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Sample records for achievement challenge test

  1. Challenging Masculinities: Disability and Achievement in Testing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Shereen

    2001-01-01

    Describes a feminist project on masculinities involving boys in a special education school. These labeled, segregated boys were invested in achieving successful positioning within a culture of hegemonic masculinity. Institutional and media preoccupations with quantifiable academic attainments had reinscribed them within a world of hetero/sexist…

  2. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  3. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  4. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  5. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  6. TRANSLATIONAL PAIN RESEARCH: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jianren

    2009-01-01

    The achievements in both preclinical and clinical pain research over the past four decades have led to significant progresses in clinical pain management. However, pain research still faces enormous challenges and there remain many obstacles in the treatment of clinical pain, particularly chronic pain. Translational pain research needs to involve a number of important areas including a) bridging the gap between pain research and clinical pain management, b) developing objective pain assessment tools, c) analyzing current theories of pain mechanisms and their relevance to clinical pain, d) exploring new tools for both preclinical and clinical pain research, and e) coordinating research efforts among basic scientists, clinical investigators, and pain medicine practitioners. These issues are discussed in this article in light of the achievements and challenges of translational pain research. PMID:19628433

  7. Challenges of CPAS Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Morris, Aaron L.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown via a series of Drogue, Pilot, and Main parachutes. Because Orion is considerably larger and heavier than Apollo, many of the flight test techniques developed during the Apollo program must be modified. The Apollo program had a dedicated C-133 aircraft, which was modified to allow a simple airdrop of "boilerplate" flight test vehicles. However, the CPAS program must use either commercial or military assets with minimal modifications to airframes or procedures. Conceptual envelopes from 2-Degree Of Freedom trajectories are presented for several existing and novel architectures. Ideally, the technique would deliver a representative capsule shape to the desired altitude and dynamic pressure at test initiation. However, compromises must be made on the characteristics of trajectories or the fidelity of test articles to production hardware. Most of the tests to date have used traditional pallet and weight tub or missile-shaped test vehicles. New test vehicles are being designed to better incorporate Orion structural components and deploy parachutes in a more representative fashion. The first attempt to test a capsule-shaped vehicle failed due to unexpected events while setting up the test condition through a series of complex procedures. In order to avoid the loss of another expensive test article which will delay the program, simpler deployment methods are being examined and more positive control of the vehicle will be maintained. Existing challenges include interfacing with parent aircraft, separating test vehicles, achieving test conditions, and landing within limited test ranges. All these challenges must be met within cost and schedule limits.

  8. Pediatric oncology in Morocco: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hessissen, Laila; Madani, Abdellah

    2012-03-01

    Cancer in children is quickly becoming one of the leading causes of non traumatic death among children. In pediatric oncology, palliative care is a primary component of the cancer control plan. In low income countries also known as emerging nations or developing countries access to adequate care remains a challenge for most pediatric oncology patients. In Morocco the situation has dramatically improved in the last few years as both the government and NGOs have become more aware of the importance and urgency of the issue. The incidence of cancer in patients under 15 years of age in Morocco is estimated to be 1000 new cases per year and the incidence of leukemia to be 100 new cases diagnosed per year. Pediatric cancer patients are mostly managed by public hospitals. Thus they are highly influenced by the Moroccan public health system, which is now considering cancer management a priority. Since health cover is very limited, most chemotherapy drugs were purchased by local parent associations. Recently, a new large Moroccan NGO (ALSC) provides anti-cancer drugs to all government-run oncology units. Despite all the progress, Morocco has witnessed in the pediatric oncology field, the palliative aspect of the care is not yet organized. Pediatric oncology is supported by the work of the National Society of Pediatric Oncolgy. The opioide therapy is available. However its use is strongly limited by the current restrictive and obsolete legislation which represents a major barrier to care. Despite the latest progress, pediatric oncology in Morocco still needs to improve in order to achieve performances comparable to those of the developed world. These improvements include better survival rates, less treatment abandonment, developing new techniques, improving quality of life and creating data collection teams. In order for this action to succeed all the stakeholders (government, NGOs, medical societies, oncology teams) must work together and coordinate their efforts.

  9. The Challenge to Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassie, J. R. Bruce

    1977-01-01

    Critics of testing have raised relevant issues about the use of tests. Most concerns relate to abuses made in construction, selection, administration, scoring, and interpretation of standardized tests. The educator could respond by deciding not to use tests. Unfortunately, this cure would be worse than the disease itself. (Author)

  10. Radon Policy in Finland, Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Arvela, Hannu; Maekelaeinen, Ilona; Reisbacka, Heikki

    2008-08-07

    Finland is a country of high indoor radon concentrations. Since 1980 the authority regulations, guidance, radon mapping and research work supporting decision making have been developed continuously. Clear regulations directed to citizens and authorities form the basis for radon policy. Active mapping work and measurement ordered by private home owners has resulted in 100.000 houses measured. National indoor radon data base forms a good basis for decision making, communication and research. The number of new houses provided with radon preventive constructions has increased remarkably. New radon campaigns has increased measurement and mitigation activity. Furher increasing of public awareness is the key challenge.

  11. Liver transplantation at KFSHRC: achievement and challenges.

    PubMed

    Al, Mohammed I; Abaalkhail, Faisal A; Bahili, Hamad Al; Abdo, Almoutaz Hashim; Elsiesy, Hussein A; Al, Mohammed S; El Sheikh, Yasser M; Hegab, Bassem S; Kamel, Yasser M; AlGoufi, Talal T; Hasssan, Hazem H; Burdelski, Martin M; Al, Mohammad A; Abdelfattah, Mohamed R; Attallah, Khaled M; Mahmood, Talat Z; Saleh, Yahya Z; Eldeen, Firas Zahr; Broering, Dieter C

    2014-01-01

    The liver transplantation program at KFSHRC has been active since 2001. More than 450 liver transplants have been performed so far. The program evolved from adult cadaveric transplant to living donor and recently to pediatric and split techniques. The 1-year survival of patients for both pediatric and adult exceeded 90% and the 5-year survival of patients is more than 80%. Associated with this success are challenges that include: organ shortage, quality of organ harvested, inability to meet the growing national need, increased demand of resource to meet the need of the program, and lack of a collaborative national strategy in organ donation and transplantation. PMID:24894777

  12. Challenges in Achieving Trajectory-Based Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cate, Karen Tung

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years much of the global ATM research community has proposed advanced systems based on Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO). The concept of TBO uses four-dimensional aircraft trajectories as the base information for managing safety and capacity. Both the US and European advanced ATM programs call for the sharing of trajectory data across different decision support tools for successful operations. However, the actual integration of TBO systems presents many challenges. Trajectory predictors are built to meet the specific needs of a particular system and are not always compatible with others. Two case studies are presented which examine the challenges of introducing a new concept into two legacy systems in regards to their trajectory prediction software. The first case describes the issues with integrating a new decision support tool with a legacy operational system which overlap in domain space. These tools perform similar functions but are driven by different requirements. The difference in the resulting trajectories can lead to conflicting advisories. The second case looks at integrating this same new tool with a legacy system originally developed as an integrated system, but diverged many years ago. Both cases illustrate how the lack of common architecture concepts for the trajectory predictors added cost and complexity to the integration efforts.

  13. Chemoinformatics: Achievements and Challenges, a Personal View.

    PubMed

    Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Chemoinformatics provides computer methods for learning from chemical data and for modeling tasks a chemist is facing. The field has evolved in the past 50 years and has substantially shaped how chemical research is performed by providing access to chemical information on a scale unattainable by traditional methods. Many physical, chemical and biological data have been predicted from structural data. For the early phases of drug design, methods have been developed that are used in all major pharmaceutical companies. However, all domains of chemistry can benefit from chemoinformatics methods; many areas that are not yet well developed, but could substantially gain from the use of chemoinformatics methods. The quality of data is of crucial importance for successful results. Computer-assisted structure elucidation and computer-assisted synthesis design have been attempted in the early years of chemoinformatics. Because of the importance of these fields to the chemist, new approaches should be made with better hardware and software techniques. Society's concern about the impact of chemicals on human health and the environment could be met by the development of methods for toxicity prediction and risk assessment. In conjunction with bioinformatics, our understanding of the events in living organisms could be deepened and, thus, novel strategies for curing diseases developed. With so many challenging tasks awaiting solutions, the future is bright for chemoinformatics. PMID:26828468

  14. Achievements and challenges of EUV mask imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, Natalia; van Setten, Eelco; de Kruif, Robert; Connolly, Brid; Fukugami, Norihito; Kodera, Yutaka; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Sakata, Yo; Kotani, Jun; Kondo, Shinpei; Imoto, Tomohiro; Rolff, Haiko; Ullrich, Albrecht; Lammers, Ad; Schiffelers, Guido; van Dijk, Joep

    2014-07-01

    The impact of various mask parameters on CDU combined in a total mask budget is presented, for 22 nm lines, for reticles used for NXE:3300 qualification. Apart from the standard mask CD measurements, actinic spectrometry of multilayer is used to qualify reflectance uniformity over the image field; advanced 3D metrology is applied for absorber profile characterization including absorber height and side wall angle. The predicted mask impact on CDU is verified using actual exposure data collected on multiple NXE:3300 scanners. Mask 3D effects are addressed, manifesting themselves in best focus shifts for different structures exposed with off-axis illumination. Experimental NXE:3300 results for 16 nm dense lines and 20 nm (semi-)isolated spaces are shown: best focus range reaches 24 nm. A mitigation strategy by absorber height optimization is proposed based on experimental results of a special mask with varying absorber heights. Further development of a black image border for EUV mask is considered. The image border is a pattern free area surrounding image field preventing exposure the image field neighborhood on wafer. Normal EUV absorber is not suitable for this purpose as it has 1-3% EUV reflectance. A current solution is etching of ML down to substrate reducing EUV reflectance to <0.05%. A next step in the development of the black border is the reduction of DUV Out-of-Band reflectance (<1.5%) in order to cope with DUV light present in EUV scanners. Promising results achieved in this direction are shown.

  15. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral.

  16. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  17. Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-01-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  18. Psychiatric genetics in China: achievements and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Thomas G.; Burmeister, Margit; Sham, Pak Chung; Yao, Yong-gang; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Chen, Chao; An, Yu; Dai, Jiapei; Yue, Weihua; Li, Miao Xin; Xue, Hong; Su, Bing; Chen, Li; Shi, Yongyong; Qiao, Mingqi; Liu, Tiebang; Xia, Kun; Chan, Raymond C.K.

    2016-01-01

    To coordinate research efforts in psychiatric genetics in China, a group of Chinese and foreign investigators have established an annual “Summit on Chinese Psychiatric Genetics” to present their latest research and discuss the current state and future directions of this field. To date, two Summits have been held, the first in Changsha in April, 2014, and the second in Kunming in April, 2015. The consensus of roundtable discussions held at these meetings is that psychiatric genetics in China is in need of new policies to promote collaborations aimed at creating a framework for genetic research appropriate for the Chinese population: relying solely on Caucasian population-based studies may result in missed opportunities to diagnose and treat psychiatric disorders. In addition, participants agree on the importance of promoting collaborations and data sharing in areas where China has especially strong resources, such as advanced facilities for non-human primate studies and traditional Chinese medicine: areas that may also provide overseas investigators with unique research opportunities. In this paper, we present an overview of the current state of psychiatric genetics research in China, with emphasis on genome-level studies, and describe challenges and opportunities for future advances, particularly at the dawn of “precision medicine.” Together, we call on administrative bodies, funding agencies, the research community, and the public at large for increased support for research on the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders in the Chinese population. In our opinion, increased public awareness and effective collaborative research hold the keys to the future of psychiatric genetics in China. PMID:26481319

  19. Longitudinal study of young children's responses to challenging achievement situations.

    PubMed

    Ziegert, D I; Kistner, J A; Castro, R; Robertson, B

    2001-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to replicate and extend Dweck's findings regarding young children's responses to challenging achievement situations. Dweck's dichotomous helplessness classification system (i.e., task choice, task choice reason) was replicated with kindergartners, n = 235 (50% male), and first graders, n = 70 (46% male). To test whether individual differences in young children's responses to challenging situations are stable over time, 1- and 5-year follow-ups of the kindergartners were conducted. On the basis of children's responses on age-appropriate behavioral tasks, a composite of cognitive, behavioral, and affective helplessness indices predicted helplessness at 1 and 5 years later, n = 114 (50% male), above and beyond kindergarten task ability and gender, p<.05. Kindergarten helplessness predicted teacher ratings of children's helplessness 5 years later as well, p<.05. The implications of these findings for early intervention are discussed. PMID:11333088

  20. Ethiopian New Public Universities: Achievements, Challenges and Illustrative Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deuren, Rita; Kahsu, Tsegazeab; Mohammed, Seid; Woldie, Wondimu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze and illustrate achievements and challenges of Ethiopian higher education, both at the system level and at the level of new public universities. Design/methodology/approach: Achievements and challenges at the system level are based on literature review and secondary data. Illustrative case studies are based on…

  1. RTPP Analysis Results: Achievements and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrotis, Loukis; Alfaro Sanz, Pedro; Svehla, Drazen; Dow, John; Zandbergen, Rene

    2010-05-01

    One of the key objectives of the IGS Real Time Pilot Project is the establishment of an experimental IGS Real Time Clock Service comprising individual Analysis Centre (AC) solutions and the investigation of strategies for generating a Real Time combination product. The latter is intended to provide a stable, reliable and high quality GNSS product. Currently there are 4 ACs (BKG, DLR, ESA and NRCan) generating individual real time products, and a fifth (GMV) that is producing a product based on one-hour predictions. This paper will cover the evolution in the accuracies of the individual solutions and will show the impact that the participation in the RTPP has had on the ACs, serving not only as an external benchmark, but also as a discussion forum that has prompted their continued evolution and improvement. In its role as RTPP AC coordinator, ESOC has been computing and disseminating a daily combination clock product since July 2008, based on daily submissions of clock RINEX and SP3 orbit files by the individual ACs. This exercise has helped to develop and validate the combination techniques and the RTPP products are stored at the CDDIS, IGN and KASI data centres with the designation "igt". The current satellite clock quality, of better than 0.2 ns RMS compared to the IGS rapids, comfortably exceeds the initial RTPP goal of 0.5 ns and gives a high confidence on the implemented method. ESOC is currently working on the implementation of a Real Time combination product, from RTCM orbit and clock streams received in real time via BKG's NTRIP system. This service is expected to be ready in the March-April timeframe and be operational by mid 2010. As well as discussing the status and evolution of the Real Time products, this paper will also focus on specific problems and challenges in the Real Time processing. For example, it has been found that GPS Block IIA satellites exhibit occasional glitches, where most receivers loose lock simultaneously. These events cause clock

  2. RESOURCE LETTER AT-1 ON ACHIEVEMENT TESTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRUGLAK, HAYM

    SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE MEASUREMENT OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN COLLEGE PHYSICS ARE PRESENTED. DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARIES INCLUDE COMPLETE CITATIONS OF PERTINENT DOCUMENTS PUBLISHED PRIOR TO 1965 AND ARE GROUPED IN CATEGORIES WHICH INCLUDE (1) BACKGROUND REFERENCES, (2) THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY IN TEST CONSTRUCTION, (3) ACHIEVEMENT TESTING, (4)…

  3. Narrowing the Achievement Gap: Perspectives and Strategies for Challenging Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas B., Ed.; Maxwell-Jolly, Julie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This timely and thoughtful book provides multiple perspectives on closing achievement gaps. Closing persistent gaps in educational outcomes between different groups of students has been a central goal of educational policy for the past forty years. The commitment to close existing achievement gaps poses an unprecedented challenge to policy makers,…

  4. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  5. Exploratory Studies of Bias in Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross; Draper, John F.

