels require related but different approaches to SQA. To illustrate this, two different levels of software complexity are considered in this paper. As a relatively simple example, the SQA procedures that are being used for HotSpot, a straight-line Gaussian model focused on radiological releases, are described. At the other extreme, the SQA issues that must be considered and balanced for the more complex NARAC system are reviewed.

  16. Temporal-varying failures of nodes in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Georgie; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2015-08-01

    We consider networks in which random walkers are removed because of the failure of specific nodes. We interpret the rate of loss as a measure of the importance of nodes, a notion we denote as failure centrality. We show that the degree of the node is not sufficient to determine this measure and that, in a first approximation, the shortest loops through the node have to be taken into account. We propose approximations of the failure centrality which are valid for temporal-varying failures, and we dwell on the possibility of externally changing the relative importance of nodes in a given network by exploiting the interference between the loops of a node and the cycles of the temporal pattern of failures. In the limit of long failure cycles we show analytically that the escape in a node is larger than the one estimated from a stochastic failure with the same failure probability. We test our general formalism in two real-world networks (air-transportation and e-mail users) and show how communities lead to deviations from predictions for failures in hubs.

  17. The Effect of Varied Cognitive Strategies Used to Complement Animated Instruction in Facilitating Achievement of Higher Order Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huifen; Dwyer, Francis; Swain, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of advance organizers and audio narrations used to complement animated instruction on tests measuring different educational objectives. One hundred forty-one participants were randomly assigned to five treatment groups, received their respective instructional presentation and completed four…

  18. Is yield increase sufficient to achieve food security in China?

    PubMed

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  19. Is Yield Increase Sufficient to Achieve Food Security in China?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  20. Electromechanical computing at 500 degrees C with silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Te-Hao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mehregany, Mehran

    2010-09-10

    Logic circuits capable of operating at high temperatures can alleviate expensive heat-sinking and thermal-management requirements of modern electronics and are enabling for advanced propulsion systems. Replacing existing complementary metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with silicon carbide (SiC) nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) switches is a promising approach for low-power, high-performance logic operation at temperatures higher than 300 degrees C, beyond the capability of conventional silicon technology. These switches are capable of achieving virtually zero off-state current, microwave operating frequencies, radiation hardness, and nanoscale dimensions. Here, we report a microfabricated electromechanical inverter with SiC complementary NEMS switches capable of operating at 500 degrees C with ultralow leakage current. PMID:20829479

  1. Academic Achievement of Red Deer College Students at Alberta Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, Charles Thomas

    The purpose of this study was to report on the academic achievement of Red Deer College transfer students at three Alberta Universities for 1968-1971. Transfer students were matched with native students from the universities using session year, year of program, degree sought, age, sex, and first year cumulative grade-point average. These matched…

  2. Self-Efficacy, Reasoning Ability, and Achievement in College Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.; Banks, Debra L.; Logvin, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the relationships of self-efficacy and reasoning ability to achievement in introductory college biology. Based on the hypothesis that developing formal and postformal reasoning ability is a primary factor influencing self-efficacy, a significant positive correlation was predicted between reasoning ability and degree of…

  3. A Pre-Kindergarten Achievement Gap? Scope and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Aubrey H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which achievement gaps existed among different ethnic and racial groups before kindergarten entry. Using published data on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study found statistically significant differences in language knowledge and skills, literacy knowledge and skills, and mathematics…

  4. Mathematics, Engineering Science Achievement (MESA). Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Growing Science, Technology, Education, and Mathematics (STEM) talent Washington MESA--Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement--helps under-represented community college students excel in school and ultimately earn STEM bachelor's degrees. MESA has two key programs: one for K-12 students, and the other for community and technical college…

  5. Peer Group Homogeneity in Adolescents' School Adjustment Varies According to Peer Group Type and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Aunola, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in terms of their school adjustment and whether this homogeneity varies according to peer group type and gender. A total of 1262 peer group members who had recently moved to post-comprehensive education filled in questionnaires measuring their academic achievement,…

  6. Differential Pressures on a Pitot-venturi and a Pitot-static Nozzle over 360 Degrees Pitch and Yaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bear, R M

    1928-01-01

    Measurements of the differential pressures on two navy air-speed nozzles, consisting of a Zahm type Pitot-Venturi tube and a SQ-16 two-pronged Pitot-static tube, in a tunnel air stream of fixed speed at various angles of pitch and yaw between 0 degrees and plus or minus 180 degrees. This shows for a range over -20 degrees to +20 degrees pitch and yaw, indicated air speeds varying very slightly over 2 per cent for the Zahm type and a maximum of about 5 per cent for the SQ-16 type from the calibrated speed at 0 degree. For both types of air-speed nozzle the indicated air speed increases slightly as the tubes are pitched or yawed several degrees from their normal 0 degrees altitude, attains a maximum around plus or minus 15 degrees to 25 degrees, declines rapidly therefrom as plus or minus 40 degrees is passed, to zero in the vicinity of plus or minus 70 degrees to 100 degrees, and thence fluctuates irregular from thereabouts to plus or minus 180 degrees. The complete variation in indicated air speed for the two tubes over 360 degree pitch and yaw is graphically portrayed in figures 9 and 10. For the same air speed and 0 degree pitch and yaw the differential pressure of the Zahm type Pitot-Venturi nozzle is about seven times that of the SQ-16 type two-prolonged Pitot-static nozzle.

  7. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  9. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  10. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  11. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  12. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  15. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  16. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  17. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  18. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  19. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  20. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  1. Assessing Degree of Susceptibility to Landslide Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.; Delgado, H.; Stefanescu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The modeling of hazardous mass flows, both dry and water saturated, is currently an area of active research and several stable models have now emerged that have differing degrees of physical and mathematical fidelity. Models based on the early work of Savage and Hutter (1989) assume that very large dense granular flows could be modeled as incompressible continua governed by a Coulomb failure criterion. Based on this concept, Patra et al. (2005) developed a code for dry avalanches, which proposes a thin layer mathematical model similar to shallow-water equations. This concept was implemented in the widely-used TITAN2D program, which integrates the shock-capturing Godunov solution methodology for the equation system. We propose a method to assess the susceptibility of specific locations susceptible to landslides following heavy tephra fall using the TIATN2D code. Successful application requires that the range of several uncertainties must be framed in the selection of model input data: 1) initial conditions, like volume and location of origin of the landslide, 2) bed and internal friction parameters and 3) digital elevation model (DEM) uncertainties. Among the possible ways of coping with these uncertainties, we chose to use Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). This statistical technique reduces a computationally intractable problem to such an extent that is it possible to apply it, even with current personal computers. LHS requires that there is only one sample in each row and each column of the sampling matrix, where each row (multi-dimensional) corresponds to each uncertainty. LHS requires less than 10% of the sample runs needed by Monte Carlo approaches to achieve a stable solution. In our application LHS output provides model sampling for 4 input parameters: initial random volumes, UTM location (x and y), and bed friction. We developed a simple Octave script to link the output of LHS with TITAN2D. In this way, TITAN2D can run several times with successively different

