Science.gov

Sample records for achieved widespread acceptance

  1. The importance of safety in achieving the widespread use of hydrogen as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.

    1997-09-01

    The advantages of hydrogen fuel have been adequately demonstrated on numerous occasions. However, two major disadvantages have prevented any significant amount of corresponding development. These disadvantages have been in the economics of producing sufficient quantities of hydrogen and in the safety (both real and perceived) of its use. To date work has mostly been properly centered on solving the economic problems. However, a greater effort on the safety of new hydrogen systems now being proposed also deserves consideration. To achieve the greatest safety in the expansion of the use of hydrogen into its wide-spread use as a fuel, attention must be given to four considerations. These are, obtaining knowledge of all the physical principles involved in the new uses, having in place the regulations that allow the safe interfacing of the new systems, designing and constructing the new systems with safety in mind, and the training of the large number of people that will become the handlers of the hydrogen. Existing organizations that produce, transport, or use hydrogen on a large scale have an excellent safety record. This safety record comes as a consequence of dedicated attention to the above-mentioned principles. However, where these principles were not closely followed, accidents have resulted. Some examples can be cited. As the use of hydrogen becomes more widespread, there must be a mechanism for assuring the universal application of these principles. Larger and more numerous fleet operations with hydrogen fuel may be the best way to begin the indoctrination of the general public to the more general use of hydrogen fuel. Demonstrated safe operation with hydrogen is vital to its final acceptance as the fuel of choice.

  2. Achieving Widespread, Democratic Education in the United States Today: Dewey's Ideas Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Elizabeth; Blatchford, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Excellent, democratic education that furthers each person's potential, success and happiness for her own and others' well-being is not yet widespread in the U.S. today. Dewey's The Public and Its Problems has much to say about the possibilities and challenges of achieving this goal. This paper examines Dewey's ideas about how a public for…

  3. Current and future Internet transmission methods: technical challenges and practical solutions for widespread acceptance of ADSL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polley, Michael O.

    1999-11-01

    The high data rates required to properly support emerging multimedia internet applications far exceed the capabilities of voiceband modems. For example, seamless real-time delivery of digital video clips might require connections up to 100 times faster. Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) modems provide residential internet users with a much-needed solution to this remote access bandwidth shortage. ADSL modems connected directly to the internet are installed in the telephone company central office, allowing remote access over the copper twisted pair telephone line by remote transceivers in the homes of residential customers. Because the internet data does not have to pass through the telephone switching network, the ADSL link can provide data rates in the Mbit/sec range. However, for ADSL modems to gain broad acceptance an displace their low rate voiceband counterparts, low cost, ease of installation, and high quality of service must be achieved.

  4. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented.

  5. Relations among Peer Acceptance, Inhibitory Control, and Math Achievement in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations among peer acceptance, inhibitory control, and math achievement in ninety-nine 4th and 5th grade early adolescents. Teachers rated students on peer acceptance and students completed a computerized executive function task assessing inhibitory control. Math achievement was assessed via end of year math grades. Results…

  6. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-19

    25 years after Chernobyl, the Fukushima disaster has changed the perspectives of nuclear power. The disaster has shed a negative light on the independence, reliability and rigor of the national nuclear regulator and plant operator and the usefulness of the international IAEA guidelines on nuclear safety. It has become clear that, in the light of the most severe earthquake in the history of Japan, the plants at Fukushima Daiichi were not adequately protected against tsunamis. Nuclear acceptance has suffered enormously and has changed the perspectives of nuclear energy dramatically in countries that have a very risk-sensitive population, Germany is an example. The paper analyses the reactions in major countries and the expected impact on future deployment of reactors and on R and D activities. On the positive side, the disaster has demonstrated a remarkable robustness of most of the 14 reactors closest to the epicentre of the Tohoku Seaquake although not designed to an event of level 9.0. Public acceptance can only be regained with a rigorous and worldwide approach towards inherent reactor safety and design objectives that limit the impact of severe accidents to the plant itself (like many of the new Gen III reactors). A widespread release of radioactivity and the evacuation (temporary or permanent) of the population up to 30 km around a facility are simply not acceptable. Several countries have announced to request more stringent international standards for reactor safety. The IAEA should take this move forward and intensify and strengthen the different peer review mission schemes. The safety guidelines and peer reviews should in fact become legally binding for IAEA members. The paper gives examples of the new safety features developed over the last 20 years and which yield much safer reactors with lesser burden to the environment under severe accident conditions. The compatibility of these safety systems with the current concepts for fusion-fission hybrids, which

  7. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-01

    25 years after Chernobyl, the Fukushima disaster has changed the perspectives of nuclear power. The disaster has shed a negative light on the independence, reliability and rigor of the national nuclear regulator and plant operator and the usefulness of the international IAEA guidelines on nuclear safety. It has become clear that, in the light of the most severe earthquake in the history of Japan, the plants at Fukushima Daiichi were not adequately protected against tsunamis. Nuclear acceptance has suffered enormously and has changed the perspectives of nuclear energy dramatically in countries that have a very risk-sensitive population, Germany is an example. The paper analyses the reactions in major countries and the expected impact on future deployment of reactors and on R&D activities. On the positive side, the disaster has demonstrated a remarkable robustness of most of the 14 reactors closest to the epicentre of the Tohoku Seaquake although not designed to an event of level 9.0. Public acceptance can only be regained with a rigorous and worldwide approach towards inherent reactor safety and design objectives that limit the impact of severe accidents to the plant itself (like many of the new Gen III reactors). A widespread release of radioactivity and the evacuation (temporary or permanent) of the population up to 30 km around a facility are simply not acceptable. Several countries have announced to request more stringent international standards for reactor safety. The IAEA should take this move forward and intensify and strengthen the different peer review mission schemes. The safety guidelines and peer reviews should in fact become legally binding for IAEA members. The paper gives examples of the new safety features developed over the last 20 years and which yield much safer reactors with lesser burden to the environment under severe accident conditions. The compatibility of these safety systems with the current concepts for fusion-fission hybrids, which have

  8. Effect of implicit theories on judgement of cheating acceptability in physical education: the mediating role of achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Corrion, Karine; D'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Chalabaev, Aïna; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine; Roussel, Peggy; Cury, François

    2010-06-01

    We tested a hypothetical model that examined both the effects of implicit theories of ability on the judgement of cheating acceptability in a physical education context and the mediating role of the achievement goals defined in the social-cognitive model of achievement motivation. Data were collected from 477 middle-school students, who completed measures of implicit theories of ability, achievement goals, and judgement of cheating acceptability in team sports within a cross-sectional design. The results indicated that performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals mediated the relationships between entity theory and the judgement of cheating acceptability, and mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance goals mediated the relationships between incremental theory and the judgement of cheating acceptability. Further research is needed to determine whether these results would be replicated with other moral variables and other contexts.

  9. Developing Self-Acceptance and Reading Achievement Among Second Grade Chicano Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Betty Joan

    This study was designed to ascertain whether the self-acceptance of second grade Chicano children could be improved by incorporating into the curriculum selected activities which reflected characteristics of each child to himself and by adding a supplementary language experience approach to reading. Subjects included 91 children from two…

  10. Being Labeled "Nerd": Factors that Influence the Social Acceptance of High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzsch, Katrin; Schutz, Astrid; Schroder-Abe, Michela

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation addresses the question of whether certain factors can protect high-achieving students at risk for being labeled a nerd against devaluation. In 2 studies, 125 and 317 students from Grade 8 evaluated vignettes describing average students and students who were called "nerds." Results indicate that being modest about good…

  11. Effects of Acceptability on Teachers' Implementation of Curriculum-Based Measurement and Student Achievement in Mathematics Computation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allinder, Rose M.; Oats, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 12 special education teachers who had a high acceptance of curriculum-based assessment and 9 teachers who had a low acceptance found they differed on two of five implementation measures. Also, there was a significant difference in the rate of growth affected by their students in math. (Author/CR)

  12. The Influences of Parental Acceptance and Parental Control on School Adjustment and Academic Achievement for South Korean Children: The Mediation Role of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jungyoon; Yu, Heekeun; Choi, Sumi

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental acceptance, psychological control, and behavioral control on children's school adjustment and academic achievement, as well as the possible mediation effect of children's self-regulation in those processes. To do so, we examined 388 upper-level elementary school students (mean age = 11.38 years) in South…

  13. Parental Acceptance/Involvement, Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: The Role of Hope as a Mediator (Anne-Babadan Algilanan Kabul/Ilgi, Benlik Saygisi Ve Akademik Basari: Umudun Araci Rolü)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Betül; Sari, Serkan Volkan; Sahin, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, examining the relationship of parental acceptance/involvement to self-esteem, hope and academic achievement besides, mediating role of hope on the relationship between perception of parental acceptance/involvement, self esteem and academic achievement were aimed. The study was carried out with 297 students from different…

  14. Widespread pain in chronic epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Pienimäki, Tuomo; Siira, Pertti; Vanharanta, Heikki

    2011-10-01

    We studied the associations of widespread pain with other pain and functional measures among patients with chronic epicondylitis. A total of 190 patients (66% females) participated in the study; with a mean age 43.7, mean duration of symptoms 48weeks, chronic lateral (n=160) and medial (n=30) epicondylitis. We analysed clinical status, grip strength and cubital pain thresholds and interviewed pain and disability, leisure time physical activity, strenuous hobby activities for arms, duration of symptoms, other systemic and upper extremity disorders, arm operations, and work ability. The location of pain was analysed using a whole-body pain drawing, categorized into three groups; the highest of which was classified as widespread pain. A total of 85 patients (45%) reported widespread pain. It was highly associated with female gender, high pain scores, decreased grip strength and pain thresholds (p<0.001 for all), with increased number of positive manual tests, low level of hobby strain for arms and physical activity, long duration of symptoms, and sick leave (p for all <0.05). It was also related to upper extremity disorders and arm surgery, but not with operated epicondylitis, other systemic diseases, workload or work ability. In addition, 39% of patients without other disease reported widespread pain. Widespread pain is common in chronic epicondylitis with and without other diseases, and is related to high pain scores, decreased function of the arm, long duration of symptoms, sick leave, and with a low level of physical activity.

  15. Widespread bullous fixed drug eruption

    PubMed Central

    Patell, Rushad D; Dosi, Rupal V; Shah, Purav C; Joshi, Harshal S

    2014-01-01

    A 53-year-old man developed a widespread erythematous eruption which rapidly evolved into fluid-filled bulla mostly involving the distal areas of all four limbs and erosions on the oral as well as anogenital mucosa. Based on clinical presentation, chronology of drug exposure, past events and histopathology as diagnosis of widespread bullous fixed drug eruption was made over Steven Johnson-toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome. Steroids were deferred and the lesions healed with minimal pigmentation within a week. Differentiating between the two entities has been historically difficult, and yet can have significant therapeutic and prognostic implications. PMID:24510691

  16. Widespread bullous fixed drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Patell, Rushad D; Dosi, Rupal V; Shah, Purav C; Joshi, Harshal S

    2014-02-07

    A 53-year-old man developed a widespread erythematous eruption which rapidly evolved into fluid-filled bulla mostly involving the distal areas of all four limbs and erosions on the oral as well as anogenital mucosa. Based on clinical presentation, chronology of drug exposure, past events and histopathology as diagnosis of widespread bullous fixed drug eruption was made over Steven Johnson-toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome. Steroids were deferred and the lesions healed with minimal pigmentation within a week. Differentiating between the two entities has been historically difficult, and yet can have significant therapeutic and prognostic implications.

  17. Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160985.html Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans Rates accelerate especially ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new study finds widespread hearing loss among elderly Americans, with an especially high rate ...

  18. Widespread horizontal transfer of retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Ali Morton; Kortschak, R. Daniel; Gardner, Michael G.; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In higher organisms such as vertebrates, it is generally believed that lateral transfer of genetic information does not readily occur, with the exception of retroviral infection. However, horizontal transfer (HT) of protein coding repetitive elements is the simplest way to explain the patchy distribution of BovB, a long interspersed element (LINE) about 3.2 kb long, that has been found in ruminants, marsupials, squamates, monotremes, and African mammals. BovB sequences are a major component of some of these genomes. Here we show that HT of BovB is significantly more widespread than believed, and we demonstrate the existence of two plausible arthropod vectors, specifically reptile ticks. A phylogenetic tree built from BovB sequences from species in all of these groups does not conform to expected evolutionary relationships of the species, and our analysis indicates that at least nine HT events are required to explain the observed topology. Our results provide compelling evidence for HT of genetic material that has transformed vertebrate genomes. PMID:23277587

  19. Widespread horizontal transfer of retrotransposons.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Ali Morton; Kortschak, R Daniel; Gardner, Michael G; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L

    2013-01-15

    In higher organisms such as vertebrates, it is generally believed that lateral transfer of genetic information does not readily occur, with the exception of retroviral infection. However, horizontal transfer (HT) of protein coding repetitive elements is the simplest way to explain the patchy distribution of BovB, a long interspersed element (LINE) about 3.2 kb long, that has been found in ruminants, marsupials, squamates, monotremes, and African mammals. BovB sequences are a major component of some of these genomes. Here we show that HT of BovB is significantly more widespread than believed, and we demonstrate the existence of two plausible arthropod vectors, specifically reptile ticks. A phylogenetic tree built from BovB sequences from species in all of these groups does not conform to expected evolutionary relationships of the species, and our analysis indicates that at least nine HT events are required to explain the observed topology. Our results provide compelling evidence for HT of genetic material that has transformed vertebrate genomes. PMID:23277587

  20. Widespread horizontal transfer of retrotransposons.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Ali Morton; Kortschak, R Daniel; Gardner, Michael G; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L

    2013-01-15

    In higher organisms such as vertebrates, it is generally believed that lateral transfer of genetic information does not readily occur, with the exception of retroviral infection. However, horizontal transfer (HT) of protein coding repetitive elements is the simplest way to explain the patchy distribution of BovB, a long interspersed element (LINE) about 3.2 kb long, that has been found in ruminants, marsupials, squamates, monotremes, and African mammals. BovB sequences are a major component of some of these genomes. Here we show that HT of BovB is significantly more widespread than believed, and we demonstrate the existence of two plausible arthropod vectors, specifically reptile ticks. A phylogenetic tree built from BovB sequences from species in all of these groups does not conform to expected evolutionary relationships of the species, and our analysis indicates that at least nine HT events are required to explain the observed topology. Our results provide compelling evidence for HT of genetic material that has transformed vertebrate genomes.

  1. The ethical dimension of terahertz and millimeter-wave imaging technologies: security, privacy, and acceptability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammicht Quinn, R.; Rampp, B.

    2009-05-01

    Terahertz and millimeter-wave imaging technologies, wherever they are applied to human beings, generate problems with the "naked" body. Security issues thus inevitably lead to ethical questions of privacy and intimacy. Less apparent but no less important are other issues such as discrimination and the question of reducing this problem through post processing of data; scalability; questions of controlling the controllers; questions of proliferation. Ethical research alone can not provide acceptability. However, ultimately innovative technologies will not achieve widespread and sustainable acceptance without a fundamental clarification of the ethically relevant issues.

  2. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an agency... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance....

  3. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  4. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  5. Microwave Photonics: current challenges towards widespread application.

    PubMed

    Capmany, José; Li, Guifang; Lim, Christina; Yao, Jianping

    2013-09-23

    Microwave Photonics, a symbiotic field of research that brings together the worlds of optics and radio frequency is currently facing several challenges in its transition from a niche to a truly widespread technology essential to support the ever-increasing values for speed, bandwidth, processing capability and dynamic range that will be required in next generation hybrid access networks. We outline these challenges, which are the subject of the contributions to this focus issue.

  6. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  7. Widespread cytoskeletal pathology characterizes corticobasal degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Feany, M. B.; Dickson, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare, progressive neurological disorder characterized by widespread neuronal and glial pathology. Using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that the nonamyloid cortical plaques of CBD are actually collections of abnormal tau in the distal processes of astrocytes. These glial cells express both vimentin and CD44, markers of astrocyte activation. Glial pathology also includes tau-positive cytoplasmic inclusions, here localized to Leu 7-expressing oligodendrocytes. In addition, a wide array of neuronal pathology is defined with tau-positive inclusions in multiple domains of a variety of cortical neurons. CBD thus exhibits widespread glial and neuronal cytoskeletal pathology, including a novel structure, the astrocytic plaque. CBD is a disease of generalized cytoskeletal disruption affecting several cell types and multiple domains of these cells. The further definition of CBD pathology refines the diagnosis and pathophysiological understanding of this unique disease and has important implications for other neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's disease, characterized by abnormal tau deposition. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7778678

  8. Widespread formation of cherts during the early Eocene climate optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttoni, G.; Kent, D. V.

    2007-12-01

    Radiolarian cherts in the Tethyan realm of Jurassic age were recently interpreted as resulting from high biosiliceous productivity along upwelling zones in subequatorial paleolatitudes the locations of which were confirmed by revised paleomagnetic estimates. However, the widespread occurrence of cherts in the Eocene suggests that cherts may not always be reliable proxies of latitude and upwelling zones. In a new survey of the global spatiotemporal distribution of Cenozoic cherts in Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sediment cores, we found that cherts occur most frequently in the Paleocene and early Eocene, with a peak in occurrences at ~50 Ma that is coincident with the time of highest bottom water temperatures of the early Eocene climatic optimum (EECO) when the global ocean was presumably characterized by reduced upwelling efficiency and biosiliceous productivity. Cherts occur less commonly during the subsequent Eocene global cooling trend. Primary paleoclimatic factors rather than secondary diagenetic processes seem therefore to control chert formation. This timing of peak Eocene chert occurrence, which is supported by detailed stratigraphic correlations, contradicts currently accepted models that involve an initial loading of large amounts of dissolved silica from enhanced weathering and/or volcanism in a supposedly sluggish ocean of the EECO, followed during the subsequent middle Eocene global cooling by more vigorous oceanic circulation and consequent upwelling that made this silica reservoir available for enhanced biosilicification, with the formation of chert as a result of biosilica transformation during diagenesis. Instead, we suggest that basin-basin fractionation by deep-sea circulation could have raised the concentration of EECO dissolved silica especially in the North Atlantic, where an alternative mode of silica burial involving widespread direct precipitation and/or absorption of silica by clay minerals could have

  9. Widespread RNA 3'-end oligouridylation in mammals.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun S; Patena, Weronika; Leavitt, Andrew D; McManus, Michael T

    2012-03-01

    Nontemplated 3'-end oligouridylation of RNA occurs in many species, including humans. Unlike the familiar phenomenon of polyadenylation, nontemplated addition of uridines to RNA is poorly characterized in higher eukaryotes. Recent studies have reported nontemplated 3'-end oligouridylation of small RNAs and mRNAs. Oligouridylation is involved in many aspects of microRNA biology from biogenesis to turnover of the mature species, and it may also mark long mRNAs for degradation by promoting decapping of the protective 5'-cap structure. To determine the prevalence of oligouridylation in higher eukaryotes, we used next-generation sequencing technology to deeply examine the population of small RNAs in human cells. Our data revealed widespread nontemplated nucleotide addition to the 3' ends of many classes of RNA, with short stretches of uridine being the most frequently added nucleotide.

  10. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas

    PubMed Central

    Galil, B.S.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Minchin, D.; Narščius, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

  11. Widespread Surface Weathering on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, Damien; Carter, John; Mangold, Nicolas; Poulet, François; Rossi, Angelo; Allemand, Pascal; Quantin, Cathy; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The recent discovery of widespread hydrous clays on Mars indicates that diverse and widespread aqueous environments existed on Mars, from the surface to kilometric depths [1,2]. The study of the past habitability and past climates of the planet requires assessing the importance of sustained surface water vs. subsurface water in its aqueous history. Using remote sensing data, we propose that surface weathering existed on Mars, suggesting that Mars experienced durable episodes of sustained liquid water on its surface. Weathering profiles are identified as vertical sequences of Al-rich clays and Fe/Mg-rich clays in the top tens of meters of the surface, similar to cases of pedogenesis on Earth (e.g. [3,4]). Such localized clay sequences have been reported by other works in 3 regions of Mars [5-8] and a similar origin was also proposed. Their frequency is however likely underestimated due to limitations of orbital investigations and re-surfacing processes. A large survey of the CRISM dataset leaded to a down-selection of ~100 deposits with clear vertical sequences, widely distributed over the southern highlands and grouped in regional clusters [9]. These putative weathering sequences are found either on inter-crater plateaus, on the floor of craters and large basins, or on crater ejectas. We investigated the thickness of the altered sequences, the age of the altered units and the different geological contexts to further understand the weathering process(es). Using few HiRISE DEMs where possible, and CTX DEMs, we find that the thickness of the exposed Al clays is on average of the order of several meters to few tens of meters. The clay sequences reported here are consistent with terrestrial weathering sequences which form under wet climates over geological timescales (>105-107 years). The combined age assessment of the altered unit and the unaltered capping (where present) provides constraints on the age of the weathering itself. All investigated cases point to an

  12. Widespread Surface Weathering on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Carter, J.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Rossi, A.; Allemand, P.; Quantin, C.; Bibring, J.

    2013-12-01

    The recent discovery of widespread hydrous clays on Mars indicates that diverse and widespread aqueous environments existed on Mars, from the surface to kilometric depths [1,2]. The study of the past habitability of the planet requires assessing the importance of sustained surface water vs. subsurface water in its aqueous history. Using remote sensing data, we propose that surface weathering existed on Mars, suggesting that Mars experienced durable episodes of sustained liquid water on its surface. Weathering profiles are identified as vertical sequences of Al-rich clays and Fe/Mg-rich clays in the top tens of meters of the surface, similar to cases of pedogenesis on Earth (e.g. [3,4]). Such localized clay sequences have been reported by other works in 3 regions of Mars [5-8] and a similar origin was also proposed. Their frequency is however likely underestimated due to limitations of orbital investigations and re-surfacing processes. A large survey of the CRISM dataset leaded to a down-selection of 104 deposits with clear vertical sequences, widely distributed over the southern highlands and grouped in regional clusters [9]. These putative weathering sequences are found either on inter-crater plateaus, on the floor of craters and large basins, or on crater ejectas. We investigated the thickness of the altered sequences, the age of the altered units and the different geological contexts to further understand the weathering process(es). Using few HiRISE DEMs where possible, and CTX DEMs, we find that the thickness of the exposed Al clays is on average of the order of several meters to few tens of meters. The clay sequences reported here are consistent with terrestrial weathering sequences which form under wet climates over geological timescales (> 105-107 years). The combined age assessment of the altered unit and the unaltered capping (where present) provides constraints on the age of the weathering itself. All investigated cases point to an active weathering

  13. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  14. Cryoprotective dehydration is widespread in Arctic springtails.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Holmstrup, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Cryoprotective dehydration (CPD) is a cold tolerance strategy employed by small invertebrates that readily lose water by evaporation when subjected to sub-zero temperatures in the presence of ice. Until now, relatively few species have been investigated using methods by which CPD can be shown. In the present study we investigated the cold tolerance strategy of seven soil arthropod species from the high Arctic Spitzbergen, and compared water content and water loss, body fluid melting points (MP) and survival under cold and desiccating conditions. We tested the hypothesis that CPD is a commonly occurring cold hardiness strategy among soil arthropods. We found that four springtail species (Hypogastrura viatica, Folsomia quadrioculata, Oligaphorura groenlandica and Megaphorura arctica; Collembola) went through severe dehydration and MP equilibration with ambient temperature, and thus overwinter by employing CPD, whereas a beetle (Atheta graminicola) and one of the springtails (Isotoma anglicana) were typical freeze avoiding species over-wintering by supercooling. Desiccation tolerance of the red velvet mite (Neomolgus littoralis) was also investigated; very low water loss rates of this species indicated that it does not survive winter by use of CPD. All in all, the results of the present study confirm the hypothesis that CPD is an effective over-wintering strategy which is widespread within soil arthropods. PMID:21396373

  15. Widespread Gene Conversion in Centromere Cores

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinghua; Wolf, Sarah E.; Burke, John M.; Presting, Gernot G.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Dawe, R. Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Centromeres are the most dynamic regions of the genome, yet they are typified by little or no crossing over, making it difficult to explain the origin of this diversity. To address this question, we developed a novel CENH3 ChIP display method that maps kinetochore footprints over transposon-rich areas of centromere cores. A high level of polymorphism made it possible to map a total of 238 within-centromere markers using maize recombinant inbred lines. Over half of the markers were shown to interact directly with kinetochores (CENH3) by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Although classical crossing over is fully suppressed across CENH3 domains, two gene conversion events (i.e., non-crossover marker exchanges) were identified in a mapping population. A population genetic analysis of 53 diverse inbreds suggests that historical gene conversion is widespread in maize centromeres, occurring at a rate >1×10−5/marker/generation. We conclude that gene conversion accelerates centromere evolution by facilitating sequence exchange among chromosomes. PMID:20231874

  16. Widespread vestibular activation of the rodent cortex.

    PubMed

    Rancz, Ede A; Moya, Javier; Drawitsch, Florian; Brichta, Alan M; Canals, Santiago; Margrie, Troy W

    2015-04-15

    Much of our understanding of the neuronal mechanisms of spatial navigation is derived from chronic recordings in rodents in which head-direction, place, and grid cells have all been described. However, despite the proposed importance of self-reference information to these internal representations of space, their congruence with vestibular signaling remains unclear. Here we have undertaken brain-wide functional mapping using both fMRI and electrophysiological methods to directly determine the spatial extent, strength, and time course of vestibular signaling across the rat forebrain. We find distributed activity throughout thalamic, limbic, and particularly primary sensory cortical areas in addition to known head-direction pathways. We also observe activation of frontal regions, including infralimbic and cingulate cortices, indicating integration of vestibular information throughout functionally diverse cortical regions. These whole-brain activity maps therefore suggest a widespread contribution of vestibular signaling to a self-centered framework for multimodal sensorimotor integration in support of movement planning, execution, spatial navigation, and autonomic responses to gravito-inertial changes. PMID:25878265

  17. Widespread noncoding circular RNAs in plants.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chu-Yu; Chen, Li; Liu, Chen; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-10-01

    A large number of noncoding circular RNAs (circRNAs) with regulatory potency have been identified in animals, but little attention has been given to plant circRNAs. We performed genome-wide identification of circRNAs in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana using publically available RNA-Seq data, analyzed and compared features of plant and animal circRNAs. circRNAs (12037 and 6012) were identified in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively, with 56% (10/18) of the sampled rice exonic circRNAs validated experimentally. Parent genes of over 700 exonic circRNAs were orthologues between rice and Arabidopsis, suggesting conservation of circRNAs in plants. The introns flanking plant circRNAs were much longer than introns from linear genes, and possessed less repetitive elements and reverse complementary sequences than the flanking introns of animal circRNAs. Plant circRNAs showed diverse expression patterns, and 27 rice exonic circRNAs were found to be differentially expressed under phosphate-sufficient and -starvation conditions. A significantly positive correlation was observed for the expression profiles of some circRNAs and their parent genes. Our results demonstrated that circRNAs are widespread in plants, revealed the common and distinct features of circRNAs between plants and animals, and suggested that circRNAs could be a critical class of noncoding regulators in plants.

  18. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals.

    PubMed

    Fraser, David I; Liu, Kyle T; Reid, Bryan J; Hawkins, Emily; Sevier, Andrew; Pyle, Michelle; Robinson, Jacob W; Ouellette, Pierre H R; Ballantyne, James S

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans), fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays), the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM), intestine of lobster (138 μM) gills of the surf clam (100 μM)) had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics.

  19. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, David I.; Liu, Kyle T.; Reid, Bryan J.; Hawkins, Emily; Sevier, Andrew; Pyle, Michelle; Robinson, Jacob W.; Ouellette, Pierre H. R.; Ballantyne, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans), fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays), the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM), intestine of lobster (138 μM) gills of the surf clam (100 μM)) had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics. PMID:26600157

  20. Thermal acclimation in widespread heterotrophic soil microbes.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Thomas W; Bradford, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    Respiration by plants and microorganisms is primarily responsible for mediating carbon exchanges between the biosphere and atmosphere. Climate warming has the potential to influence the activity of these organisms, regulating exchanges between carbon pools. Physiological 'down-regulation' of warm-adapted species (acclimation) could ameliorate the predicted respiratory losses of soil carbon under climate change scenarios, but unlike plants and symbiotic microbes, the existence of this phenomenon in heterotrophic soil microbes remains controversial. Previous studies using complex soil microbial communities are unable to distinguish physiological acclimation from other community-scale adjustments. We explored the temperature-sensitivity of individual saprotrophic basidiomycete fungi growing in agar, showing definitively that these widespread heterotrophic fungi can acclimate to temperature. In almost all cases, the warm-acclimated individuals had lower growth and respiration rates at intermediate temperatures than cold-acclimated isolates. Inclusion of such microbial physiological responses to warming is essential to enhance the robustness of global climate-ecosystem carbon models. PMID:23331708

  1. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals.

    PubMed

    Fraser, David I; Liu, Kyle T; Reid, Bryan J; Hawkins, Emily; Sevier, Andrew; Pyle, Michelle; Robinson, Jacob W; Ouellette, Pierre H R; Ballantyne, James S

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans), fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays), the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM), intestine of lobster (138 μM) gills of the surf clam (100 μM)) had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics. PMID:26600157

  2. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  3. Lifetime achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is accepting nominations for the 1996 Philip Hauge Abelson Prize. The prize is awarded annually to either a public servant who has made sustained contributions to the advancement of science or to scientists who have distinguished themselves for both the quality of their work and their leadership in the scientific community.