    This paper considers the question of bias in group administered academic achievement tests, bias which is inherent in the instruments themselves. A body of data on the test of performance of three disadvantaged minority groups--northern, urban black; southern, rural black; and, southwestern, Mexican-Americans--as tryout samples in contrast to…

  6. Early Childhood Education in Europe. Achievements: Challenges and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    This document is the report of a study commissioned by Education International. The aim of this study is to present key characteristics of ECE systems, to highlight strengths and successful approaches and to identify major challenges and areas where urgent action is needed. To achieve this aim, the report comprises two main sections. The first…

  7. Designing the Board's New Literature Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    1968-01-01

    This article describes the problems that the College Entrance Examination Board's Committee of Review for the Examinations in English encountered in creating a fair, objective, hour-long literature achievement test which would meet four objectives--to measure the breadth of a student's reading, his understanding of that reading, his response to…

  8. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

  9. Piagetian Tasks, Traditional Intelligence and Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, J.; Koops, W.

    1983-01-01

    Reports study which compared the value of Piagetian tasks--seriation, conservation and multiple classification--to that of traditional intelligence tests--Cattell and PMA 5 to 7 subtests--as predictors of number language, simple computation, and verbal arithmetic achievement in 312 children from kindergarten to grade 4. Fifty references are…

  10. Toward Educational Testing Reform: Inside Reading Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Dick

    2013-01-01

    The commentary (1) uses the U. S. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as a prototype for examining standardized reading achievement tests at the item level, and (2) sketches an alternative based on an initiative underway in the United Kingdom.

  11. The Impact of Challenging Geometry and Measurement Units on the Achievement of Grade 2 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Adelson, Jill L.; Firmender, Janine M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of Project M[superscript 2] was to develop and field-test challenging geometry and measurement units for all K-2 students. This article reports on the achievement results for students in Grade 2 at 12 urban and suburban sites in 4 states using the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) mathematics concepts subtest and an open-response…

  12. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  13. Achieving Equity in an Evolving Healthcare System: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joni Strom; Walker, Rebekah J; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-01-01

    For decades, disparities in health have been well documented in the United States and regrettably, remain prevalent despite evidence and appeals for their elimination. Compared with the majority, racial and ethnic minorities continue to have poorer health status and health outcomes for most chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer and end-stage renal disease. Many factors, such as affordability, access and diversity in the healthcare system, influence care and outcomes, creating challenges that make the task of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity daunting and elusive. Novel strategies are needed to bring about much needed change in the complex and evolving United States healthcare system. Although not exhaustive, opportunities such as (1) developing standardized race measurements across health systems, (2) implementing effective interventions, (3) improving workforce diversity, (4) using technological advances and (5) adopting practices such as personalized medicine may serve as appropriate starting points for moving toward health equity. Over the past several decades, diversity in the U.S. population has increased significantly and is expected to increase exponentially in the near future. As the population becomes more diverse, it is important to recognize the possibilities of new and emerging disparities. It is imperative that steps are taken to eliminate the current gap in care and prevent new disparities from developing. Therefore, we present challenges and offer recommendations for facilitating the process of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity across diverse populations.

  14. Achieving Equity in an Evolving Healthcare System: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joni Strom; Walker, Rebekah J; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-01-01

    For decades, disparities in health have been well documented in the United States and regrettably, remain prevalent despite evidence and appeals for their elimination. Compared with the majority, racial and ethnic minorities continue to have poorer health status and health outcomes for most chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer and end-stage renal disease. Many factors, such as affordability, access and diversity in the healthcare system, influence care and outcomes, creating challenges that make the task of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity daunting and elusive. Novel strategies are needed to bring about much needed change in the complex and evolving United States healthcare system. Although not exhaustive, opportunities such as (1) developing standardized race measurements across health systems, (2) implementing effective interventions, (3) improving workforce diversity, (4) using technological advances and (5) adopting practices such as personalized medicine may serve as appropriate starting points for moving toward health equity. Over the past several decades, diversity in the U.S. population has increased significantly and is expected to increase exponentially in the near future. As the population becomes more diverse, it is important to recognize the possibilities of new and emerging disparities. It is imperative that steps are taken to eliminate the current gap in care and prevent new disparities from developing. Therefore, we present challenges and offer recommendations for facilitating the process of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity across diverse populations. PMID:26802756

  15. [Challenges and Outcomes of the Process for Achieving Certification].

    PubMed

    Kadosaka, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Reiko; Yoshika, Masamichi; Tsuta, Koji

    2016-02-01

    Clinical laboratory tests have been indispensable for medical services in recent years, and such a situation is associated with the offering of accurate test results by clinical laboratory units. A large number of facilities wishing to achieve ISO 15189 Certification follow preparatory procedures with support from consulting companies. However, in our facility, a limited budget did not allow us to use such services. As a solution, we participated in the Future Lab Session in OSAKA (FLS), a support group for the achievement of ISO 15189 Certification, when it was organized. Aiming to extensively cover and fulfill its responsibility for all processes, including clinical interpretations of the results obtained through patient preparation, in order to continuously offer high-quality test results to clinicians, our clinical laboratory unit underwent examination for certification, and consequently realized the necessity of third-party evaluation. The provision of laboratory services, fully complying with these standards, contributes to medical safety, in addition to accuracy improvement. Although the certification and its maintenance are costly, it is sufficiently cost-effective to achieve it, when focusing on improved efficiency and the enhanced quality and safety of medical services after work standardization. PMID:27311281

  16. [Towards the eradication of poliomyelitis: Mexico's achievements and challenges].

    PubMed

    Esteve-Jaramillo, Alejandra; Richardson López-Collada, Vesta L

    2012-10-01

    Since the strategies to eradicate polio were implemented, the incidence of paralytic polio has dropped dramatically. Four main strategies have greatly contributed: a) High immunization coverage rate with oral polio vaccine (OPV), b) Supplementary immunization activities during the National Immunizations Days c) An effective epidemiological surveillance system for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and d) Intensified immunization activities in high risk areas. Three countries remain polio endemic, nevertheless, any country has a potential risk of the virus importation from one of these endemic areas; an accidental release of poliovirus from a research or clinical laboratory, or from having a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus in the environment. The present document aims to provide an historical background that made possible the disease elimination in Mexico. Moreover, we discuss the challenges that every country needs to face in order to achieve a polio-free world.

  17. [Towards the eradication of poliomyelitis: Mexico's achievements and challenges].

    PubMed

    Esteve-Jaramillo, Alejandra; Richardson López-Collada, Vesta L

    2012-10-01

    Since the strategies to eradicate polio were implemented, the incidence of paralytic polio has dropped dramatically. Four main strategies have greatly contributed: a) High immunization coverage rate with oral polio vaccine (OPV), b) Supplementary immunization activities during the National Immunizations Days c) An effective epidemiological surveillance system for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and d) Intensified immunization activities in high risk areas. Three countries remain polio endemic, nevertheless, any country has a potential risk of the virus importation from one of these endemic areas; an accidental release of poliovirus from a research or clinical laboratory, or from having a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus in the environment. The present document aims to provide an historical background that made possible the disease elimination in Mexico. Moreover, we discuss the challenges that every country needs to face in order to achieve a polio-free world. PMID:23011506

  18. Achievements and challenges of Space Station Freedom's safety review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.

    1993-01-01

    The most complex space vehicle in history, Space Station Freedom, is well underway to completion, and System Safety is a vital part of the program. The purpose is to summarize and illustrate the progress that over one-hundred System Safety engineers have made in identifying, documenting, and controlling the hazards inherent in the space station. To date, Space Station Freedom has been reviewed by NASA's safety panels through the first six assembly flights, when Freedom achieves a configuration known as Man Tended Capability. During the eight weeks of safety reviews spread out over a year and a half, over 200 preliminary hazard reports were presented. Along the way NASA and its contractors faced many challenges, made much progress, and even learned a few lessons.

  19. Achievements and challenges in structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics

    PubMed Central

    Samish, Ilan; Bourne, Philip E.; Najmanovich, Rafael J.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The field of structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics has undergone a revolution in the last 10 years. Developments that are captured annually through the 3DSIG meeting, upon which this article reflects. Results: An increase in the accessible data, computational resources and methodology has resulted in an increase in the size and resolution of studied systems and the complexity of the questions amenable to research. Concomitantly, the parameterization and efficiency of the methods have markedly improved along with their cross-validation with other computational and experimental results. Conclusion: The field exhibits an ever-increasing integration with biochemistry, biophysics and other disciplines. In this article, we discuss recent achievements along with current challenges within the field. Contact: Rafael.Najmanovich@USherbrooke.ca PMID:25488929

  20. The Predictive Validity of the Stanford Early School Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Steven G.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A sample of first grade children were pretested with the Stanford Early School Achievement Test and posttested with the Stanford Achievement Test. Results demonstrated moderate validity of theformer for predicting first grade achievement. Prediction was better in verbal achievement than in mathematics achievement. (Author/JKS)

  1. Standardized Testing: Measurement of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Keshia

    2011-01-01

    Standardized testing has been a very important issue in education today. Many schools use the testing score to determine whether a child should continue to the next grade level. As we review the methods teachers use to prepare students for these types of tests, the amount of instruction time utilized to cover test materials, and the level of…

  2. Treatment of congenital thyroid dysfunction: Achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Krude, Heiko; Kühnen, Peter; Biebermann, Heike

    2015-06-01

    The active thyroid hormone tri-iodothyronine (T3) is essential for a normal development of children. Especially within the first years of life, thyroid hormone is pivotal in enabling maturation of complex brain function and somatic growth. The most compelling example for a life without thyroid hormone are those historical cases of children who came to birth without a thyroid gland - as shown in autopsy-studies- and who suffered from untreated hypothyroidism, at that time initially called "sporadic congenital hypothyroidism" (CH). In the last decades huge achievements resulted in a normal development of these children based on newborn screening programs that enable an early onset of a high dose LT4-treatment. Further progress will be necessary to further tailor an individualized thyroid hormone substitution approach and to identify those more complex patients with congenital hypothyroidism and associated defects, who will not benefit from an even optimized LT4 therapy. Besides the primary production of thyroid hormone a variety of further mechanisms are necessary to mediate the function of T3 on normal development that are located downstream of thyroid hormone production. Abnormalities of these mechanisms include the MCT8-transport defect, deiodinase-insufficiency and thyroid hormone receptor alpha-and beta defects. These thyroid hormone resistant diseases can not be treated with classical LT4 substitution alone. The development of new treatment options for those rare cases of thyroid hormone resistance is one of the most challenging tasks in the field of congenital thyroid diseases today. PMID:26051299

  3. Challenges and achievements in the therapeutic modulation of aquaporin functionality.

    PubMed

    Beitz, Eric; Golldack, André; Rothert, Monja; von Bülow, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water and solute channels have basic physiological functions throughout the human body. AQP-facilitated water permeability across cell membranes is required for rapid reabsorption of water from pre-urine in the kidneys and for sustained near isosmolar water fluxes e.g. in the brain, eyes, inner ear, and lungs. Cellular water permeability is further connected to cell motility. AQPs of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily are necessary for lipid degradation in adipocytes and glycerol uptake into the liver, as well as for skin moistening. Modulation of AQP function is desirable in several pathophysiological situations, such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, Sjögren's syndrome, Menière's disease, heart failure, or tumors to name a few. Attempts to design or to find effective small molecule AQP inhibitors have yielded only a few hits. Challenges reside in the high copy number of AQP proteins in the cell membranes, and spatial restrictions in the protein structure. This review gives an overview on selected physiological and pathophysiological conditions in which modulation of AQP functions appears beneficial and discusses first achievements in the search of drug-like AQP inhibitors. PMID:26277280

  4. Chiral EFT based nuclear forces: achievements and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machleidt, R.; Sammarruca, F.

    2016-08-01

    During the past two decades, chiral effective field theory has become a popular tool to derive nuclear forces from first principles. Two-nucleon interactions have been worked out up to sixth order of chiral perturbation theory and three-nucleon forces up to fifth order. Applications of some of these forces have been conducted in nuclear few- and many-body systems—with a certain degree of success. But in spite of these achievements, we are still faced with great challenges. Among them is the issue of a proper uncertainty quantification of predictions obtained when applying these forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear structure and reactions. A related problem is the order by order convergence of the chiral expansion. We start this review with a pedagogical introduction and then present the current status of the field of chiral nuclear forces. This is followed by a discussion of representative examples for the application of chiral two- and three-body forces in the nuclear many-body system including convergence issues.

  5. Directory of Achievement Tests for Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Joseph L., Jr.; Shimberg, Benjamin

    This directory was compiled to assist vocational teachers and researchers in locating tests in various occupational fields. Test data was gathered from publishers, directors of vocational programs, union officials, and members of the American Vocational Association. Selection of the instruments depended on their availability and standardization,…

  6. Equity and working time: a challenge to achieve.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Frida Marina; Rotenberg, Lúcia; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta

    2004-01-01

    internal synchronization of circadian rhythms and laboratory and field interventions; new methods of investigation or new approaches in shift-work studies; and prediction of risks in night and shift work. Current tendencies of work organization contribute to the amplification of inequality across groups and populations, revealing that equity remains a challenge to achieve.

  7. Conservation and Achievement Test Performance among Fifth-Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliphant, Virginia M.; Cox, David L.

    The relationship between conservation and achievement is examined on specific tests and test items on the Stanford Achievement Test Battery used in the elementary years. Specifically, performance on two tests (Word Meaning and Arithmetic Concepts) were analyzed according to subjects level of thinking (concrete or formal) for total score,…

  8. Science Challenge: Olympic Achievement for Your Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Donald E.; Berkheimer, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    Describes how a science challenge program was modeled after the Olympics to offer a variety of science events in a competitive setting. Reviews organizational factors, suggests sources for events, and identifies rules and scoring procedures. (ML)

  9. The Academic Achievement Gap: The Suburban Challenge. CSR Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alson, Allan

    Suburban schoolchildren of color, in the aggregate, do not perform as well as their white counterparts. In fact, the academic achievement gaps in many suburban communities are actually greater than those in urban school districts. This research brief looks at the achievement gap in suburban schools, offering preliminary answers to the following…

  10. Provincial Report: Achievement Tests, September 1986. Student Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation and Data Processing Branch.

    This document reports the provincial results of the June 1986 student achievement tests in Alberta in grade 3 mathematics, grade 6 science, and grade 9 English language arts. The achievement tests are specific to the program of studies prescribed by the Minister of Education. The document starts with general information about the testing program…

  11. Gender Differences, Especially on Fifty College Board Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.; Stumpf, Heinrich

    In a follow-up to findings published by H. Stumpf and J. Stanley (1996), the gender-related differences in enrollment in and scores on the College Board Achievement (SAT II) and Advanced Placement (AP) tests were studied. Differences in scores turned out to be rather stable from 1982 (for the Achievement tests) and 1984 (for the AP tests) through…

  12. Dearborn 1981-82 Achievement Test Scores (Fifth Annual Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearborn Public Schools, MI.

    The purpose of the fifth annual Dearborn Achievement Test Score report is to summarize and to help interpret the test results so that Dearborn citizens and educators will have a better understanding of the educational achievements of Dearborn students. The District-wide Testing Program assesses reading readiness, scholastic aptitude, academic…

  13. Radiation Test Challenges for Scaled Commerical Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Ray L.; Cohn, Lewis M.; Oldham, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    As sub-100nm CMOS technologies gather interest, the radiation effects performance of these technologies provide a significant challenge. In this talk, we shall discuss the radiation testing challenges as related to commercial memory devices. The focus will be on complex test and failure modes emerging in state-of-the-art Flash non-volatile memories (NVMs) and synchronous dynamic random access memories (SDRAMs), which are volatile. Due to their very high bit density, these device types are highly desirable for use in the natural space environment. In this presentation, we shall discuss these devices with emphasis on considerations for test and qualification methods required.