  2. The impact of degree of hearing loss on auditory brainstem response predictions of behavioral thresholds

    PubMed Central

    McCreery, Ryan W.; Kaminski, Jan; Beauchaine, Kathryn; Lenzen, Natalie; Simms, Kendell; Gorga, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    the difference between ABR and behavioral thresholds as a function of ABR threshold was compared to the predictive accuracy achieved by two other correction approaches in current clinical use. Results: As expected, ABR threshold was a significant predictor of behavioral threshold. The relationship between ABR and behavioral thresholds varied as a function of degree of hearing loss. The test method, length of time between assessments and reported reliability of the behavioral test results were not related to the difference between ABR and behavioral thresholds. A correction factor based on the linear relationship between the differences in ABR and behavioral thresholds as a function of ABR threshold resulted in more accurately predicted behavioral thresholds than other correction factors in clinical use. Conclusions: ABR is a valid predictor of behavioral threshold in infants and children. A correction factor that accounts for the effect of degree of hearing loss on the difference between ABR and behavioral thresholds resulted in more accurate predictions of behavioral thresholds than methods that used a constant correction factor regardless of degree of hearing loss. These results are consistent with predictions based on previous research on temporal integration for listeners with hearing loss. PMID:25470369

  3. Six degree-of-freedom LIVE isolation systems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halwes, D. R.; Nicks, C. O.

    1986-01-01

    A Total Main Rotor Isolation System (TRIS) was analyzed, designed, fabricated, and bench tested for the reduction of main rotor vibration levels transmitted to the helicopter fuselage. The TRIS consists of a six degree-of-freedom passive system using six Liquid Inertia Vibration Eliminator (LIVE) units developed by Bell Helicopter Textron. The objective of the program is to develop a helicopter isolation system that will achieve 90% (or greater) isolation at minimum weight with no degradation in vehicle stability, handling qualities, alignment tolerance, and reliability or maintainability.

  4. Relaxation of vibrational degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohn, A.

    Shock tubes were used to measure relaxation times of the degrees of freedom in inelastic collisions of gas molecules. Design and construction of the experimental setup are described. For relaxation time measurements of vibrational degrees of freedom an initial pressure between 0.1 and 1 mbar is found to be optimal, and for dissociation between 1 and 10 mbar. The density gradients in the shock tube flow are measured with four differential laser interferometers and plotted with a transient recorder. A FORTRAN program was developed to determine the relaxation times. This measurement technique does not in general allow the degrees of freedom to be investigated separately.

  5. Lens positioner with five degrees of freedom

    DOEpatents

    Kobierecki, Marian W.; Rienecker, Jr., Frederick

    1978-01-01

    A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, Contract No. AT(29-1)-1183, with the United States Energy Research and Development Administration.

  6. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J R; Shirley, D L; Blair, L M

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 61 U.S. universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable students to work in the health physics field. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.

  7. Correct degree distribution of apollonian networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Wang, Li-Na

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we point out that there is a shortcoming of the degree distribution and the analyzing approach of the Apollonian network in [Andrade J S, Herrmann H J, Andrade R F S, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 018702 (2005).]. Because the Apollonian network is a deterministic network, its degree distribution can be directly calculated. We correct the degree distribution of the Apollonian network. We also give a numerical simulation of network evolution. The analytical result agrees with the simulation well. The results show that there is the shortcoming of the results of Herrmann et al.

  8. Experimental findings in 180{degree} backscattering enhancement from solids

    SciTech Connect

    Ellmer, H.; Fischer, W.; Klose, A.; Semrad, D.

    1997-02-01

    We use a backscattering assembly developed recently to investigate the enhanced backscattering from polycrystalline materials near 180{degree}. The nominal scattering angle can be continuously varied between exactly 180.0{degree} and 178.5{degree}. It is shown that the stochastic model of flux peaking, though its predictions are surprisingly consistent with experimental results, either does not apply to real measurements or does only take account of a negligible fraction of the effect, which cannot be documented by experiment. The energy loss of He projectiles along correlated inward and outward trajectories turns out to be the same as in any random direction. To get the enhancement factor unaffected from detector resolution we measured the integrated backscattering yield from a number of targets with different thickness and deduced the yield by two different methods. For 400 keV He projectiles scattered from partly oxidized Ta a maximum enhancement factor of 2.8 is found. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Development of a Passively Varying Pitch Propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzen, Stearns Beamon

    Small general aviation aircraft and unmanned aerial systems are often equipped with sophisticated navigation, control, and other avionics, but retain propulsion systems consisting of retrofitted radio control and ultralight equipment. Consequently, new high performance airframes often rely on relatively primitive propulsive technology. This trend is beginning to shift with recent advances in small turboprop engines, fuel injected reciprocating engines, and improved electric technologies. Although these systems are technologically advanced, they are often paired with standard fixed pitch propellers. To fully realize the potential of these aircraft and the new generation of engines, small propellers which can efficiently transmit power over wide flight envelopes and a variety of power settings must be developed. This work demonstrates a propeller which passively adjusts to incoming airflow at a low penalty to aircraft weight and complexity. This allows the propeller to operate in an efficient configuration over a wide flight envelope, and can prevent blade stall in low-velocity / highly-loaded thrust cases and over-speeding at high flight speeds. The propeller incorporates blades which pivot freely on a radial axis and are aerodynamically tailored to attain and maintain a pitch angle yielding favorable local blade angles of attack, matched to changing inflow conditions. This blade angle is achieved through the use of reflexed airfoils designed for a positive pitching moment, comparable to those used on many tailless flying wings. By setting the axis of rotation at a point forward of the blade aerodynamic center, the blades will naturally adjust to a predetermined positive lift 'trim' condition. Then, as inflow conditions change, the blade angle will automatically pivot to maintain the same angle with respect to incoming air. Computational, wind tunnel, and flight test results indicate that the extent of efficient propeller operation can be increased dramatically as

  10. Human organisms in varying gravicondition on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    (cosmic experiments). Lightening bone tissues corresponds to reducing gravity. The timescale of million years is probably too much for achieving noticeable results in changing flexible human races by changing gravity. Thus, 2000 to 3000 years was sufficient to transform mongoloids to Polynesians (actually europeoids) and europeoids (hamits) to semi-africans in Ethiopia. In the first case migration was from sector + to segment -, in the second case from sector - to sector + +. Ref.: [1] Kochemasov G.(2000) Geoid and formation by its planetary gravity fields great human races and Polynesian "superrace" // 33rd COSPAR Sci. Assem., Warsaw, Abstr. (CD-ROM); [2] Kochemasov G.(1998) Unequal gravity sectors and great human races // 32nd COSPAR SCI, Assem., Nagoya, Abstr.,p.384.