  4. Widespread use of neuraminidase inhibitors in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Norio

    2011-10-01

    Almost all patients with an influenza-like illness in Japan are now tested with rapid diagnostic tests, and when positive, they are treated with a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI). Japan may have had the lowest case fatality rate for symptomatic illness (<0.001%, 198/20.7 million) in the H1N1/09 pandemic because of the universal implementation of early treatment with NAI. A study of 1,000 children hospitalized because of a H1N1/09 infection revealed that NAIs, primarily oseltamivir, had been used to treat 984 (98.4%) of the 1,000 patients. In 88.9% of the patients, treatment with NAIs was initiated within 48 h after the onset of illness. In addition to oseltamivir and zanamivir, the newly approved inhalant drug, laninamivir, and the newly approved intravenous drug, peramivir, were used in Japan during the 2010-2011 season. Neuropsychiatric disorders that were suspected of being adverse reactions to oseltamivir became a cause of concern in 2007. The Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry issued an emergency instruction to suspend the use of oseltamivir to treat patients between the ages of 10 and 19 years. However, according to the Vital Statistics data, the widespread use of oseltamivir has not caused an increase in deaths as a result of accidental falls or intentional jumps from buildings. Although oseltamivir is widely used in Japan, no outbreaks have been caused by oseltamivir-resistant viruses, and no serious illness caused by oseltamivir-resistant viruses has ever been reported.

  5. Acceptability of BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mande, R

    1977-01-01

    The acceptability of BCG vaccination varies a great deal according to the country and to the period when the vaccine is given. The incidence of complications has not always a direct influence on this acceptability, which depends, for a very large part, on the risk of tuberculosis in a given country at a given time.

  6. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  7. Understanding diversity: the importance of social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jacqueline M; Hamilton, David L

    2015-04-01

    Two studies investigated how people define and perceive diversity in the historically majority-group dominated contexts of business and academia. We hypothesized that individuals construe diversity as both the numeric representation of racial minorities and the social acceptance of racial minorities within a group. In Study 1, undergraduates' (especially minorities') perceptions of campus diversity were predicted by perceived social acceptance on a college campus, above and beyond perceived minority representation. Study 2 showed that increases in a company's representation and social acceptance independently led to increases in perceived diversity of the company among Whites. Among non-Whites, representation and social acceptance only increased perceived diversity of the company when both qualities were high. Together these findings demonstrate the importance of both representation and social acceptance to the achievement of diversity in groups and that perceiver race influences the relative importance of these two components of diversity.

  8. Democratizing an electroluminescence imaging apparatus and analytics project for widespread data acquisition in photovoltaic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fada, Justin S.; Wheeler, Nicholas R.; Zabiyaka, Davis; Goel, Nikhil; Peshek, Timothy J.; French, Roger H.

    2016-08-01

    We present a description of an electroluminescence (EL) apparatus, easily sourced from commercially available components, with a quantitative image processing platform that demonstrates feasibility for the widespread utility of EL imaging as a characterization tool. We validated our system using a Gage R&R analysis to find a variance contribution by the measurement system of 80.56%, which is typically unacceptable, but through quantitative image processing and development of correction factors a variance contribution by the measurement system of 2.41% was obtained. We further validated the system by quantifying the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and found values consistent with other systems published in the literature, at SNR values of 10-100, albeit at exposure times of greater than 1 s compared to 10 ms for other systems. This SNR value range is acceptable for image feature recognition, providing the opportunity for widespread data acquisition and large scale data analytics of photovoltaics.

  9. Democratizing an electroluminescence imaging apparatus and analytics project for widespread data acquisition in photovoltaic materials.

    PubMed

    Fada, Justin S; Wheeler, Nicholas R; Zabiyaka, Davis; Goel, Nikhil; Peshek, Timothy J; French, Roger H

    2016-08-01

    We present a description of an electroluminescence (EL) apparatus, easily sourced from commercially available components, with a quantitative image processing platform that demonstrates feasibility for the widespread utility of EL imaging as a characterization tool. We validated our system using a Gage R&R analysis to find a variance contribution by the measurement system of 80.56%, which is typically unacceptable, but through quantitative image processing and development of correction factors a variance contribution by the measurement system of 2.41% was obtained. We further validated the system by quantifying the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and found values consistent with other systems published in the literature, at SNR values of 10-100, albeit at exposure times of greater than 1 s compared to 10 ms for other systems. This SNR value range is acceptable for image feature recognition, providing the opportunity for widespread data acquisition and large scale data analytics of photovoltaics. PMID:27587162

  10. Democratizing an electroluminescence imaging apparatus and analytics project for widespread data acquisition in photovoltaic materials.

    PubMed

    Fada, Justin S; Wheeler, Nicholas R; Zabiyaka, Davis; Goel, Nikhil; Peshek, Timothy J; French, Roger H

    2016-08-01

    We present a description of an electroluminescence (EL) apparatus, easily sourced from commercially available components, with a quantitative image processing platform that demonstrates feasibility for the widespread utility of EL imaging as a characterization tool. We validated our system using a Gage R&R analysis to find a variance contribution by the measurement system of 80.56%, which is typically unacceptable, but through quantitative image processing and development of correction factors a variance contribution by the measurement system of 2.41% was obtained. We further validated the system by quantifying the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and found values consistent with other systems published in the literature, at SNR values of 10-100, albeit at exposure times of greater than 1 s compared to 10 ms for other systems. This SNR value range is acceptable for image feature recognition, providing the opportunity for widespread data acquisition and large scale data analytics of photovoltaics.

  11. Exploring Students' Technology Acceptance in College Developmental Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Handan

    2012-01-01

    Technology has become a large component of teaching and learning in mathematics education. Gaining insight into students' technology acceptance factors is a crucial step in understanding instructional design and implementation of technology-based learning programs. Despite the widespread use of technology in education, few research efforts…

  12. Acceptance procedures: Microfilm printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Acceptance tests were made for a special order automatic additive color microfilm printer. Tests include film capacity, film transport, resolution, illumination uniformity, exposure range checks, and color cuing considerations.

  13. Widespread Low-Latitude Diurnal CO2 Frost on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueux, S.; Kleinböhl, A.; Hayne, P. O.; Heavens, N. G.; Kass, D. M.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Shirley, J. H.

    2016-09-01

    We map and characterize MCS nighttime surface temperature observations consistent with the occurrence of CO2 frost on Mars. Low-latitude nighttime CO2 frost is widespread, with potential implications for the physical nature of the surface layer.

  14. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  15. Students Accepted on Probation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorberbaum, Caroline S.

    This report is a justification of the Dalton Junior College admissions policy designed to help students who had had academic and/or social difficulties at other schools. These students were accepted on probation, their problems carefully analyzed, and much effort devoted to those with low academic potential. They received extensive academic and…

  16. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  17. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  18. Fostering Social Acceptance in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The mere presence of students with learning disabilities in general education classrooms is not inclusion. Inclusion involves meaningful participation by these students, achievement in accordance with their abilities, and social acceptance by teachers and peers. Teachers who view these students as a challenge rather than a burden, who believe that…

  19. What Specific Preschool Math Skills Predict Later Math Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The widespread concern about mathematics achievement has drawn extensive research attention to what skills predict later academic achievement. There is clear and consistent evidence that math achievement at school entry is the strongest predictor of later school success and educational attainment. Early childhood math achievement can thus have…

  20. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  1. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  2. Inspecting for widespread fatigue damage: Is partial debonding the key?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, John

    1994-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results indicate that cracks can initiate, grow, and coalesce more rapidly in fuselage lap joints that have experienced partial or complete debonding. Computational analysis in this paper shows that stress concentrations and stress intensity factors at the rivet holes are far less severe when the bond is intact. Debonding hastens the initiation of widespread fatigue cracks and significantly increases crack growth rate. Thus, debonded regions serve as "breeding grounds" for widespread fatigue damage. Therefore, the effectiveness of lap joint inspection programs may be enhanced if detailed inspections are focused on areas in which debonding has been detected.

  3. Essentials for Successful and Widespread LED Lighting Adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Nisa

    2011-03-01

    Solid-state lighting (SSL), with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the light source, is a growing and essential field, particularly in regard to the heightened need for global energy efficiency. In recent years, SSL has experienced remarkable advances in efficiency, light output magnitude and quality. Thus such diverse applications as signage, message centers, displays, and special lighting are now adopting LEDs, taking 2010's market to 9.1 billion - 68% growth from the previous year! While this is promising, future growth in both display and lighting applications will rely upon unveiling deeper understanding and key innovations in LED lighting science and technologies. In this presentation, some LED lighting fundamentals, engineering challenges and novel solutions will be discussed to address reduction in efficiency (a.k.a. droop) at high currents, and to obtain uniform light distribution for overcoming LEDs' directional nature. The droop phenomenon has been a subject of much controversy in the industry and despite several studies and claims, a widely-accepted explanation still lacks because of counter arguments and experiments. Recently several research studies have identified that the droop behavior in nitride-based LEDs beyond certain current density ranges can only be comprehensively explained if the current leaking beyond the LED active region is included. Although such studies have identified a few useful current leakage mechanisms outside the active region, no one has included current leakage, due to non-ideal, 3-D device structures that create undesirable current distribution inside and outside the active region. This talk will address achieving desirable current distributions from optimized 3-D device structures that should reduce current leakage and hence the droop behavior. In addition to novel LED design solutions for droop reduction and uniform light distribution, the talk will address cost and yield concerns as they pertain to core material scarcity

  4. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  5. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  6. 77 FR 55105 - Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... establish a limit of validity of the engineering data that supports the structural maintenance program... tables. This document corrects the errors in those tables. DATES: This corrective action becomes... entitled ``Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage'' (77 FR 30877), which corrected a final...

  7. Assessment of the feasibility of the widespread photovoltaic retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. L.

    Some of the economic implications of retrofits and retrofit designs which might be employed are considered. Residential and commercial retrofits may represent a significant national market for photovoltaic (PV) systems. Techniques for estimating the photovoltaic retrofits market and present preliminary conclusions about physical market size are discussed. Possible institutional barriers to widespread retrofits are reviewed.

  8. Are neonicotinoid insecticides driving declines of widespread butterflies?

    PubMed Central

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Wilson, John McVean; Botham, Marc S.; Brereton, Tom M.; Fox, Richard; Goulson, Dave

    2015-01-01

    There has been widespread concern that neonicotinoid pesticides may be adversely impacting wild and managed bees for some years, but recently attention has shifted to examining broader effects they may be having on biodiversity. For example in the Netherlands, declines in insectivorous birds are positively associated with levels of neonicotinoid pollution in surface water. In England, the total abundance of widespread butterfly species declined by 58% on farmed land between 2000 and 2009 despite both a doubling in conservation spending in the UK, and predictions that climate change should benefit most species. Here we build models of the UK population indices from 1985 to 2012 for 17 widespread butterfly species that commonly occur at farmland sites. Of the factors we tested, three correlated significantly with butterfly populations. Summer temperature and the index for a species the previous year are both positively associated with butterfly indices. By contrast, the number of hectares of farmland where neonicotinoid pesticides are used is negatively associated with butterfly indices. Indices for 15 of the 17 species show negative associations with neonicotinoid usage. The declines in butterflies have largely occurred in England, where neonicotinoid usage is at its highest. In Scotland, where neonicotinoid usage is comparatively low, butterfly numbers are stable. Further research is needed urgently to show whether there is a causal link between neonicotinoid usage and the decline of widespread butterflies or whether it simply represents a proxy for other environmental factors associated with intensive agriculture. PMID:26623186

  9. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  10. Understanding and Facilitating Preschool Children's Peer Acceptance. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemple, Kristen M.

    This digest discusses factors associated with the acceptance and rejection of preschool children by their peers and offers a number of strategies that teachers and other adults can use in their attempts to help children achieve social acceptance. Behaviors and characteristics associated with peer rejection include aggression and misinterpretation…

  11. 40 CFR 161.80 - Acceptability of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accepted methods were used, sufficient numbers of measurements were made to achieve statistical reliability... purposes of this part, and the data permit sound scientific judgments to be made. Such data will not...

  12. BAS: balanced acceptance sampling of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Robertson, B L; Brown, J A; McDonald, T; Jaksons, P

    2013-09-01

    To design an efficient survey or monitoring program for a natural resource it is important to consider the spatial distribution of the resource. Generally, sample designs that are spatially balanced are more efficient than designs which are not. A spatially balanced design selects a sample that is evenly distributed over the extent of the resource. In this article we present a new spatially balanced design that can be used to select a sample from discrete and continuous populations in multi-dimensional space. The design, which we call balanced acceptance sampling, utilizes the Halton sequence to assure spatial diversity of selected locations. Targeted inclusion probabilities are achieved by acceptance sampling. The BAS design is conceptually simpler than competing spatially balanced designs, executes faster, and achieves better spatial balance as measured by a number of quantities. The algorithm has been programed in an R package freely available for download.

  13. Science and Safety: 'Acceptable' Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Stresses ways to answer questions related to widespread publicity - are nuclear reactors safe, will dangerous research in genetic manipulation be banned? - with emphasis on true meaning of safety as related to risks. (EB)

  14. Non-pharmacological treatment of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Afton L; Williams, David A

    2011-04-01

    Individuals with chronic widespread pain, including those with fibromyalgia, pose a particular challenge to treatment, given the modest effectiveness of pharmacological agents for this condition. The growing consensus indicates that the best approach to treatment involves the combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Several non-pharmacological interventions, particularly exercise and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), have garnered good evidence of effectiveness as stand-alone, adjunctive treatments for patients with chronic pain. In this article, evidenced-based, non-pharmacological management techniques for chronic widespread pain are described by using two broad categories, exercise and CBT. The evidence for decreasing pain, improving functioning and changing secondary symptoms is highlighted. Lastly, the methods by which exercise and CBT can be combined for a multi-component approach, which is consistent with the current evidence-based guidelines of several American and European medical societies, are addressed.

  15. Thermal Non-equilibrium Consistent with Widespread Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Mok, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Time correlation analysis has been used to show widespread cooling in the solar corona; this cooling has been interpreted as a result of impulsive (nanoflare) heating. In this work, we investigate wide-spread cooling using a 3D model for a solar active region which has been heated with highly stratified heating. This type of heating drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions, meaning that though the heating is effectively steady, the density and temperature in the solution are not. We simulate the expected observations in narrowband EUV images and apply the time correlation analysis. We find that the results of this analysis are qualitatively similar to the observed data. We discuss additional diagnostics that may be applied to differentiate between these two heating scenarios.

  16. Geochemical evidence for widespread euxinia in the later Cambrian ocean.

    PubMed

    Gill, Benjamin C; Lyons, Timothy W; Young, Seth A; Kump, Lee R; Knoll, Andrew H; Saltzman, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Widespread anoxia in the ocean is frequently invoked as a primary driver of mass extinction as well as a long-term inhibitor of evolutionary radiation on early Earth. In recent biogeochemical studies it has been hypothesized that oxygen deficiency was widespread in subsurface water masses of later Cambrian oceans, possibly influencing evolutionary events during this time. Physical evidence of widespread anoxia in Cambrian oceans has remained elusive and thus its potential relationship to the palaeontological record remains largely unexplored. Here we present sulphur isotope records from six globally distributed stratigraphic sections of later Cambrian marine rocks (about 499 million years old). We find a positive sulphur isotope excursion in phase with the Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE), a large and rapid excursion in the marine carbon isotope record, which is thought to be indicative of a global carbon cycle perturbation. Numerical box modelling of the paired carbon sulphur isotope data indicates that these isotope shifts reflect transient increases in the burial of organic carbon and pyrite sulphur in sediments deposited under large-scale anoxic and sulphidic (euxinic) conditions. Independently, molybdenum abundances in a coeval black shale point convincingly to the transient spread of anoxia. These results identify the SPICE interval as the best characterized ocean anoxic event in the pre-Mesozoic ocean and an extreme example of oxygen deficiency in the later Cambrian ocean. Thus, a redox structure similar to those in Proterozoic oceans may have persisted or returned in the oceans of the early Phanerozoic eon. Indeed, the environmental challenges presented by widespread anoxia may have been a prevalent if not dominant influence on animal evolution in Cambrian oceans. PMID:21209662

  17. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  18. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  20. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  1. Widespread Weathered Glass on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Briony; Bell, James F., III

    2012-01-01

    Low albedo sediments cover >10(exp 7) sq km in the northern lowlands of Mars, but the composition and origin of these widespread deposits have remained ambiguous despite many previous investigations. Here we use near-infrared spectra acquired by the Mars Express OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activite') imaging spectrometer to show that these sediments exhibit spectral characteristics that are consistent with both high abundances of iron-bearing glass and silica-enriched leached rinds on glass. This interpretation is supported by observations of low-albedo soil grains with possible rinds at the Phoenix Mars Lander landing site in the northern lowlands. By comparison with the extensive glass-rich dune fields and sand sheets of Iceland, we propose an explosive volcanic origin for these glass-rich sediments. We also propose that the glassy remnant rinds on the sediments are the result of post-depositional alteration, as these rinds are commonly formed in arid terrestrial volcanic environments during water-limited, moderately acidic leaching. These weathered, glass-rich deposits in the northern lowlands are also colocated with the strongest concentrations of a major global compositional surface type previously identified in mid-infrared spectra, suggesting that they may be representative of global processes. Our results provide potential confirmation of models suggesting that explosive volcanism has been widespread on Mars, and also raise the possibilities that glass-rich volcaniclastics are a major source of eolian sand on Mars and that widespread surficial aqueous alteration has occurred under Amazonian climatic conditions.

  2. Insecure attachment style is associated with chronic widespread pain.

    PubMed

    Davies, K A; Macfarlane, G J; McBeth, J; Morriss, R; Dickens, C

    2009-06-01

    Individuals with "insecure" adult attachment styles have been shown to experience more pain than people with secure attachment, though results of previous studies have been inconsistent. We performed a cross-sectional study on a large population-based sample to investigate whether, compared to pain free individuals, subjects with chronic widespread pain were more likely to report insecure adult attachment style. Subjects in a population-based cross-sectional study completed a self-rated assessment of adult attachment style. Attachment style was categorised as secure (i.e., normal attachment style); or preoccupied, dismissing or fearful (insecure attachment styles). Subjects completed a pain questionnaire from which three groups were identified: pain free; chronic widespread pain; and other pain. Subjects rated their pain intensity and pain-related disability on an 11 point Likert scale. Subjects (2509) returned a completed questionnaire (median age 49.9 years (IQR 41.2-50.0); 59.2% female). Subjects with CWP were more likely to report a preoccupied (RRR 2.6; 95%CI 1.8-3.7), dismissing (RRR 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-3.1) or fearful attachment style (RRR 1.4; 95%CI 1.1-1.8) than those free of pain. Among CWP subjects, insecure attachment style was associated with number of pain sites (Dismissing: RRR 2.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.3, Preoccupied: RRR=1.8, 95%CI 0.98-3.5) and degree of pain-related disability (Preoccupied: RRR=2.1, 95%CI 1.0-4.1), but not pain intensity. These findings suggest that treatment strategies based on knowledge of attachment style, possibly using support and education, may alleviate distress and disability in people at risk of, or affected by, chronic widespread pain. PMID:19345016

  3. Widespread 3′-end uridylation in eukaryotic RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yayun; Shen, Jianguo; Wu, Huanian; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Lihua; Yang, Jinguang; Li, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    RNA 3′ uridylation occurs pervasively in eukaryotes, but is poorly characterized in viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that a broad array of RNA viruses, including mycoviruses, plant viruses and animal viruses, possess a novel population of RNA species bearing nontemplated oligo(U) or (U)-rich tails, suggesting widespread 3′ uridylation in eukaryotic viruses. Given the biological relevance of 3′ uridylation to eukaryotic RNA degradation, we propose a conserved but as-yet-unknown mechanism in virus-host interaction. PMID:27151171

  4. Ferroan anorthosite - A widespread and distinctive lunar rock type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, E.; Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1974-01-01

    Eight of eleven Apollo 16 rake-sample anorthosites are very similar to each other, to hand-specimen Apollo 16 anorthosites, and to Apollo 15 anorthosites. They have feldspar An-96.6, both high- and low-Ca pyroxene with a restricted range of (low-magnesium) composition, minor olivine, traces of ilmenite and chromite, and originally coarse-grained, but now cataclastic texture. Such ferroan anorthosite is evidently a coherent, distinctive and widespread lunar rock type of cumulate origin which may not necessarily be very closely related genetically to other highland rock types.

  5. The tad locus: postcards from the widespread colonization island.

    PubMed

    Tomich, Mladen; Planet, Paul J; Figurski, David H

    2007-05-01

    The Tad (tight adherence) macromolecular transport system, which is present in many bacterial and archaeal species, represents an ancient and major new subtype of type II secretion. The tad genes are present on a genomic island named the widespread colonization island (WCI), and encode the machinery that is required for the assembly of adhesive Flp (fimbrial low-molecular-weight protein) pili. The tad genes are essential for biofilm formation, colonization and pathogenesis in the genera Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus), Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas, Yersinia, Caulobacter and perhaps others. Here we review the structure, function and evolution of the Tad secretion system.

  6. Genealogy and Demographic History of a Widespread Amphibian throughout Indochina.

    PubMed

    Blair, Christopher; Davy, Christina M; Ngo, Andre; Orlov, Nikolai L; Shi, Hai-tao; Lu, Shun-qing; Gao, Lan; Rao, Ding-qi; Murphy, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about spatial patterns of cryptic diversity in tropical species and the processes that generate them. Few studies examine the geographic distribution of genetic lineages in Southeast Asia, an area hypothesized to harbor substantial cryptic diversity. We investigated the evolutionary history of Asian tree frogs of the Polypedates leucomystax complex (n = 172) based on 1800 bp of the mtDNA genes ND1 and cytochrome b and tested hypotheses pertaining to climate, geology, and dispersal patterns. Analyses revealed substantial genetic diversity and lineage divergence throughout the region with evidence for widespread sympatric lineages and a general north versus south clustering. Relaxed molecular clock analysis and tests for demographic expansion identified an initial cladogenesis during the Miocene with subsequent Plio-Pleistocene diversification, with the former corresponding to periods of increased aridity and the onset of monsoonal weather systems. Rates of diversification were relatively constant until the Early Pleistocene when rates increased exponentially. We found equivocal evidence for isolation-by-distance and a potential role of some landscape features as partial barriers to dispersal. Finally, our analyses showed that divergence between insular and mainland populations occurred before Homo sapiens colonized Southeast Asia, suggesting that historical human-mediated dispersal did not drive insular diversification. Our results suggested that demographic expansion in the Late Pleistocene resulted in widespread sympatric lineages in the P. leucomystax complex throughout southern China and Indochina and further clarified the evolutionary history of lineages within P. leucomystax.

  7. Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry: Are We Ready for Widespread Clinical Use?

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Maria J.; Kapur, Shitij

    2008-01-01

    There are high expectations about the capabilities of pharmacogenetics to tailor psychotropic treatment and “personalize” treatment. While a large number of associations, with generally small effect size, have been discovered, a “test” with widespread use and adoption is still missing. A more realistic picture, recognizing the important contribution of clinical and environmental factors toward overall clinical outcome has emerged. In this emerging view, genetic findings, if considered individually, may have limited clinical applications. Thus, in recent years, combinations of information in several genes have been used for the selection of appropriate therapeutic doses and for the prediction of agranulocytosis, hyperlipidemia, and response to antipsychotic and antidepressant medications. While these tests based on multiple genes show greater predictive ability than individual allele tests, their net impact on clinical consequence and costs is limited, thus leading to limited penetration into widespread clinical use. As one looks at other branches of medicine, there are successful examples of pharmacogenetic tests guiding treatment, and thus, it is reasonable to hope that with the incorporation of clinical and environmental information and the identification of new genes drawn from genome-wide analysis, will improve the predictive utility of these tests leading to their increased use by clinicians. PMID:18753306

  8. Widespread occurrence of expressed fungal secretory peroxidases in forest soils.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek J; Barbi, Florian; Kapturska, Danuta; Krüger, Dirk; Zak, Donald R; Marmeisse, Roland; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hofrichter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin) and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase), dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase). Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp.), which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation.

  9. Geographically contrasting biodiversity reductions in a widespread New Zealand seabird.

    PubMed

    Rawlence, Nicolas J; Kennedy, Martyn; Anderson, Christian N K; Prost, Stefan; Till, Charlotte E; Smith, Ian W G; Scofield, R Paul; Tennyson, Alan J D; Hamel, Jill; Lalas, Chris; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Waters, Jonathan M

    2015-09-01

    Unravelling prehistoric anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity represents a key challenge for biologists and archaeologists. New Zealand's endemic Stewart Island Shag (Leucocarbo chalconotus) comprises two distinct phylogeographic lineages, currently restricted to the country's south and southeast. However, fossil and archaeological remains suggest a far more widespread distribution at the time of Polynesian settlement ca. 1280 AD, encompassing much of coastal South Island. We used modern and ancient DNA, radiocarbon dating, and Bayesian modelling, to assess the impacts of human arrival on this taxon. Our analyses show that the southeast South Island (Otago) lineage was formerly widespread across coastal South Island, but experienced dramatic population extinctions, range retraction and lineage loss soon after human arrival. By comparison, the southernmost (Foveaux Strait) lineage has experienced a relatively stable demographic and biogeographic history since human arrival, retaining much of its mitochondrial diversity. Archaeological data suggest that these contrasting demographic histories (retraction vs. stability) reflect differential human impacts in mainland South Island vs. Foveaux Strait, highlighting the importance of testing for temporal and spatial variation in human-driven faunal declines.

  10. Geographically contrasting biodiversity reductions in a widespread New Zealand seabird.

    PubMed

    Rawlence, Nicolas J; Kennedy, Martyn; Anderson, Christian N K; Prost, Stefan; Till, Charlotte E; Smith, Ian W G; Scofield, R Paul; Tennyson, Alan J D; Hamel, Jill; Lalas, Chris; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Waters, Jonathan M

    2015-09-01

    Unravelling prehistoric anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity represents a key challenge for biologists and archaeologists. New Zealand's endemic Stewart Island Shag (Leucocarbo chalconotus) comprises two distinct phylogeographic lineages, currently restricted to the country's south and southeast. However, fossil and archaeological remains suggest a far more widespread distribution at the time of Polynesian settlement ca. 1280 AD, encompassing much of coastal South Island. We used modern and ancient DNA, radiocarbon dating, and Bayesian modelling, to assess the impacts of human arrival on this taxon. Our analyses show that the southeast South Island (Otago) lineage was formerly widespread across coastal South Island, but experienced dramatic population extinctions, range retraction and lineage loss soon after human arrival. By comparison, the southernmost (Foveaux Strait) lineage has experienced a relatively stable demographic and biogeographic history since human arrival, retaining much of its mitochondrial diversity. Archaeological data suggest that these contrasting demographic histories (retraction vs. stability) reflect differential human impacts in mainland South Island vs. Foveaux Strait, highlighting the importance of testing for temporal and spatial variation in human-driven faunal declines. PMID:26227633

  11. Widespread methanotrophic primary production in lowland chalk rivers

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Felicity; Grey, Jonathan; Trimmer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Methane is oversaturated relative to the atmosphere in many rivers, yet its cycling and fate is poorly understood. While photosynthesis is the dominant source of autotrophic carbon to rivers, chemosynthesis and particularly methane oxidation could provide alternative sources of primary production where the riverbed is heavily shaded or at depth beneath the sediment surface. Here, we highlight geographically widespread methanotrophic carbon fixation within the gravel riverbeds of over 30 chalk rivers. In 15 of these, the potential for methane oxidation (methanotrophy) was also compared with photosynthesis. In addition, we performed detailed concurrent measurements of photosynthesis and methanotrophy in one large chalk river over a complete annual cycle, where we found methanotrophy to be active to at least 15 cm into the riverbed and to be strongly substrate limited. The seasonal trend in methanotrophic activity reflected that of the riverine methane concentrations, and thus the highest rates were measured in mid-summer. At the sediment surface, photosynthesis was limited by light for most of the year with heavy shading induced by dense beds of aquatic macrophytes. Across 15 rivers, in late summer, we conservatively calculated that net methanotrophy was equivalent to between 1% and 46% of benthic net photosynthetic production within the gravel riverbed, with a median value of 4%. Hence, riverbed chemosynthesis, coupled to the oxidation of methane, is widespread and significant in English chalk rivers. PMID:24695425

  12. Widespread Occurrence of Expressed Fungal Secretory Peroxidases in Forest Soils

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek J.; Barbi, Florian; Kapturska, Danuta; Krüger, Dirk; Zak, Donald R.; Marmeisse, Roland; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hofrichter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin) and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase), dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase). Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp.), which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation. PMID:24763280

  13. Potential environmental functions of widespread, abundant, uncultured marine archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, K. G.; Schreiber, L.; Petersen, D. G.; Schramm, A.; Jorgensen, B.