  14. Mobility of Native American Students Can Pose Challenges to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on an obstacle to achievement that seems particularly pronounced among Native American students high mobility. The turnover rate for one school, North Middle School in Rapid City, South Dakota, was 50 percent overall last year--meaning that half the school's 468 students came or went after the start of the school year. Many of…

  15. The Academic Achievement Challenge: What Really Works in the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chall, Jeanne S.

    This book discusses how best to instruct students, reviewing and evaluating the many educational reforms and innovations that have been proposed and employed over the past century and comparing achievement rates resulting from traditional, teacher-centered approaches with those resulting from progressive, student-centered methods. Findings…

  16. UNEP: Two Decades of Achievement and Challenge. 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Hinnawi, Essam

    This publication highlights major achievements of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) activities over the period 1970 to 1990. Chapter 1, "The Stockholm Conference and the Establishment of UNEP," describes the establishment of UNEP. Chapter 2, "The Role of UNEP," covers program development, environment and development, and UNEP's…

  17. Biodiversity offsets and the challenge of achieving no net loss.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Toby A; VON Hase, Amrei; Brownlie, Susie; Ekstrom, Jonathan M M; Pilgrim, John D; Savy, Conrad E; Stephens, R T Theo; Treweek, Jo; Ussher, Graham T; Ward, Gerri; Ten Kate, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Businesses, governments, and financial institutions are increasingly adopting a policy of no net loss of biodiversity for development activities. The goal of no net loss is intended to help relieve tension between conservation and development by enabling economic gains to be achieved without concomitant biodiversity losses. biodiversity offsets represent a necessary component of a much broader mitigation strategy for achieving no net loss following prior application of avoidance, minimization, and remediation measures. However, doubts have been raised about the appropriate use of biodiversity offsets. We examined what no net loss means as a desirable conservation outcome and reviewed the conditions that determine whether, and under what circumstances, biodiversity offsets can help achieve such a goal. We propose a conceptual framework to substitute the often ad hoc approaches evident in many biodiversity offset initiatives. The relevance of biodiversity offsets to no net loss rests on 2 fundamental premises. First, offsets are rarely adequate for achieving no net loss of biodiversity alone. Second, some development effects may be too difficult or risky, or even impossible, to offset. To help to deliver no net loss through biodiversity offsets, biodiversity gains must be comparable to losses, be in addition to conservation gains that may have occurred in absence of the offset, and be lasting and protected from risk of failure. Adherence to these conditions requires consideration of the wider landscape context of development and offset activities, timing of offset delivery, measurement of biodiversity, accounting procedures and rule sets used to calculate biodiversity losses and gains and guide offset design, and approaches to managing risk. Adoption of this framework will strengthen the potential for offsets to provide an ecologically defensible mechanism that can help reconcile conservation and development. Balances de Biodiversidad y el Reto de No Obtener P

  18. Learned Helplessness, Test Anxiety, and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincham, Frank D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the stability of individual differences in test anxiety and learned helplessness of 82 children in third grade and later in fifth grade. Results indicate that teacher reports of helplessness had the strongest and most consistent relation to concurrent achievement and to achievement test scores two years later. (RJC)

  19. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  20. Grade 6 Social Studies Achievement Test. Part A: Multiple Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This test booklet contains 50 multiple choice items testing sixth grade social studies achievement. The test was administered by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in June 1985. The items concern early civilizations, Southeast Asia, and regulation by the government. Fifty minutes are allowed to complete this test. (GDC)

  1. An Analysis of Foreign Language Achievement Test Drafts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrette, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    In order to obtain concrete information to improve test writing, this study analyzes 13 achievement test drafts written by graduate teaching assistants, lecturers, and adjunct faculty teaching introductory and intermediate college Spanish. The analysis focuses on factors of test method and content likely to create variance in test performance…

  2. Closing the Achievement Gap: Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, R. Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Chronic disparities exist between the performance of minority and nonminority students on high-stakes standardized tests. Similar disparities exist on college admission. The College Board's Equity 2000 Project, implemented in 1990, gathered information on closing the gaps. Seven lessons learned from Equity 2000 emphasize the importance of such…

  3. Lifestyle modification in the management of obesity: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; El Ghoch, Marwan

    2013-12-01

    Lifestyle modification therapy for overweight and obese patients combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive procedures and strategies. In completers it produces a mean weight loss of 8-10 % in about 30 weeks of treatment. However, two main issues still to be resolved are how to improve dissemination of this approach, and how to help patients maintain the healthy behavioral changes and avoid weight gain in the long term. In recent years, several strategies for promoting and maintaining lifestyle modification have been evaluated, and promising results have been achieved by individualising the treatment, delivering the intervention by phone and internet or in a community setting, and combining lifestyle modification programs with residential treatment and bariatric surgery. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for the effective management of obesity through lifestyle modification.

  4. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: Testing a Model of Their Joint Relations with Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were…

  5. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Han

    2015-01-01

    After the Korean War (1950–1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea’s population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  6. Carbon monoxide and the CNS: challenges and achievements

    PubMed Central

    Queiroga, Cláudia S F; Vercelli, Alessandro; Vieira, Helena L A

    2015-01-01

    Haem oxygenase (HO) and its product carbon monoxide (CO) are associated with cytoprotection and maintenance of homeostasis in several different organs and tissues. This review focuses upon the role of exogenous and endogenous CO (via HO activity and expression) in various CNS pathologies, based upon data from experimental models, as well as from some clinical data on human patients. The pathophysiological conditions reviewed are cerebral ischaemia, chronic neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), multiple sclerosis and pain. Among these pathophysiological conditions, a variety of cellular mechanisms and processes are considered, namely cytoprotection, cell death, inflammation, cell metabolism, cellular redox responses and vasomodulation, as well as the different targeted neural cells. Finally, novel potential methods and strategies for delivering exogenous CO as a drug are discussed, particularly approaches based upon CO-releasing molecules, their limitations and challenges. The diagnostic and prognostic value of HO expression in clinical use for brain pathologies is also addressed. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24758548

  7. NCI investment in nanotechnology: achievements and challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    Dickherber, Anthony; Morris, Stephanie A; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers an exceptional and unique opportunity for developing a new generation of tools addressing persistent challenges to progress in cancer research and clinical care. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) recognizes this potential, which is why it invests roughly $150 M per year in nanobiotechnology training, research and development. By exploiting the various capacities of nanomaterials, the range of nanoscale vectors and probes potentially available suggests much is possible for precisely investigating, manipulating, and targeting the mechanisms of cancer across the full spectrum of research and clinical care. NCI has played a key role among federal R&D agencies in recognizing early the value of nanobiotechnology in medicine and committing to its development as well as providing training support for new investigators in the field. These investments have allowed many in the research community to pursue breakthrough capabilities that have already yielded broad benefits. Presented here is an overview of how NCI has made these investments with some consideration of how it will continue to work with this research community to pursue paradigm-changing innovations that offer relief from the burdens of cancer.

  8. Testing Accommodations for ELL Students on an Achievement Test Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Lori Lee

    2013-01-01

    How well students perform on standardized tests can affect their educational paths and the rest of their lives. In addition, students' performances on state assessments will affect their schools due to the No Child Left Behind Act. For English language learners (ELLs), the success on tests may be diminished due to their inability to…

  9. Content Validity of Standardized Achievement Tests and Test Curriculum Overlap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross

    Discussions of "test curriculum overlap" that focus on the term "mismatch" tend to be based on several untenable premises. This paper addresses the issue of the degree to which standardized tests should reflect the specific content of a given school curriculum with regard to three points: (1) The idea of matching the content of standardized tests…

  10. Achieving high-value cardiac imaging: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wiener, David H

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac imaging is under intense scrutiny as a contributor to health care costs, with multiple initiatives under way to reduce and eliminate inappropriate testing. Appropriate use criteria are valuable guides to selecting imaging studies but until recently have focused on the test rather than the patient. Patient-centered means are needed to define the true value of imaging for patients in specific clinical situations. This article provides a definition of high-value cardiac imaging. A paradigm to judge the efficacy of echocardiography in the absence of randomized controlled trials is presented. Candidate clinical scenarios are proposed in which echocardiography constitutes high-value imaging, as well as stratagems to increase the likelihood that high-value cardiac imaging takes place in those circumstances.

  11. Generating high temperature tolerant transgenic plants: Achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Grover, Anil; Mittal, Dheeraj; Negi, Manisha; Lavania, Dhruv

    2013-05-01

    Production of plants tolerant to high temperature stress is of immense significance in the light of global warming and climate change. Plant cells respond to high temperature stress by re-programming their genetic machinery for survival and reproduction. High temperature tolerance in transgenic plants has largely been achieved either by over-expressing heat shock protein genes or by altering levels of heat shock factors that regulate expression of heat shock and non-heat shock genes. Apart from heat shock factors, over-expression of other trans-acting factors like DREB2A, bZIP28 and WRKY proteins has proven useful in imparting high temperature tolerance. Besides these, elevating the genetic levels of proteins involved in osmotic adjustment, reactive oxygen species removal, saturation of membrane-associated lipids, photosynthetic reactions, production of polyamines and protein biosynthesis process have yielded positive results in equipping transgenic plants with high temperature tolerance. Cyclic nucleotide gated calcium channel proteins that regulate calcium influxes across the cell membrane have recently been shown to be the key players in induction of high temperature tolerance. The involvement of calmodulins and kinases in activation of heat shock factors has been implicated as an important event in governing high temperature tolerance. Unfilled gaps limiting the production of high temperature tolerant transgenic plants for field level cultivation are discussed.

  12. The IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment - Achievements, Prospects, and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenbruck, Oliver; Steigenberger, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) is long known as the premier source for openly available, high-precision GPS and GLONASS data and products. With its Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX), the IGS has established a platform for early familiarization with new signals and and constellations. Over the past 3 years, a global network of multi-GNSS stations has been established, which provides a stable access to observations of BeiDou, Galileo, and QZSS, as well as new signals of GPS (L2C, L5) and GLONASS (L3 CDMA). Besides offline data archives hosted by three data centers, real-time data streams are also made available to interested users. Building on the IGS multi-GNSS network infrastructure, various MGEX analysis centers are now generating orbit, clock, and bias products for the new constellations, thus enabling early trials in multi-GNSS precise point positioning and other applications. Within the presentation an overview of the MGEX data and products will be given and the potential of multi-GNSS processing for Earth sciences and precise navigation will be highlighted. Despite substantial progress, further effort will be required to achieve a product quality competitive with that of GPS and GLONASS. This includes an improved characterization of the space segment (antennas, attitude, solar radiation pressure, biases, etc.) and the user equipment (antennas, biases) but also the establishment of multi-GNSS processing standards and the harmonization of products generated by the MGEX analysis centers.

  13. Laboratory 2000--the challenge of achieving efficiency and compliance.

    PubMed

    Potter, J A

    2001-01-01

    Significant advances within the field of laboratory automation and instrumentation have greatly benefited the pharmaceutical industry in its quest to discover, develop and monitor the quality of its products. Necessitated by the need for efficiency and greater productivity, faster and more cost-effective means of analyses exist in the form of devices made up of complex electromechanical components, all logically controlled and most with the capability to interface with sophisticated information systems. This benefit does come with a price, a greater responsibility to ensure data quality while complying with increased regulatory requirements. Commitment to this responsibility presents a substantial challenge to scientists and managers throughout the industry. Due diligence must be demonstrated. A comprehensive evaluation of every laboratory system utilized, a solid plan of action for correcting any known deficiencies including upgrades or complete replacement, and an accurate monitoring procedure with the ability to measure progress are all absolute necessities to ensure success. Crossfunctional team effort and communication must transpire with full managerial support. Vendors need to be audited, made aware of any functional or quality inadequacies they possess as well as the pharmaceutical industry's expectation for these shortcomings to be rapidly corrected. Suppliers of these systems should also be encouraged to provide complete 'off-the-shelf solutions' to eliminate the need for in-house customization. The requirements for regulatory compliance in today's electronic environment have been well publicized. The players involved are not only listening, but also taking the necessary steps to retain and improve efficiency without sacrificing quality. With the proper measures, planning and action, a highly automated, cost-effective and compliant laboratory operation can become a reality.

  14. Quantitative proteomics in Giardia duodenalis-Achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Emery, Samantha J; Lacey, Ernest; Haynes, Paul A

    2016-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia and G. intestinalis) is a protozoan parasite of vertebrates and a major contributor to the global burden of diarrheal diseases and gastroenteritis. The publication of multiple genome sequences in the G. duodenalis species complex has provided important insights into parasite biology, and made post-genomic technologies, including proteomics, significantly more accessible. The aims of proteomics are to identify and quantify proteins present in a cell, and assign functions to them within the context of dynamic biological systems. In Giardia, proteomics in the post-genomic era has transitioned from reliance on gel-based systems to utilisation of a diverse array of techniques based on bottom-up LC-MS/MS technologies. Together, these have generated crucial foundations for subcellular proteomes, elucidated intra- and inter-assemblage isolate variation, and identified pathways and markers in differentiation, host-parasite interactions and drug resistance. However, in Giardia, proteomics remains an emerging field, with considerable shortcomings evident from the published research. These include a bias towards assemblage A, a lack of emphasis on quantitative analytical techniques, and limited information on post-translational protein modifications. Additionally, there are multiple areas of research for which proteomic data is not available to add value to published transcriptomic data. The challenge of amalgamating data in the systems biology paradigm necessitates the further generation of large, high-quality quantitative datasets to accurately model parasite biology. This review surveys the current proteomic research available for Giardia and evaluates their technical and quantitative approaches, while contextualising their biological insights into parasite pathology, isolate variation and eukaryotic evolution. Finally, we propose areas of priority for the generation of future proteomic data to explore fundamental questions in Giardia

  15. Quantitative proteomics in Giardia duodenalis-Achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Emery, Samantha J; Lacey, Ernest; Haynes, Paul A

    2016-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia and G. intestinalis) is a protozoan parasite of vertebrates and a major contributor to the global burden of diarrheal diseases and gastroenteritis. The publication of multiple genome sequences in the G. duodenalis species complex has provided important insights into parasite biology, and made post-genomic technologies, including proteomics, significantly more accessible. The aims of proteomics are to identify and quantify proteins present in a cell, and assign functions to them within the context of dynamic biological systems. In Giardia, proteomics in the post-genomic era has transitioned from reliance on gel-based systems to utilisation of a diverse array of techniques based on bottom-up LC-MS/MS technologies. Together, these have generated crucial foundations for subcellular proteomes, elucidated intra- and inter-assemblage isolate variation, and identified pathways and markers in differentiation, host-parasite interactions and drug resistance. However, in Giardia, proteomics remains an emerging field, with considerable shortcomings evident from the published research. These include a bias towards assemblage A, a lack of emphasis on quantitative analytical techniques, and limited information on post-translational protein modifications. Additionally, there are multiple areas of research for which proteomic data is not available to add value to published transcriptomic data. The challenge of amalgamating data in the systems biology paradigm necessitates the further generation of large, high-quality quantitative datasets to accurately model parasite biology. This review surveys the current proteomic research available for Giardia and evaluates their technical and quantitative approaches, while contextualising their biological insights into parasite pathology, isolate variation and eukaryotic evolution. Finally, we propose areas of priority for the generation of future proteomic data to explore fundamental questions in Giardia

  16. Test-Taking Strategies of High and Low Mathematics Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Sas, Maggie; Sas, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored test-preparation and test-taking strategies that high school students used in algebra tests. From a pool of high school students (N = 156), 61 students participated in interviews, and of those interviewed, 26 represented those who were high achieving as well as highly interested in mathematics (n = 15) vs. those who were low…

  17. Achievement Batteries, Grade 7 and Above. Annotated Bibliography of Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ. Test Collection.