  11. Self-Regulation and Achievement Goals in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Edwards, Kelcey

    2011-01-01

    Although the causes of achievement are many and varied, it is widely assumed that "motivation" and "self-regulation" are crucial determinants of academic performance. Substantial evidence indicates that students who focus on learning and understanding course material are more likely to perform well academically (Dweck and Leggett, 1988).…

  12. School Size as a Factor in Elementary School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alspaugh, John W.; Gao, Rui

    The relationship between elementary school enrollment and fifth-grade achievement was explored using data from a large urban Missouri school district. The district's 39 elementary schools received uniform allocations of resources from the district and used the same instructional materials but varied considerably in K-5 enrollment, socioeconomic…

  13. Is Adult Reading a Guide to Educational-Vocational Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasou, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Reading is theorised as a key aspect of one's educational and vocational adjustment. The reading scores on the "Wide-Range Achievement Test 3" of 465 adult vocational assessment clients were examined. Reading varied across a range of social factors and the overall results were consistent with earlier studies, especially the "Adult Literacy and…

  14. Per Pupil Expenditures and Academic Achievement in Georgia School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beurden, Krista

    2011-01-01

    Student achievement and public school funding are national concerns. Federal, state, and local funding vary across the nation and within systems in each state. In the past several years, Georgia school systems have faced austerity cuts by the state legislature and governor, and function with less money while trying to improve student achievement…

  15. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  16. The Role of Achievement Strategies on Literacy Acquisition across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Hirvonen, Riikka; Liao, Chen-Huei; Manolitsis, George; Parrila, Rauno; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    We examined the importance of children's achievement strategies in different literacy outcomes in three languages varying in orthographic consistency: Chinese, English, and Greek. Eighty Chinese-speaking Taiwanese children, 51 English-speaking Canadian children and 70 Greek children were assessed on measures of phonological awareness, rapid…

  17. Second-Degree Learners in Associate Degree Nursing Programs: Characteristics and Progression Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Second degree learners are attending associate (ADN), accelerated baccalaureate (BSN), and entry level masters (ELM) degree nursing programs. There is limited data related to the socio-demographic characteristics and graduation success rates of students attending accelerated BSN or ELM programs and no data related to second-degree learners…

  18. Enhancing the Transition from a Foundation Degree to the Third Year of an Undergraduate Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mytton, Graham; Rumbold, Penny

    2011-01-01

    One-day transition to university workshops have been successful in enhancing peer networks. This study aimed to influence the transition from a Foundation Degree to a third year Undergraduate Degree programme through the use of peer led workshops. Two 2-hour workshops were planned and delivered by five previous students of the Foundation Degree,…

  19. Foundation Degree to Honours Degree: The Transition Experiences of Students on an Early Years Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on an exploratory study, undertaken in 2009-2012, which explored student transitions from a foundation degree (level 5) into the third year of a BA honours degree (level 6). Direct entry students and staff from an early years programme at a post-1992 British university and second-year foundation degree students and staff from…

  20. Online Graduate Degrees: A Review of Three Internet-Based Master's Degree Offerings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Robert W.; Harmon, E. Glynn

    1997-01-01

    Reviews and compares three offerings of graduate degrees via the Internet--two master's programs in management and one master's program in library and information science. Presents a "Consumer's Guide" to online degree programs; lists questions for evaluating the institution, the degree program and coursework involved, and the program cost. (AEF)

  1. The Doctor of Physical Therapy Degree: A New Curriculum for a New Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mary Jane K.; Stelzner, Denise; Rodriguez, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    By 2020, all graduates of accredited physical therapy programs will receive the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) degree. Bachelor degrees in physical therapy are no longer granted, and over 83% (N = 176 accredited programs) of the entry-level physical therapy education programs already grant the DPT degree. The purpose of this article is to…

  2. Higher Degree Examination Procedures in Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovas, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Detailed and wide-ranging suggestions are offered for reforming Australia's higher degree requirements. The author, an Australian PhD, compares them with requirements in other countries and finds them "particularly regressive, unenlightened, intellectually counterproductive, undemocratic, and uncivilized." (JSR)

  3. JOINT STRUCTURE SELECTION AND ESTIMATION IN THE TIME-VARYING COEFFICIENT COX MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei; Lu, Wenbin; Zhang, Hao Helen

    2016-01-01

    Time-varying coefficient Cox model has been widely studied and popularly used in survival data analysis due to its flexibility for modeling covariate effects. It is of great practical interest to accurately identify the structure of covariate effects in a time-varying coefficient Cox model, i.e. covariates with null effect, constant effect and truly time-varying effect, and estimate the corresponding regression coefficients. Combining the ideas of local polynomial smoothing and group nonnegative garrote, we develop a new penalization approach to achieve such goals. Our method is able to identify the underlying true model structure with probability tending to one and simultaneously estimate the time-varying coefficients consistently. The asymptotic normalities of the resulting estimators are also established. We demonstrate the performance of our method using simulations and an application to the primary biliary cirrhosis data. PMID:27540275

  4. The Top 100: Associate Degrees Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Total associate degrees conferred by U.S. institutions increased by 11 percent between academic years 2009-10 and 2010-11 to a record high of close to 950,000. Among students of color, the percentage increase was even higher: 13 percent. Students of color received nearly 300,000 associate degrees or about one-third of the 2010-11 total. Among…

  5. Six-Degree-Of-Freedom Parallel Minimanipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Tsai, Lung-Wen

    1994-01-01

    Six-degree-of-freedom parallel minimanipulator stiffer and simpler than earlier six-degree-of-freedom manipulators. Includes only three inextensible limbs with universal joints at ends. Limbs have equal lengths and act in parallel as they share load on manipulated platform. Designed to provide high resolution and high stiffness for fine control of position and force in hybrid serial/parallel-manipulator system.