    2012-12-01

    The vast majority of marine subsurface microorganisms are uncultivated, and therefore have unknown metabolisms. Much of the prokaryotes present in the marine subsurface are archaea, and, in turn, much of the archaea fall into the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group. These organisms are widely distributed globally and are phylogenetically diverse, comprising 17 distinct subgroups, defined by 16S rRNA genes (Kubo et al. 2012). The subgroups do not seem to have any well-defined environmental distribution (i.e., they are all present in different types of marine and terrestrial environments). However, the abundance of sequences from a certain environment type differs among subgroups, and may provide clues to their role in these environments. We sequenced the genome of a single cell of MCG extracted directly from marine sediments. Although coverage was low (~30%), the data quality was high. Conserved genes show that MCG is deeply branching within the newly named "Thaumarchaeota", and contains a complete pathway for the degradation or extracellular proteins. A further search through metagenomic data shows that this process may be widespread in marine sediments. We hypothesize that MCG archaea may be important in anaerobic protein decomposition in marine sediments. Reference Kubo et al., 2012. Archaea of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) are abundant, diverse, and widespread in marine sediments. ISME Journal, in press, doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.37.

  14. Ice Nucleation Activity in the Widespread Soil Fungus Mortierella alpina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Pummer, B. G.; Franc, G. D.; Pöschl, U.

    2014-08-01

    Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nuclei (IN). So far, however, the abundance, diversity, sources, seasonality, and role of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. Across all investigated soils, 8% of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5 to -6 °C, and belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. M. alpina is known to be saprobic, widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic-elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be proteinaceous, <300 kDa in size, and can be easily washed off the mycelium. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, their contribution might accumulate over time, perhaps to be transported with soil dust and influencing its ice nucleating properties.

  15. Human DNA methylomes at base resolution show widespread epigenomic differences

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Ryan; Pelizzola, Mattia; Dowen, Robert H.; Hawkins, R. David; Hon, Gary; Tonti-Filippini, Julian; Nery, Joseph R.; Lee, Leonard; Ye, Zhen; Ngo, Que-Minh; Edsall, Lee; Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica; Stewart, Ron; Ruotti, Victor; Millar, A. Harvey; Thomson, James A.; Ren, Bing; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary DNA cytosine methylation is a central epigenetic modification that plays essential roles in cellular processes including genome regulation, development and disease. Here we present the first genome-wide, single-base resolution maps of methylated cytosines in a mammalian genome, from both human embryonic stem cells and fetal fibroblasts, along with comparative analysis of mRNA and small RNA components of the transcriptome, several histone modifications, and sites of DNA-protein interaction for several key regulatory factors. Widespread differences were identified in the composition and patterning of cytosine methylation between the two genomes. Nearly one-quarter of all methylation identified in embryonic stem cells was in a non-CG context, suggesting that they may utilize different methylation mechanisms to affect gene regulation. Methylation in non-CG contexts showed enrichment in gene bodies and depletion in protein binding sites and enhancers. Non-CG methylation disappeared upon induced differentiation of the embryonic stem cells, and was restored in induced pluripotent stem cells. We identified hundreds of differentially methylated regions proximal to genes involved in pluripotency and differentiation, and widespread reduced methylation levels in fibroblasts associated with lower transcriptional activity. These reference epigenomes provide a foundation for future studies exploring this key epigenetic modification in human disease and development. PMID:19829295

  16. Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Cordaux, Richard; Pichon, Samuel; Hatira, Houda Ben Afia; Doublet, Vincent; Grève, Pierre; Marcadé, Isabelle; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, Faouzia; Bouchon, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Although widespread among isopod crustaceans, they have seldom been found in non-isopod crustacean species. Here, we report Wolbachia infection in fourteen new crustacean species. Our results extend the range of Wolbachia infections in terrestrial isopods and amphipods (class Malacostraca). We report the occurrence of two different Wolbachia strains in two host species (a terrestrial isopod and an amphipod). Moreover, the discovery of Wolbachia in the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (subclass Thecostraca) establishes Wolbachia infection in class Maxillopoda. The new bacterial strains are closely related to B-supergroup Wolbachia strains previously reported from crustacean hosts. Our results suggest that Wolbachia infection may be much more widespread in crustaceans than previously thought. The presence of related Wolbachia strains in highly divergent crustacean hosts suggests that Wolbachia endosymbionts can naturally adapt to a wide range of crustacean hosts. Given the ability of isopod Wolbachia strains to induce feminization of genetic males or cytoplasmic incompatibility, we speculate that manipulation of crustacean-borne Wolbachia bacteria might represent potential tools for controlling crustacean species of commercial interest and crustacean or insect disease vectors.

  17. Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Cordaux, Richard; Pichon, Samuel; Hatira, Houda Ben Afia; Doublet, Vincent; Grève, Pierre; Marcadé, Isabelle; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, Faouzia; Bouchon, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Wolbachia bacteria are obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Although widespread among isopod crustaceans, they have seldom been found in non-isopod crustacean species. Here, we report Wolbachia infection in fourteen new crustacean species. Our results extend the range of Wolbachia infections in terrestrial isopods and amphipods (class Malacostraca). We report the occurrence of two different Wolbachia strains in two host species (a terrestrial isopod and an amphipod). Moreover, the discovery of Wolbachia in the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (subclass Thecostraca) establishes Wolbachia infection in class Maxillopoda. The new bacterial strains are closely related to B-supergroup Wolbachia strains previously reported from crustacean hosts. Our results suggest that Wolbachia infection may be much more widespread in crustaceans than previously thought. The presence of related Wolbachia strains in highly divergent crustacean hosts suggests that Wolbachia endosymbionts can naturally adapt to a wide range of crustacean hosts. Given the ability of isopod Wolbachia strains to induce feminization of genetic males or cytoplasmic incompatibility, we speculate that manipulation of crustacean-borne Wolbachia bacteria might represent potential tools for controlling crustacean species of commercial interest and crustacean or insect disease vectors. PMID:22536103

  18. Acceptance test procedure for High Pressure Water Jet System

    SciTech Connect

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-05-30

    The overall objective of the acceptance test is to demonstrate a combined system. This includes associated tools and equipment necessary to perform cleaning in the 105 K East Basin (KE) for achieving optimum reduction in the level of contamination/dose rate on canisters prior to removal from the KE Basin and subsequent packaging for disposal. Acceptance tests shall include necessary hardware to achieve acceptance of the cleaning phase of canisters. This acceptance test procedure will define the acceptance testing criteria of the high pressure water jet cleaning fixture. The focus of this procedure will be to provide guidelines and instructions to control, evaluate and document the acceptance testing for cleaning effectiveness and method(s) of removing the contaminated surface layer from the canister presently identified in KE Basin. Additionally, the desired result of the acceptance test will be to deliver to K Basins a thoroughly tested and proven system for underwater decontamination and dose reduction. This report discusses the acceptance test procedure for the High Pressure Water Jet.

  19. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  20. Validation and acceptance of synthetic infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Bernhardt, Mark; Angell, Christopher R.; Hickman, Duncan; Whitehead, Philip; Patel, Dilip

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the use of an image query database (IQ-DB) tool as a means of implementing a validation strategy for synthetic long-wave infrared images of sea clutter. Specifically it was required to determine the validity of the synthetic imagery for use in developing and testing automatic target detection algorithms. The strategy adopted for exploiting synthetic imagery is outlined and the key issues of validation and acceptance are discussed in detail. A wide range of image metrics has been developed to achieve pre-defined validation criteria. A number of these metrics, which include post processing algorithms, are presented. Furthermore, the IQ-DB provides a robust mechanism for configuration management and control of the large volume of data used. The implementation of the IQ-DB is reviewed in terms of its cardinal point specification and its central role in synthetic imagery validation and EOSS progressive acceptance.

  1. Achieving a balance - Science and human exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    The linkage between science and human exploration is close. Currently, proponents of science and human presence themes identified by the Synthesis Group as the most important themes of Mars exploration, tend to have reservations about the other camp. Mechanisms that integrate the program themes are essential, to gain the advocacies of the exploration communities and find optimal solutions to the technical problems. Without such mechanisms, it will be difficult to gain widespread acceptance of the SEI as the strategic horizon for the U.S. civilian space program.

  2. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  3. Dissolution test acceptance sampling plans.

    PubMed

    Tsong, Y; Hammerstrom, T; Lin, K; Ong, T E

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) general monograph provides a standard for dissolution compliance with the requirements as stated in the individual USP monograph for a tablet or capsule dosage form. The acceptance rules recommended by USP have important roles in the quality control process. The USP rules and their modifications are often used as an industrial lot release sampling plan, where a lot is accepted when the tablets or capsules sampled are accepted as proof of compliance with the requirement. In this paper, the operating characteristics of the USP acceptance rules are reviewed and compared to a selected modification. The operating characteristics curves show that the USP acceptance rules are sensitive to the true mean dissolution and do not reject a lot or batch that has a large percentage of tablets that dissolve with less than the dissolution specification.

  4. A widespread family of bacterial cell wall assembly proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Yoshikazu; Marles-Wright, Jon; Cleverley, Robert M; Emmins, Robyn; Ishikawa, Shu; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Heinz, Nadja; Bui, Nhat Khai; Hoyland, Christopher N; Ogasawara, Naotake; Lewis, Richard J; Vollmer, Waldemar; Daniel, Richard A; Errington, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Teichoic acids and acidic capsular polysaccharides are major anionic cell wall polymers (APs) in many bacteria, with various critical cell functions, including maintenance of cell shape and structural integrity, charge and cation homeostasis, and multiple aspects of pathogenesis. We have identified the widespread LytR–Cps2A–Psr (LCP) protein family, of previously unknown function, as novel enzymes required for AP synthesis. Structural and biochemical analysis of several LCP proteins suggest that they carry out the final step of transferring APs from their lipid-linked precursor to cell wall peptidoglycan (PG). In Bacillus subtilis, LCP proteins are found in association with the MreB cytoskeleton, suggesting that MreB proteins coordinate the insertion of the major polymers, PG and AP, into the cell wall. PMID:21964069

  5. Ichthyosis associated with widespread tinea corporis: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro de; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane; Fontana, Hanae Rafaela; Gentili, Arthur Conelian; Hammerschmidt, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Ichthyoses are a common group of keratinization disorders. A non-inflammatory generalized persistent skin desquamation is observed. It is characterized by increased cell turnover, thickening of the stratum corneum and functional changes of sebaceous and sweat glands. All of these favor fungal proliferation. Dermatophytes may infect skin, hair and nails causing ringworm or tinea. They have the ability to obtain nutrients from keratinized material. One of its most prevalent genera is Trichophyton rubrum. Although tineas and ichthyoses are quite common, the association of the two entities is rarely reported in the literature. Three cases of ichthyosis associated with widespread infection by T. rubrum are presented. Resistance to several antifungal treatments was responsible for worsening of ichthyosis signs and symptoms.

  6. Widespread distribution of extensive chromosomal fragmentation in ciliates.

    PubMed

    Riley, J L; Katz, L A

    2001-07-01

    Ciliates are a diverse group of eukaryotes characterized by their division of nuclear function into a "germ line" micronucleus and a "somatic" macronucleus. After conjugation, chromosomes in the transcriptionally active macronucleus develop by fragmentation, elimination, and amplification of germ line chromosomes. Extensive chromosomal processing that generates a macronucleus with gene-sized fragments has thus far been well documented in members of only one class of ciliates, the Spirotrichea. Here we establish the broad distribution of extensive fragmentation among members of the class Phyllopharyngea and the genera Metopus (order Armophorida) and Nyctotherus (order Clevelandellida). Moreover, analyses of small-subunit rDNA genealogies indicate that gene-sized chromosomes occur in members of the three separate clades: (1) the class Spirotrichea, (2) the class Phyllopharyngea, and (3) the two orders Clevelandellida and Armophorida. Together, these data indicate that the generation of gene-sized chromosomes is widespread and demonstrate multiple origins of extensive fragmentation within ciliates.

  7. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew P.; Sparks, John S.; Smith, W. Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world’s oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication. PMID:27276229

  8. Developing a Scenario for widespread use: Best practices, lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, S.; Jones, L.; Cox, D.

    2011-01-01

    The ShakeOut Scenario is probably the most widely known and used earthquake scenario created to date. Much of the credit for its widespread dissemination and application lies with scenario development criteria that focused on the needs and involvement of end users and with a suite of products that tailored communication of the results to varied end users, who ranged from emergency managers to the general public, from corporations to grassroots organizations. Products were most effective when they were highly visual, when they emphasized the findings of social scientists, and when they communicated the experience of living through the earthquake. This paper summarizes the development criteria and the products that made the ShakeOut Scenario so widely known and used, and it provides some suggestions for future improvements. ?? 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  9. Widespread Expansion of Protein Interaction Capabilities by Alternative Splicing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinping; Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Kang, Shuli; Sheynkman, Gloria M; Hao, Tong; Richardson, Aaron; Sun, Song; Yang, Fan; Shen, Yun A; Murray, Ryan R; Spirohn, Kerstin; Begg, Bridget E; Duran-Frigola, Miquel; MacWilliams, Andrew; Pevzner, Samuel J; Zhong, Quan; Trigg, Shelly A; Tam, Stanley; Ghamsari, Lila; Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Rodriguez, Maria D; Balcha, Dawit; Tan, Guihong; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles; Zhou, Xianghong J; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Charloteaux, Benoit; Chen, Alyce A; Calderwood, Michael A; Aloy, Patrick; Roth, Frederick P; Hill, David E; Iakoucheva, Lilia M; Xia, Yu; Vidal, Marc

    2016-02-11

    While alternative splicing is known to diversify the functional characteristics of some genes, the extent to which protein isoforms globally contribute to functional complexity on a proteomic scale remains unknown. To address this systematically, we cloned full-length open reading frames of alternatively spliced transcripts for a large number of human genes and used protein-protein interaction profiling to functionally compare hundreds of protein isoform pairs. The majority of isoform pairs share less than 50% of their interactions. In the global context of interactome network maps, alternative isoforms tend to behave like distinct proteins rather than minor variants of each other. Interaction partners specific to alternative isoforms tend to be expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner and belong to distinct functional modules. Our strategy, applicable to other functional characteristics, reveals a widespread expansion of protein interaction capabilities through alternative splicing and suggests that many alternative "isoforms" are functionally divergent (i.e., "functional alloforms"). PMID:26871637

  10. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew P; Sparks, John S; Smith, W Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world's oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication.

  11. The widespread threat of calcium decline in fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Jeziorski, Adam; Yan, Norman D; Paterson, Andrew M; Desellas, Anna M; Turner, Michael A; Jeffries, Dean S; Keller, Bill; Weeber, Russ C; McNicol, Don K; Palmer, Michelle E; McIver, Kyle; Arseneau, Kristina; Ginn, Brian K; Cumming, Brian F; Smol, John P

    2008-11-28

    Calcium concentrations are now commonly declining in softwater boreal lakes. Although the mechanisms leading to these declines are generally well known, the consequences for the aquatic biota have not yet been reported. By examining crustacean zooplankton remains preserved in lake sediment cores, we document near extirpations of calcium-rich Daphnia species, which are keystone herbivores in pelagic food webs, concurrent with declining lake-water calcium. A large proportion (62%, 47 to 81% by region) of the Canadian Shield lakes we examined has a calcium concentration approaching or below the threshold at which laboratory Daphnia populations suffer reduced survival and fecundity. The ecological impacts of environmental calcium loss are likely to be both widespread and pronounced. PMID:19039134

  12. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew P; Sparks, John S; Smith, W Leo

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world's oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication. PMID:27276229

  13. Hypoxia in paradise: widespread hypoxia tolerance in coral reef fishes.

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Göran E; Ostlund-Nilsson, Sara

    2004-01-01

    Using respirometry, we examined the hypoxia tolerance of 31 teleost fish species (seven families) inhabiting coral reefs at a 2-5 m depth in the lagoon at Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). All fishes studied maintained their rate of oxygen consumption down to relatively severe hypoxia (20-30% air saturation). Indeed, most fishes appeared unaffected by hypoxia until the oxygen level fell below 10% of air saturation. This, hitherto unrecognized, hypoxia tolerance among coral reef fishes could reflect adaptations to nocturnal hypoxia in tide pools. It may also be needed to enable fishes to reside deep within branching coral at night to avoid predation. Widespread hypoxia tolerance in a habitat with such an extreme biodiversity as coral reefs indicate that there is a wealth of hypoxia related adaptations to be discovered in reef fishes. PMID:15101411

  14. The widespread threat of calcium decline in fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Jeziorski, Adam; Yan, Norman D; Paterson, Andrew M; Desellas, Anna M; Turner, Michael A; Jeffries, Dean S; Keller, Bill; Weeber, Russ C; McNicol, Don K; Palmer, Michelle E; McIver, Kyle; Arseneau, Kristina; Ginn, Brian K; Cumming, Brian F; Smol, John P

    2008-11-28

    Calcium concentrations are now commonly declining in softwater boreal lakes. Although the mechanisms leading to these declines are generally well known, the consequences for the aquatic biota have not yet been reported. By examining crustacean zooplankton remains preserved in lake sediment cores, we document near extirpations of calcium-rich Daphnia species, which are keystone herbivores in pelagic food webs, concurrent with declining lake-water calcium. A large proportion (62%, 47 to 81% by region) of the Canadian Shield lakes we examined has a calcium concentration approaching or below the threshold at which laboratory Daphnia populations suffer reduced survival and fecundity. The ecological impacts of environmental calcium loss are likely to be both widespread and pronounced.

  15. Widespread Expansion of Protein Interaction Capabilities by Alternative Splicing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinping; Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Kang, Shuli; Sheynkman, Gloria M; Hao, Tong; Richardson, Aaron; Sun, Song; Yang, Fan; Shen, Yun A; Murray, Ryan R; Spirohn, Kerstin; Begg, Bridget E; Duran-Frigola, Miquel; MacWilliams, Andrew; Pevzner, Samuel J; Zhong, Quan; Trigg, Shelly A; Tam, Stanley; Ghamsari, Lila; Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Rodriguez, Maria D; Balcha, Dawit; Tan, Guihong; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles; Zhou, Xianghong J; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Charloteaux, Benoit; Chen, Alyce A; Calderwood, Michael A; Aloy, Patrick; Roth, Frederick P; Hill, David E; Iakoucheva, Lilia M; Xia, Yu; Vidal, Marc

    2016-02-11

    While alternative splicing is known to diversify the functional characteristics of some genes, the extent to which protein isoforms globally contribute to functional complexity on a proteomic scale remains unknown. To address this systematically, we cloned full-length open reading frames of alternatively spliced transcripts for a large number of human genes and used protein-protein interaction profiling to functionally compare hundreds of protein isoform pairs. The majority of isoform pairs share less than 50% of their interactions. In the global context of interactome network maps, alternative isoforms tend to behave like distinct proteins rather than minor variants of each other. Interaction partners specific to alternative isoforms tend to be expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner and belong to distinct functional modules. Our strategy, applicable to other functional characteristics, reveals a widespread expansion of protein interaction capabilities through alternative splicing and suggests that many alternative "isoforms" are functionally divergent (i.e., "functional alloforms").

  16. Widespread occurrence of ranavirus in pond-breeding amphibian populations.

    PubMed

    Hoverman, Jason T; Gray, Matthew J; Miller, Debra L; Haislip, Nathan A

    2012-03-01

    Ranaviruses are an emerging threat for many amphibian populations, yet their distribution in amphibian communities and the association of infection with possible stressors and species is not fully understood due to historically sparse surveillance. Agricultural practices that reduce the water quality of amphibian breeding habitats (e.g., cattle access to wetlands) and environmental stressors (e.g., lower temperatures) may contribute to ranavirus emergence. We tested larval amphibians for ranavirus infection across four seasons in farm ponds (n = 40) located in Tennessee, USA. Cattle at various densities were allowed access to half of the sampled ponds. Ranavirus infections were detected in nine species and in 33 of the sampled ponds (83%), illustrating widespread occurrence of the pathogen. Species within the family Ranidae were the most frequently infected. In 13 of the ponds containing infected individuals, prevalence exceeded 40% during at least one season. Infections were detected in multiple seasons in 20 of the sampled ponds containing infections, suggesting that ranaviruses are relatively persistent in these systems. Cattle had negative effects on water quality (turbidity and ammonia) and there was a positive association between cattle abundance and ranavirus prevalence in the summer. Counter to previous field studies in North America, we found a significant positive association between water temperature and ranavirus prevalence in the fall sampling events. Despite these findings, the influences of cattle and temperature on ranavirus prevalence were not consistent across seasons. As such, the mechanisms driving high ranavirus prevalence across the landscape and over time remain unclear. Given the widespread occurrence of ranaviruses in wild amphibians, we encourage the implementation of surveillance programs to help identify potential drivers of emergence. Sites with high ranavirus prevalence should be monitored annually for outbreaks, and the long

  17. Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Pummer, Bernhard G.; Yordanova, Petya; Franc, Gary D.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nucleators (IN). However, the sources and characteristics of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA, i.e., inducing ice formation in the probed range of temperature and concentration) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. For example, in harvested and ploughed sugar beet and potato fields, and in the organic horizon beneath Lodgepole pine forest, their relative abundances and concentrations among the cultivable fungi were 25% (8 x 103 CFU g-1), 17% (4.8 x 103 CFU g-1) and 17% (4 x 103 CFU g-1), respectively. Across all investigated soils, 8% (2.9 x 103 CFU g-1) of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5° C to -6° C and all belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. Mortierella alpina is known to be saprobic (utilizing non-living organic matter), widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be extracellular proteins of 100-300 kDa in size which are not anchored in the fungal cell wall. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, these small cell-free IN might contribute to the as yet uncharacterized pool of atmospheric IN released by soils as dusts.

  18. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  19. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  20. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  1. Fairness and the development of inequality acceptance.

    PubMed

    Almås, Ingvild; Cappelen, Alexander W; Sørensen, Erik Ø; Tungodden, Bertil

    2010-05-28

    Fairness considerations fundamentally affect human behavior, but our understanding of the nature and development of people's fairness preferences is limited. The dictator game has been the standard experimental design for studying fairness preferences, but it only captures a situation where there is broad agreement that fairness requires equality. In real life, people often disagree on what is fair because they disagree on whether individual achievements, luck, and efficiency considerations of what maximizes total benefits can justify inequalities. We modified the dictator game to capture these features and studied how inequality acceptance develops in adolescence. We found that as children enter adolescence, they increasingly view inequalities reflecting differences in individual achievements, but not luck, as fair, whereas efficiency considerations mainly play a role in late adolescence. PMID:20508132

  2. Acceptance of telepathology in daily practice.

    PubMed

    Mairinger, T

    2000-01-01

    The availability of pathology services differs greatly in our environment. Although pathology would be especially suitable for being practised at a distance by transporting digital image information, the spread of telepathology into everyday work still is relatively slow. The article describes the situation of diffusion of this innovative technology by reviewing the literature and discussing this in context to data based on questionnaires dealing with the acceptance of telepathology. The current situation of telepathology can be discussed by five items for innovation spead: (1) communication and influence; (2) economic costs and benefits; (3) knowledge barriers and learning; (4) feasibility of techniques offered for the demands of the users; (5) clarification of the legal status and other factors concerning international collaboration. All these head lines do not represent realistic obstacles for the more widespread use of telepathology. The real drawbacks may therefore be found behind certain professional habits of pathologists. The most important causes may be that (a) telediagnosis is not as easy as it may seem at the first glance; (b) telepathology is seen as a potential highway to a world-wide competition of pathology service providers. As soon as these mostly unjustified prejudices are corrected and telepathology is percepted as additional technique in pathology, it will become a diagnostic tool as common and as useful as the telephone.

  3. Industrial Wireless Sensors: A User's Perspective on the Impact of Standards on Wide-spread Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Cyrus W.; Manges, Wayne W; Sorge, John N

    2012-01-01

    The role of wireless sensing technologies in industrial instrumentation will undoubtedly become more important in the years ahead. . Deployment of such instrumentation in an industrial setting with its heightened security and robustness criteria hinges on user acceptance of verified performance as well as meeting cost requirements. Today, industrial users face many choices when specifying a wireless sensor network, including radio performance, battery life, interoperability, security, and standards compliance. The potential market for industrial wireless sensors is literally millions of wireless instruments and it is imperative that accurate information for applying the technology to real-world applications be available to the end-user so that they can make informed deployment decisions. The majority of industrial wireless automation designs now being deployed or being considered for deployment are based on three different standards . The HART Communications Foundation s WirelessHART (IEC 62591), the International Society of Automation s ISA100.11a, and the offering from the Industrial Wireless Alliance of China known as WIA-PA (IEC 62601). Aside from these industrial automation standards, users must also be cognizant of the underlying wireless network standards IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15.4, and IEEE 802.15.3a and their interactions with the three principal industrial automation protocols mentioned previously. The crucial questions being asked by end users revolve around sensor network performance, interoperability, reliability, and security. This paper will discuss potential wireless sensor applications in power plants, barriers to the acceptance of wireless technology, concerns related to standards, and provide an end user prospective on the issues affecting wide-spread deployment of wireless sensors. Finally, the authors conclude with a discussion of a recommended path forward including how standards organizations can better facilitate end user decision making and

  4. Archaea were widespread in sediments of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birgel, Daniel; Peckmann, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) was among the most extreme and short-lived paleooceanographic events in Earth history and dramatically impacted the depositional environments of the Mediterranean. Many of the Messinian sedimentary sequences reflect environmental variability on extremely short time scales, typified by phenomena like evaporation and high salinities, anoxia, and desiccation. Only few organisms tolerate such severe conditions. Among those are archaea, many of which are especially well adapted to extreme conditions. We studied various MSC locations and deposits to shed light onto the role of archaea in the MSC, focusing on lipid biomarkers. These are (1) primary gypsum with abundant, yet problematic filamentous microfossils from various locations in the Mediterranean, (2) Calcare di Base, limestones from Sicily and Calabria, and (3) Calcare Solfifero, authigenic carbonates associated with native sulfur from Sicily. (1) Primary gypsum beds with abundant filamentous fossils are widespread in the Mediterranean. Archaea were found as important contributor of organic matter in these evaporites. The filaments, however, have previously been interpreted to represent cyanobacteria based on the extraction and amplification of cyanobacterial DNA. Cyanobacteria produce specific and long-lasting biomarkers, but no such compounds were found in the studied deposits, thus, the assignment of the filaments to cyanobacteria necessitates further verification. (2) The Calcare di Base are widespread, genetically heterogeneous Messinian limestones, which are particularly common in Sicily and Calabria. The environmental conditions during their deposition, as well as mechanisms and timing of formation are a matter of debate. The studied Calcare di Base samples were found to contain specific halophilic archaeal signatures and numerous pseudomorphs after halite. (3) The Calcare Solfifero, authigenic carbonates accompanied by elemental sulfur formed in the course of microbial

  5. Self-Image and Peer Acceptance of Dutch Students in Regular and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Joep T. A.; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2003-01-01

    Well-being was assessed in 568 low-achieving Dutch students (ages 7-15) by means of a self-image scale consisting of 39 statements and peer acceptance through sociometric nomination and rank-order procedures. Students in special education had a slightly better self-image and were more accepted by peers than low-achieving students in regular…

  6. Heavy metal resistant strains are widespread along Streptomyces phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Analía; Catalano, Santiago A; Amoroso, María Julia

    2013-03-01

    The genus Streptomyces comprises a group of bacteria species with high economic importance. Several of these species are employed at industrial scale for the production of useful compounds. Other characteristic found in different strains within this genus is their capability to tolerate high level of substances toxic for humans, heavy metals among them. Although several studies have been conducted in different species of the genus in order to disentangle the mechanisms associated to heavy metal resistance, little is known about how they have evolved along Streptomyces phylogeny. In this study we built the largest Streptomyces phylogeny generated up to date comprising six genes, 113 species of Streptomyces and 27 outgroups. The parsimony-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that (i) Streptomyces is monophyletic and (ii) it appears as sister clade of a group formed by Kitasatospora and Streptacidiphilus species, both genera also monophyletic. Streptomyces strains resistant to heavy metals are not confined to a single lineage but widespread along Streptomyces phylogeny. Our result in combination with genomic, physiological and biochemical data suggest that the resistance to heavy metals originated several times and by different mechanisms in Streptomyces history. PMID:23247041

  7. Developmental dyslexia and widespread activation across the cerebellar hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Baillieux, Hanne; Vandervliet, Everhard J M; Manto, Mario; Parizel, Paul M; De Deyn, Peter P; Mariën, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia is the most common learning disability in school-aged children with an estimated incidence of five to ten percent. The cause and pathophysiological substrate of this developmental disorder is unclear. Recently, a possible involvement of the cerebellum in the pathogenesis of dyslexia has been postulated. In this study, 15 dyslexic children and 7 age-matched control subjects were investigated by means of functional neuroimaging (fMRI) using a noun-verb association paradigm. Comparison of activation patterns between dyslexic and control subjects revealed distinct and significant differences in cerebral and cerebellar activation. Control subjects showed bilaterally well-defined and focal activation patterns in the frontal and parietal lobes and the posterior regions of the cerebellar hemispheres. The dyslexic children, however, presented widespread and diffuse activations on the cerebral and cerebellar level. Cerebral activations were found in frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions. Activations in the cerebellum were found predominantly in the cerebellar cortex, including Crus I, Crus II, hemispheric lobule VI, VII and vermal lobules I, II, III, IV and VII. This preliminary study is the first to reveal a significant difference in cerebellar functioning between dyslexic children and controls during a semantic association task. As a result, we propose a new hypothesis regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms of developmental dyslexia. Given the sites of activation in the cerebellum in the dyslexic group, a defect of the intra-cerebellar distribution of activity is suspected, suggesting a disorder of the processing or transfer of information within the cerebellar cortex. PMID:18986695

  8. Widespread occurrence of (per)chlorate in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Coates, John D.; McKay, Christopher P.; Brundrett, Maeghan; Estrada, Nubia; Böhlke, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) and chlorate (ClO3-) are ubiquitous on Earth and ClO4- has also been found on Mars. These species can play important roles in geochemical processes such as oxidation of organic matter and as biological electron acceptors, and are also indicators of important photochemical reactions involving oxyanions; on Mars they could be relevant for human habitability both in terms of in situ resource utilization and potential human health effects. For the first time, we extracted, detected and quantified ClO4- and ClO3- in extraterrestrial, non-planetary samples: regolith and rock samples from the Moon, and two chondrite meteorites (Murchison and Fayetteville). Lunar samples were collected by astronauts during the Apollo program, and meteorite samples were recovered immediately after their fall. This fact, together with the heterogeneous distribution of ClO4- and ClO3- within some of the samples, and their relative abundance with respect to other soluble species (e.g., NO3-) are consistent with an extraterrestrial origin of the oxychlorine species. Our results, combined with the previously reported widespread occurrence on Earth and Mars, indicate that ClO4- and ClO3- could be present throughout the Solar System.