    The 93 test batteries described in this bibliography have a number of subjects that measure achievement in areas such as language skills, mathematics, social studies, science, and/or study skills. Several of the tests are in Spanish for students whose primary language is Spanish. Some of the tests may be used for preparatory work for the GEDs. A…

  18. K-12 Standardized Achievement and Aptitude Testing: The End Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, John B.

    Public policy and measurement community issues related to the use of standardized achievement tests for students in kindergarten through grade 12 are discussed, focusing on students and parents as the end-users of test data. The viewpoints expressed are based on 18 years of experience with test score interpretation. It is suggested that technical…

  19. The Challenges and Achievements in 50 Years of Human Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    On April 12, 1961 the era of human spaceflight began with the orbital flight of Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. On May 5, 1961 The United States responded with the launch of Alan Shepard aboard Freedom 7 on the first flight of Project Mercury. The focus of the first 20 years of human spaceflight was developing the fundamental operational capabilities and technologies required for a human mission to the Moon. The Mercury and Gemini Projects demonstrated launch and entry guidance, on-orbit navigation, rendezvous, extravehicular activity, and flight durations equivalent to a round-trip to the Moon. Heroes of this epoch included flight directors Chris Kraft, Gene Kranz, and Glynn Lunney along with astronauts like John Young, Jim Lovell, Tom Stafford, and Neil Armstrong. The "Race to the Moon” was eventually won by the United States with the landing of Apollo 11 on July 20, 1969. The Apollo program was truncated at 11 missions and a new system, the Space Shuttle, was developed which became the focus of the subsequent 30 years. Although never able to meet the flight rate or cost promises made in the 1970s, the Shuttle nevertheless left a remarkable legacy of accomplishment. The Shuttle made possible the launch and servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope and diverse activities such as life science research and classified national security missions. The Shuttle launched more than half the mass ever put into orbit and its heavy-lift capability and large payload bay enabled the on-orbit construction of the International Space Station. The Shuttle also made possible spaceflight careers for scientists who were not military test pilots - people like me. In this talk I will review the early years of spaceflight and share my experiences, including two missions with HST, from the perspective of a five-time flown astronaut and a senior flight operations manager.

  20. Large Liquid Rocket Testing: Strategies and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Hebert, Bartt J.

    2005-01-01

    Rocket propulsion development is enabled by rigorous ground testing in order to mitigate the propulsion systems risks that are inherent in space flight. This is true for virtually all propulsive devices of a space vehicle including liquid and solid rocket propulsion, chemical and non-chemical propulsion, boost stage and in-space propulsion and so forth. In particular, large liquid rocket propulsion development and testing over the past five decades of human and robotic space flight has involved a combination of component-level testing and engine-level testing to first demonstrate that the propulsion devices were designed to meet the specified requirements for the Earth to Orbit launchers that they powered. This was followed by a vigorous test campaign to demonstrate the designed propulsion articles over the required operational envelope, and over robust margins, such that a sufficiently reliable propulsion system is delivered prior to first flight. It is possible that hundreds of tests, and on the order of a hundred thousand test seconds, are needed to achieve a high-reliability, flight-ready, liquid rocket engine system. This paper overviews aspects of earlier and recent experience of liquid rocket propulsion testing at NASA Stennis Space Center, where full scale flight engines and flight stages, as well as a significant amount of development testing has taken place in the past decade. The liquid rocket testing experience discussed includes testing of engine components (gas generators, preburners, thrust chambers, pumps, powerheads), as well as engine systems and complete stages. The number of tests, accumulated test seconds, and years of test stand occupancy needed to meet varying test objectives, will be selectively discussed and compared for the wide variety of ground test work that has been conducted at Stennis for subscale and full scale liquid rocket devices. Since rocket propulsion is a crucial long-lead element of any space system acquisition or

  1. [Testing of vaccines. The challenge of testing complex combination vaccines].

    PubMed

    Merkle, A; Lechner, H; Oppling, V; Meyer, H

    2014-10-01

    Vaccines are biologicals. This group of medicinal products is produced with a predefined variability based on the biological starting materials used. Vaccines are subject to official control authority batch release performed by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI). To release batches to the market, experimental testing has to be conducted by an official medicines control laboratory as the PEI. It is the aim of this independent testing to demonstrate the conformity of quality criteria with conditions set in the marketing authorization for each lot produced. The testing is performed on the basis of vaccine specific batch release guideline and due to the difficult and time consuming testing procedures often run in parallel with manufacturers testing. If test results comply with the predefined criteria, the lot in question is released. This article describes the challenge of official control authority batch release testing of two complex combination vaccines.

  2. The Application of Item Analysis to Classroom Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolstad, Rosemarie K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Provides guidelines for teachers writing machine-scored examinations. Explains the use of item analysis (discrimination index) to single test items that should be improved or eliminated. Discusses validity and reliability of classroom achievement tests in contrast to norm-referenced examinations. (JHZ)

  3. Effort Analysis: Individual Score Validation of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student's achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student's test score accurately reflects what that student knows and can do. Such trust requires the assumption that a student's test event is not unduly influenced by construct-irrelevant factors…

  4. Problems and Issues in Translating International Educational Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arffman, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews research and findings on problems and issues faced when translating international academic achievement tests. The purpose is to draw attention to the problems, to help to develop the procedures followed when translating the tests, and to provide suggestions for further research. The problems concentrate on the following: the…

  5. Achieving Closure for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems: Engineering and Ecological Challenges, Research Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    Closed systems are desirable for a number of purposes: space life support systems where precious life-supporting resources need to be kept inside; biospheric systems; where global ecological pro-cesses can be studied in great detail and testbeds where research topics requiring isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) can be studied in isolation from the outside environment and where their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied. But to achieve and maintain closure raises both engineering and ecological challenges. Engineering challenges include methods of achieving closure for structures of different materials, and devel-oping methods of allowing energy (for heating and cooling) and information transfer through the materially closed structure. Methods of calculating degree of closure include measuring degradation rates of inert trace gases introduced into the system. An allied problem is devel-oping means of locating where leaks are located so that they may be repaired and degree of closure maintained. Once closure is achieved, methods of dealing with the pressure differen-tials between inside and outside are needed: from inflatable structures which might adjust to the pressure difference to variable volume chambers attached to the life systems component. These issues are illustrated through the engineering employed at Biosphere 2, the Biosphere 2 Test Module and the Laboratory Biosphere and a discussion of methods used by other closed ecological system facility engineers. Ecological challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro-and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, healthy air and

  6. The challenge of validating genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersson, U

    2000-01-01

    Validation of genetic testing is a multidisciplinary task that involves medical/clinical geneticists, other medical specialists, legislative authorities and the public. It is an area in which many issues are unresolved. Validation should not focus on the laboratory process alone, but should also include the prerequisites for service delivery, such as education and staffing, data collection and banking and information transfer, as well as pre- and post-test genetic counselling in a cost-effective perspective. It must thus be seen as an ongoing process at laboratory, familial and societal levels which involves many different actors. The challenges for the near future are to continue to develop technical standards for the laboratory and counselling procedures, and, in collaboration among professionals, lay persons and state authorities, to define a legal framework for the actions of the various players. This chapter discusses some problems related to the validation process for genetic testing, broadly defined. PMID:11878342

  7. Motivational Climates, Achievement Goals, and Physical Education Outcomes: A Longitudinal Test of Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…

  8. Academic Preparedness as a Predictor of Achievement in an Engineering Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan; Becker, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a student's academic success, measured by grade point average (GPA) in mathematics, science, and communication courses, is correlated with student change in achievement during an engineering design challenge. Engineering design challenges have been implemented and researched in K-16 environments where…

  9. The X-33 Flight Test Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, David; Ramiscal, Ermin; Howell, John

    1999-01-01

    Low cost access to space has eluded present launch system technologies. Our objective is to reduce the cost of putting a payload into space from $10,000 per pound to $1000 per pound. In July 1996, a cooperative agreement was initiated between the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and NASA to help accomplish this goal. The X-33 is the first step in the process to make low cost space access a reality. The X-33 is a suborbital, hypersonic lifting body, proof of concept of a reusable launch vehicle. The X-33 flight test program will validate technologies such as a metallic thermal protection system, Linear Aerospike Engines, use of tanks and struts as fundamental structural elements, as well as quick turnaround time. Flight testing will begin in July 2000, with launches originating from Edwards Air Force Base and initial landings at Michael Army Airfield in Utah. Data collected from these flight tests will aid in the decision to build an economically viable single stage to orbit reusable launch vehicle. This paper will explore the technical challenges facing the X-33 Flight Test Team.

  10. Teachers and Tests: Assessing Pupils' Reading Achievement in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosen, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine validity aspects of teachers' judgements of pupils' reading skills. Data come from Sweden's participation in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001, for Grades 3 and 4. For pupils at the same achievement levels, as measured by PIRLS 2001 test, teachers' judgements of…

  11. An Examination of English Language Proficiency and Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojica, Tammy C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the relationship between grade eight English language proficiency as measured by the ACCESS for ELL's assessment (Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State to State for English Language Learners) and achievement test outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment, a state mandated…

  12. Test Score Decline Among High Achievers: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jerrold; Hsia, Jayjia

    Since 1967, the mean Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score has declined. Likewise, the numbers of candidates receiving high SAT scores have been decreasing steadily. The same downward trend in student achievement can be seen among student groups from grade 4 through post graduate studies. In recent years, policy has been directed towards making…

  13. Evaluating the Instructional Sensitivity of Four States' Student Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2016-01-01

    As state tests of student achievement are used for an increasingly wide array of high- and low-stakes purposes, evaluating their instructional sensitivity is essential. This article uses data from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Project to examine the instructional sensitivity of 4 states' mathematics and English…

  14. MSU-Test: A Tool for Measuring Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit; Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Morakot, Nongnit; Khamkong, Surasak

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to employ MSU-test as a tool to measure Mahasarakham student in secondary and high school levels to achieve their learning potential. The importance of this study will help university understanding school potential and provide information to increase students' score. Two thousand and seven hundred eight nine students participated in…

  15. A report on the Zimbabwe Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) programme progress towards achieving MGD6 target 6B: achievement and challenges.

    PubMed

    Apollo, T; Takarinda, K; Mugurungi, O; Chakanyuka, C; Simbini, T; Harries, A D

    2010-01-01

    Zimbabwe's target to achieve Universal Access to treatment for HIV and AIDS, was severely affected by a decade long economic recession that threatened to reverse all the country's social and economic indicators. Despite these challenges, by September 2010, 282,916 adults and children (47.7% of those in need of treatment) were on treatment at 509 sites countrywide since national scale up started. ART services are predominantly offered through the public sector, with the private sector being an untapped potential resource for ART services for the future. Challenges of skilled and adequately trained human resources have hindered progress towards service availability. Providing access to children in particular has been constrained by lack of clinical mentorship for health workers, weak systems for support supervision, and inadequate HIV diagnostic services especially for children under 18 months and challenges with follow up of the HIV-exposed infants. Though the country has not met its target of Universal Access by 2010, significant progress has been made with over a 30-fold increase in service availability. PMID:23457867

  16. Contingent Teaching to Low-Achieving Students in Mathematics: Challenges and Potential for Scaffolding Meaningful Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broza, Orit; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2015-01-01

    The study set out to discover what characterizes the meaningful learning of mathematics among low-achieving students (LAS) and to highlight the challenges their characteristics pose for scaffolding, in particular for its adaptive core: contingent teaching. The setting was an extracurricular program for teaching meaningful mathematics to LAS…

  17. Wavelet image processing applied to optical and digital holography: past achievements and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Katharine J.

    2005-08-01

    The link between wavelets and optics goes back to the work of Dennis Gabor who both invented holography and developed Gabor decompositions. Holography involves 3-D images. Gabor decompositions involves 1-D signals. Gabor decompositions are the predecessors of wavelets. Wavelet image processing of holography, both optical holography and digital holography, will be examined with respect to past achievements and future challenges.

  18. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  19. School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

  20. How High-Achieving African American Undergraduate Men Negotiate Cultural Challenges at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elva Elaine

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the manner in which high-achieving African American undergraduate men negotiate cultural challenges in a predominantly White institution (PWI). Cultural theory underpins the conceptual framework of this case study. Basing the study in cultural theory provided a lens through which to view the lived experiences of the twenty…

  1. Evaluation of the MindMatters Buddy Support Scheme in Southwest Sydney: Strategies, Achievements and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Raquiba J.; Bedford, Karen; Williams, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Assessing the strategies, achievements and challenges of implementing MindMatters and the views of partner schools towards the buddy support scheme. Design: The MindMatters buddy support scheme (2007-2008) was designed to increase the capacity of secondary schools to adopt a whole-school approach to improving health and well-being of…

  2. Moving beyond Time and Choice: Challenge, Motivation and Achievement during Independent Reading in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perks, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    In response to concerns about poor engagement and achievement in reading, some high schools have implemented independent reading programs to give students time to read self-selected texts during school. Some schools are also adopting the Lexile framework as a tool for matching readers with challenging texts in order to improve reading motivation…

  3. Correlations between the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, Seventh Edition, and the Ohio Ninth-Grade Proficiency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Robert E.

    This study examines correlations between the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, seventh edition (MAT-7), and analogous portions of the 1995 Ohio Ninth-Grade Proficiency Tests. The MAT-7 scores of 156 eighth-grade students who had completed both test batteries were paired with complementary sections of the Proficiency test. Correlations between the…

  4. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes. PMID:27235937

  5. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes.

  6. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  7. The Visual Aural Digit Span Test and Bender Gestalt Test as Predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa C.; Smith, Billy L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS) and Bender-Gestalt (BG) scores as predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) scores among 115 elementary school students referred for low academic achievement. Divided children into three age groups. Results suggest BG and VADS Test can be effective screening devices for young children…

  8. Towards universal salt iodisation in India: achievements, challenges and future actions.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Anas, Ansari M; Chakrabarty, Arijit; Sankar, Rajan; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Aguayo, Victor M

    2015-10-01

    India is one of the first countries to introduce salt iodisation, but the national programme has experienced major setbacks. The purpose of this paper is to review the national efforts towards universal salt iodisation (USI) in India and highlight key challenges in programme implementation. A brief historical overview of the salt iodisation programme is provided and the current status of the household usage of iodised salt and population iodine status is described. The present status of the USI programme together with the challenges being faced towards achieving USI are classified in five categories, which represent the five guiding principles crucial to sustained USI programme success: ensuring political commitment, forming partnerships and coalition, ensuring availability of adequately iodised salt, strengthening the monitoring system and maintaining continuous advocacy, education and communication. A future agenda towards the achievement of USI is also proposed.

  9. A Look at Student Achievement from the School Dimension: Demythologizing Standardized Tests. Critical Issues in Student Achievement. Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Dee

    Issues emerging from a look at student achievement, which is defined in its usual school context as achievement on standardized tests, are addressed. A mythology about standardized testing has developed, in part because the metaphoric languages of medicine and business have been applied to education, defining it in terms of cure, efficiency, and…

  10. [Immunization Programme and Coverage against Measles and Rubella in Spain. Challenges for Achieving their Elimination].