  6. Varying the apparent conduction mechanism in polymer semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittle, Emily G.; Ro, Hyun Wook; Basham, James I.; Delongchamp, Dean; Gundlach, David; Jurchescu, Oana

    The weak van der Waals inter-molecular interactions in organic semiconductors (OSCs) result in large variations in transport behavior ranging from hopping to band-like. Accurately measuring and modelling charge transport is a prerequisite to establishing robust transport-microstructure correlations and developing predictive structure-function relationships for optimized materials design and processing. Field-effect transistors have become a favored test structure for parameterizing and benchmarking the electronic properties of OSCs due to their ease of fabrication, measurement, and possible use in commercial applications. However, correctly analyzing transistor current-voltage measurements to extract material properties has proven difficult, as parasitic effects influence the device electrical properties and mask intrinsic material properties. Here, we use impedance spectroscopy to evaluate the effects of contacts on device operation and extract the properties of the channel which we compare with conventional DC measurements. We apply this approach to model systems of the widely studied polymer regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) which we engineer through different solidification kinetics to achieve distinct, well characterized degrees of molecular order. When increasing the order we find that the transport changes from field enhanced to field independent. This study addresses the origins of transport behavior seen in OSCs while discerning non-linear contact effects from field dependent transport.

  7. Academic Achievement of Incarcerated Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasa, V. G.

    2011-01-01

    The main function of prison-based education is to prepare the inmates for return to society. Many higher institutions of education that offer distance learning have opened their doors to accommodate prisoners who want to further their studies. Thus far, many prisoners have received bachelor's degrees from different higher institutions of education…

  8. Acyclic colorings of graphs with bounded degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedorowicz, Anna; Sidorowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-07-01

    A $k$-colouring (not necessarily proper) of vertices of a graph is called {\\it acyclic}, if for every pair of distinct colours $i$ and $j$ the subgraph induced by the edges whose endpoints have colours $i$ and $j$ is acyclic. In the paper we consider some generalised acyclic $k$-colourings, namely, we require that each colour class induces an acyclic or bounded degree graph. Mainly we focus on graphs with maximum degree 5. We prove that any such graph has an acyclic $5$-colouring such that each colour class induces an acyclic graph with maximum degree at most 4. We prove that the problem of deciding whether a graph $G$ has an acyclic 2-colouring in which each colour class induces a graph with maximum degree at most 3 is NP-complete, even for graphs with maximum degree 5. We also give a linear-time algorithm for an acyclic $t$-improper colouring of any graph with maximum degree $d$ assuming that the number of colors is large enough.

  9. Modulation of lead-induced performance deficit in children by varying signal rate in a serial choice reaction task

    SciTech Connect

    Winneke, G.; Brockhaus, A.; Collet, W.; Kraemer, U. )

    1989-11-01

    Evidence is presented showing that serial choice reaction performance is disrupted at low blood lead levels (PbB), and that parametric variation of task characteristics modulates the degree of disruption. This evidence is based on two independent studies in 6- to 9-year-old children living in two lead smelter areas in the cities of Nordenham (N = 114) and Stolberg (N = 109) in West Germany. Average PbB was 8.2 micrograms/100 ml (4.4-23.8 micrograms/100 ml) in the Nordenham sample and 7.4 micrograms/100 ml (4.2-18.0 micrograms/100 ml) in the Stolberg sample. Serial choice reaction performance was assessed by means of the Vienna reaction device in which a random sequence of light and tone signals has to be answered by pressing appropriate response buttons. Correct (hits) and false responses (errors) were evaluated as performance measures, and signal rate was varied in order to achieve easy and difficult task conditions. Exposure-related performance deficit was more pronounced for errors than for hits, more clearcut for high than for low signal rates, and proved significant in both studies after correction for confounding using confounder models of different complexities. Some features of the observed deficit resemble clinical observations in children presenting with attention deficit disorder.

  10. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  11. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  12. New 360 degree color gallery panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the first contiguous, uniform 360-degree color panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama. At left is a lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. On the horizon the double 'Twin Peaks' are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock 'Couch' is the dark, curved rock at right of Twin Peaks. Another lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock Barnacle Bill, which scientists found to be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a volcanic rock (a true andesite) or a physical mixture of particles. Just beyond Barnacle Bill, rover tracks lead to Sojourner, shown using its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument to study the large rock Yogi. Yogi, low in quartz content, appears to be more primitive than Barnacle Bill, and appeared more like the common basalts found on Earth. The tracks and circular pattern in the soil leading up to Yogi were part of Sojourner's soil mechanics experiments, in which varying amounts of pressure were applied to the wheels in order to determine physical properties of the soil. During its traverse to Yogi the rover stirred the soil and exposed material from several centimeters in depth. During one of the turns to deploy Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer, the wheels dug particularly deeply and exposed white material. Spectra of this white material show it is virtually identical to the rock Scooby Doo, and such white material may underlie much of the site. Deflated airbags are visible at the perimeter of all three lander petals.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability

  13. 360 Degree Panorama Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the first contiguous, uniform 360-degree color panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of sols 8, 9, and 10 (Martian days). Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama. At left is a lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. On the horizon the double 'Twin Peaks' are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock 'Couch' is the dark, curved rock at right of Twin Peaks. Another lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock Barnacle Bill, which scientists found to be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a volcanic rock (a true andesite) or a physical mixture of particles. Just beyond Barnacle Bill, rover tracks lead to Sojourner, shown using its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument to study the large rock Yogi. Yogi, low in quartz content, appears to be more primitive than Barnacle Bill, and appeared more like the common basalts found on Earth. The tracks and circular pattern in the soil leading up to Yogi were part of Sojourner's soil mechanics experiments, in which varying amounts of pressure were applied to the wheels in order to determine physical properties of the soil. During its traverse to Yogi the rover stirred the soil and exposed material from several centimeters in depth. During one of the turns to deploy Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer, the wheels dug particularly deeply and exposed white material. Spectra of this white material show it is virtually identical to the rock Scooby Doo, and such white material may underlie much of the site. Deflated airbags are visible at the perimeter of all three lander petals. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color

  14. Physics & Astronomy Master's Initial Employment: Data from the Degree Recipient Follow-Up Survey for the Classes of 2006, 2007 and 2008. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick; Shindel, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the characteristics and initial outcomes of exiting master's degree recipients in physics and astronomy. The report covers the degree classes of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The status of exiting physics master's varied greatly by the citizenship of the degree recipient. The majority of US citizens entered or remained in the workforce…

  15. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam

    2015-12-01

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton's law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization.

  16. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam

    2015-12-14

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton’s law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization.

  17. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization.