  9. Recent Arctic tundra fire initiates widespread thermokarst development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Arp, Christopher D.; Miller, Eric K.; Liu, Lingli; Hayes, Daniel J.; Larsen, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    Fire-induced permafrost degradation is well documented in boreal forests, but the role of fires in initiating thermokarst development in Arctic tundra is less well understood. Here we show that Arctic tundra fires may induce widespread thaw subsidence of permafrost terrain in the first seven years following the disturbance. Quantitative analysis of airborne LiDAR data acquired two and seven years post-fire, detected permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, compared to less than 1% in similar undisturbed, ice-rich tundra terrain units. The variability in thermokarst development appears to be influenced by the interaction of tundra fire burn severity and near-surface, ground-ice content. Subsidence was greatest in severely burned, ice-rich upland terrain (yedoma), accounting for ~50% of the detected subsidence, despite representing only 30% of the fire disturbed study area. Microtopography increased by 340% in this terrain unit as a result of ice wedge degradation. Increases in the frequency, magnitude, and severity of tundra fires will contribute to future thermokarst development and associated landscape change in Arctic tundra regions.

  10. Recent Arctic tundra fire initiates widespread thermokarst development

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Arp, Christopher D.; Miller, Eric; Liu, Lin; Hayes, Daniel J.; Larsen, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    Fire-induced permafrost degradation is well documented in boreal forests, but the role of fires in initiating thermokarst development in Arctic tundra is less well understood. Here we show that Arctic tundra fires may induce widespread thaw subsidence of permafrost terrain in the first seven years following the disturbance. Quantitative analysis of airborne LiDAR data acquired two and seven years post-fire, detected permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, compared to less than 1% in similar undisturbed, ice-rich tundra terrain units. The variability in thermokarst development appears to be influenced by the interaction of tundra fire burn severity and near-surface, ground-ice content. Subsidence was greatest in severely burned, ice-rich upland terrain (yedoma), accounting for ~50% of the detected subsidence, despite representing only 30% of the fire disturbed study area. Microtopography increased by 340% in this terrain unit as a result of ice wedge degradation. Increases in the frequency, magnitude, and severity of tundra fires will contribute to future thermokarst development and associated landscape change in Arctic tundra regions. PMID:26511650

  11. Widespread Macromolecular Interaction Perturbations in Human Genetic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Taipale, Mikko; Fuxman Bass, Juan I.; Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Yang, Fan; Peng, Jian; Weile, Jochen; Karras, Georgios I.; Wang, Yang; Kovács, István A.; Kamburov, Atanas; Krykbaeva, Irina; Lam, Mandy H.; Tucker, George; Khurana, Vikram; Sharma, Amitabh; Liu, Yang-Yu; Yachie, Nozomu; Zhong, Quan; Shen, Yun; Palagi, Alexandre; San-Miguel, Adriana; Fan, Changyu; Balcha, Dawit; Dricot, Amelie; Jordan, Daniel M.; Walsh, Jennifer M.; Shah, Akash A.; Yang, Xinping; Stoyanova, Ani; Leighton, Alex; Calderwood, Michael A.; Jacob, Yves; Cusick, Michael E.; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Whitesell, Luke J.; Sunyaev, Shamil; Berger, Bonnie; Barabási, Albert-László; Charloteaux, Benoit; Hill, David E.; Hao, Tong; Roth, Frederick P.; Xia, Yu; Walhout, Albertha J.M.; Lindquist, Susan; Vidal, Marc

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY How disease-associated mutations impair protein activities in the context of biological networks remains mostly undetermined. Although a few renowned alleles are well characterized, functional information is missing for over 100,000 disease-associated variants. Here we functionally profile several thousand missense mutations across a spectrum of Mendelian disorders using various interaction assays. The majority of disease-associated alleles exhibit wild-type chaperone binding profiles, suggesting they preserve protein folding or stability. While common variants from healthy individuals rarely affect interactions, two-thirds of disease-associated alleles perturb protein-protein interactions, with half corresponding to “edgetic” alleles affecting only a subset of interactions while leaving most other interactions unperturbed. With transcription factors, many alleles that leave protein-protein interactions intact affect DNA binding. Different mutations in the same gene leading to different interaction profiles often result in distinct disease phenotypes. Thus disease-associated alleles that perturb distinct protein activities rather than grossly affecting folding and stability are relatively widespread. PMID:25910212

  12. Recent Arctic tundra fire initiates widespread thermokarst development.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin M; Grosse, Guido; Arp, Christopher D; Miller, Eric; Liu, Lin; Hayes, Daniel J; Larsen, Christopher F

    2015-10-29

    Fire-induced permafrost degradation is well documented in boreal forests, but the role of fires in initiating thermokarst development in Arctic tundra is less well understood. Here we show that Arctic tundra fires may induce widespread thaw subsidence of permafrost terrain in the first seven years following the disturbance. Quantitative analysis of airborne LiDAR data acquired two and seven years post-fire, detected permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, compared to less than 1% in similar undisturbed, ice-rich tundra terrain units. The variability in thermokarst development appears to be influenced by the interaction of tundra fire burn severity and near-surface, ground-ice content. Subsidence was greatest in severely burned, ice-rich upland terrain (yedoma), accounting for ~50% of the detected subsidence, despite representing only 30% of the fire disturbed study area. Microtopography increased by 340% in this terrain unit as a result of ice wedge degradation. Increases in the frequency, magnitude, and severity of tundra fires will contribute to future thermokarst development and associated landscape change in Arctic tundra regions.

  13. No current evidence for widespread dosage compensation in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Eduardo M; Springer, Michael; Amon, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of laboratory strains of budding yeast had shown that when gene copy number is altered experimentally, RNA levels generally scale accordingly. This is true when the copy number of individual genes or entire chromosomes is altered. In a recent study, Hose et al. (2015) reported that this tight correlation between gene copy number and RNA levels is not observed in recently isolated wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae variants. To understand the origins of this proposed difference in gene expression regulation between natural variants and laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae, we evaluated the karyotype and gene expression studies performed by Hose et al. on wild S. cerevisiae strains. In contrast to the results of Hose et al., our reexamination of their data revealed a tight correlation between gene copy number and gene expression. We conclude that widespread dosage compensation occurs neither in laboratory strains nor in natural variants of S. cerevisiae. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10996.001 PMID:26949255

  14. Widespread transmission of independent cancer lineages within multiple bivalve species.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Michael J; Villalba, Antonio; Carballal, María J; Iglesias, David; Sherry, James; Reinisch, Carol; Muttray, Annette F; Baldwin, Susan A; Goff, Stephen P

    2016-06-30

    Most cancers arise from oncogenic changes in the genomes of somatic cells, and while the cells may migrate by metastasis, they remain within that single individual. Natural transmission of cancer cells from one individual to another has been observed in two distinct cases in mammals (Tasmanian devils and dogs), but these are generally considered to be rare exceptions in nature. The discovery of transmissible cancer in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) suggested that this phenomenon might be more widespread. Here we analyse disseminated neoplasia in mussels (Mytilus trossulus), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), and golden carpet shell clams (Polititapes aureus) and find that neoplasias in all three species are attributable to independent transmissible cancer lineages. In mussels and cockles, the cancer lineages are derived from their respective host species; however, unexpectedly, cancer cells in P. aureus are all derived from Venerupis corrugata, a different species living in the same geographical area. No cases of disseminated neoplasia have thus far been found in V. corrugata from the same region. These findings show that transmission of cancer cells in the marine environment is common in multiple species, that it has originated many times, and that while most transmissible cancers are found spreading within the species of origin, cross-species transmission of cancer cells can occur. PMID:27338791

  15. Novel pathway for assimilation of dimethylsulphoniopropionate widespread in marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Reisch, Chris R; Stoudemayer, Melissa J; Varaljay, Vanessa A; Amster, I Jonathan; Moran, Mary Ann; Whitman, William B

    2011-05-12

    Dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) accounts for up to 10% of carbon fixed by marine phytoplankton in ocean surface waters, producing an estimated 11.7-103 Tmol S per year, most of which is processed by marine bacteria through the demethylation/demethiolation pathway. This pathway releases methanethiol (MeSH) instead of the climatically active gas dimethylsulphide (DMS) and enables marine microorganisms to assimilate the reduced sulphur. Despite recognition of this critical microbial transformation for over two decades, the biochemical pathway and enzymes responsible have remained unidentified. Here we show that three new enzymes related to fatty acid β-oxidation constitute the pathway that assimilates methylmercaptopropionate (MMPA), the first product of DMSP demethylation/demethiolation, and that two previously unknown coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives, 3-methylmercaptopropionyl-CoA (MMPA-CoA) and methylthioacryloyl-CoA (MTA-CoA), are formed as novel intermediates. A member of the marine roseobacters, Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, requires the MMPA-CoA pathway for MMPA assimilation and MeSH production. This pathway and the ability to produce MeSH from MMPA are present in diverse bacteria, and the ubiquitous SAR11 clade bacterium Pelagibacter ubique possesses enzymes for at least the first two steps. Analysis of marine metagenomic data indicates that the pathway is widespread among bacterioplankton in the ocean surface waters, making it one of the most important known routes for acquisition of reduced carbon and sulphur by surface ocean heterotrophs.

  16. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.

  17. Widespread use of real-time PCR for rickettsial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Renvoisé, Aurélie; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier

    2012-02-01

    We report 2 years of experience with rickettsial molecular diagnosis using real-time PCR at the French National Reference Center. All Rickettsia genomes available were compared to discover specific sequences to design new sets of primers and probes. The specificity was verified in silico and against a panel of 30 rickettsial species. Sensitivity was determined using 10-fold serial dilutions. Finally, primers and probes that were both specific and sensitive were routinely used for the diagnosis of rickettsial infections from clinical specimens. We retained sets of primers and probes to detect spotted fever group Rickettsia, typhus group Rickettsia,Rickettsia conorii,Rickettsia slovaca,Rickettsia africae and Rickettsia australis; 643 clinical samples were screened for the presence of Rickettsia DNA. Overall, 45 positive samples were detected, including 15 Rickettsia africae, nine R. conorii, five Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, four R. slovaca, two R. australis, four Rickettsia massiliae, one Rickettsia honei, one Rickettsia typhi and eight Rickettsia sp. Positive samples were detected mainly from cutaneous biopsies and swabs (31/45). Widespread use of real-time PCR is inexpensive and reduces delay in the diagnosis of rickettsial infections. These real-time PCR assays could be implemented easily in laboratories that have molecular facilities and may be added to existing molecular tools as a point-of-care strategy.

  18. Optimising colorectal cancer screening acceptance: a review.

    PubMed

    Senore, Carlo; Inadomi, John; Segnan, Nereo; Bellisario, Cristina; Hassan, Cesare

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to review available evidence concerning effective interventions to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening acceptance. We performed a literature search of randomised trials designed to increase individuals' use of CRC screening on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Small (≤ 100 subjects per arm) studies and those reporting results of interventions implemented before publication of the large faecal occult blood test trials were excluded. Interventions were categorised following the Continuum of Cancer Care and the PRECEDE-PROCEED models and studies were grouped by screening model (opportunistic vs organised). Multifactor interventions targeting multiple levels of care and considering factors outside the individual clinician control, represent the most effective strategy to enhance CRC screening acceptance. Removing financial barriers, implementing methods allowing a systematic contact of the whole target population, using personal invitation letters, preferably signed by the reference care provider, and reminders mailed to all non-attendees are highly effective in enhancing CRC screening acceptance. Physician reminders may support the diffusion of screening, but they can be effective only for individuals who have access to and make use of healthcare services. Educational interventions for patients and providers are effective, but the implementation of organisational measures may be necessary to favour their impact. Available evidence indicates that organised programmes allow to achieve an extensive coverage and to enhance equity of access, while maximising the health impact of screening. They provide at the same time an infrastructure allowing to achieve a more favourable cost-effectiveness profile of potentially effective strategies, which would not be sustainable in opportunistic settings. PMID:26059765

  19. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  20. Widespread Occurrence of Bd in French Guiana, South America

    PubMed Central

    Courtois, Elodie A.; Gaucher, Philippe; Chave, Jérôme; Schmeller, Dirk S.

    2015-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area’s high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1) determine its geographical distribution, (2) test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera) to define sentinel species for future work, (3) track changes in prevalence through time and (4) determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012). At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4%) as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 %) and Hylidae (1.5%). In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield. PMID:25902035

  1. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    PubMed

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  2. Widespread positive selection in the photosynthetic Rubisco enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Kapralov, Maxim V; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2007-01-01

    Background Rubisco enzyme catalyzes the first step in net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and photorespiratory carbon oxidation and is responsible for almost all carbon fixation on Earth. The large subunit of Rubisco is encoded by the chloroplast rbcL gene, which is widely used for reconstruction of plant phylogenies due to its conservative nature. Plant systematicists have mainly used rbcL paying little attention to its function, and the question whether it evolves under Darwinian selection has received little attention. The purpose of our study was to evaluate how common is positive selection in Rubisco among the phototrophs and where in the Rubisco structure does positive selection occur. Results We searched for positive selection in rbcL sequences from over 3000 species representing all lineages of green plants and some lineages of other phototrophs, such as brown and red algae, diatoms, euglenids and cyanobacteria. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis found the presence of positive selection in rbcL of most analyzed land plants, but not in algae and cyanobacteria. The mapping of the positively selected residues on the Rubisco tertiary structure revealed that they are located in regions important for dimer-dimer, intradimer, large subunit-small subunit and Rubisco-Rubisco activase interactions, and that some of the positively selected residues are close to the active site. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that despite its conservative nature, Rubisco evolves under positive selection in most lineages of land plants, and after billions of years of evolution Darwinian selection still fine-tunes its performance. Widespread positive selection in rbcL has to be taken into account when this gene is used for phylogenetic reconstructions. PMID:17498284

  3. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species. PMID:24759324

  4. Chronic widespread pain: clinical comorbidities and psychological correlates.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Ogata, Soshiro; Vehof, Jelle; Williams, Frances

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have provided consistent evidence for a genetic influence on chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the etiological structure underlying CWP by examining the covariation between CWP and psychological comorbidities and psychoaffective correlates and (2) the decomposition of the covariation into genetic and environmental components. A total of 3266 female twins (mean age 56.6 years) were subject to multivariate analyses. Using validated questionnaires to classify twins as having CWP, the prevalence of CWP was 20.8%. In the multivariate analysis, the most suitable model was the common pathway model. This model revealed 2 underlying latent variables, one common to anxiety, emotional intelligence, and emotional instability (f1) and the other common to depression and CWP (f2), the latter being highly heritable (86%). Both latent variables (f1 and f2) shared an additive genetic and a nonshared environmental factor. In addition, a second additive genetic factor loading only on f2 was found. This study reveals the structure of genetic and environmental influences of CWP and its psychoaffective correlates. The results show that the clustering of CWP and depression is due to a common, highly heritable, underlying latent trait. In addition, we found evidence that CWP, anxiety, emotional instability, and emotional intelligence are influenced by different underlying latent traits sharing the same genetic and nonshared environmental factors. This is the first study to reveal the structure and relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on complex etiological mechanisms of CWP and its correlates. PMID:25851458

  5. Genomes of Abundant and Widespread Viruses from the Deep Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ghai, Rohit; Saghaï, Aurélien; López-García, Purificación

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The deep sea is a massive, largely oligotrophic ecosystem, stretched over nearly 65% of the planet’s surface. Deep-sea planktonic communities are almost completely dependent upon organic carbon sinking from the productive surface, forming a vital component of global biogeochemical cycles. However, despite their importance, viruses from the deep ocean remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the first complete genomes of deep-sea viruses assembled from metagenomic fosmid libraries. “Candidatus Pelagibacter” (SAR11) phage HTVC010P and Puniceispirillum phage HMO-2011 are considered the most abundant cultured marine viruses known to date. Remarkably, some of the viruses described here recruited as many reads from deep waters as these viruses do in the photic zone, and, considering the gigantic scale of the bathypelagic habitat, these genomes provide information about what could be some of the most abundant viruses in the world at large. Their role in the viral shunt in the global ocean could be very significant. Despite the challenges encountered in inferring the identity of their hosts, we identified one virus predicted to infect members of the globally distributed SAR11 cluster. We also identified a number of putative proviruses from diverse taxa, including deltaproteobacteria, bacteroidetes, SAR11, and gammaproteobacteria. Moreover, our findings also indicate that lysogeny is the preferred mode of existence for deep-sea viruses inhabiting an energy-limited environment, in sharp contrast to the predominantly lytic lifestyle of their photic-zone counterparts. Some of the viruses show a widespread distribution, supporting the tenet “everything is everywhere” for the deep-ocean virome. PMID:27460793

  6. Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Susan; Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

    2014-01-01

    To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed “horizontal transmission”). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants. PMID:24834319

  7. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    PubMed

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  8. Widespread occurrence of bd in French Guiana, South America.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Elodie A; Gaucher, Philippe; Chave, Jérôme; Schmeller, Dirk S

    2015-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area's high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1) determine its geographical distribution, (2) test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera) to define sentinel species for future work, (3) track changes in prevalence through time and (4) determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012). At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4%) as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 %) and Hylidae (1.5%). In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield. PMID:25902035

  9. Widespread Chemical Detoxification of Alkaloid Venom by Formicine Ants.

    PubMed

    LeBrun, Edward G; Diebold, Peter J; Orr, Matthew R; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2015-10-01

    The ability to detoxify defensive compounds of competitors provides key ecological advantages that can influence community-level processes. Although common in plants and bacteria, this type of detoxification interaction is extremely rare in animals. Here, using laboratory behavioral assays and analyses of videotaped interactions in South America, we report widespread venom detoxification among ants in the subfamily Formicinae. Across both data sets, nine formicine species, representing all major clades, used a stereotyped grooming behavior to self-apply formic acid (acidopore grooming) in response to fire ant (Solenopsis invicta and S. saevissima) venom exposure. In laboratory assays, this behavior increased the survivorship of species following exposure to S. invicta venom. Species expressed the behavior when exposed to additional alkaloid venoms, including both compositionally similar piperidine venom of an additional fire ant species and the pyrrolidine/pyrroline alkaloid venom of a Monomorium species. In addition, species expressed the behavior following exposure to the uncharacterized venom of a Crematogaster species. However, species did not express acidopore grooming when confronted with protein-based ant venoms or when exposed to monoterpenoid-based venom. This pattern, combined with the specific chemistry of the reaction of formic acid with venom alkaloids, indicates that alkaloid venoms are targets of detoxification grooming. Solenopsis thief ants, and Monomorium species stand out as brood-predators of formicine ants that produce piperidine, pyrrolidine, and pyrroline venom, providing an important ecological context for the use of detoxification behavior. Detoxification behavior also represents a mechanism that can influence the order of assemblage dominance hierarchies surrounding food competition. Thus, this behavior likely influences ant-assemblages through a variety of ecological pathways.

  10. The Acraman impact and its widespread ejecta, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostin, V. A.; Keays, R. R.; Wallace, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    Discovery of a widespread horizon of shock-deformed volcaniclastic ejecta preserved in Late Proterozoic (approx. 600 Ma) shales in South Australia and its probable link to the Acraman impact structure in the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range. Volcanics provide a rare opportunity to study the effects of a major terrestrial impact, including the sedimentology and distribution of an ejecta blanket and its precious-metal signature. The ejecta horizon occurs in the Bunyeroo Formation at many localities within the Adelaide Geosyncline, including the Wearing Hills, which are approx. 350 km northeast of the Acraman impact site. Following a search at the same stratigraphic level in other basins in South Australia, the ejecta has been located within the Lower Rodda beds of the Officer Basin, extending the limits of the ejecta to approx. 470 km northwest of the Acraman impact structure. The ejecta is therefore widely dispersed, and provides an important chronostratigraphic marker enabling precise correlation of Late Proterozoic sequences in southern Australia. In summary, the Bunyeroo ejecta is unique as the only known example of a widely dispersed, coarse-grained ejecta blanket that is, moreover, strongly linked to a known major impact structure. The marked Ir-PGE anomalies in the ejecta horizon provide support for the hypothesis that meteorite impact events can produce Ir anomalies interrestrial sediments. The findings also indicate that Ir can be mobilized and concentrated in sediments by low-temperature diagenetic processes. The identification of ejecta horizons in sedimentary rocks therefore should be based on the coincidence of shock-metamorphic features in the detritus and clear Ir anomalies.

  11. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species.

  12. Cholinergic urethral brush cells are widespread throughout placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Deckmann, Klaus; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Rafiq, Amir; Herden, Christine; Wichmann, Judy; Knauf, Sascha; Nassenstein, Christina; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We previously identified a population of cholinergic epithelial cells in murine, human and rat urethrae that exhibits a structural marker of brush cells (villin) and expresses components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade (α-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), transient receptor potential cation channel melanostatin 5 (TRPM5)). These cells serve as sentinels, monitoring the chemical composition of the luminal content for potentially hazardous compounds such as bacteria, and initiate protective reflexes counteracting further ingression. In order to elucidate cross-species conservation of the urethral chemosensory pathway we investigated the occurrence and molecular make-up of urethral brush cells in placental mammals. We screened 11 additional species, at least one in each of the five mammalian taxonomic units primates, carnivora, perissodactyla, artiodactyla and rodentia, for immunohistochemical labeling of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), villin, and taste cascade components (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, TRPM5). Corresponding to findings in previously investigated species, urethral epithelial cells with brush cell shape were immunolabeled in all 11 mammals. In 8 species, immunoreactivities against all marker proteins and ChAT were observed, and double-labeling immunofluorescence confirmed the cholinergic nature of villin-positive and chemosensory (TRPM5-positive) cells. In cat and horse, these cells were not labeled by the ChAT antiserum used in this study, and unspecific reactions of the secondary antiserum precluded conclusions about ChAT-expression in the bovine epithelium. These data indicate that urethral brush cells are widespread throughout the mammalian kingdom and evolved not later than about 64.5millionyears ago. PMID:26044348

  13. Transglutaminases: Widespread Cross-linking Enzymes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Background Transglutaminases have been studied in plants since 1987 in investigations aimed at interpreting some of the molecular mechanisms by which polyamines affect growth and differentiation. Transglutaminases are a widely distributed enzyme family catalysing a myriad of biological reactions in animals. In plants, the post-translational modification of proteins by polyamines forming inter- or intra-molecular cross-links has been the main transglutaminase reaction studied. Characteristics of Plant Transglutaminases The few plant transglutaminases sequenced so far have little sequence homology with the best-known animal enzymes, except for the catalytic triad; however, they share a possible structural homology. Proofs of their catalytic activity are: (a) their ability to produce glutamyl-polyamine derivatives; (b) their recognition by animal transglutaminase antibodies; and (c) biochemical features such as calcium-dependency, etc. However, many of their fundamental biochemical and physiological properties still remain elusive. Transglutaminase Activity is Ubiquitous It has been detected in algae and in angiosperms in different organs and sub-cellular compartments, chloroplasts being the best-studied organelles. Possible Roles Possible roles concern the structural modification of specific protein substrates. In chloroplasts, transglutaminases appear to stabilize the photosynthetic complexes and Rubisco, being regulated by light and other factors, and possibly exerting a positive effect on photosynthesis and photo-protection. In the cytosol, they modify cytoskeletal proteins. Preliminary reports suggest an involvement in the cell wall construction/organization. Other roles appear to be related to fertilization, abiotic and biotic stresses, senescence and programmed cell death, including the hypersensitive reaction. Conclusions The widespread occurrence of transglutaminases activity in all organs and cell compartments studied suggests a relevance for their still

  14. Chronic widespread pain in the spectrum of rheumatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2007-06-01

    Chronic pain is very common in all European countries, with musculoskeletal problems predominating. About 1% of the adult population develops a syndrome of chronic muscle pain, fibromyalgia (FMS), characterized by multiple tender points, back or neck pain, and a number of associated problems from other organs, including a high frequency of fatigue. Evidence points to central sensitization as an important neurophysiological aberration in the development of FMS. Importantly, these neurological changes may result from inadequately treated chronic focal pain problems such as osteoarthritis or myofascial pain. It is important for health professionals to be aware of this syndrome and to diagnose the patients to avoid a steady increase in diagnostic tests. On the other hand, patients with chronic widespread pain have an increased risk of developing malignancies, and new or changed symptoms should be diagnosed even in FMS. In rheumatology practice it is especially important to be aware of the existence of FMS in association with immune inflammatory diseases, most commonly lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Differential diagnoses are other causes of chronic pain, e.g. thyroid disease. The costs of this syndrome are substantial due to loss of working capability and direct expenses of medication and health-system usage. Fibromyalgia patients need recognition of their pain syndrome if they are to comply with treatment. Lack of empathy and understanding by healthcare professionals often leads to patient frustration and inappropriate illness behavior, often associated with some exaggeration of symptoms in an effort to gain some legitimacy for their problem. FMS is multifaceted, and treatment consists of both medical interventions, with emphasis on agents acting on the central nervous system, and physical exercises.

  15. Widespread occurrence of bd in French Guiana, South America.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Elodie A; Gaucher, Philippe; Chave, Jérôme; Schmeller, Dirk S

    2015-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area's high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1) determine its geographical distribution, (2) test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera) to define sentinel species for future work, (3) track changes in prevalence through time and (4) determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012). At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4%) as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 %) and Hylidae (1.5%). In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield.

  16. Cholinergic urethral brush cells are widespread throughout placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Deckmann, Klaus; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Rafiq, Amir; Herden, Christine; Wichmann, Judy; Knauf, Sascha; Nassenstein, Christina; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We previously identified a population of cholinergic epithelial cells in murine, human and rat urethrae that exhibits a structural marker of brush cells (villin) and expresses components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade (α-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), transient receptor potential cation channel melanostatin 5 (TRPM5)). These cells serve as sentinels, monitoring the chemical composition of the luminal content for potentially hazardous compounds such as bacteria, and initiate protective reflexes counteracting further ingression. In order to elucidate cross-species conservation of the urethral chemosensory pathway we investigated the occurrence and molecular make-up of urethral brush cells in placental mammals. We screened 11 additional species, at least one in each of the five mammalian taxonomic units primates, carnivora, perissodactyla, artiodactyla and rodentia, for immunohistochemical labeling of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), villin, and taste cascade components (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, TRPM5). Corresponding to findings in previously investigated species, urethral epithelial cells with brush cell shape were immunolabeled in all 11 mammals. In 8 species, immunoreactivities against all marker proteins and ChAT were observed, and double-labeling immunofluorescence confirmed the cholinergic nature of villin-positive and chemosensory (TRPM5-positive) cells. In cat and horse, these cells were not labeled by the ChAT antiserum used in this study, and unspecific reactions of the secondary antiserum precluded conclusions about ChAT-expression in the bovine epithelium. These data indicate that urethral brush cells are widespread throughout the mammalian kingdom and evolved not later than about 64.5millionyears ago.

  17. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2012-12-01

    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

  18. Critical Information Literacy as Core Skill for Lifelong STEM Learning in the 21st Century: Reflections on the Desirability and Feasibility for Widespread Science Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storksdieck, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Grace Reid and the late Stephen Norris argue in this issue the urgent need for widespread Science Media Education (SME) as an integral part of formal and informal science education. SME is to achieve two goals: First, allow learners to critically evaluate any media as a source for scientific information by understanding the socio-economic and…

  19. HIV vaccine acceptability among high-risk drug users in Appalachia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    provide evidence for feasibility of HIV vaccination in a rural, high-risk population in the United States. This study provides preliminary evidence that gender-specific targeting in vaccine promotion may be necessary to promoting vaccine uptake in this setting, particularly among men. The data also underscore the importance of addressing perceived risks and benefits, social norms, and logistical constraints in efforts to achieve widespread vaccine coverage in this high-risk population. PMID:24885970

  20. Hosted Services for Advanced V and V Technologies: An Approach to Achieving Adoption without the Woes of Usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Penix, John; Markosian, Lawrence Z.; OMalley, Owen; Brew, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Attempts to achieve widespread use of software verification tools have been notably unsuccessful. Even 'straightforward', classic, and potentially effective verification tools such as lint-like tools face limits on their acceptance. These limits are imposed by the expertise required applying the tools and interpreting the results, the high false positive rate of many verification tools, and the need to integrate the tools into development environments. The barriers are even greater for more complex advanced technologies such as model checking. Web-hosted services for advanced verification technologies may mitigate these problems by centralizing tool expertise. The possible benefits of this approach include eliminating the need for software developer expertise in tool application and results filtering, and improving integration with other development tools.