    PubMed

    Limia Sánchez, Aurora; Molina Olivas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization had established the achievement and sustainability of very high coverage with two doses of vaccine against measles and at least one against rubella as one of the key strategies for the elimination of both measles and rubella. The current immunization programme in Spain includes the immunization with two doses of combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella at 12 months and 3-4 years of age. Since 2000 coverage with first dose is over the target of 95% but the coverage with the second dose remains between 90 and 95%. In 2014, at subnational level three regions had coverage below the objective and only eight regions achieved the objective for the second dose. The challenges and some activities to strengthen the immunization programme in order to achieve the elimination of measles and rubella are discussed.

  11. Unique Challenges Testing SDRs for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sandra; Chelmins, David; Downey, Joseph; Nappier, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used by the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed team to qualify three Software Defined Radios (SDR) for operation in space and the characterization of the platform to enable upgrades on-orbit. The three SDRs represent a significant portion of the new technologies being studied on board the SCAN Testbed, which is operating on an external truss on the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN Testbed provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms and applications for communication, networking, and navigation concepts and advance the understanding of developing and operating SDRs in space. Qualifying a Software Defined Radio for the space environment requires additional consideration versus a hardware radio. Tests that incorporate characterization of the platform to provide information necessary for future waveforms, which might exercise extended capabilities of the hardware, are needed. The development life cycle for the radio follows the software development life cycle, where changes can be incorporated at various stages of development and test. It also enables flexibility to be added with minor additional effort. Although this provides tremendous advantages, managing the complexity inherent in a software implementation requires a testing beyond the traditional hardware radio test plan. Due to schedule and resource limitations and parallel development activities, the subsystem testing of the SDRs at the vendor sites was primarily limited to typical fixed transceiver type of testing. NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) was responsible for the integration and testing of the SDRs into the SCaN Testbed system and conducting the investigation of the SDR to advance the technology to be accepted by missions. This paper will describe the unique tests that were conducted at both the subsystem and system level, including environmental testing, and present results. For example, test

  12. Unique Challenges Testing SDRs for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David; Downey, Joseph A.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Nappier, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used by the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed team to qualify three Software Defined Radios (SDR) for operation in space and the characterization of the platform to enable upgrades on-orbit. The three SDRs represent a significant portion of the new technologies being studied on board the SCAN Testbed, which is operating on an external truss on the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN Testbed provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms and applications for communication, networking, and navigation concepts and advance the understanding of developing and operating SDRs in space. Qualifying a Software Defined Radio for the space environment requires additional consideration versus a hardware radio. Tests that incorporate characterization of the platform to provide information necessary for future waveforms, which might exercise extended capabilities of the hardware, are needed. The development life cycle for the radio follows the software development life cycle, where changes can be incorporated at various stages of development and test. It also enables flexibility to be added with minor additional effort. Although this provides tremendous advantages, managing the complexity inherent in a software implementation requires a testing beyond the traditional hardware radio test plan. Due to schedule and resource limitations and parallel development activities, the subsystem testing of the SDRs at the vendor sites was primarily limited to typical fixed transceiver type of testing. NASA s Glenn Research Center (GRC) was responsible for the integration and testing of the SDRs into the SCaN Testbed system and conducting the investigation of the SDR to advance the technology to be accepted by missions. This paper will describe the unique tests that were conducted at both the subsystem and system level, including environmental testing, and present results. For example, test

  13. Modeling Student Test-Taking Motivation in the Context of an Adaptive Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the utility of response time-based analyses in understanding the behavior of unmotivated test takers. For the data from an adaptive achievement test, patterns of observed rapid-guessing behavior and item response accuracy were compared to the behavior expected under several types of models that have been proposed to represent…

  14. Boredom and Academic Achievement: Testing a Model of Reciprocal Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Perry, Raymond P.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model linking boredom and academic achievement is proposed. Based on Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, the model posits that boredom and achievement reciprocally influence each other over time. Data from a longitudinal study with college students (N = 424) were used to examine the hypothesized effects. The…

  15. Table of SAT and Achievement Test Scores for Samples of Candidates Taking Achievement Tests 1966-67 to 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, June

    This table provides the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Achievement Test means and standard deviations for samples of candidates taking each of the 15 achievement tests offered in the Admissions Testing Program battery during the period 1966-67 to 1975-76. The samples, drawn annually through 1971-72 and biennially thereafter, provide…

  16. Genetic testing in nephrotic syndrome--challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Rasheed A; Winn, Michelle P; Smoyer, William E

    2013-03-01

    Monogenic nephrotic syndrome (nephrotic syndrome caused by a single gene defect) is responsible for only a small percentage of cases of nephrotic syndrome, but information from studies of the unique cohort of patients with this form of the disease has dramatically improved our understanding of the disease pathogenesis. The use of genetic testing in the management of children and adults with nephrotic syndrome poses unique challenges for clinicians in terms of who to test and how to use the information obtained from testing in the clinical setting. In our view, not enough data exist at present to justify the routine genetic testing of all patients with nephrotic syndrome. Testing is warranted, however, in patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome (onset at 0-3 months), infantile nephrotic syndrome (onset at 3-12 months), a family history of nephrotic syndrome, and those in whom nephrotic syndrome is associated with other congenital malformations. The family and/or the patient should be given complete and unbiased information on the potential benefits and risks associated with therapy, including the reported outcomes of treatment in patients with similar mutations. Based on the data available in the literature so far, intensive immunosuppressive treatment is probably not indicated in monogenic nephrotic syndrome if complete or partial remission has not been achieved within 6 weeks of starting treatment. We advocate that family members of individuals with genetic forms of nephrotic syndrome undergo routine genetic testing prior to living-related kidney transplantation. Prospective, multicentre studies are needed to more completely determine the burden of disease caused by monogenic nephrotic syndrome, and randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the presence or absence of clinical responses of monogenic nephrotic syndrome to available therapies.

  17. Open-Ended Test Items Pose Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Most experts in the testing community have presumed that the $350 million promised by the U.S. Department of Education to support common assessments would promote those that made greater use of open-ended items capable of measuring higher-order critical-thinking skills. But as measurement experts consider the multitude of possibilities for an…

  18. Validity in Language Testing: The Challenge of Sam Messick's Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim

    2006-01-01

    The thought of Samuel Messick has influenced language testing in 2 main ways: in proposing a new understanding of how inferences made based on tests must be challenged, and in drawing attention to the consequences of test use. The former has had a powerful impact on language-testing research, most notably in Bachman's work on validity and the…

  19. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy.

  20. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes: National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, researchers from four of the national laboratories involved in residential research (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) were asked to prepare papers focusing on the key longer term research challenges, market barriers, and technology gaps that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes. This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified in the national laboratory white papers.

  1. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, Reed M.; Izatt, Steven R.; Bruening, Ronald L.; Izatt, Neil; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  2. Achievement Testing for English Language Learners, Ready or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Sau-Lim; Katz, Anne; Stack, Jim

    2008-01-01

    School reform efforts across the US have focused on creating systems in which all students are expected to achieve to high standards. To ensure that students reach those standards and to document what students know and can do, schools collect assessment information on students' academic achievement. More information is needed, however, to find out…

  3. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects.

    PubMed

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In the context of adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents' SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students' academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students' GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents' SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes. PMID:26779096

  4. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes. PMID:26779096

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 3: Are Achievement Gaps Closing and Is Achievement Rising for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    A main goal of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is to close gaps in test scores between different groups of students while raising achievement for all groups. Of particular concern are the persistent achievement gaps between African American, Latino, and Native American students and their white and Asian counterparts, and between students from…

  6. Carbon nanotubes as vectors for gene therapy: past achievements, present challenges and future goals.

    PubMed

    Bates, Katie; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2013-12-01

    Promising therapeutic and prophylactic effects have been achieved following advances in the gene therapy research arena, giving birth to the new generation of disease-modifying therapeutics. The greatest challenge that gene therapy vectors still face is the ability to deliver sufficient genetic payloads in order to enable efficient gene transfer into target cells. A wide variety of viral and non-viral gene therapy vectors have been developed and explored over the past 10years, including carbon nanotubes. In this review we will address the application of carbon nanotubes as non-viral vectors in gene therapy with the aim to give a perspective on the past achievements, present challenges and future goals. A series of important topics concerning carbon nanotubes as gene therapy vectors will be addressed, including the benefits that carbon nanotubes offer over other non-viral delivery systems. Furthermore, a perspective is given on what the ideal genetic cargo to deliver using carbon nanotubes is and finally the geno-pharmacological impact of carbon nanotube-mediated gene therapy is discussed.

  7. The Third Gravitational Lensing Accuracy Testing (GREAT3) Challenge Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rowe, Barnaby; Bosch, James; Chang, Chihway; Courbin, Frederic; Gill, Mandeep; Jarvis, Mike; Kannawadi, Arun; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Lackner, Claire; Leauthaud, Alexie; Miyatake, Hironao; Nakajima, Reiko; Rhodes, Jason; Simet, Melanie; Zuntz, Joe; Armstrong, Bob; Bridle, Sarah; Coupon, Jean; Dietrich, Jörg P.; Gentile, Marc; Heymans, Catherine; Jurling, Alden S.; Kent, Stephen M.; Kirkby, David; Margala, Daniel; Massey, Richard; Melchior, Peter; Peterson, John; Roodman, Aaron; Schrabback, Tim

    2014-05-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is the third in a series of image analysis challenges, with a goal of testing and facilitating the development of methods for analyzing astronomical images that will be used to measure weak gravitational lensing. This measurement requires extremely precise estimation of very small galaxy shape distortions, in the presence of far larger intrinsic galaxy shapes and distortions due to the blurring kernel caused by the atmosphere, telescope optics, and instrumental effects. The GREAT3 challenge is posed to the astronomy, machine learning, and statistics communities, and includes tests of three specific effects that are of immediate relevance to upcoming weak lensing surveys, two of which have never been tested in a community challenge before. These effects include many novel aspects including realistically complex galaxy models based on high-resolution imaging from space; a spatially varying, physically motivated blurring kernel; and a combination of multiple different exposures. To facilitate entry by people new to the field, and for use as a diagnostic tool, the simulation software for the challenge is publicly available, though the exact parameters used for the challenge are blinded. Sample scripts to analyze the challenge data using existing methods will also be provided. See http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/ for more information.

  8. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  9. Improving quality and reducing inequities: a challenge in achieving best care

    PubMed Central

    Nicewander, David A.; Qin, Huanying; Ballard, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The health care quality chasm is better described as a gulf for certain segments of the population, such as racial and ethnic minority groups, given the gap between actual care received and ideal or best care quality. The landmark Institute of Medicine report Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century challenges all health care organizations to pursue six major aims of health care improvement: safety, timeliness, effectiveness, efficiency, equity, and patient-centeredness. “Equity” aims to ensure that quality care is available to all and that the quality of care provided does not differ by race, ethnicity, or other personal characteristics unrelated to a patient's reason for seeking care. Baylor Health Care System is in the unique position of being able to examine the current state of equity in a typical health care delivery system and to lead the way in health equity research. Its organizational vision, “culture of quality,” and involved leadership bode well for achieving equitable best care. However, inequities in access, use, and outcomes of health care must be scrutinized; the moral, ethical, and economic issues they raise and the critical injustice they create must be remedied if this goal is to be achieved. Eliminating any observed inequities in health care must be synergistically integrated with quality improvement. Quality performance indicators currently collected and evaluated indicate that Baylor Health Care System often performs better than the national average. However, there are significant variations in care by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status that indicate the many remaining challenges in achieving “best care” for all. PMID:16609733

  10. Impact of testing styles and testing methods on achievement in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Byron Edward

    2001-12-01

    This research conducted at a community college located in Northeast Texas studied testing style and testing methods in relation to achievement in general chemistry. Data was collected and examined from 212 participants. Of these, 143 completed both the MBTI and PEPS surveys. This provided 71 subjects designated as Sensor (S) types for the final phase of the study. The subjects were divided into two groups by performance on the PEPS. One group consisted of subjects that indicated a preference to communicate (test) using a formal/pencil-paper test format (linguistic testing style) and the other subjects indicated a preference to communicate (test) using a hands-on/movement test format (tactile testing style). All subjects were administered both a linguistic and tactile pretest prior to treatment and both a linguistic and tactile posttest after treatment. The data was analyzed using a 2 x 2 ANOVA for significant effects at the p < 0.05 level of confidence. The results indicated a significant interaction effect between the student testing style and test methods. While not conclusive, this study does indicate that the type of testing done in general chemistry may be favoring students with certain types of communication preferences (testing styles). Therefore students with many of the worker characteristics desired by the chemical industry may not be successful in general chemistry and choose a different career path.

  11. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  12. A Test of a Model of Achievement Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethington, Corinna A.

    1991-01-01

    The work of J. Eccles and others (1983) in proposing an integrative theoretical model of achievement behaviors was extended using data from the Second International Mathematics Study. Strong support was found for the constructs identified by the model as determinants of the intention to take more mathematics courses. (SLD)

  13. Impact of Looping on Middle School Science Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Tammy M.

    2013-01-01

    Looping may be defined as a teacher remaining with a group of students for multiple academic years. In this quantitative study, looping was examined as a factor on science achievement. State-wide eighth grade school level 2010 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) data were used. By responding to a mailing, school administrators…

  14. GREAT3: The Third Gravitational Lensing Accuracy Testing Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simet, Melanie; Mandelbaum, R.; Rowe, B.; Great3 Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We describe the ongoing weak lensing community data challenge, GREAT3, and the associated open-source image simulation software, GalSim. The GREAT3 challenge tests the impact on weak lensing measurements of (a) realistic galaxy morphologies, (b) realistic uncertainty in the point-spread function estimation, and (c) the need to combine multiple exposures when estimating the galaxy shape. It includes simulated ground- and space-based data. The tests of realistic galaxy morphologies rely on a training set of galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope, a subset of which has been publicly released for community use, with the remainder to be released at the end of the challenge. We describe some technical considerations for generating the challenge data and for testing weak lensing measurements with the next generation of weak lensing surveys, such as DES, HSC, KIDS, and Pan-STARRS.

  15. GREAT3: The Third Gravitational Lensing Accuracy Testing Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rowe, B.; GREAT3 Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    We describe the upcoming weak lensing community data challenge, GREAT3, and the associated open-source image simulation software, GalSim. The GREAT3 challenge will test the impact on weak lensing measurements of (a) realistic galaxy morphologies, (b) realistic uncertainty in the point-spread function estimation, and (c) the need to combine multiple exposures when estimating the galaxy shape. It will include simulated ground- and space-based data, and the tests of realistic galaxy morphologies will rely on a training set of galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope which will be publicly released at the start of the challenge. We describe some technical considerations for generating the challenge data and for testing weak lensing measurements with the next generation of weak lensing surveys, such as DES, HSC, KIDS, and Pan-STARRS.

  16. Achieving the health Millennium Development Goals for South Africa: challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Mickey; Lawn, Joy E; Sanders, David; Barron, Peter; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Flisher, Alan J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tollman, Stephen M; Churchyard, Gavin J; Coovadia, Hoosen

    2009-09-19

    15 years after liberation from apartheid, South Africans are facing new challenges for which the highest calibre of leadership, vision, and commitment is needed. The effect of the unprecedented HIV/AIDS epidemic has been immense. Substantial increases in mortality and morbidity are threatening to overwhelm the health system and undermine the potential of South Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However The Lancet's Series on South Africa has identified several examples of leadership and innovation that point towards a different future scenario. We discuss the type of vision, leadership, and priority actions needed to achieve such a change. We still have time to change the health trajectory of the country, and even meet the MDGs. The South African Government, installed in April, 2009, has the mandate and potential to address the public health emergencies facing the country--will they do so or will another opportunity and many more lives be lost?