    PubMed

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam

    2015-12-14

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton's law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization. PMID:26671401

  18. Six degrees of freedom Mag-Lev stage development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Mark; Faill, Peter; Bischoff, Paul M.; Tracy, Steven P.; Arling, Bill

    1997-07-01

    Lithography steppers currently use a combination of mechanical stages to achieve control of a wafer location in six degrees of freedom. In these stages, the wafer is carried on a fine stage which provides six degrees of freedom control with approximately 100 micrometers travel. This fine stage is mounted on a coarse mechanical stage which provides X-Y positioning with approximately 200 mm travel. The fine stage is typically comprised of multiple piezo- actuators and/or voice coil drives which are used to position a flexure mounted platen.. These mechanical stages generally suffer from poor dynamics, a result of the compound flexures used. For these reasons photolithography equipment manufacturers are researching alternate non- contact methods of precise positioning. This research has centered on replacing long travel degrees of freedom with air bearings which carry a fine stage capable of roll, pitch, and vertical displacement (Z). These air bearing/mechanical stages have improved resolution and stability in addition to shorter setting times. An alternate approach is the use of a magnetically levitated (Mag- LevTM) stage that provides six degrees of freedom control without mechanical contact. This type of stage is ideal for clean room use where particle generation from mechanical friction is a major source of contamination. Mag- Lev stages are also mechanically simple, therefore easier and cheaper to fabricate and more reliable than flexure stages. Previous papers have reported the performance of the fine set Mag-Lev stage in a laboratory lithography experiment. Integrated Solutions has chosen to develop a full Mag-Lev stage in three phases. The first Mag-Lev implementation replace all fine mechanical elements with a single suspended structure. This stage will have displacements of 300 micrometers in X,Y,Z and milliradians of rotation in the remaining three degrees of freedom. The stage will be carried over the surface of the wafer by stacked air bearings. This

  19. Achieving Global Ocean Color Climate Data Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Ocean color, or the spectral distribution of visible light upwelling from beneath the ocean surface, carries information on the composition and concentration of biological constituents within the water column. The CZCS mission in 1978 demonstrated that quantitative ocean color measurements could be. made from spaceborne sensors, given sufficient corrections for atmospheric effects and a rigorous calibration and validation program. The launch of SeaWiFS in 1997 represents the beginning of NASA's ongoing efforts to develop a continuous ocean color data record with sufficient coverage and fidelity for global change research. Achievements in establishing and maintaining the consistency of the time-series through multiple missions and varying instrument designs will be highlighted in this talk, including measurements from NASA'S MODIS instruments currently flying on the Terra and Aqua platforms, as well as the MERIS sensor flown by ESA and the OCM-2 sensor recently launched by ISRO.

  20. Food-contact epoxy resin: co-variation between migration and degree of cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Lambert, C; Larroque, M; Lebrun, J C; Gérard, J F

    1997-01-01

    In order to predict the behaviour towards foodstuffs of an epoxy resin composed of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) and additives (plasticizers: dibutylphthalate (DBP), dioctylphthalate (DOP); accelerator: salicylic acid; inorganic fillers), a co-variation was established between the parameters evaluating the degree of cross-linking of the three-dimensional network and the migration of constituent molecules into various food simulants (distilled water, distilled water/ethanol/acetic acid, distilled water/ethanol). Varied degrees of cross-linking were obtained by subjecting the resin to different curing temperatures: respectively, 5 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 50 degrees C and 90 degrees C for 7 days. Irrespective of the food stimulant tested, specific migrations (DBP, DOP, salicylic acid, primary aromatic amines) diminished greatly as the curing temperature increased. At the same time, the degree of cross-linking increased with curing temperature, as indicated by the increase in glass transition temperature, the decrease in residual reaction exotherms and increased stability of the rubber storage modulus E'rub (increase in cross-link nodes), the fall in relaxation enthalpies (reduction in physical ageing) and the decreased amplitude of the loss-factor, tan delta (reduction in chain mobility). Maximum cross-linking was obtained in the resin cured at 90 degrees C (temperature above Tg infinity). In contrast to the degree of cross-linking, evaporation contributed little to the reduction of migration due to the elevation of curing temperature. PMID:9102353

  1. Ultrasound Background Cancellation Based on Time-Varying Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijares-Chan, Jose Juan; Thomas, Gabriel

    Fault detection based on ultrasonic imaging is a common technique used in non destructive testing. Correct interpretation of the scans requires training so that responses from unwanted echoes such as the background are discriminated from echoes corresponding to faults. Thus, enhancement in the form of displaying the desired echoes without the background response can offer an advantage for detection or further quantification of the fault. A fast way to achieve this goal and detect the background signatures and isolate them from the fault ones is to use time-frequency analysis. When time-varying filtering is used, the tendency is to recover the echoes coming from the faults. These echoes are reconstructed with no phase distortion because the system is linear and the scans c in which the background was cancelled in different specimens where faults were located very close to the surface buried within the initial pulse response and close to each other deeper in the specimen. This technique uses a single reference scan fast enough so that to finish the processing earlier than the time required to acquire a new scan.

  2. Models of social evolution: can we do better to predict 'who helps whom to achieve what'?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, António M M; Kokko, Hanna

    2016-02-01

    Models of social evolution and the evolution of helping have been classified in numerous ways. Two categorical differences have, however, escaped attention in the field. Models tend not to justify why they use a particular assumption structure about who helps whom: a large number of authors model peer-to-peer cooperation of essentially identical individuals, probably for reasons of mathematical convenience; others are inspired by particular cooperatively breeding species, and tend to assume unidirectional help where subordinates help a dominant breed more efficiently. Choices regarding what the help achieves (i.e. which life-history trait of the helped individual is improved) are similarly made without much comment: fecundity benefits are much more commonly modelled than survival enhancements, despite evidence that these may interact when the helped individual can perform life-history reallocations (load-lightening and related phenomena). We review our current theoretical understanding of effects revealed when explicitly asking 'who helps whom to achieve what', from models of mutual aid in partnerships to the very few models that explicitly contrast the strength of selection to help enhance another individual's fecundity or survival. As a result of idiosyncratic modelling choices in contemporary literature, including the varying degree to which demographic consequences are made explicit, there is surprisingly little agreement on what types of help are predicted to evolve most easily. We outline promising future directions to fill this gap. PMID:26729928

  3. Institutional Efficiency and Student Success: The Relationship between Credits-to-Degree, Time-to-Degree and Graduation Rates. Occasional Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison. Office of Policy Analysis and Research.