  1. Maslow's hierarchy of needs: a framework for achieving human potential in hospice.

    PubMed

    Zalenski, Robert J; Raspa, Richard

    2006-10-01

    Although the widespread implementation of hospice in the United States has led to tremendous advances in the care of the dying, there has been no widely accepted psychological theory to drive needs assessment and intervention design for the patient and family. The humanistic psychology of Abraham Maslow, especially his theory of motivation and the hierarchy of needs, has been widely applied in business and social science, but only sparsely discussed in the palliative care literature. In this article we review Maslow's original hierarchy, adapt it to hospice and palliative care, apply the adaptation to a case example, and then discuss its implications for patient care, education, and research. The five levels of the hierarchy of needs as adapted to palliative care are: (1) distressing symptoms, such as pain or dyspnea; (2) fears for physical safety, of dying or abandonment; (3) affection, love and acceptance in the face of devastating illness; (4) esteem, respect, and appreciation for the person; (5) selfactualization and transcendence. Maslow's modified hierarchy of palliative care needs could be utilized to provide a comprehensive approach for the assessment of patients' needs and the design of interventions to achieve goals that start with comfort and potentially extend to the experience of transcendence. PMID:17040150

  2. Maslow's hierarchy of needs: a framework for achieving human potential in hospice.

    PubMed

    Zalenski, Robert J; Raspa, Richard

    2006-10-01

    Although the widespread implementation of hospice in the United States has led to tremendous advances in the care of the dying, there has been no widely accepted psychological theory to drive needs assessment and intervention design for the patient and family. The humanistic psychology of Abraham Maslow, especially his theory of motivation and the hierarchy of needs, has been widely applied in business and social science, but only sparsely discussed in the palliative care literature. In this article we review Maslow's original hierarchy, adapt it to hospice and palliative care, apply the adaptation to a case example, and then discuss its implications for patient care, education, and research. The five levels of the hierarchy of needs as adapted to palliative care are: (1) distressing symptoms, such as pain or dyspnea; (2) fears for physical safety, of dying or abandonment; (3) affection, love and acceptance in the face of devastating illness; (4) esteem, respect, and appreciation for the person; (5) selfactualization and transcendence. Maslow's modified hierarchy of palliative care needs could be utilized to provide a comprehensive approach for the assessment of patients' needs and the design of interventions to achieve goals that start with comfort and potentially extend to the experience of transcendence.

  3. Imaginary Companions and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.

    2004-01-01

    Early research on imaginary companions suggests that children who create them do so to compensate for poor social relationships. Consequently, the peer acceptance of children with imaginary companions was compared to that of their peers. Sociometrics were conducted on 88 preschool-aged children; 11 had invisible companions, 16 had personified…

  4. Acceptance of Others (Number Form).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Acceptance of Others (Number Form) was prepared to determine pupil's attitudes toward classmates. Given a list of all class members, pupils are asked to circle a number from 1…

  5. W-025, acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-10-04

    This acceptance test report (ATR) has been prepared to establish the results of the field testing conducted on W-025 to demonstrate that the electrical/instrumentation systems functioned as intended by design. This is part of the RMW Land Disposal Facility.

  6. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  7. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  8. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  9. Who accepts first aid training?

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Dawson, B; Leditschke, F; Petrie, G; Nixon, J

    1980-09-01

    The percentage of individuals trained in first aid skills in the general community is inadequate. We report here a study to investigate factors which influence motivation to accept voluntary training in first aid. A group of 700 randomly selected owners of inground swimming pools (a parental high-risk group) was offered a course of formal first aid instruction. Nine per cent attended the offered training course. The time commitment involved in traditional courses (eight training nights spread over four weeks) is not a deterrent, the same percentage accepting such courses as that who accept a course of one night's instruction. Cost is an important deterrent factor, consumer resistance rising over 15 cost units (one cost unit = the price of a loaf of bread). The level of competent first aid training within the community can be raised by (a) keeping to traditional course content, but (b) by ensuring a higher acceptance rate of first aid courses by a new approach to publicity campaigns, to convince prospective students of the real worth of first aid training. Questions concerning who should be taught first aid, and factors influencing motivation, are discussed.

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT): An Overview for Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Tim; Bowden, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) offers school counsellors a practical and meaningful approach to helping students deal with a range of issues. This is achieved through encouraging psychological flexibility through the application of six key principles. This article describes our introduction to ACT, ACT's application to children and…

  11. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  12. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  13. Widespread refertilization of cratonic and circum-cratonic lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Ying, Ji-Feng; Su, Ben-Xun

    2013-03-01

    Studies of mantle xenoliths have confirmed that Archean subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) is highly depleted in basaltic components (such as Al, Ca and Na) due to high-degree extraction of mafic and ultramafic melts and thus is refractory and buoyant, which made it chronically stable as tectonically independent units. However, increasing studies show that ancient SCLM can be refertilized by episodic rejuvenation events like infiltration of upwelling fertile material. The North China Craton is one of the most typical cases for relatively complete destruction of its Archean keel since the eruption of Paleozoic kimberlites, as is evidenced by a dramatic change in the compositions of mantle xenoliths sampled by Paleozoic to Cenozoic magmas, reflecting significant lithospheric thinning and the change in the character of the SCLM. The compositional change has been interpreted as the result of refertilization of Archean SCLM via multiple-stage peridotite-melt reactions, suggested by linear correlations between MgO and indices of fertility, covariations of Al2O3 with CaO, La/Yb, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 187Os/188Os and Re-depletion ages (TRD), high Re abundances, scatter in Re-Os isotopic plot, variable in situ TRD ages of sulfides, and correlation between TRD ages and olivine Fo of peridotite xenoliths in Paleozoic kimberlites and Cenozoic basalts on the craton. By integrating major and trace element, Sr, Nd and Os isotopic compositions of peridotite xenoliths and orogenic massif peridotites from the continents of Europe, Asia, America, Africa and Australia, together with previous studies of petrology and geochemistry of global peridotites, we suggest that (1) refertilization of cratonic and circum-cratonic lithospheric mantle is widespread; (2) Archean SCLM worldwide has experienced a multi-stage history of melt depletion and refertilization since segregation from the convecting mantle; (3) cratonic SCLM may be more susceptible to compositional change caused by

  14. Public acceptance of wildlife trapping in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manfredo, M.J.; Pierce, C.L.; Fulton, D.; Pate, J.; Gill, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    In November 1994, the Colorado Division of Wildlife (CDOW) initiated a stakeholder process to develop trapping regulations that would seek to achieve compromise among divergent interests. A telephone survey was conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the Colorado public's acceptance of trapping. A random sample of 900 residents, stratified by geographic region, indicated that the public would vote to ban trapping and that they believed the ban would eliminate a cruel activity and help to preserve endangered wildlife. Most, however, agreed that trapping was acceptable to prevent spread of disease and to protect livestock, but unacceptable on the basis of providing recreation or making money. Beliefs about trapping were found to be rooted in a protection versus use value orientation about wildlife. The regulations subsequently adopted by the CDOW were consistent with survey findings; however, the regulatory process was bypassed by legislative action, giving trapping authority to the Colorado Department of Agriculture. In response, citizen activists succeeded in placing a ballot initiative before voters. In 1996, the ballot initiative passed, banning trapping in Colorado.

  15. Widespread rape does not directly appear to increase the overall HIV prevalence in conflict-affected countries: so now what?

    PubMed Central

    Anema, Aranka; Joffres, Michel R; Mills, Edward; Spiegel, Paul B

    2008-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is severely affected by HIV/AIDS and conflict. Sexual violence as a weapon of war has been associated with concerns about heightened HIV incidence among women. Widespread rape by combatants has been documented in Burundi, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan and Uganda. To examine the assertion that widespread rape may not directly increase HIV prevalence at the population level, we built a model to determine the potential impact of varying scenarios of widespread rape on HIV prevalence in the above seven African countries. Discussion Our findings show that even in the most extreme situations, where 15% of the female population was raped, where HIV prevalence among assailants was 8 times the country population prevalence, and where the HIV transmission rate was highest at 4 times the average high rate, widespread rape increased the absolute HIV prevalence of these countries by only 0.023%. These projections support the finding that widespread rape in conflict-affected countries in SSA has not incurred a major direct population-level change in HIV prevalence. However, this must not be interpreted to say that widespread rape does not pose serious problems to women's acquisition of HIV on an individual basis or in specific settings. Furthermore, direct and indirect consequences of sexual violence, such as physical and psychosocial trauma, unwanted pregnancies, and stigma and discrimination cannot be understated. Summary The conclusions of this article do not significantly change current practices in the field from an operational perspective. Proper care and treatment must be provided to every survivor of rape regardless of the epidemiological effects of HIV transmission at the population level. Sexual violence must be treated as a protection issue and not solely a reproductive health and psychosocial issue. It is worth publishing data and conclusions that could be misconstrued and may not make much of a

  16. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  17. Sweeteners: consumer acceptance in tea.

    PubMed

    Sprowl, D J; Ehrcke, L A

    1984-09-01

    Sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin were compared for consumer preference, aftertaste, and cost to determine acceptability of the sweeteners. A 23-member taste panel evaluated tea samples for preference and aftertaste. Mean retail cost of the sweeteners were calculated and adjusted to take sweetening power into consideration. Sucrose was the least expensive and most preferred sweetener. No significant difference in preference for fructose and aspartame was found, but both sweeteners were rated significantly lower than sucrose. Saccharin was the most disliked sweetener. Fructose was the most expensive sweetener and aspartame the next most expensive. Scores for aftertaste followed the same pattern as those for preference. Thus, a strong, unpleasant aftertaste seems to be associated with a dislike for a sweetener. From the results of this study, it seems that there is no completely acceptable low-calorie substitute for sucrose available to consumers.

  18. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  19. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  20. Acceptability of conditions in a community-led cash transfer programme for orphaned and vulnerable children in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, Morten; Robertson, Laura; Mushati, Phyllis; Dumba, Lovemore; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a regular and reliable transfer of cash to households with orphaned and vulnerable children has a strong and positive effect on child outcomes. However, conditional cash transfers are considered by some as particularly intrusive and the question on whether or not to apply conditions to cash transfers is an issue of controversy. Contributing to policy debates on the appropriateness of conditions, this article sets out to investigate the overall buy-in of conditions by different stakeholders and to identify pathways that contribute to an acceptability of conditions. The article draws on data from a cluster-randomized trial of a community-led cash transfer programme in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. An endpoint survey distributed to 5167 households assessed community members’ acceptance of conditions and 35 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups with a total of 58 adults and 4 youth examined local perceptions of conditions. The study found a significant and widespread acceptance of conditions primarily because they were seen as fair and a proxy for good parenting or guardianship. In a socio-economic context where child grants are not considered a citizen entitlement, community members and cash transfer recipients valued the conditions associated with these grants. The community members interpreted the fulfilment of the conditions as a proxy for achievement and merit, enabling them to participate rather than sit back as passive recipients of aid. Although conditions have a paternalistic undertone and engender the sceptics’ view of conditions being pernicious and even abominable, it is important to recognize that community members, when given the opportunity to participate in programme design and implementation, can take advantage of conditions and appropriate them in a way that helps them manage change and overcome the social divisiveness or conflict that otherwise may arise when some people are identified to benefit and others not. PMID

  1. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  2. GASB Achieves Standardization, Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell, George E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1984 the Governmental Accounting Standards Board, created to solidify accounting principles for government entities, enumerated Generally Accepted Accounting Principles endorsed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the National Council on Governmental Accounting. These principles have recently been approved for school…

  3. Radioactive waste acceptance team and generator interface yields successful implementation of waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.G.; Griffin, W.A.; Rast, D.M.

    1996-02-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project has developed a successful Low Level Waste Shipping Program in compliance with the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325, Revision 1. This shipping program is responsible for the successful disposal of more than 4 million cubic feet of Low Level Waste over the past decade. The success of the Fernald Low Level Waste Shipping Program is due to the generator program staff working closely with the DOE-NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program Team to achieve win/win situations. The teamwork is the direct result of dedicated, proactive professionals working together toward a common objective: the safe disposition of low level radioactive waste. The growth and development of this program has many lessons learned to share with the low level waste generating community. The recognition of reciprocal interests enables consistently high annual volumes of Fernald waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site without incident. The large volumes successfully disposed serve testimony to the success of the program which is equally important to all Nevada Test Site and Fernald stakeholders. The Fernald approach to success is currently being shared with other low-level waste generators through DOE-NV sponsored outreach programs. This paper introduces examples of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation contributions to the DOE-NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program outreach initiatives. These practices are applicable to other low level waste disposal programs whether federal, commercial, domestic or international.

  4. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  2. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  3. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  4. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  5. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  6. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  7. 77 FR 30877 - Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage,'' (75 FR 69746). In that final rule the FAA revised the... actions (see Damage Tolerance Data for Repairs and Alterations, 72 FR 70486). Change to Table 1 of Sec... Administration 14 CFR Parts 26, 121, and 129 RIN 2120-AI05 Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue...

  8. American, Chinese, and Japanese Students' Acceptance of Their Parents' Values about Academic and Social Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chuansheng

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in students' acceptance of their parents' values about education and social activities. It also examines the relation between acceptance of values and such factors as type of values, knowledge of parental values, mathematics achievement, and psychological well-being. Participants were over 3,000…

  9. Acceptance of animal research in our science community

    PubMed Central

    Bergmeister, Konstantin; Podesser, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Animal research is debated highly controversial, as evident by the “Stop Vivi-section” initiative in 2015. Despite widespread protest to the initiative by researchers, no data is available on the European medical research community’s opinion towards animal research. In this single-center study, we investigated this question in a survey of students and staff members at the Medical University of Vienna. A total of 906 participants responded to the survey, of which 82.8% rated the relevance of animal research high and 62% would not accept a treatment without prior animals testing. Overall, animal research was considered important, but its communication to the public considered requiring improvement. PMID:27239274

  10. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer.

  11. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  12. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  13. Apollo experience report environmental acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, C. H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental acceptance testing was used extensively to screen selected spacecraft hardware for workmanship defects and manufacturing flaws. The minimum acceptance levels and durations and methods for their establishment are described. Component selection and test monitoring, as well as test implementation requirements, are included. Apollo spacecraft environmental acceptance test results are summarized, and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  14. 48 CFR 245.606-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 245.606-3..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.606-3 Acceptance. (a) If the schedules are acceptable, the plant clearance...

  15. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  16. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  17. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  18. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  19. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  20. Determinants of debit cards acceptance: An empirical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Shafinar; Bakri, Mohamed Hariri; Zulkepli, Jafri; Adnan, Azimah; Azizi, Amsyar

    2014-12-01

    These days, most of the Malaysians realize that the consumption of debit card will help them to reduce the household debt. Thus, it is important to analyse the acceptance of debit cards for further enhancement and expanding its market share in Malaysia. In addition, there is lacked of research being conducted on the determinants affecting the acceptance of debit cards among Malaysians. Thus, the study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the acceptance of debit cards. This study focuses on payment methods, consumer attitude, and safety of debit card in acceptance of debit cards. Questionnaires were distributed to the 300 respondents. The sampling procedure adopted was stratified random sampling. The data obtained were analysed using SPSS 20.0 which involves scale reliability, descriptive and regression analysis. The result indicates that payment methods, consumer attitude and safety are the determinants of debit cards acceptance. Safety is the best predictor as most of the customers are confidents to use debit cards because of the security being developed around these debit card transactions. The analyses presented in this study can be used by policymakers and managers as a guide to promote banking products and services. The findings achieved in this study will be of interest for practitioners and academics concerned with developments of the Malaysian banking industry.

  1. Determinants of debit cards acceptance: An empirical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Shafinar; Adnan, Azimah; Azizi, Amsyar; Bakri, Mohamed Hariri; Zulkepli, Jafri

    2014-12-04

    These days, most of the Malaysians realize that the consumption of debit card will help them to reduce the household debt. Thus, it is important to analyse the acceptance of debit cards for further enhancement and expanding its market share in Malaysia. In addition, there is lacked of research being conducted on the determinants affecting the acceptance of debit cards among Malaysians. Thus, the study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the acceptance of debit cards. This study focuses on payment methods, consumer attitude, and safety of debit card in acceptance of debit cards. Questionnaires were distributed to the 300 respondents. The sampling procedure adopted was stratified random sampling. The data obtained were analysed using SPSS 20.0 which involves scale reliability, descriptive and regression analysis. The result indicates that payment methods, consumer attitude and safety are the determinants of debit cards acceptance. Safety is the best predictor as most of the customers are confidents to use debit cards because of the security being developed around these debit card transactions. The analyses presented in this study can be used by policymakers and managers as a guide to promote banking products and services. The findings achieved in this study will be of interest for practitioners and academics concerned with developments of the Malaysian banking industry.

  2. The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Alexander; Ortner, Tina; Kahr, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The Public Acceptance of Biofuels and Bioethanol from Straw- how does this affect Geoscience The successful use of bioethanol as a fuel requires its widespread acceptance by consumers. Due to the planned introduction of a 10 per cent proportion of bioethanol in petrol in Austria, the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria carried out a representative opinion poll to collect information on the population's acceptance of biofuels. Based on this survey, interviews with important stakeholders were held to discuss the results and collect recommendations on how to increase the information level and acceptance. The results indicate that there is a lack of interest and information about biofuels, especially among young people and women. First generation bioethanol is strongly associated with the waste of food resources, but the acceptance of the second generation, produced from agricultural remnants like straw from wheat or corn, is considerably higher. The interviewees see more transparent, objective and less technical information about biofuels as an essential way to raise the information level and acceptance rate. As the production of bioethanol from straw is now economically feasible, there is one major scientific question to answer: In which way does the withdrawal of straw from the fields affect the formation of humus and, therefore, the quality of the soil? An interdisciplinary approach of researchers in the fields of bioethanol production, geoscience and agriculture in combination with political decision makers are required to make the technologies of renewable bioenergy acceptable to the population.

  3. A prototype of a flexible grid electrode to treat widespread superficial tumors by means of Electrochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Luca G.; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Forzan, Michele; Rossi, Carlo R.; Sieni, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, superficial chest wall recurrence from breast cancer can be effectively treated by means of electrochemotherapy, with the majority of patients achieving response to treatment. Nevertheless, tumor spread along superficial lymphatic vessels makes this peculiar type of tumor recurrence prone to involve large skin areas and difficult to treat. In these cases, electroporation with standard, small size needle electrodes can be time-consuming and produce an inhomogeneous coverage of the target area, ultimately resulting in patient under treatment. Materials and methods Authors designed and developed a prototype of a flexible grid electrode aimed at the treatment of large skin surfaces and manufactured a connection box to link the pulse applicator to a voltage pulse generator. Laboratory tests on potato tissue were performed in order to evaluate the electroporation effect, which was evaluated by observing color change of treated tissue. Results A device has been designed in order to treat chest wall recurrences from breast cancer. According to preliminary tests, the new flexible support of the electrode allows the adaptability to the surface to be treated. Moreover, the designed devices can be useful to treat a larger surface in 2–5 minutes. Conclusions Authors developed the prototype of a new pulse applicator aimed at the treatment of widespread superficial tumors. This flexible grid needle electrode was successfully tested on potato tissue and produced an electroporation effect. From a clinical point of view, the development of this device may shorten electrochemotherapy procedure thus allowing clinicians to administer electric pulses at the time of maximum tumor exposure to drugs. Moreover, since the treatment time is 2–5 min long, it could also reduce the time of anesthesia, thus improving patient recovery. PMID:27069449

  4. Acceptance as a mediator in internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive behavior therapy for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Hesser, Hugo; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    Despite demonstrated efficacy of behavioral and cognitive techniques in treating the impact of tinnitus (constant ringing in the ears), little is known about the mechanisms by which these techniques achieve their effect. The present study examined acceptance of tinnitus as a potential mediator of treatment changes on global tinnitus severity in internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (iACT) and internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT). Data from 67 participants who were distressed by tinnitus and who were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 treatments were analyzed using a multilevel moderated mediation model. We predicted that acceptance as measured with the two subscales of the tinnitus acceptance questionnaire (i.e., activity engagement and tinnitus suppression) would mediate the outcome in iACT, but not in iCBT. Results provided partial support to the notion that mediation was moderated by treatment: tinnitus suppression mediated changes in tinnitus severity in iACT, but not in iCBT. However, inconsistent with the view that the treatments worked through different processes of change, activity engagement mediated treatment changes across both iACT and iCBT. Acceptance is identified as a key source of therapeutic change in behavioral-based treatments for tinnitus.

  5. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  6. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  7. Social Acceptance of Wind Power in the United States: Evaluating Stakeholder Perspectives (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.

    2009-05-01

    As the wind industry strives to achieve 20% wind energy by 2030, maintaining high levels of social acceptance for wind energy will become increasingly important. Wind Powering America is currently researching stakeholder perspectives in the U.S. market and reviewing findings from wind energy projects around the world to better understand social acceptance barriers. Results from European studies show that acceptance varies widely depending on local community values. A preliminary survey shows similar results in the United States. Further research will be conducted to refine our understanding of key social acceptance barriers and evaluate the best ways to mitigate negative perspectives on wind power.

  8. Endemic and widespread coral reef fishes have similar mitochondrial genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Maynard, Jeffrey; Planes, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Endemic species are frequently assumed to have lower genetic diversity than species with large distributions, even if closely related. This assumption is based on research from the terrestrial environment and theoretical evolutionary modelling. We test this assumption in the marine environment by analysing the mitochondrial genetic diversity of 33 coral reef fish species from five families sampled from Pacific Ocean archipelagos. Surprisingly, haplotype and nucleotide diversity did not differ significantly between endemic and widespread species. The probable explanation is that the effective population size of some widespread fishes locally is similar to that of many of the endemics. Connectivity across parts of the distribution of the widespread species is probably low, so widespread species can operate like endemics at the extreme or isolated parts of their range. Mitochondrial genetic diversity of many endemic reef fish species may not either limit range size or be a source of vulnerability. PMID:25355471

  9. A review of barriers and myths preventing the more widespread use of intrauterine contraception in nulliparous women

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kirsten; Lotke, Pamela; Buhling, Kai J.; Zite, Nikki B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Intrauterine contracepives (IUCs) are highly effective and safe for use in all women, including those who are nulliparous. However, many myths and barriers prevent more widespread utilisation. The objective of this article was to explore the health care provider (HCP), health system and user issues that prevent more widespread use of IUCs, particularly among nulliparous women, and to present the evidence that supports achieving greater utilisation of these devices. Methods MEDLINE, PubMed and Embase were used to identify studies reporting attitudes and beliefs around IUCs, and clinical studies providing evidence of their risks and benefits. Results HCP, health system and user factors limiting use of IUCs were identified. The most widely explored barriers in published studies are those at the HCP level. User barriers are less well documented and health system barriers are mostly assessed through indirect evidence. Many, but not all, of the barriers can be reduced through greater understanding of the evidence. Conclusions Efforts need to be made to disseminate the evidence, which shows that few contraindications exist to IUC use. Addressing HCP lack of knowledge, training and confidence with IUC insertions, particularly in nulliparous women, could make a substantial positive impact on IUC utilisation. PMID:22834648

  10. Widespread correction of central nervous system disease after intracranial gene therapy in a feline model of Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, V J; Rockwell, H E; Arthur, J R; Bradbury, A M; Johnson, A K; Randle, A N; Brunson, B L; Hwang, M; Gray-Edwards, H L; Morrison, N E; Johnson, J A; Baker, H J; Cox, N R; Seyfried, T N; Sena-Esteves, M; Martin, D R

    2015-02-01

    Sandhoff disease (SD) is caused by deficiency of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase (Hex) resulting in pathological accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in lysosomes of the central nervous system (CNS) and progressive neurodegeneration. Currently, there is no treatment for SD, which often results in death by the age of five years. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy achieved global CNS Hex restoration and widespread normalization of storage in the SD mouse model. Using a similar treatment approach, we sought to translate the outcome in mice to the feline SD model as an important step toward human clinical trials. Sixteen weeks after four intracranial injections of AAVrh8 vectors, Hex activity was restored to above normal levels throughout the entire CNS and in cerebrospinal fluid, despite a humoral immune response to the vector. In accordance with significant normalization of a secondary lysosomal biomarker, ganglioside storage was substantially improved, but not completely cleared. At the study endpoint, 5-month-old AAV-treated SD cats had preserved neurological function and gait compared with untreated animals (humane endpoint, 4.4±0.6 months) demonstrating clinical benefit from AAV treatment. Translation of widespread biochemical disease correction from the mouse to the feline SD model provides optimism for treatment of the larger human CNS with minimal modification of approach.

  11. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  12. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  13. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  14. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  15. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  16. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  17. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  18. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  19. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  20. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  1. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  2. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  3. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  4. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  5. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  6. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  7. Acceptance in Romantic Relationships: The Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…

  8. Pharmacogenomic and pharmacogenetic-guided therapy as a tool in precision medicine: current state and factors impacting acceptance by stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Hess, Gregory P; Fonseca, Eileen; Scott, Rachel; Fagerness, Jesen

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing is currently available for a wide range of health problems including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, mental health disorders and infectious diseases. PGx contributes important information to the field of precision medicine by clarifying appropriate treatments for specific disease subtypes. Tangible benefits to patients including improved outcomes and reduced total health care costs have been observed. However, PGx-guided therapy faces many barriers to full integration into clinical practice and acceptance by stakeholders, whether practitioner, patient or payer. Each stakeholder has a unique perspective on the role of PGx testing, although all are similarly challenged with demonstrating or appraising its cost-to-benefit value. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of PGx testing. The acceleration of adoption of precision medicine in general and for PGx testing in particular will be determined by how quickly robust evidence can be accumulated that shows a return on investment for payers in terms of real dollars, for clinicians in terms of patient clinical responses, and for patients in terms of economic, health and quality of life outcomes. Trends in PGx testing utilization and uptake by payers in real-world practice are discussed; the role of pharmacoeconomics in assessing cost-effectiveness is highlighted using a case study in psychiatric care, and several issues that will affect adoption of PGx testing in the United States (US) over the next few years are reviewed. PMID:26030725

  9. Pharmacogenomic and pharmacogenetic-guided therapy as a tool in precision medicine: current state and factors impacting acceptance by stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Hess, Gregory P; Fonseca, Eileen; Scott, Rachel; Fagerness, Jesen

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing is currently available for a wide range of health problems including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, mental health disorders and infectious diseases. PGx contributes important information to the field of precision medicine by clarifying appropriate treatments for specific disease subtypes. Tangible benefits to patients including improved outcomes and reduced total health care costs have been observed. However, PGx-guided therapy faces many barriers to full integration into clinical practice and acceptance by stakeholders, whether practitioner, patient or payer. Each stakeholder has a unique perspective on the role of PGx testing, although all are similarly challenged with demonstrating or appraising its cost-to-benefit value. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of PGx testing. The acceleration of adoption of precision medicine in general and for PGx testing in particular will be determined by how quickly robust evidence can be accumulated that shows a return on investment for payers in terms of real dollars, for clinicians in terms of patient clinical responses, and for patients in terms of economic, health and quality of life outcomes. Trends in PGx testing utilization and uptake by payers in real-world practice are discussed; the role of pharmacoeconomics in assessing cost-effectiveness is highlighted using a case study in psychiatric care, and several issues that will affect adoption of PGx testing in the United States (US) over the next few years are reviewed.

  10. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  11. Treatment acceptability among mexican american parents.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Joaquin; Ibanez, Elizabeth S; Spendlove, Stuart J; Pemberton, Joy R

    2007-09-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for differences in treatment acceptability. Mexican American parents found response cost, a punishment-based technique, more acceptable than positive reinforcement-based techniques (e.g., differential attention). Results suggest that Mexican American parents' acculturation has little impact on acceptability of child management interventions. No association was found between mothers' acculturation and treatment acceptability. However, more acculturated Mexican American fathers viewed token economy as more acceptable than less acculturated fathers. Results are discussed in the context of clinical work and research with Mexican Americans.

  12. Acceptability of blood and blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, E; Prowse, C; Townsend, E; Spence, A; Hilten, J A van; Lowe, K

    2008-03-01

    Alternatives to donor blood have been developed in part to meet increasing demand. However, new biotechnologies are often associated with increased perceptions of risk and low acceptance. This paper reviews developments of alternatives and presents data, from a field-based experiment in the UK and Holland, on the risks and acceptance of donor blood and alternatives (chemical, genetically modified and bovine). UK groups perceived all substitutes as riskier than the Dutch. There is a negative association between perceived risk and acceptability. Solutions to increasing acceptance are discussed in terms of implicit attitudes, product naming and emotional responses.

  13. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  14. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  15. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  16. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  17. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  20. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  3. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  4. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  5. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  6. In acceptance we trust? Conceptualising acceptance as a viable approach to NGO security management.