  17. 10 years of aeolian geomorphology at the EGU: past achievements and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, Andreas C. W.; Wiggs, Giles F. S.; Claudin, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    On this tenth anniversary of the Aeolian Processes & Landforms session at the EGU the original conveners review and reflect on the recent achievements and expansion in aeolian geomorphological research, focussing on advances in our understanding of sand transport processes, dune development and dynamics, and the mechanisms and scalings involved. This talk will highlight the variety and impact of the dramatic increase in the extent and interest of research on aeolian processes and landforms in the last ten years, including the increasingly strong community presence at international meetings, the diversity and extent of collaborations across subject boundaries, and the application of new measurement technologies and mathematical approaches. We conclude with a forward-looking prospectus of exciting future challenges and open research questions.

  18. Bacterial genetics: past achievements, present state of the field, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Herbert

    2008-04-01

    Genetic tools are required to take full advantage of the wealth of information generated by genome sequencing efforts and ensuing global gene and protein expression analyses. Bacterial genetics was originally developed and refined in Escherichia coli. As a consequence, elegant plasmid, cloning, expression, and mutagenesis systems were developed over the years and a good number of them are commercially available. This is not true for other bacteria. Although the development of genetic tools has generally not kept up with the sequencing pace, substantial progress has been made in this arena with many bacterial species. This short review highlights selected topics and achievements in the field over the past 25 years and presents some strategies that may help address future challenges. BioTechniques has played an integral part in the publication of important technological advances in the field over the first 25 years of its existence and it can be anticipated that it will continue to do so in the future.

  19. Food Service Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food service worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; personal…

  20. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food production worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; hygiene and…

  1. Food Service Supervisor. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food service supervisor component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; nutrient…

  2. Developing the next-generation climate system models: challenges and achievements.

    PubMed

    Slingo, Julia; Bates, Kevin; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Piggott, Matthew; Roberts, Malcolm; Shaffrey, Len; Stevens, Ian; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Weller, Hilary

    2009-03-13

    Although climate models have been improving in accuracy and efficiency over the past few decades, it now seems that these incremental improvements may be slowing. As tera/petascale computing becomes massively parallel, our legacy codes are less suitable, and even with the increased resolution that we are now beginning to use, these models cannot represent the multiscale nature of the climate system. This paper argues that it may be time to reconsider the use of adaptive mesh refinement for weather and climate forecasting in order to achieve good scaling and representation of the wide range of spatial scales in the atmosphere and ocean. Furthermore, the challenge of introducing living organisms and human responses into climate system models is only just beginning to be tackled. We do not yet have a clear framework in which to approach the problem, but it is likely to cover such a huge number of different scales and processes that radically different methods may have to be considered. The challenges of multiscale modelling and petascale computing provide an opportunity to consider a fresh approach to numerical modelling of the climate (or Earth) system, which takes advantage of the computational fluid dynamics developments in other fields and brings new perspectives on how to incorporate Earth system processes. This paper reviews some of the current issues in climate (and, by implication, Earth) system modelling, and asks the question whether a new generation of models is needed to tackle these problems.

  3. Deep Vadose Zone Remediation: Technical and Policy Challenges, Opportunities, and Progress in Achieving Cleanup Endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Lee, Michelle H.

    2013-02-24

    Current requirements for site remediation and closure are standards-based and are often overly conservative, costly, and in some cases, technically impractical. Use of risk-informed alternate endpoints provides a means to achieve remediation goals that are permitted by regulations and are protective of human health and the environment. Alternate endpoints enable the establishment of a path for cleanup that may include intermediate remedial milestones and transition points and/or regulatory alternatives to standards-based remediation. A framework is presented that is centered around developing and refining conceptual models in conjunction with assessing risks and potential endpoints as part of a system-based assessment that integrates site data with scientific understanding of processes that control the distribution and transport of contaminants in the subsurface and pathways to receptors. This system-based assessment and subsequent implementation of the remediation strategy with appropriate monitoring are targeted at providing a holistic approach to addressing risks to human health and the environment. This holistic approach also enables effective predictive analysis of contaminant behavior to provide defensible criteria and data for making long-term decisions. Developing and implementing an alternate endpoint-based approach for remediation and waste site closure presents a number of challenges and opportunities. Categories of these challenges include scientific and technical, regulatory, institutional, and budget and resource allocation issues. Opportunities exist for developing and implementing systems-based approaches with respect to supportive characterization, monitoring, predictive modeling, and remediation approaches.

  4. The IAU’s involvement in the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative: achievements and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    Since 2008 the IAU has worked with UNESCO and its advisory bodies to help recognise, promote and protect all types of astronomical heritage and to encourage nominations for World Heritage Sites relating to astronomy. I will review the main challenges and achievements so far, and suggest how the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative is likely to develop in the future.Among the main milestones are the first two in a series of Thematic Studies (Ruggles and Cotte, 2010; 2015 in press), which help to establish broad principles for assessing the “value”, and ultimately the potential “outstanding universal value”, of different types of astronomical heritage, and the Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy, linked to the World Heritage Centre’s own website, which helps to raise awareness about important astronomical heritage sites and facilitates the comparative studies that form an essential part of any nomination dossier. Among the most challenging issues for the IAU has been how to recognise and protect the value of the dark night sky at places connected with astronomy—whether ancient sites, indigenous cultural landscapes, or modern observatories. A very significant development for the future is the IAU’s involvement in the “upstream process” whereby, along with UNESCO's advisory bodies, it can enter into discussion with, and give advice to, national authorities considering potential nominations.ReferencesRuggles, C. and Cotte, M., eds (2010) Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy: a Thematic Study. ICOMOS-IAU, Paris.

  5. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  6. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  7. Addressing China’s grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J.; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  8. The achievements and challenges of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC).

    PubMed

    Sékétéli, A; Adeoye, G; Eyamba, A; Nnoruka, E; Drameh, P; Amazigo, U V; Noma, M; Agboton, F; Aholou, Y; Kale, O O; Dadzie, K Y

    2002-03-01

    The main strategy of APOC, of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), has enabled the programme to reach, empower and bring relief to remote and under-served, onchocerciasis-endemic communities. With CDTI, geographical and therapeutic coverages have increased substantially, in most areas, to the levels required to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public-health problem. Over 20 million people received treatment in 2000. APOC has also made effective use of the combination of the rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO) and geographical information systems (GIS), to provide information on the geographical distribution and prevalence of the disease. This has led to improvements in the identification of CDTI-priority areas, and in the estimates of the numbers of people to be treated. A unique public-private-sector partnership has been at the heart of APOC's relative success. Through efficient capacity-building, the programme's operations have positively influenced and strengthened the health services of participating countries. These laudable achievements notwithstanding, APOC faces many challenges during the second phase of its operations, when the full impact of the programme is expected to be felt. Notable among these challenges are the sustainability of CDTI, the strategy's effective integration into the healthcare system, and the full exploitation of its potential as an entry point for other health programmes. The channels created for CDTI, could, for example, help efforts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (which will feature on the agenda of many participating countries during APOC's Phase 2). However, these other programmes need to be executed without compromising the onchocerciasis-control programme itself. Success in meeting these challenges will depend on the continued, wholehearted commitment of all the partners involved, particularly that of the governments of the participating countries. PMID:12081247

  9. Correlation of in vitro challenge testing with consumer use testing for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Brannan, D K; Dille, J C; Kaufman, D J

    1987-08-01

    An in vitro microbial challenge test has been developed to predict the likelihood of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. The challenge test involved inoculating product at four concentrations (30, 50, 70, and 100%) with microorganisms known to contaminate cosmetics. Elimination of these microorganisms at each concentration was followed over a 28-day period. The test was used to classify products as poorly preserved, marginally preserved, or well preserved. Consumer use testing was then used to determine whether the test predicted the risk of actual consumer contamination. Products classified by the challenge test as poorly preserved returned 46 to 90% contaminated after use. Products classified by the challenge test as well preserved returned with no contamination. Marginally preserved products returned with 0 to 21% of the used units contaminated. As a result, the challenge test described can be accurately used to predict the risk of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. PMID:3662517

  10. Correlation of in vitro challenge testing with consumer use testing for cosmetic products.

    PubMed Central

    Brannan, D K; Dille, J C; Kaufman, D J

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro microbial challenge test has been developed to predict the likelihood of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. The challenge test involved inoculating product at four concentrations (30, 50, 70, and 100%) with microorganisms known to contaminate cosmetics. Elimination of these microorganisms at each concentration was followed over a 28-day period. The test was used to classify products as poorly preserved, marginally preserved, or well preserved. Consumer use testing was then used to determine whether the test predicted the risk of actual consumer contamination. Products classified by the challenge test as poorly preserved returned 46 to 90% contaminated after use. Products classified by the challenge test as well preserved returned with no contamination. Marginally preserved products returned with 0 to 21% of the used units contaminated. As a result, the challenge test described can be accurately used to predict the risk of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. PMID:3662517

  11. Achievement Testing of Disadvantaged and Minority Students for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Michael J., Ed.; Green, Donald Ross, Ed.

    The following papers were delivered: Introductory Remarks, John W. Evans; An Evaluator's Perspective, Michael J. Wargo; Problems of Achievement Tests in Program Evaluation, Donald Ross Green; Diverse Human Populations and Problems in Educational Program Evaluation via Achievement Testing, Edmund W. Gordon; Critical Issues in Achievement Testing of…

  12. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. PMID:21269682

  13. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened.

  14. Benefits and Challenges of Achieving a Mainstream Market for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ungar, Edward; Mueller, Howard; Smith, Brett

    2010-08-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study Final Report identified a range of policies, incentives and regulations designed to enhance the probability of success in commercializing PHEVs as they enter the automotive marketplace starting in 2010. The objective of the comprehensive PHEV Value Proposition study, which encompasses the PHEV Market Introduction Study, is to better understand the value proposition that PHEVs (as well as other plug-in electric vehicle platforms - PEVs) provide to the auto companies themselves, to the consumer and to the public at large as represented by the government and its public policies. In this report we use the more inclusive term PEVs, to include PHEVs, BEVs (battery electric vehicles that operate only on battery) and EREVs (extended range electric vehicles that combine battery electric vehicles with an internal combustion engine that charges the battery as needed). The objective of Taratec's contribution to Phase 2 of the PHEV Value Proposition Study is to develop a clear understanding of the benefits of PEVs to three stakeholders - auto original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), utilities, and the government - and of the technical and commercial challenges and risks to be overcome in order to achieve commercial success for these vehicles. The goal is to understand the technical and commercial challenges in moving from the 'early adopters' at the point of market introduction of these vehicles to a 'sustainable' mainstream market in which PEVs and other PEVs represent a normal, commercially available and attractive vehicle to the mainstream consumer. For the purpose of this study, that sustainable market is assumed to be in place in the 2030 timeframe. The principal focus of the study is to better understand the technical and commercial challenges in the transition from early adopters to a sustainable mainstream consumer market. Effectively, that translates to understanding the challenges to be overcome

  15. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Paul B; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Prigge, Molly B D; Cariello, Annahir N; Travers, Brittany G; Anderson, Jeffrey; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N = 31) were males ages 6-22 years (M = 15.2, SD = 4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M = 31.8 mo., SD = 4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT-3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time. PMID:25871566

  16. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY1, 2, 3

    PubMed Central

    JANTZ, PAUL B.; FROEHLICH, ALYSON L.; CARIELLO, ANNAHIR N.; ANDERSON, JEFFREY; ALEXANDER, ANDREW L.; BIGLER, ERIN D.; PRIGGE, MOLLY B. D.; TRAVERS, BRITTANY G.; ZIELINSKI, BRANDON A.; LANGE, NICHOLAS; LAINHART, JANET E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT–3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N=31) were males ages 6–22years (M=15.2, SD=4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N=185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M=31.8mo., SD=4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT–3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time. PMID:25871566

  17. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Paul B; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Prigge, Molly B D; Cariello, Annahir N; Travers, Brittany G; Anderson, Jeffrey; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N = 31) were males ages 6-22 years (M = 15.2, SD = 4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M = 31.8 mo., SD = 4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT-3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time.

  18. Measuring Student Achievement in Travel and Tourism. Sample Test Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Business Education.

    The sample test items included in this document are intended as a resource for teachers of Marketing and Distributive Education programs with emphasis on hospitality and recreation marketing, and tourism and travel services marketing. The related curriculum material has been published in the Travel and Tourism syllabus, an advanced-level module in…

  19. Curriculum and Testing Strategies to Maximize Special Education STAAR Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.; Johnson, Jared W.

    2015-01-01

    This document is from a presentation at the 2015 annual conference of the Science Teachers Association of Texas (STAT). The two sessions (each listed as feature sessions at the state conference) examined classroom strategies the presenter used in his chemistry classes to maximize Texas end-of-course chemistry test scores for his special population…

  20. The AMEG Commission Report on Sex Bias in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Esther E.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate a growing consciousness of the sex-bias issue on the part of most test publishers. Recommends that guidelines for editorial bias be issued for use by item writers, editors, and consultants. Where sex differences are found, separate normative information should be given. (Author)

  1. Testing Theories of Learning: Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Cool, Valerie A.

    Theories of school learning consistently point to variables such as ability, time (e.g., homework), quality of instruction, motivation, and academic coursework as important influences on learning. In this study, path analysis was used to test the direct and indirect effects of these variables on high school learning, with learning measured by both…

  2. The UK Government's global partnership programme - Its achievements over the past five years and challenges ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Heyes, Alan

    2007-07-01

    Through the Global Partnership the UK continues to make a significant contribution to improve national and global security. Over the past year the UK has continued to implement a wide range of projects across the breadth of its Global Partnership Programme. As well as ensuring the Programme is robust and capable of dealing with new challenges, the UK has cooperated with other donor countries to help them progress projects associated with submarine dismantling, scientist redirection, enhancing nuclear security and Chemical Weapons Destruction. The Global Partnership, although only five years old, has already achieved a great deal. Some 23 states, plus the European Union, are now working closer together under the Global Partnership, and collectively have enhanced global regional and national security by reducing the availability of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) materials and expertise to both states of concern and terrorists. Considerable progress has already been made in, for example: - Improving the security of fissile materials, dangerous biological agents and chemical weapons stocks; - Reducing the number of sites containing radioactive materials; - Working towards closure of reactors still producing weapon-grade plutonium; - Improving nuclear safety to reduce the risks of further, Chernobyl style accidents; - Constructing facilities for destroying Chemical Weapons stocks, and starting actual destruction; - Providing sustainable employment for former WMD scientists to reduce the risk that their expertise will be misused by states or terrorists. By contributing to many of these activities, the UK has helped to make the world safer. This paper reports on the UK's practical and sustainable contribution to the Global Partnership and identifies a number of challenges that remain if it is to have a wider impact on reducing the threats from WMD material. (authors)

  3. Achievements and challenges: Minister Peng on China's population situation and family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Peng, P

    1996-04-01

    This article summarizes two speeches made by Minister Peng Peiyun of the China State Family Planning Commission. The Minister discussed the achievements and the challenges during 1991-95 and expected goals for the Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000). The Minister indicated that all provinces fulfilled their population plans. 67.88 million births were added during 1991-95, but this number was 15.79 million lower than expected. The total fertility rate declined to under 2.0 children/woman in 1994. The rate of high-parity births declined from 19.32% in 1990 to 9.5% in 1994. The average age at first marriage increased from 22.12 years in 1990 to 22.73 years in 1994. Valuable lessons were learned and reported during the early 1990s. The most important lesson was that an integrated approach that linked services to improve productivity with family planning services was successful. The Integrated Approach that was practiced in the provinces of Jilin, Jiangsu, and Sichuan was successful in improving women's status, increasing family income, and developing the rural economy. These quality of life improvements helped to change traditional ideas about childbearing. This approach and the dissemination of positive outcomes was the subject of a conference held in October 1995. The challenges ahead for China include reducing the absolute size of a population that is increasing at the rate of 13 million annually. Present low fertility may be unstable due to the strong administrative constraints. Family planning effectiveness varies between more and less developed provinces. Seven less developed provinces still have a high birth rate: Guangxi, Hainan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. New problems will appear with the shift to a market economy. Before the year 2000 China must limit population size to under 1.3 billion, stabilize low fertility, shift the focus to the populous central west, target the floating population, and secure more funding.