    In 1995, the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System (UW) established a goal of decreased attempted credits-to-degree from 145 to 140 by the 2000-2001 school year with the objective of increased institutional efficiency. This research brief draws on UW data to look at the experience of UW institutions in achieving this objective and…

  4. Adaptive Q-S (lag, anticipated, and complete) time-varying synchronization and parameters identification of uncertain delayed neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenwu; Cao, Jinde

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, a new type of generalized Q-S (lag, anticipated, and complete) time-varying synchronization is defined. Adaptive Q-S (lag, anticipated, and complete) time-varying synchronization and parameters identification of uncertain delayed neural networks have been considered, where the delays are multiple time-varying delays. A novel control method is given by using the Lyapunov functional method. With this new and effective method, parameters identification and Q-S (lag, anticipated, and complete) time-varying synchronization can be achieved simultaneously. Simulation results are given to justify the theoretical analysis in this paper.

  5. Measuring Achievement Goal Orientations of Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Muthart, Thomas; Khan, Ghous M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To measure the achievement goal orientations of pharmacy students attending a 3-year (accelerated) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Methods. A 16-item survey based on the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) was administered to first-year (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students at the Appalachian College of Pharmacy (ACP). Students were instructed to indicate to what degree each statement was true for them using a 7-point Likert scale (1=not true of me, 7=very true of me). Results. One hundred twenty of the 155 students (77%) completed the survey. Most students had mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and/or performance-avoidance goal orientations; few had work-avoidance goal orientations. Second-year students and male students had higher work-avoidance mean scores than did P1 students and female students (p<0.05). Conclusion. Pharmacy students were mastery- and performance-oriented learners, and most did not have work-avoidance goal orientations. Male students and P2 students had higher work-avoidance than did female students and P1 students, respectively. More longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24761015

  6. Some Conservation Problems of Higher Degree Theses in Victorian University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Nirmolini V.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of problems in preserving higher-degree theses in Victorian university libraries. Rates of deterioration varied according to type of paper, ink, glue, bindings, and photographic materials. The development of a detailed set of guidelines is recommended for improving thesis preservation. (LAM)

  7. Childhood (Mis)Fortune, Educational Attainment, and Adult Health: Contingent Benefits of a College Degree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…

  8. Wage Returns to University Disciplines in Greece: Are Greek Higher Education Degrees Trojan Horses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livanos, Ilias; Pouliakas, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the wage returns to qualifications and academic disciplines in the Greek labour market. Exploring wage responsiveness across various degree subjects in Greece is interesting, as it is characterised by high levels of graduate unemployment, which vary considerably with the field of study, and relatively low levels of wage…

  9. Self-reports of Psychological Distress in Connection with Various Degrees of Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jon S.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between degree of visual impairment and the self-reports of psychological distress by 167 Icelanders (ages 18-69) and 100 between the ages of 70-97, who were blind or had low vision. The study found that self-reports of psychological distress and perceptions of unhappiness varied significantly with the degree…

  10. Effects of Different Degrees of Task Structure on Leadership in Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmann, Michael R.; Mowbray, R. Glenn

    This study examined the effects of different degrees of task structure on leadership between 18 married parents, 18 childless married spouses, and 18 unmarried men and women who comprised newly acquainted couples. Each couple completed three tasks which varied along the dimension of task structure and the order of task presentation. Analysis of…

  11. Introduction of Branching Degrees of Octane Isomers.

    PubMed

    Perdih, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The concept of branching degrees is introduced. In the case of octane isomers it is derived from the values of a set of their physicochemical properties, calculating for each isomer the average of the normalized values and these averages are defined as branching degrees of octane isomers. The sequence of these branching degrees of octane isomers does not differ much from the »regular« one defined earlier. 2,2-Dimethylhexane appears to be less branched than 3,4-dimethylhexane and 3-ethyl, 2-methylpentane, whereas 2,3,4-trimethylpentane appears to be less branched than 3-ethyl, 3-methylpentane. While the increasing number of branches gives rise to increasing branching degrees, the peripheral position of branches and the separation between branches decreases the value of the branching degree. The central position of branches increases it. A bigger branch increases it more than a smaller one. The quantification of these structural features and their correlations with few indices is given as well. PMID:27333567

  12. The Tides of the Atlantic Ocean, 60 degrees N to 30 degrees S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, D. E.; Spencer, R.; Vassie, J. M.; Woodworth, P. L.

    1988-04-01

    As a sequel to Cartwright et al. (Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A298, 87-139 (1980)) (C.E.S.V.) an extended series of oceanic tidal pressure measurements in the Atlantic Ocean is described and the spatial properties of their spectral components are analysed. The principal linear admittances vary widely across the ocean basins, and clearly indicate the positions of the major amphidromes. Constants for the leading harmonics M2 and S2 are defined everywhere along the parallel of 53.6 degrees N and along a section from Natal (Brazil) and west Africa by interpolation between measurements. From a unique set of seven one-year deep pressure records between 57 degrees N and the Equator, the radiational component of S2 is shown to have similar magnitude and phase anomaly to values previously known only at coastal stations, confirming its intrinsically atmospheric forcing. From the same records, nonlinear terms in the semidiurnal band are found to be irregular and indistinguishable from noise. From the full set of data, the M4 overtide is generally small and erratic, probably affected in some areas by low-stability internal waves. The long-period tides Mm and Mf are clearly identified in the equatorial zone as coherent motions with slight phase variations. Their amplitudes are significantly greater than those deduced from the `self-consistent equilibrium theory' of Agnew & Farrell (Geophys. Jl R. astr. Soc. 55, 171-181 (1978)). The M1 tide, linearly driven from the third-degree harmonic of the potential, has been extracted from multiyear records at 13 representative coastal stations in both hemispheres. It is shown to agree well with a synthesis of normal modes of oscillation computed by Platzman (J. Phys. Oceanogr. 14 (10), 1521-1550 (1984)), provided a general phase adjustment of about 60 degrees is made to the synthesized phases. The other third-degree term M3 is well extracted from most of the pelagic stations but is found to be too finely structured in space for easy

  13. Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10, 2012 Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity When pregnant women use alcohol, tobacco, ... indicate that substance use during pregnancy varies by race and ethnicity and suggest that health care providers ...

  14. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree

    PubMed Central

    Skatova, Anya; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Different people choose undergraduate degrees to study at university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career), intrinsic interest in the subject (Interest), an opportunity to help others (Helping) and because they are looking for an easy option to get into higher education (Loafing). We investigated whether these motivations apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1) undergraduate (N = 989) and (2) prospective (N = 896) students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC) questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing, and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low Interest in the degree. The choice of arts and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples) and Interest (only in the undergraduate sample) motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in the undergraduate sample) and Loafing (both samples). The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as provide help to improve degree programmes at universities and support better career advice. PMID:25431561

  15. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree.