    PubMed

    Fast, Larissa A; Freeman, C Faith; O'Neill, Michael; Rowley, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents current understanding of acceptance as a security management approach and explores issues and challenges non-governmental organisations (NGOs) confront when implementing an acceptance approach to security management. It argues that the failure of organisations to systematise and clearly articulate acceptance as a distinct security management approach and a lack of organisational policies and procedures concerning acceptance hinder its efficacy as a security management approach. The paper identifies key and cross-cutting components of acceptance that are critical to its effective implementation in order to advance a comprehensive and systematic concept of acceptance. The key components of acceptance illustrate how organisational and staff functions affect positively or negatively an organisation's acceptance, and include: an organisation's principles and mission, communications, negotiation, programming, relationships and networks, stakeholder and context analysis, staffing, and image. The paper contends that acceptance is linked not only to good programming, but also to overall organisational management and structures. PMID:23278470

  7. Exploratory Bifactor Analysis of the WJ-III Achievement at School Age via the Schmid-Leiman Orthogonalization Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of academic achievement measures has been rarely investigated in the literature apart from that which appears in the instruments' technical manuals. This is concerning, given the widespread use of academic achievement instruments when making educational decisions about children. The Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Achievement for…

  8. A rapid, strong, and convergent genetic response to urban habitat fragmentation in four divergent and widespread vertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, Kathleen Semple; Riley, Seth P.D.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Urbanization is a major cause of habitat fragmentation worldwide. Ecological and conservation theory predicts many potential impacts of habitat fragmentation on natural populations, including genetic impacts. Habitat fragmentation by urbanization causes populations of animals and plants to be isolated in patches of suitable habitat that are surrounded by non-native vegetation or severely altered vegetation, asphalt, concrete, and human structures. This can lead to genetic divergence between patches and in turn to decreased genetic diversity within patches through genetic drift and inbreeding. Methodology/Principal Findings: We examined population genetic patterns using microsatellites in four common vertebrate species, three lizards and one bird, in highly fragmented urban southern California. Despite significant phylogenetic, ecological, and mobility differences between these species, all four showed similar and significant reductions in gene flow over relatively short geographic and temporal scales. For all four species, the greatest genetic divergence was found where development was oldest and most intensive. All four animals also showed significant reduction in gene flow associated with intervening roads and freeways, the degree of patch isolation, and the time since isolation. Conclusions/Significance: Despite wide acceptance of the idea in principle, evidence of significant population genetic changes associated with fragmentation at small spatial and temporal scales has been rare, even in smaller terrestrial vertebrates, and especially for birds. Given the striking pattern of similar and rapid effects across four common and widespread species, including a volant bird, intense urbanization may represent the most severe form of fragmentation, with minimal effective movement through the urban matrix.

  9. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MISCELLANEOUS INTERPRETATIONS Interpretations § 250.164 Bankers' acceptances. (a) Section 207 of the Bank...

  10. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  11. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  12. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  13. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  14. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks... cooperatives' board of directors, under established policies, may delegate this authority to management....

  15. Mindfulness, Acceptance and Catastrophizing in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Maaike J.; Steinhagen, Hannemike E.; Versteegen, Gerbrig J.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chronic pain patients from an academic outpatient pain center. Results The results show that general psychological acceptance (measured with the AAQ-II) is a strong predictor of pain-related catastrophizing, independent of gender, age and pain intensity. Mindfulness (measured with the MAAS) did not predict levels of pain-related catastrophizing. Discussion Acceptance of psychological experiences outside of pain itself is related to catastrophizing. Thus, acceptance seems to play a role in the pain experience and should be part of the treatment of chronic pain. The focus of the ACT treatment of chronic pain does not necessarily have to be on acceptance of pain per se, but may be aimed at acceptance of unwanted experiences in general. Mindfulness in the sense of “acting with awareness” is however not related to catastrophizing. Based on our research findings in comparisons with those of other authors, we recommend a broader conceptualization of mindfulness and the use of a multifaceted questionnaire for mindfulness instead of the unidimensional MAAS. PMID:24489915

  16. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  17. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  18. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  19. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  20. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  1. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  2. Improving Acceptance of Automated Counseling Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H.; And Others

    This paper discusses factors that may influence the acceptance of automated counseling procedures by the military. A consensual model of the change process is presented which structures organizational readiness, the change strategy, and acceptance as integrated variables to be considered in a successful installation. A basic introduction to the…

  3. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... supported by market research; (4) Include consideration of items supplied satisfactorily under recent or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a)...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  7. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164... reserve requirements under section 7 of the International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3105). The Board..., Form FR Y-7, are also to be used in the calculation of the acceptance limits applicable to...

  8. 16 CFR 1110.5 - Acceptable certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable certificates. 1110.5 Section 1110.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CERTIFICATES OF COMPLIANCE § 1110.5 Acceptable certificates. A certificate that is in hard copy or...

  9. Enzyme Reactions and Acceptability of Plant Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James K.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of enzyme reactions which contribute to the character and acceptability of plant foods. A detailed discussion of polyphenoloxidase is also provided as an example of an enzyme which can markedly affect the character and acceptability of such foods. (JN)

  10. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  11. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  12. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  13. [Acceptance and mindfulness-based cognitive-behavioral therapies].

    PubMed

    Ngô, Thanh-Lan

    2013-01-01

    achieve specific goals. They focus on the present moment rather than on historical causes. However, they also present significant differences: control vs acceptance of thoughts, focus on cognition vs behavior, focus on the relationship between the individual and his thoughts vs cognitive content, goal of modifying dysfunctional beliefs vs metacognitive processes, use of experiential vs didactic methods, focus on symptoms vs quality of life, strategies used before vs after the unfolding of full emotional response. The main interventions based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance are: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Functional Analytic Therapy, the expanded model of Behavioral Activation, Metacognitive Therapy, Mindfulness based Cognitive Therapy, Dialectic Behavior Therapy, Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy and Compassionate Mind Training. These are described in this article. They offer concepts and techniques which might enhance therapeutic efficacy. They teach a new way to deploy attention and to enter into a relationship with current experience (for example, defusion) in order to diminish cognitive reactivity, a maintenance factor for psychopathology, and to enhance psychological flexibility. The focus on cognitive process, metacognition as well as cognitive content might yield additional benefits in therapy. It is possible to combine traditional CBT with third wave approaches by using psychoeducation and cognitive restructuring in the beginning phases of therapy in order to establish thought bias and to then encourage acceptance of internal experiences as well as exposure to feared stimuli rather than to continue to use cognitive restructuring techniques. Traditional CBT and third wave approaches seem to impact different processes: the former enhance the capacity to observe and describe experiences and the latter diminish experiential avoidance and increase conscious action as well as acceptance. The identification of personal values helps to motivate the

  14. Maternal immunization. Clinical experiences, challenges, and opportunities in vaccine acceptance.

    PubMed

    Moniz, Michelle H; Beigi, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immunization holds tremendous promise to improve maternal and neonatal health for a number of infectious conditions. The unique susceptibilities of pregnant women to infectious conditions, as well as the ability of maternally-derived antibody to offer vital neonatal protection (via placental transfer), together have produced the recent increased attention on maternal immunization. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) currently recommends 2 immunizations for all pregnant women lacking contraindication, inactivated Influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap). Given ongoing research the number of vaccines recommended during pregnancy is likely to increase. Thus, achieving high vaccination coverage of pregnant women for all recommended immunizations is a key public health enterprise. This review will focus on the present state of vaccine acceptance in pregnancy, with attention to currently identified barriers and determinants of vaccine acceptance. Additionally, opportunities for improvement will be considered. PMID:25483490

  15. Who accepts responsibility for their transgressions?

    PubMed

    Schumann, Karina; Dweck, Carol S

    2014-12-01

    After committing an offense, transgressors can optimize their chances of reconciling with the victim by accepting responsibility. However, transgressors may be motivated to avoid admitting fault because it can feel threatening to accept blame for harmful behavior. Who, then, is likely to accept responsibility for a transgression? We examined how implicit theories of personality--whether people see personality as malleable (incremental theory) or fixed (entity theory)--influence transgressors' likelihood of accepting responsibility. We argue that incremental theorists may feel less threatened by accepting responsibility because they are more likely to view the situation as an opportunity for them to grow as a person and develop their relationship with the victim. We found support for our predictions across four studies using a combination of real-world and hypothetical offenses, and correlational and experimental methods. These studies therefore identify an important individual difference factor that can lead to more effective responses from transgressors. PMID:25252938

  16. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  17. REVIEW: Widespread access to predictive models in the motor system: a short review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Paul R.; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2005-09-01

    Recent behavioural and computational studies suggest that access to internal predictive models of arm and object dynamics is widespread in the sensorimotor system. Several systems, including those responsible for oculomotor and skeletomotor control, perceptual processing, postural control and mental imagery, are able to access predictions of the motion of the arm. A capacity to make and use predictions of object dynamics is similarly widespread. Here, we review recent studies looking at the predictive capacity of the central nervous system which reveal pervasive access to forward models of the environment.

  18. Barriers and opportunities to the widespread adoption of telemedicine: a bi-country evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vimarlund, Vivian; Le Rouge, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing that current practices for healthcare delivery are no longer sustainable, OECD governments are focusing more and more on how to leverage ICT to facilitate superior healthcare delivery. One such possibility is the use of Telemedicine. A major goal of telemedicine today is to develop next-generation telemedicine tools and technologies. However, key "classic" barriers continue to challenge widespread telemedicine adoption by health care organizations. These barriers include technology, financial, legal/standards, business strategy, and human resources issues. This comparative study explores the current status of barriers and opportunities to the widespread adoption of telemedicine in two different countries: Sweden, and USA. PMID:23920707

  19. Barriers and opportunities to the widespread adoption of telemedicine: a bi-country evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vimarlund, Vivian; Le Rouge, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing that current practices for healthcare delivery are no longer sustainable, OECD governments are focusing more and more on how to leverage ICT to facilitate superior healthcare delivery. One such possibility is the use of Telemedicine. A major goal of telemedicine today is to develop next-generation telemedicine tools and technologies. However, key "classic" barriers continue to challenge widespread telemedicine adoption by health care organizations. These barriers include technology, financial, legal/standards, business strategy, and human resources issues. This comparative study explores the current status of barriers and opportunities to the widespread adoption of telemedicine in two different countries: Sweden, and USA.

  20. [Metabolic correction of structural changes in adrenal glands during experimental widespread purulent peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Kosinets, V A; Fedotov, D N

    2012-01-01

    Experiments on 55 male chinchilla rabbits with model widespread purulent peritonitis have been performed for determinig structural changes in adrenal glands with the aid of optical microscopy. The introduction of aerobic-anaerobic culture of E. Coli and B. Fragilis into the abdominal cavity causes expressed structural changes in parenchyma of adrenal glands within 6 hours. It is established for the first time that the administration of metabolic drugs citoflavin (containing succinic acid) and neoton (containing creatine phosphate) prevents the development of pathological structural changes in adrenal glands under conditions of experimental widespread purulent peritonitis.

  1. Hunter perceptions and acceptance of alternative deer management regulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornicelli, L.; Fulton, D.C.; Grund, M.D.; Fieberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers are often confronted with a policy paradox where a majority of the public supports an outcome, but there is no agreement on specific management strategies to achieve this outcome. Previous research has also reported a link between regulatory acceptance, hunter satisfaction, and hunter participation rates. Thus, human dimensions research aimed at understanding hunter motivations and behavior is needed for effective management. In 2005, we surveyed Minnesota (USA) deer hunters (n = 6,000; 59% response) to evaluate attitudes regarding alternative deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvest regulations. We also conducted a series of forced choice experiments in which respondents were asked to select an option from a list of representative regulations that might be adopted to achieve a particular deer management goal. Specifically, we modeled 5 deer population scenarios ranging from low populations with high buck-harvest rates to populations 50% over goal density. Our results indicate that hunters preferred different regulations depending on the population scenario, but generally preferred antler-point restrictions and disliked limiting buck licenses through a lottery. We also found consistency among scenarios, in that a small percentage of respondents indicated they would not hunt if regulations were changed. The results from this study should help wildlife managers design deer harvest regulations that are both acceptable to hunters and achieve management objectives. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  2. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  3. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  4. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  5. Approaches to acceptable risk: a critical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.; Derby, S.

    1980-12-01

    Acceptable-risk decisions are an essential step in the management of technological hazards. In many situations, they constitute the weak (or missing) link in the management process. The absence of an adequate decision-making methodology often produces indecision, inconsistency, and dissatisfaction. The result is neither good for hazard management nor good for society. This report offers a critical analysis of the viability of various approaches as guides to acceptable-risk decisions. This report seeks to define acceptable-risk decisions and to examine some frequently proposed, but inappropriate, solutions. 255 refs., 22 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  7. Startup of the FFTF sodium cooled reactor. [Acceptance Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Redekopp, R.D.; Umek, A.M.

    1981-03-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, is a 3 Loop 400 MW(t) sodium cooled fast reactor with a primary mission to test fuels and materials for development of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). Bringing FFTF to a condition to accomplish this mission is the goal of the Acceptance Test Program (ATP). This program was the mechanism for achieving startup of the FFTF. Highlights of the ATP involving the system inerting, liquid metal and inerted cell testing and initial ascent to full power are discussed.

  8. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  9. Women and Mathematics: Research vs. Achievement in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Theodora Mead; And Others

    Many educators and researchers who believe that girls have less mathematical ability than boys associate this deficiency with girls' inferior spatial ability. This generally accepted belief that spatial skills are a major prerequisite for math achievement was tested through a study of the visual-spatial skills of a sample of 32 professional…

  10. Teacher Perceptions on the Effect of Collaboration on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Lori Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    At the school site for this study, students have performed below acceptable district goals in math. Although research has indicated that effective collaboration can contribute to teacher learning, research on collaboration has often failed to address its effect on student achievement; therefore, the purpose of this project study was to examine…

  11. Assuring Academic Achievement Standards: From Moderation to Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2013-01-01

    The course (module) grades entered on higher education academic records (transcripts) purportedly represent substantive levels of student achievement. They are often taken at face value and accepted as comparable across courses. Research undertaken over several decades has shown that the underlying standards against which student works are…

  12. Adolescents' unconditional acceptance by parents and teachers and educational outcomes: A structural model of gender differences.

    PubMed

    Makri-Botsari, Evi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect gender specific patterns in the network of relations between unconditionality of parental and teacher acceptance in the form of unconditional positive regard and a range of educational outcomes, as indexed by academic self-perception, academic intrinsic motivation, and academic achievement. To test the role of gender as a moderator, a multi-group analysis was employed within the framework of structural equation modelling with increasing restrictions placed on the structural paths across genders. The results on a sample of 427 adolescents in grades 7-9 showed that conditionality of acceptance undermined level of perceived acceptance for both social agents. Moreover, unconditionality of teacher acceptance exerted stronger influences on students' educational outcomes than unconditionality of parental acceptance, with effect sizes being larger for girls than for boys. PMID:26057875

  13. Acceptable Care? Illness Constructions, Healthworlds, and Accessible Chronic Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Bronwyn; Eyles, John; Moshabela, Mosa

    2015-01-01

    Achieving equitable access to health care is an important policy goal, with access influenced by affordability, availability, and acceptability of specific services. We explore patient narratives from a 5-year program of research on health care access to examine relationships between social constructions of illness and the acceptability of health services in the context of tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Acceptability of services seems particularly important to the meanings patients attach to illness and care, whereas—conversely—these constructions appear to influence what constitutes acceptability and hence affect access to care. We highlight the underestimated role of individually, socially, and politically constructed healthworlds; traditional and biomedical beliefs; and social support networks. Suggested policy implications for improving acceptability and hence overall health care access include abandoning patronizing approaches to care and refocusing from treating “disease” to responding to “illness” by acknowledging and incorporating patients’ healthworlds in patient–provider interactions. PMID:25829509

  14. Adolescents' unconditional acceptance by parents and teachers and educational outcomes: A structural model of gender differences.

    PubMed

    Makri-Botsari, Evi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect gender specific patterns in the network of relations between unconditionality of parental and teacher acceptance in the form of unconditional positive regard and a range of educational outcomes, as indexed by academic self-perception, academic intrinsic motivation, and academic achievement. To test the role of gender as a moderator, a multi-group analysis was employed within the framework of structural equation modelling with increasing restrictions placed on the structural paths across genders. The results on a sample of 427 adolescents in grades 7-9 showed that conditionality of acceptance undermined level of perceived acceptance for both social agents. Moreover, unconditionality of teacher acceptance exerted stronger influences on students' educational outcomes than unconditionality of parental acceptance, with effect sizes being larger for girls than for boys.

  15. The Use of a Mobile Learning Management System at an Online University and Its Effect on Learning Satisfaction and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Won Sug; Kang, Minseok

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates online students' acceptance of mobile learning and its influence on learning achievement using an information system success and extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Structural equation modeling was used to test the structure of individual, social, and systemic factors influencing mobile learning's acceptance, and…

  16. Chinese Nurses' Acceptance of PDA: A Cross-Sectional Survey Using a Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanling; Xiao, Qian; Sun, Liu; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study explores Chinese nurses' acceptance of PDA, using a questionnaire based on the framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). 357 nurses were involved in the study. The results reveal the scores of the nurses' acceptance of PDA were means 3.18~3.36 in four dimensions. The younger of nurses, the higher nurses' title, the longer previous usage time, the more experienced using PDA, and the more acceptance of PDA. Therefore, the hospital administrators may change strategies to enhance nurses' acceptance of PDA, and promote the wide application of PDA.

  17. Climate change and forest fires synergistically drive widespread melt events of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Kaitlin M; Albert, Mary R; McConnell, Joseph R; Baker, Ian

    2014-06-01

    In July 2012, over 97% of the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced surface melt, the first widespread melt during the era of satellite remote sensing. Analysis of six Greenland shallow firn cores from the dry snow region confirms that the most recent prior widespread melt occurred in 1889. A firn core from the center of the ice sheet demonstrated that exceptionally warm temperatures combined with black carbon sediments from Northern Hemisphere forest fires reduced albedo below a critical threshold in the dry snow region, and caused the melting events in both 1889 and 2012. We use these data to project the frequency of widespread melt into the year 2100. Since Arctic temperatures and the frequency of forest fires are both expected to rise with climate change, our results suggest that widespread melt events on the Greenland Ice Sheet may begin to occur almost annually by the end of century. These events are likely to alter the surface mass balance of the ice sheet, leaving the surface susceptible to further melting. PMID:24843158

  18. Climate change and forest fires synergistically drive widespread melt events of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Kaitlin M; Albert, Mary R; McConnell, Joseph R; Baker, Ian

    2014-06-01

    In July 2012, over 97% of the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced surface melt, the first widespread melt during the era of satellite remote sensing. Analysis of six Greenland shallow firn cores from the dry snow region confirms that the most recent prior widespread melt occurred in 1889. A firn core from the center of the ice sheet demonstrated that exceptionally warm temperatures combined with black carbon sediments from Northern Hemisphere forest fires reduced albedo below a critical threshold in the dry snow region, and caused the melting events in both 1889 and 2012. We use these data to project the frequency of widespread melt into the year 2100. Since Arctic temperatures and the frequency of forest fires are both expected to rise with climate change, our results suggest that widespread melt events on the Greenland Ice Sheet may begin to occur almost annually by the end of century. These events are likely to alter the surface mass balance of the ice sheet, leaving the surface susceptible to further melting.

  19. Climate change and forest fires synergistically drive widespread melt events of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Kaitlin M.; Albert, Mary R.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Baker, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In July 2012, over 97% of the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced surface melt, the first widespread melt during the era of satellite remote sensing. Analysis of six Greenland shallow firn cores from the dry snow region confirms that the most recent prior widespread melt occurred in 1889. A firn core from the center of the ice sheet demonstrated that exceptionally warm temperatures combined with black carbon sediments from Northern Hemisphere forest fires reduced albedo below a critical threshold in the dry snow region, and caused the melting events in both 1889 and 2012. We use these data to project the frequency of widespread melt into the year 2100. Since Arctic temperatures and the frequency of forest fires are both expected to rise with climate change, our results suggest that widespread melt events on the Greenland Ice Sheet may begin to occur almost annually by the end of century. These events are likely to alter the surface mass balance of the ice sheet, leaving the surface susceptible to further melting. PMID:24843158

  20. Preoperative widespread pain sensitization and chronic pain after hip and knee replacement: a cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wylde, Vikki; Sayers, Adrian; Lenguerrand, Erik; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Pyke, Mark; Beswick, Andrew D.; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain after joint replacement is common, affecting approximately 10% of patients after total hip replacement (THR) and 20% of patients after total knee replacement (TKR). Heightened generalized sensitivity to nociceptive input could be a risk factor for the development of this pain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was associated with chronic pain after joint replacement. Data were analyzed from 254 patients receiving THR and 239 patients receiving TKR. Pain was assessed preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale. Preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was assessed through measurement of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the forearm using an algometer. Statistical analysis was conducted using linear regression and linear mixed models, and adjustments were made for confounding variables. In both the THR and TKR cohort, lower PPTs (heightened widespread pain sensitivity) were significantly associated with higher preoperative pain severity. Lower PPTs were also significantly associated with higher pain severity at 12 months after surgery in the THR cohort. However, PPTs were not associated with the change in pain severity from preoperative to 12 months postoperative in either the TKR or THR cohort. These findings suggest that although preoperative widespread pressure pain sensitivity is associated with pain severity before and after joint replacement, it is not a predictor of the amount of pain relief that patients gain from joint replacement surgery, independent of preoperative pain severity. PMID:25599300

  1. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Supplement: Review and critique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Review comments of the Congressional report entitled 'Federal Policies to Promote the Widespread Utilization of Photovoltaic Systems' are presented. Responses to the review comments by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, preparer of the Congressional report, are also presented. The Congressional report discussed various issues related to promoting the deployment of photovoltaic systems through the Federal Photovoltaic Program. Various program strategies and funding levels were examined.

  2. Landscape heterogeneity predicts gene flow in a widespread polymorphic bumble bee, Bombus bifarius (Hymentoptera: Apidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bombus bifarius is a widespread bumble bee that occurs in montane regions of western North America. This species has several major color polymorphisms, and shows evidence of genetic structuring among regional populations. We test whether this structure is evidence for discrete gene flow barriers tha...

  3. The origin of widespread species in a poor dispersing lineage (diving beetle genus Deronectes)

    PubMed Central

    García-Vázquez, David

    2016-01-01

    In most lineages, most species have restricted geographic ranges, with only few reaching widespread distributions. How these widespread species reached their current ranges is an intriguing biogeographic and evolutionary question, especially in groups known to be poor dispersers. We reconstructed the biogeographic and temporal origin of the widespread species in a lineage with particularly poor dispersal capabilities, the diving beetle genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae). Most of the ca. 60 described species of Deronectes have narrow ranges in the Mediterranean area, with only four species with widespread European distributions. We sequenced four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of 297 specimens of 109 different populations covering the entire distribution of the four lineages of Deronectes, including widespread species. Using Bayesian probabilities with an a priori evolutionary rate, we performed (1) a global phylogeny/phylogeography to estimate the relationships of the main lineages within each group and root them, and (2) demographic analyses of the best population coalescent model for each species group, including a reconstruction of the geographical history estimated from the distribution of the sampled localities. We also selected 56 specimens to test for the presence of Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted parasite that can alter the patterns of mtDNA variability. All species of the four studied groups originated in the southern Mediterranean peninsulas and were estimated to be of Pleistocene origin. In three of the four widespread species, the central and northern European populations were nested within those in the northern areas of the Anatolian, Balkan and Iberian peninsulas respectively, suggesting a range expansion at the edge of the southern refugia. In the Mediterranean peninsulas the widespread European species were replaced by vicariant taxa of recent origin. The fourth species (D. moestus) was proven to be a composite of unrecognised lineages with

  4. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  5. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  6. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate, in... officer shall place a copy of this determination, signed by the HCA, in the solicitation file....

  7. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate, in... officer shall place a copy of this determination, signed by the HCA, in the solicitation file....

  8. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate, in... officer shall place a copy of this determination, signed by the HCA, in the solicitation file....

  9. Gas characterization system software acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-02-27

    This document details the Software Acceptance Testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.

  10. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  11. Behavioral genetics: scientific and social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, David R

    2003-01-01

    Human behavioral genetics can be broadly defined as the attempt to characterize and define the genetic or hereditary basis for human behavior. Examination of the history of these scientific enterprises reveals episodes of controversy, and an apparent distinction between scientific and social acceptance of the genetic nature of such complex behaviors. This essay will review the history and methodology of behavioral genetics research, including a more detailed look at case histories involving behavioral genetic research for aggressive behavior and alcoholism. It includes a discussion of the scientific versus social qualities of the acceptance of behavioral genetics research, as well as the development of a general model for scientific acceptance involving the researchers, the scientific literature, the scientific peer group, the mainstream media, and the public at large. From this model follows a discussion of the means and complications by which behavioral genetics research may be accepted by society, and an analysis of how future studies might be conducted.

  12. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  15. What Are Acceptable Limits of Radiation?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Brad Gersey, lead research scientist at the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration, or CRESSE, at Prairie View A&M University, describes the legal and acceptable limits ...

  16. 78 FR 8189 - Acceptance of Concurrent Jurisdiction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... accepted concurrent legislative jurisdiction from the State of Washington over lands and waters administered by the National Park Service within the boundaries of Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area. DATES: Effective Date: Concurrent legislative jurisdiction within Lake Roosevelt National...

  17. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  18. Acceptance Test Plan for ANSYS Software

    SciTech Connect

    CREA, B.A.

    2000-10-25

    This plan governs the acceptance testing of the ANSYS software (Full Mechanical Release 5.5) for use on Project Word Management Contract (PHMC) computer systems (either UNIX or Microsoft Windows/NT). There are two phases to the acceptance testing covered by this test plan: program execution in accordance with the guidance provided in installation manuals; and ensuring results of the execution are consistent with the expected physical behavior of the system being modeled.

  19. Generalized group chain acceptance sampling plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Mughal, Abdur Razzaque; Aziz, Nazrina

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we proposed an acceptance sampling plan based on generalized group chain truncated life test. The decision on acceptance of a submitted lot can be made by using the cumulative information of the immediately preceding samples. The design parameters of the proposed plan such as the minimum number of groups are found to satisfy the desired quality standard. The benefits of this plan include smaller sample size and reduced overall costs.

  20. Effects of Peer Academic Reputation on Achievement in Academically At-Risk Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Dyer, Nicole; Luo, Wen; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2009-01-01

    664 relatively low achieving first grade children were recruited into a longitudinal study. Measures of peer academic reputation (PAR), peer acceptance, teacher-rated academic engagement and achievement, and reading and math achievement were obtained in Year 2, when the majority of students were in second grade, and 1 year later. Measures of…

  1. Explain the Behavior Intention to Use e-Learning Technologies: A Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaqrah, Amin A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the behavior intention to use e-learning technologies. In order to achieve a better view and validate the study, researcher attempts to give details of how technology acceptance models help Jordanian trainees firms in accepting e-learning technology, and how if applied will result more attention to usage…

  2. Consumer acceptance of food crops developed by genome editing.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Araki, Motoko

    2016-07-01

    One of the major problems regarding consumer acceptance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is the possibility that their transgenes could have adverse effects on the environment and/or human health. Genome editing, represented by the CRISPR/Cas9 system, can efficiently achieve transgene-free gene modifications and is anticipated to generate a wide spectrum of plants. However, the public attitude against GMOs suggests that people will initially be unlikely to accept these plants. We herein explored the bottlenecks of consumer acceptance of transgene-free food crops developed by genome editing and made some recommendations. People should not pursue a zero-risk bias regarding such crops. Developers are encouraged to produce cultivars with a trait that would satisfy consumer needs. Moreover, they should carefully investigate off-target mutations in resultant plants and initially refrain from agricultural use of multiplex genome editing for better risk-benefit communication. The government must consider their regulatory status and establish appropriate regulations if necessary. The government also should foster communication between the public and developers. If people are informed of the benefits of genome editing-mediated plant breeding and trust in the relevant regulations, and if careful risk-benefit communication and sincere considerations for the right to know approach are guaranteed, then such transgene-free crops could gradually be integrated into society. PMID:27038939

  3. Consumer acceptance of food crops developed by genome editing.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Araki, Motoko

    2016-07-01

    One of the major problems regarding consumer acceptance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is the possibility that their transgenes could have adverse effects on the environment and/or human health. Genome editing, represented by the CRISPR/Cas9 system, can efficiently achieve transgene-free gene modifications and is anticipated to generate a wide spectrum of plants. However, the public attitude against GMOs suggests that people will initially be unlikely to accept these plants. We herein explored the bottlenecks of consumer acceptance of transgene-free food crops developed by genome editing and made some recommendations. People should not pursue a zero-risk bias regarding such crops. Developers are encouraged to produce cultivars with a trait that would satisfy consumer needs. Moreover, they should carefully investigate off-target mutations in resultant plants and initially refrain from agricultural use of multiplex genome editing for better risk-benefit communication. The government must consider their regulatory status and establish appropriate regulations if necessary. The government also should foster communication between the public and developers. If people are informed of the benefits of genome editing-mediated plant breeding and trust in the relevant regulations, and if careful risk-benefit communication and sincere considerations for the right to know approach are guaranteed, then such transgene-free crops could gradually be integrated into society.