  4. Achievements and challenges: Minister Peng on China's population situation and family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Peng, P

    1996-04-01

    This article summarizes two speeches made by Minister Peng Peiyun of the China State Family Planning Commission. The Minister discussed the achievements and the challenges during 1991-95 and expected goals for the Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000). The Minister indicated that all provinces fulfilled their population plans. 67.88 million births were added during 1991-95, but this number was 15.79 million lower than expected. The total fertility rate declined to under 2.0 children/woman in 1994. The rate of high-parity births declined from 19.32% in 1990 to 9.5% in 1994. The average age at first marriage increased from 22.12 years in 1990 to 22.73 years in 1994. Valuable lessons were learned and reported during the early 1990s. The most important lesson was that an integrated approach that linked services to improve productivity with family planning services was successful. The Integrated Approach that was practiced in the provinces of Jilin, Jiangsu, and Sichuan was successful in improving women's status, increasing family income, and developing the rural economy. These quality of life improvements helped to change traditional ideas about childbearing. This approach and the dissemination of positive outcomes was the subject of a conference held in October 1995. The challenges ahead for China include reducing the absolute size of a population that is increasing at the rate of 13 million annually. Present low fertility may be unstable due to the strong administrative constraints. Family planning effectiveness varies between more and less developed provinces. Seven less developed provinces still have a high birth rate: Guangxi, Hainan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. New problems will appear with the shift to a market economy. Before the year 2000 China must limit population size to under 1.3 billion, stabilize low fertility, shift the focus to the populous central west, target the floating population, and secure more funding. PMID:12347492

  5. Early skin and challenge testing after rocuronium anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Schulberg, E M; Webb, A R; Kolawole, H

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of early skin and challenge testing in a patient following severe anaphylaxis to rocuronium. The patient presented for semi-elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and developed anaphylaxis with severe cardiovascular collapse after induction of anaesthesia. Surgery was cancelled but was considered necessary before the recommended four to six weeks for formal allergy testing. Limited skin and challenge testing was performed to rocuronium and cisatracurium while the patient was in the intensive care unit to identify a safe neuromuscular blocking drug for subsequent early surgery. The subsequent surgery, 48 hours after the initial reaction, was uneventful. The case highlights the difficulties when anaesthetising patients with recent anaphylaxis who have not yet had formal allergy testing and presents a potential management strategy involving early skin testing. PMID:27246945

  6. Construct Validity of the Computerized Continuous Performance Test with Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…

  7. Helping Students Do Their Best on Standardized Achievement Tests. Bulletin No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Research and Evaluation Branch.

    The Research and Evaluation Branch of the Los Angeles Unified School District presents a bulletin to help prepare students to do their best on achievement tests. The bulletin is divided into five sections. After an introduction, section 2, "Characteristics of Today's Standardized Achievement Tests" discusses test content, test format, answer…

  8. Achieving Challenge Home in Affordable Housing in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Winter, B.; Allnutt, R.

    2014-08-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), one of the Building America research team leads, has partnered with two builders as they work through the Challenge Home certification process in one test home each. The builder partners participating in this cost-shared research are Southeast Volusia County Habitat for Humanity near Daytona, Florida and Manatee County Habitat for Humanity near Tampa, Florida. Both are affiliates of Habitat for Humanity International, a non-profit affordable housing organization. This research serves to identify viable technical pathways to meeting the CH criteria for other builders in the region. A further objective of this research is to identify gaps and barriers in the marketplace related to product availability, labor force capability, code issues, cost effectiveness, and business case issues that hinder or prevent broader adoption on a production scale.

  9. Achieving Challenge Home in Affordable Housing in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Winter, B.; Allnutt, R.

    2014-08-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), one of the Building America research team leads, has partnered with two builders as they work through the Challenge Home certification process (now Zero Energy Ready Home) in one test home each. The builder partners participating in this cost-shared research are Southeast Volusia County Habitat for Humanity near Daytona, Florida and Manatee County Habitat for Humanity near Tampa, Florida. Both are affiliates of Habitat for Humanity International, a non-profit affordable housing organization. This research serves to identify viable technical pathways to meeting the CH criteria for other builders in the region. A further objective of this research is to identify gaps and barriers in the marketplace related to product availability, labor force capability, code issues, cost effectiveness, and business case issues that hinder or prevent broader adoption on a production scale.

  10. "Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

  11. Achieving universal health coverage in France: policy reforms and the challenge of inequalities.

    PubMed

    Nay, Olivier; Béjean, Sophie; Benamouzig, Daniel; Bergeron, Henri; Castel, Patrick; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-05-28

    Since 1945, the provision of health care in France has been grounded in a social conception promoting universalism and equality. The French health-care system is based on compulsory social insurance funded by social contributions, co-administered by workers' and employers' organisations under State control and driven by highly redistributive financial transfers. This system is described frequently as the French model. In this paper, the first in The Lancet's Series on France, we challenge conventional wisdom about health care in France. First, we focus on policy and institutional transformations that have affected deeply the governance of health care over past decades. We argue that the health system rests on a diversity of institutions, policy mechanisms, and health actors, while its governance has been marked by the reinforcement of national regulation under the aegis of the State. Second, we suggest the redistributive mechanisms of the health insurance system are impeded by social inequalities in health, which remain major hindrances to achieving objectives of justice and solidarity associated with the conception of health care in France. PMID:27145707

  12. Prognostic value of acetylcholine challenge test: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Q T; Mur, J M; Chau, N; Gabiano, M; Henquel, J C; Teculescu, D

    1984-01-01

    Eleven hundred and nine iron mine workers aged 35 to 55 with normal chest radiographs were submitted to a pulmonary examination consisting of a questionnaire, a clinical examination, and pulmonary function testing including an acetylcholine challenge test. A positive response (decrease of FEV1 of more than 10%) was observed in 210 subjects (Ace+). The remaining 899 had a negative response (Ace-). Bronchitis, asthma, dyspnoea, and obstructive syndrome were more frequent in the Ace+ group. Five years later, 820 subjects were reexamined: occasional cough and sputum and chronic bronchitis appeared more frequently among subjects without symptoms at the first examination but with a positive acetylcholine challenge test. The obstructive syndrome was more often observed and regressed more rarely in the Ace+ group. The results confirm the use of a test of bronchial hyperreactivity as a means of identifying subjects at risk from chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:6722054

  13. Drug-Free Schools: A National Challenge. Drug Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The ERIC Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    "The ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This inaugural issue contains two principal articles: "Drug-Free Schools: A National Challenge," by Samuel Y. Fustukjian, and "Drug Testing," by Amy Klauke and Margaret Hadderman. In addition, the following major features concerned…

  14. A challenge to fitness testing in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Naughton, G A; Carlson, J S; Greene, D A

    2006-05-01

    We challenge the tradition of fitness testing in schools on the basis of purpose, procedures and outcomes. A number of assumptions about validity of selected tests are raised. The need to be able to track fitness through childhood into adulthood is challenged with limited scientific evidence of longitudinal tracking. Supporters of wide-scale fitness testing of children in schools include researchers whose intention is to promote public health awareness and policy. But a variety of confounding factors can affect field-based testing and lower the confidence in intra and inter group comparisons. Confounders include variability in motivation, familiarisation, external conditions, group dynamics, self-efficacy in testing, and perceived value of testing and likely outcomes. With acknowledged limitations, a more appropriate context for fitness testing for young people who have a strong commitment to physical activity may lie more in a professionally delivered sports-specific setting rather than in large-scale school-based testing. Given the less than desirable participation in activity outside of school and the distressing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, it is unlikely that fitness testing experiences will provide children with much needed positive encouragement for lifelong physical activity. Alternative strategies for school-based assessment of the promotion of child health through physical activity are proposed.

  15. Promoting Space Education and Awareness in Pakistan- Initiatives, Achievements, Challenges and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagirani, Aisha

    With about 180 million inhabitants, Pakistan is the sixth most populous and the 34th largest country in the world in terms of area. Pakistan's economy, which is pre-dominantly based on agriculture, is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP. Pakistan is counted among the Next Eleven (N11) countries that have the potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century. Despite considerable potential to develop into a stable, moderate and democratic state, major challenges of internal security, poor agricultural productivity, inadequate infrastructure, food insecurity, insufficient health and educational facilities, depletion of natural resources, rapid environmental degradation and recurring natural disasters have burdened the country and have hampered sustainable development of Pakistan. Space technology applications offer a cost-effective means of addressing many of the above mentioned issues and have made impressive advances in the last few years in different countries in the region. Unfortunately, for various reasons, Pakistan has not been able to fully exploit the benefits of space technology and its applications to meet the challenges she faces. One of the reasons is lack of awareness and understanding by planners, decision-makers and users about the potential benefits of space technology in planning and implementation of developmental plans as well as good governance. Similarly, Pakistan's space program enjoys little public support due, primarily, to lack of awareness of the benefits space offers and the ubiquitousness of space applications in modern life. There is thus an acute need to create awareness and educate all segments of the society and stakeholders in Pakistan about the potential benefits of space technology and its applications. In the past ten years, many initiatives have been taken to promote space education and awareness for students as well as decision-makers in

  16. The Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) as a Predictor of Third-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichta, Lawrence J., Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated the Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) using a sample of 28 third graders. The third graders' scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test were correlated with their total STAR scores from prekindergarten testing. Results showed the STAR is a useful instrument for predicting third grade achievement. (Author/JAC)

  17. Relationships between Chronological Age, Developmental Age, and Standardized Achievement Tests in Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freberg, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated chronological age and results of Gesell School Readiness Test as predictors of kindergarten performance as measured by Stanford Achievement Test. Results from 284 kindergarten children indicated that both chronological and developmental age provided good predictors of Stanford Achievement Test performance in kindergarten. Findings have…

  18. Modeling and simulation of protein-surface interactions: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ozboyaci, Musa; Kokh, Daria B; Corni, Stefano; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding protein-inorganic surface interactions is central to the rational design of new tools in biomaterial sciences, nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Although a significant amount of experimental research on protein adsorption onto solid substrates has been reported, many aspects of the recognition and interaction mechanisms of biomolecules and inorganic surfaces are still unclear. Theoretical modeling and simulations provide complementary approaches for experimental studies, and they have been applied for exploring protein-surface binding mechanisms, the determinants of binding specificity towards different surfaces, as well as the thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption. Although the general computational approaches employed to study the dynamics of proteins and materials are similar, the models and force-fields (FFs) used for describing the physical properties and interactions of material surfaces and biological molecules differ. In particular, FF and water models designed for use in biomolecular simulations are often not directly transferable to surface simulations and vice versa. The adsorption events span a wide range of time- and length-scales that vary from nanoseconds to days, and from nanometers to micrometers, respectively, rendering the use of multi-scale approaches unavoidable. Further, changes in the atomic structure of material surfaces that can lead to surface reconstruction, and in the structure of proteins that can result in complete denaturation of the adsorbed molecules, can create many intermediate structural and energetic states that complicate sampling. In this review, we address the challenges posed to theoretical and computational methods in achieving accurate descriptions of the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of protein-surface systems. In this context, we discuss the applicability of different modeling and simulation techniques ranging from quantum mechanics through all-atom molecular mechanics to coarse

  19. Using Achievement Tests/SAT® II: Subject Tests to Demonstrate Achievement and Predict College Grades: Sex, Language, Ethnic, and Parental Education Groups. Research Report No. 2001-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramist, Leonard; Lewis, Charles; McCamley-Jenkins, Laura

    2001-01-01

    There has been increased interest in emphasizing Achievement Tests, as SAT II: Subject Tests, for use in admission and placement. In this report, data was obtained from a comprehensive database of categorized course grades for a large number and great variety of colleges, with student groups identified. For each student group, the percentage of…

  20. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of Consortium for Advanced Residential Building's (CARB’s) multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  1. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    ​While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  2. HIV and Hepatitis Testing: Global Progress, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Philippa; Johnson, Cheryl; Figueroa, Carmen; Baggaley, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection and viral hepatitis due to HBV and HCV infection are major causes of chronic disease worldwide, and share some common routes of transmission, epidemiology, initial barriers faced in treatment access, and in strategies for a global public health response. Testing and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection is the gateway for access to both care and treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective HIV and hepatitis epidemic response. In this review article, we first summarize the common goals and guiding principles in a public health approach to HIV and hepatitis testing. We summarize the impressive global progress in HIV testing scale-up and evolution of approaches, with expansion of provider-initiated testing and counseling in clinical settings (particularly antenatal and tuberculosis clinics), the introduction of more community based testing services, and use of rapid diagnostic tests enabling provision of same-day test results. However, 46% of all people living with HIV are still unaware of their serostatus, and many continue to be diagnosed and start antiretroviral therapy late. As testing and treatment scale-up accelerates for an "treat all" approach, other challenges to address include how to better focus testing and reach those yet undiagnosed and most at risk, especially key populations, men, adolescents, and children. We summarize future directions in HIV testing to speed scale-up and close gaps that are addressed in the WHO 2015 consolidated HIV testing guidelines. In contrast to HIV, action in hepatitis testing and treatment has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. We summarize key challenges in the hepatitis testing response, including lack of simple, reliable, and low-cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to screen; stigmatization and social

  3. Scaling up the national methadone maintenance treatment program in China: achievements and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wenyuan; Hao, Yang; Sun, Xinhua; Gong, Xiuli; Li, Fang; Li, Jianhua; Rou, Keming; Sullivan, Sheena G; Wang, Changhe; Cao, Xiaobin; Luo, Wei; Wu, Zunyou

    2010-01-01

    China’s methadone maintenance treatment program was initiated in 2004 as a small pilot project in just eight sites. It has since expanded into a nationwide program encompassing more than 680 clinics covering 27 provinces and serving some 242 000 heroin users by the end of 2009. The agencies that were tasked with the program’s expansion have been confronted with many challenges, including high drop-out rates, poor cooperation between local governing authorities and poor service quality at the counter. In spite of these difficulties, ongoing evaluation has suggested reductions in heroin use, risky injection practices and, importantly, criminal behaviours among clients, which has thus provided the impetus for further expansion. Clinic services have been extended to offer clients a range of ancillary services, including HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C testing, information, education and communication, psychosocial support services and referrals for treatment of HIV, tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases. Cooperation between health and public security officials has improved through regular meetings and dialogue. However, institutional capacity building is still needed to deliver sustainable and standardized services that will ultimately improve retention rates. This article documents the steps China made in overcoming the many barriers to success of its methadone program. These lessons might be useful for other countries in the region that are scaling-up their methadone programs. PMID:21113034

  4. Primary Mental Abilities and Metropolitan Readiness Tests as Predictors of Achievement in the First Primary Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The prediction of achievement provides teachers with necessary information to help children attain optimal achievement. If some skill prerequistites to learning which are not fully developed can be identified and strengthened, higher levels of achievement may result. The Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) are routinely given to all University City…

  5. Caffeine challenge test and panic disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Vilarim, Marina Machado; Rocha Araujo, Daniele Marano; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2011-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the results of studies that have investigated the induction of panic attacks and/or the anxiogenic effect of the caffeine challenge test in patients with panic disorder. The literature search was performed in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The words used for the search were caffeine, caffeine challenge test, panic disorder, panic attacks and anxiety disorder. In total, we selected eight randomized, double-blind studies where caffeine was administered orally, and none of them controlled for confounding factors in the analysis. The percentage of loss during follow-up ranged between 14.3% and 73.1%. The eight studies all showed a positive association between caffeine and anxiogenic effects and/or panic disorder.