    PubMed

    Skatova, Anya; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Different people choose undergraduate degrees to study at university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career), intrinsic interest in the subject (Interest), an opportunity to help others (Helping) and because they are looking for an easy option to get into higher education (Loafing). We investigated whether these motivations apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1) undergraduate (N = 989) and (2) prospective (N = 896) students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC) questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing, and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low Interest in the degree. The choice of arts and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples) and Interest (only in the undergraduate sample) motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in the undergraduate sample) and Loafing (both samples). The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as provide help to improve degree programmes at universities and support better career advice. PMID:25431561

  16. Gross efficiency of muscular work during step exercise at -15 degrees C and 21 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Oksa, J; Rintamäki, H; Hassi, J; Rissanen, S

    1993-02-01

    In an effort to assess the effect of ambient temperature on the gross efficiency (Effg) of step exercise 12 subjects performed a modified step test either at -15 degrees C or 21 degrees C ascending to three different heights (corresponding to light, moderate and heavy work), for 20 min each with a frequency of 18 steps min-1. Heart rate (HR), rectal temperature, skin temperatures and heat flux from skin were continuously measured. Oxygen consumption was measured during the last 5 min of each step height and perceptions of thermal sensation were recorded. The results indicate that, while using conventional clothing adequate in these temperatures, Effg is altered in a contradictory manner. At -15 degrees C Effg increased with increasing work load, whereas at 21 degrees C it decreased when the work load increased. The highest Effg (heavy work at -15 degrees C and light work at 21 degrees C) values are reflected as rather similar rectal temperatures. (37.4-37.7 degrees C) and identical mean skin temperatures (32.8 degrees C) as well as the same (slightly warm) thermal sensation of the legs. At -15 degrees C the lowest Effg in light work was probably due to the need to warm up the muscles. At 21 degrees C, on the contrary, the activation of heat dissipation systems was probably responsible for the lowest Effg in heavy work. PMID:8475751

  17. Lags in Minority Achievement Defy Traditional Explanations. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This second in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist notes that standard explanations for why minority students trail behind non-Hispanic whites are not good enough, suggesting that no single explanation for the gap exists, but instead a multitude of factors are influential. Poverty, though not the single most important cause,…

  18. Central Iowa Low Achiever Mathematics Project - Low Achiever Motivational Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joseph T.

    The materials in this booklet are designed especially for the low achieving student in mathematics. Containing some materials from a course in general mathematics, the booklet is intended to be used in conjunction with conventional textbook materials and is designed to serve as a source of new ideas for teachers and to relieve the teacher of much…

  19. Transient, spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, K.; Woodbury, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin

  20. Transient,spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Kibreab; Woodbury, Allan

    2013-04-01

    This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin

  1. An example of slip instability resulting from displacement-varying strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.; Byerlee, J.

    1990-01-01

    A rock cylinder, containing a clay-filled sawcut making an angle of 30?? to the sample axis, was deformed at constant confining and pore pressures and constant remote shortening rate. The sawcut surfaces contained a series of regularly spaced ridges and grooves oriented perpendicular to the direction of shear. The interaction of these grooved surfaces resulted in a sliding strength which varied periodically with displacement. By varying the effective machine stiffness through the use of an electronic feedback circuit, a range of stable and unstable slip behavior was achieved. In this way, we examined fault slip behavior which was dominated by displacement-dependent strength. ?? 1990 Birkha??user Verlag.

  2. Classical-quantum arbitrarily varying wiretap channel: Ahlswede dichotomy, positivity, resources, super-activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boche, Holger; Cai, Minglai; Deppe, Christian; Nötzel, Janis

    2016-08-01

    We establish the Ahlswede dichotomy for arbitrarily varying classical-quantum wiretap channels, i.e., either the deterministic secrecy capacity of the channel is zero, or it equals its randomness-assisted secrecy capacity. We analyze the secrecy capacity of these channels when the sender and the receiver use various resources. It turns out that randomness, common randomness, and correlation as resources are very helpful for achieving a positive secrecy capacity. We prove the phenomenon "super-activation" for arbitrarily varying classical-quantum wiretap channels, i.e., two channels, both with zero deterministic secrecy capacity, if used together allow perfect secure transmission.

  3. Generalized Projective Synchronization between Two Complex Networks with Time-Varying Coupling Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei; Zeng, Chang-Yan; Tian, Li-Xin

    2009-01-01

    Generalized projective synchronization (GPS) between two complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is investigated. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a nonlinear controller and adaptive updated laws are designed. Feasibility of the proposed scheme is proven in theory. Moreover, two numerical examples are presented, using the energy resource system and Lü's system [Physica A 382 (2007) 672] as the nodes of the networks. GPS between two energy resource complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is achieved. This study can widen the application range of the generalized synchronization methods and will be instructive for the demand-supply of energy resource in some regions of China.

  4. Node degree distribution in spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozrikidis, C.

    2016-03-01

    A method is presented for computing the number of spanning trees involving one link or a specified group of links, and excluding another link or a specified group of links, in a network described by a simple graph in terms of derivatives of the spanning-tree generating function defined with respect to the eigenvalues of the Kirchhoff (weighted Laplacian) matrix. The method is applied to deduce the node degree distribution in a complete or randomized set of spanning trees of an arbitrary network. An important feature of the proposed method is that the explicit construction of spanning trees is not required. It is shown that the node degree distribution in the spanning trees of the complete network is described by the binomial distribution. Numerical results are presented for the node degree distribution in square, triangular, and honeycomb lattices.

  5. Generalized Higher Degree Total Variation (HDTV) Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue; Ongie, Greg; Ramani, Sathish; Jacob, Mathews

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a family of novel image regularization penalties called generalized higher degree total variation (HDTV). These penalties further extend our previously introduced HDTV penalties, which generalize the popular total variation (TV) penalty to incorporate higher degree image derivatives. We show that many of the proposed second degree extensions of TV are special cases or are closely approximated by a generalized HDTV penalty. Additionally, we propose a novel fast alternating minimization algorithm for solving image recovery problems with HDTV and generalized HDTV regularization. The new algorithm enjoys a ten-fold speed up compared to the iteratively reweighted majorize minimize algorithm proposed in a previous work. Numerical experiments on 3D magnetic resonance images and 3D microscopy images show that HDTV and generalized HDTV improve the image quality significantly compared with TV. PMID:24710832

  6. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  7. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rewoldt

    2003-09-08

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results.