  4. Educational interventions to increase HPV vaccination acceptance: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Linda Y.; Bonhomme, Lize-Anne; Cooper, Spring Chenoa; Joseph, Jill G.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been available for protection against HPV-associated cervical cancer and genital warts since 2006. Nonetheless, uptake has varied among countries and populations within countries. Studies have found that individuals’ knowledge and attitudes toward the vaccine are associated with immunization uptake. The purpose of the current review is to summarize and evaluate the evidence for educational interventions to increase HPV vaccination acceptance. Methods We searched the databases of PubMed and Web of Science for English-language articles describing educational interventions designed to improve HPV vaccination uptake, intention or attitude. Results We identified 33 studies of HPV vaccination educational interventions: 7 tested the effectiveness of interventions with parents, 8 with adolescents or young adults, and 18 compared the effectiveness of different message frames in an educational intervention among adolescents, young adults or their parents. Most studies involved populations with higher educational attainment and most interventions required participants to be literate. The minority of studies used the outcome of HPV vaccine uptake. Well-designed studies adequately powered to detect change in vaccine uptake were rare and generally did not demonstrate effectiveness of the tested intervention. Conclusions There is not strong evidence to recommend any specific educational intervention for wide-spread implementation. Future studies are required to determine the effectiveness of culturally-competent interventions reaching diverse populations. PMID:24530401

  5. Use of Simulation to Study Nurses Acceptance and Non-Acceptance of Clinical Decision Support Suggestions

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Vanessa E. C.; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Febretti, Alessandro; Stifter, Janet; Yao, Yingwei; Johnson, Andrew; Wilkie, Diana J.; Keenan, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Our long term goal is to ensure nurse clinical decision support (CDS) works as intended before full deployment in clinical practice. As part of a broader effort, this pilot explores factors influencing acceptance/non-acceptance of 8 CDS suggestions displayed through selecting a blinking red button in an electronic health record (EHR) based nursing plan of care software prototype. A diverse sample of 21 nurses participated in this high fidelity clinical simulation experience and completed a questionnaire to assess reasons for accepting/not accepting the CDS suggestions. Of 168 total suggestions displayed during the experiment (8 for each of the 21 nurses), 123 (73.2%) were accepted and 45 (26.8%) were not accepted. The mode number of acceptances by nurses was 7 of 8 with only 2 of 21 nurses accepting all. The main reason for CDS acceptance was the nurse’s belief that the suggestions were good for the patient (n=100%) with other features being secondarily reinforcing. Reasons for non-acceptance were less clear, with under half of the subjects indicating low confidence in the evidence. This study provides preliminary evidence that high quality simulation and targeted questionnaires about specific CDS selections offers a cost effective means for testing before full deployment in clinical practice. PMID:26361268

  6. Identifying Minimally Acceptable Interpretive Performance Criteria for Screening Mammography1

    PubMed Central

    Sickles, Edward A.; Monsees, Barbara S.; Bassett, Lawrence W.; Brenner, R. James; Feig, Stephen A.; Smith, Robert A.; Rosenberg, Robert D.; Bogart, T. Andrew; Browning, Sally; Barry, Jane W.; Kelly, Mary M.; Tran, Khai A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop criteria to identify thresholds for minimally acceptable physician performance in interpreting screening mammography studies and to profile the impact that implementing these criteria may have on the practice of radiology in the United States. Materials and Methods: In an institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant study, an Angoff approach was used in two phases to set criteria for identifying minimally acceptable interpretive performance at screening mammography as measured by sensitivity, specificity, recall rate, positive predictive value (PPV) of recall (PPV1) and of biopsy recommendation (PPV2), and cancer detection rate. Performance measures were considered separately. In phase I, a group of 10 expert radiologists considered a hypothetical pool of 100 interpreting physicians and conveyed their cut points of minimally acceptable performance. The experts were informed that a physician’s performance falling outside the cut points would result in a recommendation to consider additional training. During each round of scoring, all expert radiologists’ cut points were summarized into a mean, median, mode, and range; these were presented back to the group. In phase II, normative data on performance were shown to illustrate the potential impact cut points would have on radiology practice. Rescoring was done until consensus among experts was achieved. Simulation methods were used to estimate the potential impact of performance that improved to acceptable levels if effective additional training was provided. Results: Final cut points to identify low performance were as follows: sensitivity less than 75%, specificity less than 88% or greater than 95%, recall rate less than 5% or greater than 12%, PPV1 less than 3% or greater than 8%, PPV2 less than 20% or greater than 40%, and cancer detection rate less than 2.5 per 1000 interpretations. The selected cut points for performance measures would likely result in 18%–28% of interpreting

  7. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  8. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  9. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Karden, E.; Surewaard, E.; Sauer, D. U.

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking.

  10. A Rapid, Strong, and Convergent Genetic Response to Urban Habitat Fragmentation in Four Divergent and Widespread Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Kathleen Semple; Riley, Seth P. D.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Urbanization is a major cause of habitat fragmentation worldwide. Ecological and conservation theory predicts many potential impacts of habitat fragmentation on natural populations, including genetic impacts. Habitat fragmentation by urbanization causes populations of animals and plants to be isolated in patches of suitable habitat that are surrounded by non-native vegetation or severely altered vegetation, asphalt, concrete, and human structures. This can lead to genetic divergence between patches and in turn to decreased genetic diversity within patches through genetic drift and inbreeding. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined population genetic patterns using microsatellites in four common vertebrate species, three lizards and one bird, in highly fragmented urban southern California. Despite significant phylogenetic, ecological, and mobility differences between these species, all four showed similar and significant reductions in gene flow over relatively short geographic and temporal scales. For all four species, the greatest genetic divergence was found where development was oldest and most intensive. All four animals also showed significant reduction in gene flow associated with intervening roads and freeways, the degree of patch isolation, and the time since isolation. Conclusions/Significance Despite wide acceptance of the idea in principle, evidence of significant population genetic changes associated with fragmentation at small spatial and temporal scales has been rare, even in smaller terrestrial vertebrates, and especially for birds. Given the striking pattern of similar and rapid effects across four common and widespread species, including a volant bird, intense urbanization may represent the most severe form of fragmentation, with minimal effective movement through the urban matrix. PMID:20862274

  11. On the occurrence of a widespread contamination by herbicides of coral reef biota in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Salvat, Bernard; Roche, Hélène; Ramade, François

    2016-01-01

    Research has been conducted within the framework of the French Initiative for Coral Reefs (IFRECOR) to assess pesticide pollution levels in the coral reef trophic webs in French Polynesia. Unexpected widespread contamination by herbicides was found in algae, fishes and macro-invertebrates located at various levels of the reef trophic web. Concentrations in organisms investigated were for the majority below the lowest observable effect level and do not pose a dietary risk to native population who subsist on these fish. However, the widespread contamination may affect the reef ecosystem in the future as coral symbiotic algae, Symbidinium sp. (Dinophyta) are particularly sensitive to photosystem II herbicides, particularly the substituted urea and triazine derivatives. PMID:25850738

  12. On the occurrence of a widespread contamination by herbicides of coral reef biota in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Salvat, Bernard; Roche, Hélène; Ramade, François

    2016-01-01

    Research has been conducted within the framework of the French Initiative for Coral Reefs (IFRECOR) to assess pesticide pollution levels in the coral reef trophic webs in French Polynesia. Unexpected widespread contamination by herbicides was found in algae, fishes and macro-invertebrates located at various levels of the reef trophic web. Concentrations in organisms investigated were for the majority below the lowest observable effect level and do not pose a dietary risk to native population who subsist on these fish. However, the widespread contamination may affect the reef ecosystem in the future as coral symbiotic algae, Symbidinium sp. (Dinophyta) are particularly sensitive to photosystem II herbicides, particularly the substituted urea and triazine derivatives.

  13. Thermoregulatory behavior is widespread in the embryos of reptiles and birds.

    PubMed

    Li, Teng; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Yong-Kang; Hu, Rui; Du, Wei-Guo

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that thermoregulatory behavior occurs not only in posthatching turtles but also in turtles prior to hatching. Does thermoregulatory behavior also occur in the embryos of other reptile and bird species? Our experiments show that such behavior is widespread but not universal in reptile and bird embryos. We recorded repositioning within the egg, in response to thermal gradients, in the embryos of three species of snakes (Xenochrophis piscator, Elaphe bimaculata, and Zaocys dhumnades), two turtles (Chelydra serpentina and Ocadia sinensis), one crocodile (Alligator sinensis), and four birds (Coturnix coturnix, Gallus gallus domesticus, Columba livia domestica, and Anas platyrhynchos domestica). However, we detected no significant thermoregulation by the embryos of two lizard species (Takydromus septentrionalis and Phrynocephalus frontalis). Overall, embryonic thermoregulatory behavior is widespread in reptile as well as bird species but may be unimportant in the small eggs laid by most lizards.

  14. Persistent and widespread occurrence of bioactive quinone pigments during post-Paleozoic crinoid diversification.

    PubMed

    Wolkenstein, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    Secondary metabolites often play an important role in the adaptation of organisms to their environment. However, little is known about the secondary metabolites of ancient organisms and their evolutionary history. Chemical analysis of exceptionally well-preserved colored fossil crinoids and modern crinoids from the deep sea suggests that bioactive polycyclic quinones related to hypericin were, and still are, globally widespread in post-Paleozoic crinoids. The discovery of hypericinoid pigments both in fossil and in present-day representatives of the order Isocrinida indicates that the pigments remained almost unchanged since the Mesozoic, also suggesting that the original color of hypericinoid-containing ancient crinoids may have been analogous to that of their modern relatives. The persistent and widespread occurrence, spatially as well as taxonomically, of hypericinoid pigments in various orders during the adaptive radiation of post-Paleozoic crinoids suggests a general functional importance of the pigments, contributing to the evolutionary success of the Crinoidea.

  15. Single-molecule analysis reveals widespread structural variation in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditya; Place, Michael; Goldstein, Steven; Sarkar, Deepayan; Zhou, Shiguo; Potamousis, Konstantinos; Kim, Jaehyup; Flanagan, Claire; Li, Yang; Newton, Michael A.; Callander, Natalie S.; Hematti, Peiman; Bresnick, Emery H.; Ma, Jian; Asimakopoulos, Fotis; Schwartz, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignancy of plasma cells, is characterized by widespread genomic heterogeneity and, consequently, differences in disease progression and drug response. Although recent large-scale sequencing studies have greatly improved our understanding of MM genomes, our knowledge about genomic structural variation in MM is attenuated due to the limitations of commonly used sequencing approaches. In this study, we present the application of optical mapping, a single-molecule, whole-genome analysis system, to discover new structural variants in a primary MM genome. Through our analysis, we have identified and characterized widespread structural variation in this tumor genome. Additionally, we describe our efforts toward comprehensive characterization of genome structure and variation by integrating our findings from optical mapping with those from DNA sequencing-based genomic analysis. Finally, by studying this MM genome at two time points during tumor progression, we have demonstrated an increase in mutational burden with tumor progression at all length scales of variation. PMID:26056298

  16. Persistent and widespread occurrence of bioactive quinone pigments during post-Paleozoic crinoid diversification

    PubMed Central

    Wolkenstein, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolites often play an important role in the adaptation of organisms to their environment. However, little is known about the secondary metabolites of ancient organisms and their evolutionary history. Chemical analysis of exceptionally well-preserved colored fossil crinoids and modern crinoids from the deep sea suggests that bioactive polycyclic quinones related to hypericin were, and still are, globally widespread in post-Paleozoic crinoids. The discovery of hypericinoid pigments both in fossil and in present-day representatives of the order Isocrinida indicates that the pigments remained almost unchanged since the Mesozoic, also suggesting that the original color of hypericinoid-containing ancient crinoids may have been analogous to that of their modern relatives. The persistent and widespread occurrence, spatially as well as taxonomically, of hypericinoid pigments in various orders during the adaptive radiation of post-Paleozoic crinoids suggests a general functional importance of the pigments, contributing to the evolutionary success of the Crinoidea. PMID:25730856

  17. Children acceptance of laser dental treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazea, Andreea; Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the dental anxiety level and the degree of acceptance of laser assisted pedodontic treatments from the children part. Also, we want to underline the advantages of laser use in pediatric dentistry, to make this technology widely used in treating dental problems of our children patients. Methods: Thirty pediatric dental patients presented in the Department of Pedodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babeş", Timişoara were evaluated using the Wong-Baker pain rating scale, wich was administered postoperatory to all patients, to assess their level of laser therapy acceptance. Results: Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS) has good validity and high specificity; generally it's easy for children to use, easy to compare and has good feasibility. Laser treatment has been accepted and tolerated by pediatric patients for its ability to reduce or eliminate pain. Around 70% of the total sample showed an excellent acceptance of laser dental treatment. Conclusions: Laser technology is useful and effective in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry and a good level of pacient acceptance is reported during all laser procedures on hard and soft tissues.

  18. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2001-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  19. THE WIDESPREAD OF Fe(III)-REDUCING BACTERIA IN NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS OF ECUADOR.

    PubMed

    Tashyrev, O B; Govorukha, V M

    2015-01-01

    The widespread of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in natural ecosystems of Ecuador of La Favorita, Tungurahua volcano and Papallacta areas was experimentally proved. High efficiency of microbial precipitation of soluble iron compounds was also demonstrated. Obtained results indicate the potential ability of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to influence the formation of carbon and iron vector fluxes in ecosystems, as well as development of effective biotechnologies of water purification from iron compounds.

  20. THE WIDESPREAD OF Fe(III)-REDUCING BACTERIA IN NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS OF ECUADOR.

    PubMed

    Tashyrev, O B; Govorukha, V M

    2015-01-01

    The widespread of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in natural ecosystems of Ecuador of La Favorita, Tungurahua volcano and Papallacta areas was experimentally proved. High efficiency of microbial precipitation of soluble iron compounds was also demonstrated. Obtained results indicate the potential ability of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to influence the formation of carbon and iron vector fluxes in ecosystems, as well as development of effective biotechnologies of water purification from iron compounds. PMID:26422925

  1. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain - a comparison of those who meet criteria for fibromyalgia and those who do not.

    PubMed

    Cöster, Lars; Kendall, Sally; Gerdle, Björn; Henriksson, Chris; Henriksson, Karl G; Bengtsson, Ann

    2008-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is currently classified as chronic widespread pain with widespread allodynia to pressure pain. There are few data describing pain characteristics, quality of life, consequences for daily living, and psychosocial status in patients who meet the classification criteria for fibromyalgia proposed by the American College of Rheumatology compared with patients with chronic widespread pain but not widespread allodynia. This study used a randomly selected sample from the general population. A postal questionnaire and a pain mannequin were sent to 9952 people. The response rate was 76.7%. The pain drawings showed that 345 people had widespread pain; that is, they noted pain in all four extremities and axially. Clinical examination, which included a manual tender point examination, was performed in 125 subjects. These people answered commonly used questionnaires on pain, quality of life, coping strategies, depression, and anxiety. Compared with chronic widespread pain without widespread allodynia, fibromyalgia was associated with more severe symptoms/consequences for daily life and higher pain severity. Similar coping strategies were found. Chronic widespread pain without widespread allodynia to pressure pain was found in 4.5% in the population and fibromyalgia in 2.5%.

  2. A comparison of inbreeding depression in tropical and widespread Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    Bechsgaard, Jesper S; Hoffmann, Ary A; Sgró, Carla; Loeschcke, Volker; Bilde, Trine; Kristensen, Torsten N

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary history of widespread and specialized species is likely to cause a different genetic architecture of key ecological traits in the two species groups. This may affect how these two groups respond to inbreeding. Here we investigate inbreeding effects in traits related to performance in 5 widespread and 5 tropical restricted species of Drosophila with the aim of testing whether the two species groups suffered differently from inbreeding depression. The traits investigated were egg-to-adult viability, developmental time and resistance to heat, cold and desiccation. Our results showed that levels of inbreeding depression were species and trait specific and did not differ between the species groups for stress resistance traits. However, for the life history traits developmental time and egg-to adult viability, more inbreeding depression was observed in the tropical species. The results reported suggest that for life history traits tropical species of Drosophila will suffer more from inbreeding depression than widespread species in case of increases in the rate of inbreeding e.g. due to declines in population sizes.

  3. Evidence of widespread selection on standing variation in Europe at height-associated SNPs.

    PubMed

    Turchin, Michael C; Chiang, Charleston W K; Palmer, Cameron D; Sankararaman, Sriram; Reich, David; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2012-09-01

    Strong signatures of positive selection at newly arising genetic variants are well documented in humans(1-8), but this form of selection may not be widespread in recent human evolution(9). Because many human traits are highly polygenic and partly determined by common, ancient genetic variation, an alternative model for rapid genetic adaptation has been proposed: weak selection acting on many pre-existing (standing) genetic variants, or polygenic adaptation(10-12). By studying height, a classic polygenic trait, we demonstrate the first human signature of widespread selection on standing variation. We show that frequencies of alleles associated with increased height, both at known loci and genome wide, are systematically elevated in Northern Europeans compared with Southern Europeans (P < 4.3 × 10(-4)). This pattern mirrors intra-European height differences and is not confounded by ancestry or other ascertainment biases. The systematic frequency differences are consistent with the presence of widespread weak selection (selection coefficients ∼10(-3)-10(-5) per allele) rather than genetic drift alone (P < 10(-15)). PMID:22902787

  4. Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis Exhibit Widespread Hyperalgesia to Pressure and Cold.

    PubMed

    Moss, Penny; Knight, Emma; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Hyperalgesia to mechanical and thermal stimuli are characteristics of a range of disorders such as tennis elbow, whiplash and fibromyalgia. This study evaluated the presence of local and widespread mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in individuals with knee osteoarthritis, compared to healthy control subjects. Twenty-three subjects with knee osteoarthritis and 23 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and body mass index, were recruited for the study. Volunteers with any additional chronic pain conditions were excluded. Pain thresholds to pressure, cold and heat were tested at the knee, ipsilateral heel and ipsilateral elbow, in randomized order, using standardised methodology. Significant between-groups differences for pressure pain and cold pain thresholds were found with osteoarthritic subjects demonstrating significantly increased sensitivity to both pressure (p = .018) and cold (p = .003) stimuli, compared with controls. A similar pattern of results extended to the pain-free ipsilateral ankle and elbow indicating widespread pressure and cold hyperalgesia. No significant differences were found between groups for heat pain threshold, although correlations showed that subjects with greater sensitivity to pressure pain were also likely to be more sensitive to both cold pain and heat pain. This study found widespread elevated pain thresholds in subjects with painful knee osteoarthritis, suggesting that altered nociceptive system processing may play a role in ongoing arthritic pain for some patients. PMID:26809009

  5. Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis Exhibit Widespread Hyperalgesia to Pressure and Cold

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Penny; Knight, Emma; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Hyperalgesia to mechanical and thermal stimuli are characteristics of a range of disorders such as tennis elbow, whiplash and fibromyalgia. This study evaluated the presence of local and widespread mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in individuals with knee osteoarthritis, compared to healthy control subjects. Twenty-three subjects with knee osteoarthritis and 23 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and body mass index, were recruited for the study. Volunteers with any additional chronic pain conditions were excluded. Pain thresholds to pressure, cold and heat were tested at the knee, ipsilateral heel and ipsilateral elbow, in randomized order, using standardised methodology. Significant between-groups differences for pressure pain and cold pain thresholds were found with osteoarthritic subjects demonstrating significantly increased sensitivity to both pressure (p = .018) and cold (p = .003) stimuli, compared with controls. A similar pattern of results extended to the pain-free ipsilateral ankle and elbow indicating widespread pressure and cold hyperalgesia. No significant differences were found between groups for heat pain threshold, although correlations showed that subjects with greater sensitivity to pressure pain were also likely to be more sensitive to both cold pain and heat pain. This study found widespread elevated pain thresholds in subjects with painful knee osteoarthritis, suggesting that altered nociceptive system processing may play a role in ongoing arthritic pain for some patients. PMID:26809009

  6. Widespread inflammation in CLIPPERS syndrome indicated by autopsy and ultra-high-field 7T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Blaabjerg, Morten; Ruprecht, Klemens; Sinnecker, Tim; Kondziella, Daniel; Niendorf, Thoralf; Kerrn-Jespersen, Bjørg Morell; Lindelof, Mette; Lassmann, Hans; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Paul, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine if there is widespread inflammation in the brain of patients with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) syndrome by using histology and ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T. Methods: We performed a detailed neuropathologic examination in 4 cases, including 1 autopsy case, and studied 2 additional patients by MRI at 7.0T to examine (1) extension of inflammation to areas appearing normal on 3.0T MRI, (2) potential advantages of 7.0T MRI compared to 3.0T MRI in reflecting widespread inflammation, perivascular pathology, and axonal damage, and (3) the possibility of lymphoma. Results: In the autopsy case, perivascular inflammation dominated by CD4+ T cells was not only detected in the brainstem and cerebellum but also in brain areas with normal appearance on 3.0T MRI, including supratentorial regions and cranial nerve roots. There was no evidence of lymphoma in any of the 4 patients. The 7.0T MRI in clinical remission also revealed supratentorial lesions and perivascular pathology in vivo with contrast-enhancing lesions centered around a small venous vessel. Ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T disclosed prominent T1 hypointensities in the brainstem, which were not seen on 3.0T MRI. This corresponded to neuropathologic detection of axonal injury in the autopsy case. Conclusion: Our findings suggest more widespread perivascular inflammation and postinflammatory axonal injury in patients with CLIPPERS. PMID:27144217

  7. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  8. STOL ride quality criteria - Passenger acceptance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    The ability to mathematically model human reaction to variables involved in transportation systems offers a very desirable tool both for the prediction of passenger acceptance of proposed systems, and for establishing acceptance criteria for the system designer. As a first step in the development of a general model for STOL systems, a mathematical formulation is presented which accepts as inputs nine variables felt to be important in flight under STOL-type conditions and presents an index of human response as the output. The variables used are three linear motions, three angular motions, pressure, temperature and noise level. The results are used to establish specifications for stability augmentation systems to improve the ride quality of existing STOL aircraft.

  9. Acceptance Priority Ranking & Annual Capacity Report

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-31

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (the Act), assigns the Federal Government the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Section 302(a) of the Act authorizes the Secretary to enter into contracts with the owners and generators of commercial spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste. The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (Standard Contract) established the contractual mechanism for the Department's acceptance and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. It includes the requirements and operational responsibilities of the parties to the Standard Contract in the areas of administrative matters, fees, terms of payment, waste acceptance criteria, and waste acceptance procedures. The Standard Contract provides for the acquisition of title to the spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste by the Department, its transportation to Federal facilities, and its subsequent disposal.

  10. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  11. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  12. The Sexual Acceptability of Contraception: Reviewing the Literature and Building a New Concept.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Jenny A; Smith, Nicole K

    2016-01-01

    How contraceptives affect women's sexual well-being is critically understudied. Fortunately, a growing literature focuses on sexual aspects of contraception, especially hormonal contraception's associations with libido. However, a more holistic approach to contraceptive sexual acceptability is needed to capture the full range of women's sexual experiences. We conducted a narrative literature review of this topic, working with an original sample of 3,001 citations published from 2005 to 2015. In Part 1, we draw from a subset of this literature (264 citations) to build a new conceptual model of sexual acceptability. Aspects include macro factors (gender, social inequality, culture, and structure), relationship factors (dyadic influences and partner preferences), and individual factors (sexual functioning, sexual preferences, such as dis/inhibition, spontaneity, pleasure, the sexual aspects of side effects, such as bleeding, mood changes, sexual identity and sexual minority status, and pregnancy intentions). In Part 2, we review the empirical literature on the sexual acceptability of individual methods (103 citations), applying the model as much as possible. Results suggest contraceptives can affect women's sexuality in a wide variety of positive and negative ways that extend beyond sexual functioning alone. More attention to sexual acceptability could promote both women's sexual well-being and more widespread, user-friendly contraceptive practices. PMID:26954608

  13. The Sexual Acceptability of Contraception: Reviewing the Literature and Building a New Concept

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Smith, Nicole K.

    2016-01-01

    How contraceptives affect women’s sexual well-being is critically understudied. Fortunately, a growing literature focuses on sexual aspects of contraception, especially hormonal contraception’s associations with libido. However, a more holistic approach to contraceptive sexual acceptability is needed to capture the full range of women’s sexual experiences. We conducted a narrative literature review of this topic, working with an original sample of 3,001 citations published from 2005 to 2015. In Part 1, we draw from a subset of this literature (264 citations) to build a new conceptual model of sexual acceptability. Aspects include macro factors (gender, social inequality, culture, and structure), relationship factors (dyadic influences and partner preferences), and individual factors (sexual functioning, sexual preferences, such as dis/inhibition, spontaneity, pleasure, the sexual aspects of side effects, such as bleeding, mood changes, sexual identity and sexual minority status, and pregnancy intentions). In Part 2, we review the empirical literature on the sexual acceptability of individual methods (103 citations), applying the model as much as possible. Results suggest contraceptives can affect women’s sexuality in a wide variety of positive and negative ways that extend beyond sexual functioning alone. More attention to sexual acceptability could promote both women’s sexual well-being and more widespread, user-friendly contraceptive practices. PMID:26954608

  14. [Could infant euthanasia be ever acceptable?].

    PubMed

    Beca, J P; Leiva, A

    2014-10-01

    The recent enactment of a law that allows infant euthanasia in Belgium raises questions with varied answers. To contribute to a better understanding of the topic, euthanasia and legislation concepts are described. After a bioethical analysis, we propose as conclusion that children euthanasia could only be acceptable in very exceptional situations in which palliative measures have failed. The answer should be that it is not acceptable in our setting, not until we have public policies, protocols and palliative care services for terminally ill children.

  15. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  16. Establishment of a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mouse strain for widespread and temporal genetic modification in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Ichise, Hirotake; Hori, Akiko; Shiozawa, Seiji; Kondo, Saki; Kanegae, Yumi; Saito, Izumu; Ichise, Taeko; Yoshida, Nobuaki

    2016-07-29

    Temporal genetic modification of mice using the ligand-inducible Cre/loxP system is an important technique that allows the bypass of embryonic lethal phenotypes and access to adult phenotypes. In this study, we generated a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mouse strain for the purpose of widespread and temporal Cre recombination. The new line, named CM32, expresses the GFPneo-fusion gene in a wide variety of tissues before FLP recombination and tamoxifen-inducible Cre after FLP recombination. Using FLP-recombined CM32 mice (CM32Δ mice) and Cre reporter mouse lines, we evaluated the efficiency of Cre recombination with and without tamoxifen administration to adult mice, and found tamoxifen-dependent induction of Cre recombination in a variety of adult tissues. In addition, we demonstrated that conditional activation of an oncogene could be achieved in adults using CM32Δ mice. CM32Δ;T26 mice, which harbored a Cre recombination-driven, SV40 large T antigen-expressing transgene, were viable and fertile. No overt phenotype was found in the mice up to 3 months after birth. Although they displayed pineoblastomas (pinealoblastomas) and/or thymic enlargement due to background Cre recombination by 6 months after birth, they developed epidermal hyperplasia when administered tamoxifen. Collectively, our results suggest that the CM32Δ transgenic mouse line can be applied to the assessment of adult phenotypes in mice with loxP-flanked transgenes.

  17. Establishment of a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mouse strain for widespread and temporal genetic modification in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Ichise, Hirotake; Hori, Akiko; Shiozawa, Seiji; Kondo, Saki; Kanegae, Yumi; Saito, Izumu; Ichise, Taeko; Yoshida, Nobuaki

    2016-01-01

    Temporal genetic modification of mice using the ligand-inducible Cre/loxP system is an important technique that allows the bypass of embryonic lethal phenotypes and access to adult phenotypes. In this study, we generated a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mouse strain for the purpose of widespread and temporal Cre recombination. The new line, named CM32, expresses the GFPneo-fusion gene in a wide variety of tissues before FLP recombination and tamoxifen-inducible Cre after FLP recombination. Using FLP-recombined CM32 mice (CM32Δ mice) and Cre reporter mouse lines, we evaluated the efficiency of Cre recombination with and without tamoxifen administration to adult mice, and found tamoxifen-dependent induction of Cre recombination in a variety of adult tissues. In addition, we demonstrated that conditional activation of an oncogene could be achieved in adults using CM32Δ mice. CM32Δ;T26 mice, which harbored a Cre recombination-driven, SV40 large T antigen-expressing transgene, were viable and fertile. No overt phenotype was found in the mice up to 3 months after birth. Although they displayed pineoblastomas (pinealoblastomas) and/or thymic enlargement due to background Cre recombination by 6 months after birth, they developed epidermal hyperplasia when administered tamoxifen. Collectively, our results suggest that the CM32Δ transgenic mouse line can be applied to the assessment of adult phenotypes in mice with loxP-flanked transgenes. PMID:26923756

  18. Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Jernelöv, Susanna; Fredrikson, Mats; McCracken, Lance M.; Kaldo, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales “Activity Engagement” and “Willingness”, is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia. Citation: Bothelius K, Jernelöv S, Fredrikson M, McCracken LM, Kaldo V. Measuring acceptance of sleep difficulties: the development of the sleep problem acceptance questionnaire. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1815–1822. PMID:26085302

  19. A Simple Widespread Computer Help Improves Nutrition Support Orders and Decreases Infection Complications in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Conseil, Mathieu; Carr, Julie; Molinari, Nicolas; Coisel, Yannaël; Cissé, Moussa; Belafia, Fouad; Delay, Jean-Marc; Jung, Boris; Jaber, Samir; Chanques, Gérald

    2013-01-01

    Aims To assess the impact of a simple computer-based decision-support system (computer help) on the quality of nutrition support orders and patients' outcome in Intensive-Care Unit (ICU). Methods This quality-improvement study was carried out in a 16-bed medical-surgical ICU in a French university hospital. All consecutive patients who stayed in ICU more than 10 days with non-oral feeding for more than 5 days were retrospectively included during two 12-month periods. Prescriptions of nutrition support were collected and compared to French national guidelines as a quality-improvement process. A computer help was constructed using a simple Excel-sheet (MicrosoftTM) to guide physicians' prescriptions according to guidelines. This computer help was displayed in computers previously used for medical orders. Physicians were informed but no systematic protocol was implemented. Patients included during the first (control group) and second period (computer help group) were compared for achievement of nutrition goals and ICU outcomes. Results The control and computer help groups respectively included 71 and 95 patients. Patients' characteristics were not significantly different between groups. In the computer help group, prescriptions achieved significantly more often 80% of nutrition goals for calorie (45% vs. 79% p<0.001) and nitrogen intake (3% vs. 37%, p<0.001). Incidence of nosocomial infections decreased significantly between the two groups (59% vs. 41%, p = 0.03). Mortality did not significantly differ between control (21%) and computer help groups (15%, p = 0.30). Conclusions Use of a widespread inexpensive computer help is associated with significant improvements in nutrition support orders and decreased nosocomial infections in ICU patients. This computer-help is provided in electronic supplement. PMID:23737948

  20. Critical information literacy as core skill for lifelong STEM learning in the 21st century: reflections on the desirability and feasibility for widespread science media education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storksdieck, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Grace Reid and the late Stephen Norris argue in this issue the urgent need for widespread Science Media Education (SME) as an integral part of formal and informal science education. SME is to achieve two goals: First, allow learners to critically evaluate any media as a source for scientific information by understanding the socio-economic and socio-cultural context of how and why news and entertainment media are created, and secondly, utilize media as a legitimate and productive source for science education and science learning. While laudable, I will argue that SME as an integral part of STEM education is unrealistic, and offer instead that the broader concept of Information Literacy might be more easily achieved within the current strong movement to conceptualize STEM education via science and engineering practices and within the broad goals of strengthening learners' 21st century skills.