  8. Field measurement of slow metamorphic reaction rates at temperatures of 500 degrees to 600 degrees C

    PubMed

    Baxter; DePaolo

    2000-05-26

    High-temperature metamorphic reaction rates were measured using strontium isotopic ratios of garnet and whole rock from a field site near Simplon Pass, Switzerland. For metamorphic conditions of cooling from 612 degrees +/- 17 degrees C to 505 degrees +/- 15 degrees C at pressures up to 9.1 kilobars, the inferred bulk fluid-rock exchange rate is 1.3(-0.4)(+1.1) x 10(-7) grams of solid reacted per gram of solid per year, several orders of magnitude lower than laboratory-based estimates. The inferred reaction rate suggests that mineral chemistry may lag the evolving conditions in Earth's crust during mountain building. PMID:10827949

  9. 360-degree dense multiview image acquisition system using time multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yendo, Tomohiro; Fujii, Toshiaki; Panahpour Tehrani, Mehrdad; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2010-02-01

    A novel 360-degree 3D image acquisition system that captures multi-view images with narrow view interval is proposed. The system consists of a scanning optics system and a high-speed camera. The scanning optics system is composed of a double-parabolic mirror shell and a rotating flat mirror tilted at 45 degrees to the horizontal plane. The mirror shell produces a real image of an object that is placed at the bottom of the shell. The mirror shell is modified from usual system which is used as 3D illusion toy so that the real image can be captured from right horizontal viewing direction. The rotating mirror in the real image reflects the image to the camera-axis direction. The reflected image observed from the camera varies according to the angle of the rotating mirror. This means that the camera can capture the object from various viewing directions that are determined by the angle of the rotating mirror. To acquire the time-varying reflected images, we use a high-speed camera that is synchronized with the angle of the rotating mirror. We have used a high-speed camera which resolution is 256×256 and the maximum frame rate is 10000fps at the resolution. Rotating speed of the tilted flat mirror is about 27 rev./sec. The number of views is 360. The focus length of parabolic mirrors is 73mm and diameter is 360mm. Objects which length is less than about 30mm can be acquired. Captured images are compensated rotation and distortion caused by double-parabolic mirror system, and reproduced as 3D moving images by Seelinder display.

  10. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  11. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  12. The Achievement-Assessment Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    The recent recession, school budget cuts, and predictions of school libraries' demise because of technology advances put pressure on school librarians to prove the utility, relevance, and value of school libraries to student learning. While national studies document that school libraries increase student achievement, school librarians must…

  13. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  14. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  15. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  16. Teacher Certification and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Patricia Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine if there is a significant difference between the achievement of students who are taught by traditionally prepared teachers and that of students who are taught by alternatively prepared teachers. The study further addressed the perspectives of both groups of teachers regarding selected…

  17. Achieving Safety through Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, John

    Whilst the achievement of safety objectives may not be possible purely through the administration of an effective Information Security Management System (ISMS), your job as safety manager will be significantly eased if such a system is in place. This paper seeks to illustrate the point by drawing a comparison between two of the prominent standards within the two disciplines of security and safety management.

  18. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  19. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  20. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  1. Measuring and Recording Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Measuring and Recording Student Achievement Scoping Group was established by Universities UK and the Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP), with the support of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in October 2003 to review the recommendations from the UK Government White Paper "The Future of Higher Education" relating…

  2. Academic Achievement in Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

  3. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  4. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  5. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  6. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  7. Believing and Achieving. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerald, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    This research brief takes a look at the role of teacher efficacy-how teachers' beliefs in their own abilities affect student achievement. The brief examines the influence of perceived efficacy and building teacher confidence (social persuasion, collegiality, and shared decision making). It concludes by asserting that more positive steps must be…

  8. Achieving Ideological Change within Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Dennis R.

    Psychologists who are interested in the nature of ideology and the achievement of social change generally focus their primary theoretical and empirical attention on those people outside academia who are trying to change or to prevent change in one political sphere or another. There may be some value in looking at psychology and psychologists as…

  9. Five Standards and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, R. William; Hilberg, R. Soleste; Pinal, America; Tharp, Roland G.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examine the influence of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy on student achievement gains. Participants were 15 teachers and 266 students (grades 3 to 5) in a public elementary school serving predominantly low-income Latino English Language Learners (ELLs). Implications for teaching practice and research are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  10. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  11. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  12. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  13. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  14. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  15. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  16. Method of Combining the Degrees of Similarity in Handwritten Signature Authentication Using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ph. D. Student, Eng. Eusebiu Marcu

    This paper introduces a new method of combining the degrees of similarity for a hand-written signature (also known as holographic signature or biometric signature) using neural networks. This method is used for a biometric authentication system after the degrees of similarity between a signature and it’s reference template are computed. The degrees of similarity are defined using Levenstein distance of the handwritten signature’s features. Using this method we achieved the following biometric performance metrics: FRR: 8.45% and FAR: 0.9%.

  17. Grey-Markov model with state membership degree and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jing; Li, Bingjun; Liu, Fang

    2013-10-01

    In the Grey-Markov forecasting, the extent of a given state that a research object belongs to is expressed as state membership degree. The state membership degree can help compensate for the inaccurate states division and improve the predicted results. Based on the Grey-Markov forecasting analysis, this paper uses the central triangle albino function to calculate the state membership degrees of research objects and determine the state transition probability. Thereby, the new model achieves the improvement of conventional Grey-Markov model. Taking the grain production of Henan Province as an example, the validity and applicability of the improved model are verified.

  18. Differentiation of degrees of ripeness of Catuai and Tipica green coffee by chromatographical and statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Smrke, Samo; Kroslakova, Ivana; Gloess, Alexia N; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-05-01

    The quality of green coffee is influenced by the degree of ripeness of the fruit at harvest. The aim of this study was to identify chemical markers differentiating between degrees of ripeness. Two coffee varieties, Catuai and Tipica, from the same farm were analysed using the following parameters and methods: caffeine and chlorogenic acid content using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), sucrose content using hydrophilic interaction chromatography, high-molecular weight fraction (HMW) using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and volatile compounds using headspace solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The best method for differentiating between degrees of ripeness was found to be principal component analysis (PCA) based on HPLC data. HPSEC showed differences in the HMW fraction for different degrees of ripeness and both coffee varieties. Volatile profiles allowed separation of both varieties; yet, except for ripe Catuai, no separation was achieved for the degree of ripeness. PMID:25529730

  19. 40 CFR 429.151 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Insulation Board Subcategory § 429.151 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: (a) For normal...