  1. Technology Acceptance in an Academic Context: Faculty Acceptance of Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Shanan G.; Harris, Michael L.; Colaric, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors surveyed faculty from a college of business and a college of education regarding their attitudes toward online education. Results of the survey were examined to determine the degree to which the technology acceptance model was able to adequately explain faculty acceptance of online education. Results indicate that perceived usefulness…

  2. Measuring Technology Acceptance Level of Turkish Pre-Service English Teachers by Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmizi, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate technology acceptance of prospective English teachers by using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in Turkish context. The study is based on Structural Equation Model (SEM). The participants of the study from English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe, Gazi and Baskent Universities. The participants…

  3. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  4. It Takes a School: Exploring the Relationship between Professional Learning Communities and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Harm, Eian; Croft, Glen; McClay, Kerry; Ennis, Kimberly; Winslow, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) are a widespread phenomenon in K-12 education, as they are perceived as a mechanism for enhancing teacher effectiveness and, therefore, student achievement. However, there is a dearth of empirical research on PLCs--particularly, the primary focus that the communities take, teachers' perceptions and…

  5. Measuring Longevity Achievements under Welfare Interdependencies: A Case for Joint Life Expectancy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponthiere, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Whereas period life expectancy constitutes an intuitive indicator of the survival conditions prevailing at a particular period, this paper argues that, given the existence of welfare interdependencies, that widespread indicator is nonetheless an incomplete measure of the longevity achievements relevant for human well-being. The central importance…

  6. Cognitive Achievements in Identification Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Bogner, Franz X.

    2006-01-01

    Species identification tasks are generally accepted as fundamental aspects of biodiversity education. Our educational training unit, therefore, focused on identification skills by introducing stuffed specimens in combination with identification books and preparation booklets. We limited the number of bird species to six. 492 secondary school…

  7. 48 CFR 1311.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 1311.103 Section 1311.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 1311.103...

  8. 48 CFR 1311.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 1311.103 Section 1311.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 1311.103...

  9. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 811.103...

  10. 48 CFR 2811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Market acceptance. 2811.103 Section 2811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Competition and Acquisition Planning DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 2811.103 Market...

  11. 48 CFR 611.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 611.103 Section 611.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 611.103 Market...

  12. 48 CFR 2811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2811.103 Section 2811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 2811.103...

  13. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 811.103...

  14. 48 CFR 1011.103 - Market Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market Acceptance. 1011.103 Section 1011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 1011.103...

  15. 48 CFR 611.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 611.103 Section 611.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 611.103 Market...

  16. 7 CFR 922.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 922.25 Section 922.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  17. 7 CFR 922.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 922.25 Section 922.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  18. 7 CFR 922.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 922.25 Section 922.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  19. 7 CFR 922.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 922.25 Section 922.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  20. 7 CFR 922.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 922.25 Section 922.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  1. Examining Social Acceptance & Rejection. FPG Snapshot #44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This FPG Snapshot summarizes the findings of a study, published in the November 2006 issue of the "Journal of Educational Psychology," that examined whether children with disabilities are accepted or rejected by their classmates in inclusive classrooms. Specifically, the study examined two sets of related questions: (1) Are individual children…

  2. 7 CFR 955.24 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 955.24 Section 955.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  3. 7 CFR 955.24 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 955.24 Section 955.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 955.24 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 955.24 Section 955.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 955.24 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 955.24 Section 955.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  6. 7 CFR 955.24 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 955.24 Section 955.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  7. Obstacles to ubiquity: EDI's slow acceptance.

    PubMed

    Cupito, M C

    1998-03-01

    Few dispute the potential benefits of electronic movement of claim, referral, eligibility and outcomes information. But why hasn't acceptance been swifter? And when will EDI finally replace paper and telephones as the tool of choice for doing business? PMID:10178735

  8. Generator acceptance test and inspection report

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, B.R.

    1997-07-24

    This Acceptance Test Report(ATR) is the completed testing and inspection of the new portable generator. The testing and inspection is to verify that the generator provided by the vendor meets the requirements of specification WHC-S-0252, Revision 2. Attached is various other documentation to support the inspection and testing.

  9. Textbook Websites: User Technology Acceptance Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Gregory A.; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2011-01-01

    Compared with course management software (e.g. Blackboard and WebCT), the content and technology offered by a textbook website (TBW) is relatively costless to universities and professors, and is a potentially valuable tool that can be leveraged to help students learn course material. The present study uses the extended Technology Acceptance Model…

  10. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mary-Louise; Loria, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health. Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted. Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use. Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide. PMID:21289860

  11. Evolving an acceptable nuclear power fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1986-10-01

    The following issues are examined: long-term safe nuclear power plant operation; acceptable nuclear waste management and, mainly, high-level waste management; and provision for long-term fissile fuel supply in a long-term nuclear fission economy. (LM)

  12. 7 CFR 915.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 915.25 Section 915.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  13. 40 CFR 600.007 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle acceptability. 600.007 Section 600.007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.007...

  14. 40 CFR 600.007 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle acceptability. 600.007 Section 600.007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.007...

  15. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar.

  16. Design of Large Momentum Acceptance Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Douglas

    2005-05-01

    The use of energy recovery to enable high power linac operation often gives rise to an attendant challenge--the transport of high power beams subtending large phase space volumes. In particular applications--such as FEL driver accelerators--this manifests itself as a requirement for beam transport systems with large momentum acceptance. We will discuss the design, implementation, and operation of such systems. Though at times counterintuitive in behavior (perturbative descriptions may, for example, be misleading), large acceptance systems have been successfully utilized for generations as spectrometers and accelerator recirculators [1]. Such systems are in fact often readily designed using appropriate geometric descriptions of beam behavior; insight provided using such a perspective may in addition reveal inherent symmetries that simplify construction and improve operability. Our discussion will focus on two examples: the Bates-clone recirculator used in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR U pgrade FEL (which has an observed acceptance of 10% or more) and a compaction-managed mirror-bend achromat concept with an acceptance ranging from 50 to 150 MeV.

  17. Acceptance test report: Backup power system

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.B.

    1996-01-26

    Acceptance Test Report for construction functional testing of Project W-030 Backup Power System. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. Backup power includes a single 125 KW diesel generator, three 10-kva uninterruptible power supply units, and all necessary control.

  18. 40 CFR 600.007 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a different maximum value for electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell... 600.007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Administrator will judge the acceptability of a fuel economy data vehicle on the basis of the...

  19. FBC: Gaining acceptance. [Fluidized Bed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Gawlicki, S.M.

    1991-04-01

    This article addresses the growing acceptance of fluidized bed combustion as a technology appropriate for use in dual-purpose power plants. The article reviews projects for cogeneration in California, a demonstration plant sponsored by the US Department of Energy in Ohio (this plant also incorporates combined cycle operation), and an electric power/greenhouse project in Pennsylvania.

  20. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  2. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  3. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  4. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  6. 7 CFR 930.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 930.26 Section 930.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  7. 7 CFR 930.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 930.26 Section 930.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  8. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  9. 7 CFR 930.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 930.26 Section 930.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  10. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  11. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  12. Review of Recent Treatment Acceptability Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2007-01-01

    With recent increases in the use of positive approaches to treatment for individuals with developmental disabilities, it seems appropriate to review the variables that have been found to influence the acceptability of various treatments. Programmatic treatments for problematic behaviors that incorporate primarily positive (reinforcement)…

  13. School Choice Acceptance: An Exploratory Explication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koven, Steven G.; Khan, Mobin

    2014-01-01

    School choice is presented by some as a panacea to the challenges facing education in the United States. Acceptance of choice as a solution, however, is far from universal. This article examines two possible contributors to choice adoption: ideology and political culture. Political culture was found to better explain the complex phenomenon of…

  14. Treatment Acceptability among Mexican American Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Spendlove, Stuart J.; Pemberton, Joy R.

    2007-01-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for…

  15. 7 CFR 915.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 915.25 Section 915.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  16. 37 CFR 1.803 - Acceptable depository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptable depository. 1.803 Section 1.803 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  17. 37 CFR 1.803 - Acceptable depository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acceptable depository. 1.803 Section 1.803 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  18. 37 CFR 1.803 - Acceptable depository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptable depository. 1.803 Section 1.803 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  19. 37 CFR 1.803 - Acceptable depository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptable depository. 1.803 Section 1.803 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  20. 37 CFR 1.803 - Acceptable depository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptable depository. 1.803 Section 1.803 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  1. Emperical Tests of Acceptance Sampling Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Preston, Jr.; Johnson, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance sampling is a quality control procedure applied as an alternative to 100% inspection. A random sample of items is drawn from a lot to determine the fraction of items which have a required quality characteristic. Both the number of items to be inspected and the criterion for determining conformance of the lot to the requirement are given by an appropriate sampling plan with specified risks of Type I and Type II sampling errors. In this paper, we present the results of empirical tests of the accuracy of selected sampling plans reported in the literature. These plans are for measureable quality characteristics which are known have either binomial, exponential, normal, gamma, Weibull, inverse Gaussian, or Poisson distributions. In the main, results support the accepted wisdom that variables acceptance plans are superior to attributes (binomial) acceptance plans, in the sense that these provide comparable protection against risks at reduced sampling cost. For the Gaussian and Weibull plans, however, there are ranges of the shape parameters for which the required sample sizes are in fact larger than the corresponding attributes plans, dramatically so for instances of large skew. Tests further confirm that the published inverse-Gaussian (IG) plan is flawed, as reported by White and Johnson (2011).

  2. Workaholism, Health, and Self-Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Christine M.; Zhang, Naijian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between workaholism, perceived parental workaholism, self-acceptance, psychological well-being, and physical symptoms among 347 college students. Statistically significant relationships were found between college students' perceived parental workaholism and their own workaholism. Also, relationships between…

  3. 7 CFR 929.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 929.25 Section 929.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  4. 7 CFR 929.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 929.25 Section 929.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  5. 7 CFR 929.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 929.25 Section 929.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  6. 7 CFR 929.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 929.25 Section 929.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  7. 7 CFR 929.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 929.25 Section 929.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  8. 7 CFR 966.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 966.29 Section 966.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  9. 7 CFR 966.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 966.29 Section 966.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  10. 7 CFR 966.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 966.29 Section 966.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  11. 7 CFR 966.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 966.29 Section 966.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  12. 7 CFR 966.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 966.29 Section 966.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  13. 7 CFR 915.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 915.25 Section 915.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  14. 7 CFR 989.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 989.32 Section 989.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  15. 7 CFR 925.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 925.25 Section 925.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  16. 7 CFR 925.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 925.25 Section 925.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  17. 7 CFR 925.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 925.25 Section 925.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  18. 7 CFR 925.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 925.25 Section 925.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  19. 7 CFR 989.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 989.32 Section 989.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  20. 7 CFR 989.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 989.32 Section 989.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  1. 7 CFR 925.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 925.25 Section 925.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  2. Void fraction instrument acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, K.L.

    1994-09-15

    This acceptance test procedure (ATP) was written to test the void fraction instrument (VFI) and verify that the unit is ready for field service. The procedure verifies that the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed in the software ATP) and software alarms are operating as designed.

  3. 7 CFR 920.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 920.25 Section 920.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 920.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 920.25 Section 920.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 920.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 920.25 Section 920.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  6. 7 CFR 920.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 920.25 Section 920.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  7. 7 CFR 920.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 920.25 Section 920.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  8. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  10. Risk comparisons, conflict, and risk acceptability claims.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2004-02-01

    Despite many claims for and against the use of risk comparisons in risk communication, few empirical studies have explored their effect. Even fewer have examined the public's relative preferences among different kinds of risk comparisons. Two studies, published in this journal in 1990 and 2003, used seven measures of "acceptability" to examine public reaction to 14 examples of risk comparisons, as used by a hypothetical factory manager to explain risks of his ethylene oxide plant. This study examined the effect on preferences of scenarios involving low or high conflict between the factory manager and residents of the hypothetical town (as had the 2003 study), and inclusion of a claim that the comparison demonstrated the risks' acceptability. It also tested the Finucane et al. (2000) affect hypothesis that information emphasizing low risks-as in these risk comparisons-would raise benefits estimates without changing risk estimates. Using similar but revised scenarios, risk comparison examples (10 instead of 14), and evaluation measures, an opportunity sample of 303 New Jersey residents rated the comparisons, and the risks and benefits of the factory. On average, all comparisons received positive ratings on all evaluation measures in all conditions. Direct and indirect measures showed that the conflict manipulation worked; overall, No-Conflict and Conflict scenarios evoked scores that were not significantly different. The attachment to each risk comparison of a risk acceptability claim ("So our factory's risks should be acceptable to you.") did not worsen ratings relative to conditions lacking this claim. Readers who did or did not see this claim were equally likely to infer an attempt to persuade them to accept the risk from the comparison. As in the 2003 article, there was great individual variability in inferred rankings of the risk comparisons. However, exposure to the risk comparisons did not reduce risk estimates significantly (while raising benefit estimates

  11. A proposed model of factors influencing hydrogen fuel cell vehicle acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanina, N. H. Noor; Kwe Lu, Tan; Fadhilah, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Issues such as environmental problem and energy insecurity keep worsening as a result of energy use from household to huge industries including automotive industry. Recently, a new type of zero emission vehicle, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV) has received attention. Although there are argues on the feasibility of hydrogen as the future fuel, there is another important issue, which is the acceptance of HFCV. The study of technology acceptance in the early stage is a vital key for a successful introduction and penetration of a technology. This paper proposes a model of factors influencing green vehicle acceptance, specifically HFCV. This model is built base on two technology acceptance theories and other empirical studies of vehicle acceptance. It aims to provide a base for finding the key factors influencing new sustainable energy fuelled vehicle, HFCV acceptance which is achieved by explaining intention to accept HFCV. Intention is influenced by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control from Theory of Planned Behaviour and personal norm from Norm Activation Theory. In the framework, attitude is influenced by perceptions of benefits and risks, and social trust. Perceived behavioural control is influenced by government interventions. Personal norm is influenced by outcome efficacy and problem awareness.

  12. Cultural Adaptation of a Nutrition Education Curriculum for Latino Families to Promote Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broyles, Shelia L.; Brennan, Jesse J.; Burke, Kari Herzog; Kozo, Justine; Taras, Howard L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this GEM is to describe how an existing nutrition education program--Nutrition Education Aimed at Toddlers, was adapted for Latino Families to achieve a good fit by considering several components--both surface and deep structure characteristics of culture, and report indicators of its acceptability. (Contains 1 table.)

  13. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  14. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  15. Drought characteristics' role in widespread aspen forest mortality across Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, Leander D L; Anderegg, William R L; Abatzoglou, John; Hausladen, Alexandra M; Berry, Joseph A

    2013-05-01

    Globally documented widespread drought-induced forest mortality has important ramifications for plant community structure, ecosystem function, and the ecosystem services provided by forests. Yet the characteristics of drought seasonality, severity, and duration that trigger mortality events have received little attention despite evidence of changing precipitation regimes, shifting snow melt timing, and increasing temperature stress. This study draws upon stand level ecohydrology and statewide climate and spatial analysis to examine the drought characteristics implicated in the recent widespread mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). We used isotopic observations of aspen xylem sap to determine water source use during natural and experimental drought in a region that experienced high tree mortality. We then drew upon multiple sources of climate data to characterize the drought that triggered aspen mortality. Finally, regression analysis was used to examine the drought characteristics most associated with the spatial patterns of aspen mortality across Colorado. Isotopic analysis indicated that aspens generally utilize shallow soil moisture with little plasticity during drought stress. Climate analysis showed that the mortality-inciting drought was unprecedented in the observational record, especially in 2002 growing season temperature and evaporative deficit, resulting in record low shallow soil moisture reserves. High 2002 summer temperature and low shallow soil moisture were most associated with the spatial patterns of aspen mortality. These results suggest that the 2002 drought subjected Colorado aspens to the most extreme growing season water stress of the past century by creating high atmospheric moisture demand and depleting the shallow soil moisture upon which aspens rely. Our findings highlight the important role of drought characteristics in mediating widespread aspen forest mortality, link this aspen die-off to regional climate change

  16. Drought characteristics drive patterns in widespread aspen forest mortality across the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, W.; Anderegg, L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Berry, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread drought-induced forest mortality has been documented across the globe in the last few decades and influences land-atmosphere interactions, biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and biophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to climate change. These rapid mortality events are currently not well-captured in current vegetation models, limiting the ability to predict them. While many studies have focused on the plant physiological mechanisms that mediate vegetation mortality, the characteristics of drought seasonality, sequence, severity and duration that drive mortality events have received much less attention. These characteristics are particularly relevant in light of changing precipitation regimes, changes to snowpack and snowmelt, and increasing temperature stress associated with climate change. We examine the characteristics of drought associated with the recent widespread mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) across much of the western United States. We combine a regional model of watershed-level aspen mortality with in situ tissue isotopic analysis of water source to analyze the roles of drought seasonality, severity, and duration in this mortality event, including raw climate variables, derived drought indices, and variables generated by a climate envelope approach. We found that variables pertaining to spring temperatures and spring-summer water deficit, especially during the peak severity of drought, best capture regional mortality patterns, though multi-year drought variables did improve the model. Field water isotopic analysis of aspen water source over a growing season and during moderate seasonal water stress corroborate the regional model by indicating that aspen clones generally utilize surface water with little plasticity during drought stress. These results suggest that drought characteristics can play an important role in mediating widespread forest mortality and have implications for the future vulnerability of trembling aspen

  17. Widespread Changes in White Matter Microstructure after a Day of Waking and Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Norbom, Linn B.; Pedersen, Per Ø.; Quraishi, Sophia H.; Bjørnerud, Atle; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groote, Inge R.; Westlye, Lars T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Elucidating the neurobiological effects of sleep and waking remains an important goal of the neurosciences. Recently, animal studies indicated that sleep is important for cell membrane and myelin maintenance in the brain and that these structures are particularly susceptible to insufficient sleep. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a day of waking and sleep deprivation would be associated with changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices of white matter microstructure sensitive to axonal membrane and myelin alterations. Methods Twenty-one healthy adult males underwent DTI in the morning [7:30AM; time point (TP)1], after 14 hours of waking (TP2), and then after another 9 hours of waking (TP3). Whole brain voxel-wise analysis was performed with tract based spatial statistics. Results A day of waking was associated with widespread increases in white matter fractional anisotropy, which were mainly driven by radial diffusivity reductions, and sleep deprivation was associated with widespread fractional anisotropy decreases, which were mainly explained by reductions in axial diffusivity. In addition, larger decreases in axial diffusivity after sleep deprivation were associated with greater sleepiness. All DTI changes remained significant after adjusting for hydration measures. Conclusions This is the first DTI study of sleep deprivation in humans. Although previous studies have observed localized changes in DTI indices of cerebral microstructure over the course of a few hours, further studies are needed to confirm widespread DTI changes within hours of waking and to clarify whether such changes in white matter microstructure serve as neurobiological substrates of sleepiness. PMID:26020651

  18. Evidence of Small-Fiber Polyneuropathy in Unexplained, Juvenile-Onset, Widespread Pain Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Max M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that acquired small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), previously uncharacterized in children, contributes to unexplained pediatric widespread pain syndromes. METHODS: Forty-one consecutive patients evaluated for unexplained widespread pain beginning before age 21 had medical records comprehensively analyzed regarding objective diagnostic testing for SFPN (neurodiagnostic skin biopsy, nerve biopsy, and autonomic function testing), plus histories, symptoms, signs, other tests, and treatments. Healthy, demographically matched volunteers provided normal controls for SFPN tests. RESULTS: Age at illness onset averaged 12.3 ± 5.7 years; 73% among this poly-ethnic sample were female (P = .001). Sixty-eight percent were chronically disabled, and 68% had hospitalizations. Objective testing diagnosed definite SFPN in 59%, probable SFPN in 17%, and possible SFPN in 22%. Only 1 of 41 had entirely normal SFPN test results. Ninety-eight percent of patients had other somatic complaints consistent with SFPN dysautonomia (90% cardiovascular, 82% gastrointestinal, and 34% urologic), 83% reported chronic fatigue, and 63% had chronic headache. Neurologic examinations identified reduced sensation in 68% and vasomotor abnormalities in 55%, including 23% with erythromelalgia. Exhaustive investigations for SFPN causality identified only history of autoimmune illnesses in 33% and serologic markers of disordered immunity in 89%. Treatment with corticosteroids and/or intravenous immune globulin objectively and subjectively benefited 80% of patients (12/15). CONCLUSIONS: More than half among a large series of patients with childhood-onset, unexplained chronic widespread pain met rigorous, multitest, diagnostic criteria for SFPN, which extends the age range of acquired SFPN into early childhood. Some cases appeared immune-mediated and improved with immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:23478869

  19. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-05-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety.

  20. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety. PMID:26018957

  1. Genomoviridae: a new family of widespread single-stranded DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Krupovic, Mart; Ghabrial, Said A; Jiang, Daohong; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-09-01

    Here, we introduce a new family of eukaryote-infecting single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses that was created recently by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The family, named Genomoviridae, contains a single genus, Gemycircularvirus, which currently has one recognized virus species, Sclerotinia gemycircularvirus 1. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1 (SsHADV-1) is currently the sole representative isolate of the family; however, a great number of SsHADV-1-like ssDNA virus genomes has been sequenced from various environmental, plant- and animal-associated samples, indicating that members of family Genomoviridae are widespread and abundant in the environment. PMID:27343045

  2. Widespread Rift Valley Fever Emergence in Senegal in 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Diallo, Diawo; Fall, Gamou; Faye, Oumar; Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Richard, Vincent; Dia, Anta Tal; Diallo, Mawlouth; Malvy, Denis; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), which caused epizootics and epidemics among human and livestock populations, occurred in Senegal in 2013–2014. A multidisciplinary field investigation was carried out in 3 regions of Senegal. We found 11 confirmed human cases of Rift Valley fever, including severe cases with encephalitis and retinitis, 1 pool of mosquito (Aedes ochraceus), and 52 animals tested positive for the disease. Symptoms such as encephalitis and macular retinitis were the most severe cases reported so far in Senegal. The outbreak was widespread due to animals' movements, leading to the largest RVF outbreak in Senegal in terms of geographic spreading and reaching areas that never reported RVF activity previously. PMID:27704007

  3. Widespread Recurrence 7 Years after Radical Abdominal Trachelectomy for Early Cervical Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salman, M. Coskun; Ozgul, Nejat; Yuce, Kunter

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide and the use of routine screening resulted in earlier stage and younger age at diagnosis. Fertility preservation via radical trachelectomy comes up as an option in such patients. Recent literature reviews confirm the safety of this operation with excellent oncologic outcomes in appropriately chosen patients. However, recurrent disease is likely and a strict follow-up is recommended to detect recurrences at an early stage following radical trachelectomy. In this report, a case who underwent radical trachelectomy and developed widespread recurrences 7 years after initial surgery possibly due to the lack of oncologic follow-up is discussed. PMID:25918655

  4. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  5. Group-based citizenship in the acceptance of indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Catherine M; Munguambe, Khátia; Pool, Robert

    2010-05-01

    In 2006, the Mozambican Ministry of Health expanded its existing Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) programme into Manhiça District in the south of the country. Widespread household coverage is required to have a significant impact on malaria transmission, making acceptability fundamental to success. Between 2006 and 2008 we conducted anthropological research in order to understand acceptability of IRS in the context of the implementation process, policy debates, local and regional politics and historical processes. In the first phase of this qualitative study, conducted between January and April 2006, 73 interviews and 12 focus groups were conducted with key stakeholders from 14 locales in and around the town of Manhiça: householders, community leaders, health care professionals, sprayers, and District officials. Analysis revealed IRS to be broadly acceptable despite very low levels of perceived efficacy and duration of effect. In contrast to previous studies which have linked acceptance to a reduction in mosquitoes, nuisance biting and malaria, we found people's compliance with the programme to be founded on a sense of group-based citizenship. The involvement of local governmental leaders in the intervention appears to have led many to accept spraying as part of their civic duty, as decreed by post-war decentralisation policy in rural areas. We discuss the implications of this 'passive' form of compliance for the acceptability and sustainability of malaria control and other public health programmes.

  6. Designing a multipurpose technology for acceptability and adherence

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Elizabeth E.; Morrow, Kathleen M.; Owen, Derek H.

    2015-01-01

    Multipurpose Prevention Technologies (MPTs) are new tools aimed at reducing or preventing multiple and overlapping sexual and reproductive health risks faced by women and couples around the globe. While MPTs could prove more acceptable and easier to adhere to than single-purpose prevention products, continuing high rates of HIV and unintended pregnancy remind us that these new products will need to be efficacious, acceptable and effectively used to achieve a public health impact. In this paper, we describe how a range of research methods can be applied during the pre-clinical phase of product development to inform decisions related to formulation and vehicle or product delivery mechanisms, and consider how choices in product-related characteristics may influence future demand for, delivery and use of future products. We draw on examples from the development of new single-purpose HIV and contraceptive products and then extend our discussion to the development of MPTs, including vaginal rings and injections. This article is based on a presentation at the “Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies,” held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188706

  7. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  8. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  9. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  10. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  11. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  13. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  14. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. Classroom Composition and Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    Third-grade students in high ability groups in mathematics achieved greater gains than students in low ability groups. The opposite results occurred in reading achievement. Possible reasons for this difference include different instructional techniques for reading and math and the effect of home environment on learning. (IS)

  16. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  17. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  18. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  19. Anisotropies of wide-spread solar energetic electron events observed with STEREO and ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresing, Nina; Gómez-Herrero, Raúl; Klassen, Andreas; Heber, Bernd; Malandraki, Olga; Dröge, Wolfgang; Kartavykh, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    The two STEREO spacecraft, in combination with near-Earth observatories as ACE or Wind provide three well separated viewpoints, which are perfectly suited to investigate SEP events and their longitudinal dependences. We collected a list of 21 near-relativistic wide-spread electron events in the period from 2009 to mid 2013. To be counted as a wide-spread event, we request a minimum longitudinal separation angle of 80 degrees between the source active region at the Sun and the magnetic footpoint of one spacecraft observing the event. Energetic electron anisotropies are investigated to disentangle source and transport mechanisms leading to the observed wide particle spreads. One favorable mechanism is efficient perpendicular transport in the interplanetary medium leading to vanishing anisotropies for larger separation angles. Another scenario is a large particle spread which is performed close to the Sun either due to a coronal shock or due to coronal transport. In this case, the observations at 1 AU during the early phase of the events are expected to show significant anisotropies due to the wide injection range at the Sun and particle focusing during the outwards propagation. For both of the above scenarios we find events in our sample, which suit the expected observations and even further events, which do not agree with these.

  20. Widespread horizontal gene transfer from double-stranded RNA viruses to eukaryotic nuclear genomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiquan; Fu, Yanping; Jiang, Daohong; Li, Guoqing; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Peng, Youliang; Ghabrial, Said A; Yi, Xianhong

    2010-11-01

    Horizontal gene transfer commonly occurs from cells to viruses but rarely occurs from viruses to their host cells, with the exception of retroviruses and some DNA viruses. However, extensive sequence similarity searches in public genome databases for various organisms showed that the capsid protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes from totiviruses and partitiviruses have widespread homologs in the nuclear genomes of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, arthropods, fungi, nematodes, and protozoa. PCR amplification and sequencing as well as comparative evidence of junction coverage between virus and host sequences support the conclusion that these viral homologs are real and occur in eukaryotic genomes. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggest that these genes were likely transferred horizontally from viruses to eukaryotic genomes. Furthermore, we present evidence showing that some of the transferred genes are conserved and expressed in eukaryotic organisms and suggesting that these viral genes are also functional in the recipient genomes. Our findings imply that horizontal transfer of double-stranded RNA viral genes is widespread among eukaryotes and may give rise to functionally important new genes, thus entailing that RNA viruses may play significant roles in the evolution of eukaryotes.