  6. The Challenge of Separating Effects of Simultaneous Education Projects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Ma, Lingling

    2009-01-01

    When multiple education projects operate in an overlapping or rear-ended manner, it is always a challenge to separate unique project effects on schooling outcomes. Our analysis represents a first attempt to address this challenge. A three-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) was presented as a general analytical framework to separate program…

  7. SIM instrument integration and test challenges: PKT & FAST testbed influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosdat, Helmuth; Duncan, Alan L.

    2003-02-01

    At first glance the SIM concept seems deceptively simple. After all, its primary task is just to lock two interferometers on to a couple of bright guide stars and let the third integrate photons from a dim 'science' star to gather astrometric data. The difficulty is of course in the details of the performance requirements and overall integration and test risk associated with their verification. The challenge is to provide a meaningful verification of the SIM functionality on the ground that can be extrapolated to show satisfaction of the on-orbit performance requirements. The associated difficulties relate to the ability to provide a reasonable simulation of (1) the space environment with all the implications and (2) the creation of simulated target stars for each interferometer input optics that meet the associated wave front characteristic and star position knowledge requirements. The difficulty and complexity of the simulation of target stars itself is a major development challenge and program risk. In order to reduce this risk early development test beds are created to evolve the optical verification concept and build the actual devices needed for the flight system performance evaluation. The role of the PKT and FAST (Flight System Astrometric Test bed) test beds and their influence on flight integration risk reduction and test process is presented.

  8. Challenges to Integrating Pharmacogenetic Testing into Medication Therapy Management

    PubMed Central

    Allen LaPointe, Nancy M.; Moaddeb, Jivan

    2015-01-01

    Background Some have proposed the integration of pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing into medication therapy management (MTM) to enable further refinement of treatment(s) to reduce risk of adverse responses and improve efficacy. PGx testing involves the analysis of genetic variants associated with therapeutic or adverse response and may be useful in enhancing the ability to identify ineffective and/or harmful drugs or drug combinations. This “enhanced” MTM might also reduce patient concerns about side effects and increase confidence that the medication is effective, addressing two key factors that impact patient adherence - concern and necessity. However, the feasibility and effectiveness of the integration of PGx testing into MTM in clinical practice has not yet been determined. Objectives In this paper, we consider some of the challenges to the integration and delivery of PGx testing in MTM services. What is already known about this subject While the addition of pharmacogenetic testing has been suggested, little literature exists exploring the challenges or feasibility of doing so. PMID:25803768

  9. Relationships between Gender and Alberta Achievement Test Scores during a Four-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Gregory A.; Wentzel, Carolyn; Braden, Brigitta; Anderson, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate statistical relationships between gender and Alberta Achievement Testing Program scores. Achievement test scores from grades 3, 6, and 9 in all subject areas were investigated during a four-year period. Results showed statistically significant positive correlations between gender and scores in most…

  10. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  11. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  12. The National Conference on Achievement Testing and Basic Skills. March 1-3, 1978. Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Extracts from the papers and position statements presented at the National Conference on Achievement Testing and Basic Skills are provided in an attempt to capture both the diversity and the consensus among the participants. Six sessions are summarized: (1) achievement tests and basic skills: the issues and the setting--by Harold Howe II; (2)…

  13. Grade 9 English Language Arts, Student Achievement Testing Program, 1985-86 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for both teachers and students, this bulletin presents specific information about the design, parts, and scoring of the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test for the 1985-86 school year in Alberta, Canada. General information is presented regarding the (1) purpose and nature of the Achievement Testing Program (ATP), (2) students…

  14. Health Instruction Packages: Test-Taking Strategies for the N. L. N. (National League of Nursing) Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Leslie Miller

    As an informational aid for students who are planning to take NLN (National League of Nursing) Achievement Tests, the text and accompanying exercises in this module describe NLN testing procedures and fundamental test-taking skills. After introductory material discussing the importance of mastering test-taking skills, the module describes how to…

  15. Atlanta Public Schools' 1980 Achievement Testing Program: A Year of Test Adoption. Report No. 16-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Public Schools, GA. Div. of Research, Evaluation, and Data Processing.

    This document reports on the procedures and results of the Atlanta Public Schools (APS) testing program in changing from the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS), administered to grades 1 through 7 from 1973-79, to the California Achievement Tests (CAT), Form C, administered in Spring 1980 to provide a continuous testing program from the elementary…

  16. Zambian Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Views on Chemistry Education Goals and Challenges for Achieving Them in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Asiana; Mumba, Frackson; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Zambian preservice chemistry teachers' views on the goals of chemistry education, the importance of the goals, and challenges for achieving them in schools. The study sample was comprised of 59 pre-service chemistry teachers at the University of Zambia. Data were collected using a modified Likert-scale questionnaire that…

  17. Understanding the Self-Directed Online Learning Preferences, Goals, Achievements, and Challenges of MIT OpenCourseWare Subscribers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Kou, Xiaojing; Xu, Shuya; Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2015-01-01

    This research targeted the learning preferences, goals and motivations, achievements, challenges, and possibilities for life change of self-directed online learners who subscribed to the monthly OpenCourseWare (OCW) e-newsletter from MIT. Data collection included a 25-item survey of 1,429 newsletter subscribers; 613 of whom also completed an…

  18. It's Not Just "What" You Say: Verbal and Nonverbal Skills Help Leaders Address Challenges and Achieve Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoller, Kendall; Lahera, Antonia Issa; Normore, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a story about two school leaders in a large Southern California urban district who used skills developed in a university school leadership program to create rapport, empathy, and trust while leading through challenging situations and achieving actionable outcomes. In addition to developing relationships in support of…

  19. Progressive Achievement Tests in Reading: Comprehension & Vocabulary. Teacher's Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The teacher handbook for Progressive Achievement Tests (PATs) in Reading presents an overall description of these survey tests in reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge for school years 3 to 9. There are two alternative forms of each test: (1) the Reading Comprehension tests are designed to measure two major aspects of reading skills…

  20. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  1. Using Achievement Tests to Measure Language Assimilation and Language Bias among the Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akresh, Richard; Akresh, Ilana Redstone

    2011-01-01

    We measure the extent of language assimilation among children of Hispanic immigrants. Our identification strategy exploits test language randomization (English or Spanish) of Woodcock Johnson achievement tests in the New Immigrant Survey and lets us attribute test score differences solely to test language. Students scoring poorly may be tracked…

  2. Validity Considerations in the Assessment of LEP Students Using Standardized Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal

    Validity and reliability issues in standardized testing of students of limited English proficiency (LEP) were studied. Existing data from four different school sites were obtained for LEP and non-LEP students for three different standardized tests, the Stanford Achievement Tests (Ninth edition), the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, and the Language…

  3. Assessment of Local HOx and ROx Measurement Techniques: Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions - Outcomes from the International HOx Workshop 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Heard, Dwayne

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of HOx radicals are an important tool for the investigation of tropospheric chemistry in field campaigns and simulation chamber experiments. The measured data allow us to test chemical models simulating the atmospheric concentrations of OH, HO2 and RO2, and help to improve chemical mechanisms used in regional and global models for predictions of the atmospheric chemical composition. In Spring 2015, an international, IGAC-endorsed workshop took place at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, to assess the performance and reliability of current HOx measurement techniques. Fifteen international groups from Germany, UK, Ireland, France, Finland, USA, China and Japan came together to discuss achievements, challenges and future directions of laser-based, mass-spectrometry based, and chemical techniques. Following the discussions, a working group was established to guide the community in the near future in making progress on continued improvement in HOx measurements. Three goals will be persued: the development of a common calibration unit, the development of procedures to investigate and, if necessary, eliminate possible measurement artefacts, and planning for future instrumental intercomparisons. This poster contribution will give an overview of the workshop, its outcome and planned activites.

  4. History, achievements, and future challenges of Japanse Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaki, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    established East and Southeast Asian Federation of Soil Science Societies (ESAFS) in 1991. Since the early 1990s the research topics have become more related to the global as well as regional environmental issues. Major achievements in the history of the society may include 1) development of research particularly on paddy soils and volcanic ash soils, 2) consistent commitment to the education for constructing sustainable society, and 3) international cooperation in improving rice production in the developing countries particularly in Tropical Asia. Today 2,699 members are registered in the society, which includes 9 divisions and holds an annual meeting every year. Two journals are bimonthly published, i.e. "Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition" in Japanese and "SSPN" in English and the latter was recognized as a cooperating journal of IUSS in 2010. Future challenges of the society are 1) more commitment to international organizations, e.g. EGU in addition to IUSS, ESAFS and other soil-based communities, 2) enhancement of international cooperation for developing countries not only in Asia but also Africa, and 3) acceleration of soils research and education in association with related disciplines for constructing a holistically harmonized society on the planet earth.

  5. Verification Challenges of Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winnitoy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Six Degree-of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS) is a test facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas for performing dynamic verification of space structures and hardware. Some examples of past and current tests include the verification of on-orbit robotic inspection systems, space vehicle assembly procedures and docking/berthing systems. The facility is able to integrate a dynamic simulation of on-orbit spacecraft mating or demating using flight-like mechanical interface hardware. A force moment sensor is utilized for input to the simulation during the contact phase, thus simulating the contact dynamics. While the verification of flight hardware presents many unique challenges, one particular area of interest is with respect to the use of external measurement systems to ensure accurate feedback of dynamic contact. There are many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) measurement systems available on the market, and the test facility measurement systems have evolved over time to include two separate COTS systems. The first system incorporates infra-red sensing cameras, while the second system employs a laser interferometer to determine position and orientation data. The specific technical challenges with the measurement systems in a large dynamic environment include changing thermal and humidity levels, operational area and measurement volume, dynamic tracking, and data synchronization. The facility is located in an expansive high-bay area that is occasionally exposed to outside temperature when large retractable doors at each end of the building are opened. The laser interferometer system, in particular, is vulnerable to the environmental changes in the building. The operational area of the test facility itself is sizeable, ranging from seven meters wide and five meters deep to as much as seven meters high. Both facility measurement systems have desirable measurement volumes and the accuracies vary

  6. Challenges of the Cassini Test Bed Simulating the Saturnian Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Juan C.; Badaruddin, Kareem S.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a joint NASA and European Space Agency (ESA) mission to collect scientific data of the Saturnian system and is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). After having arrived in Saturn orbit and releasing the ESA's Huygens probe for a highly successful descent and landing mission on Saturn's moon Titan, the Cassini orbiter continues on its tour of Saturn, its satellites, and the Saturnian environment. JPL's Cassini Integrated Test laboratory (ITL) is a dedicated high fidelity test bed that verifies and validates command sequences and flight software before upload to the Cassini spacecraft. The ITL provides artificial stimuli that allow a highly accurate hardware-in-the-loop test bed model that tests the operation of the Cassini spacecraft on the ground. This enables accurate prediction and recreation of mission events and flight software and hardware behavior. As we discovered more about the Saturnian environment, a combination of creative test methods and simulation changes were necessary to simulate the harmful effect that the optical and physical environment has on the pointing performance of Cassini. This paper presents the challenges experienced and overcome in that endeavor to simulate and test the post Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) and Probe Relay tour phase of the Cassini mission.

  7. Test Review: Schrank, F. A., Mather, N., & McGrew, K. S. (2014). Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV ACH; Schrank, Mather, & McGrew, 2014a) is an individually administered measure containing tests of reading, mathematics, written language, and academic knowledge. Areas of reading, mathematics, and written language each include tests of basic skills, fluency, and application. Academic…

  8. A Review of Large-Scale "How Much Information?" Inventories: Variations, Achievements and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pressed by the increasing social importance of digital information, including the current attention given to the "big data paradigm", several research projects have taken up the challenge to quantify the amount of technologically mediated information. Method: This meta-study reviews the eight most important inventories in a…

  9. A Challenge for Culturally Diverse Families of Gifted Children: Forced Choices between Achievement or Affiliation. Multicultural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna

    2004-01-01

    Parents and educators must recognize that culturally diverse students are gifted and culturally diverse. Like gifted students, they need to have their abilities recognized and they need to be challenged. Like diverse students, they need to have their culture (e.g., values, traditions, customs, etc.) acknowledged, respected, and otherwise affirmed.…

  10. Inclusion in High-Achieving Singapore: Challenges of Building an Inclusive Society in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Zachary; Musti-Rao, Shobana

    2016-01-01

    Building an inclusive society in which all people can participate effectively and live together requires understanding inclusive education and its impact on the social order. As countries of different regions face the vast array of challenges unique to their educational systems, it becomes apparent that inclusive societies are intricately tied to…

  11. Challenging the Achievement Gap by Disrupting Concepts of "Normalcy." The Complete Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draxton, Shawna; Radley, Kirstee; Murphy, Joanne; Nevin, Ann; Nishimura, Trisha; Hagge, Darla; Taniform, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    We propose that Disability Studies in Education (DSE) offers a framework that (a) grounds policy and practice in the experiences and perspectives of people with disabilities, (c) challenges practices/ policy that isolate, de-humanize individuals, and (c) leads to new questions to pose. In this session, we describe the pedagogy that we used to…

  12. Challenges and Achievements of American Education. 1993 Yearbook of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon, Ed.

    This yearbook, a retrospective and prospective exploration of educational change, focuses on the challenges of curriculum, instructional supervision, and leadership for education in the United States. The yearbook opens with a foreword by Stephanie Pace Marshall, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) President, 1992-93, and…

  13. Conceptualizing Openness to Diversity and Challenge: Its Relation to College Experiences, Achievement, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Openness to diversity and challenge (ODC) constitutes an integral outcome of the undergraduate experience. However, ODC may also serve as a form of generalized openness to experience; if so, then it should be positively related to a host of college experiences as well as student success. The study reported here explored this possibility within a…

  14. Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

    2010-01-01

    This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

  15. Demands on Users for Interpretation of Achievement Test Scores: Implications for the Evaluation Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Piana, Gabriel Mario; Gardner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Professional standards for validity of achievement tests have long reflected a consensus that validity is the degree to which evidence and theory support interpretations of test scores entailed by the intended uses of tests. Yet there are convincing lines of evidence that the standards are not adequately followed in practice, that…

  16. Auditory Automotive Mechanics Diagnostic Achievement Test. Center Technical Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Richard Arthur

    The Auditory Automotive Mechanics Diagnostic Achievement Test assesses an automobile mechanic's ability to determine mechanical faults from auditory cues alone. The 44-item test and its instructions are recorded on magnetic tape; answer choices are presented on tape, and are also written in the printed test booklets. The norming and validity…

  17. Target Achievement Control Test: evaluating real-time myoelectric pattern-recognition control of multifunctional upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J; Lock, Blair A; Kuiken, Todd A

    2011-01-01

    Despite high classification accuracies (~95%) of myoelectric control systems based on pattern recognition, how well offline measures translate to real-time closed-loop control is unclear. Recently, a real-time virtual test analyzed how well subjects completed arm motions using a multiple-degree of freedom (DOF) classifier. Although this test provided real-time performance metrics, the required task was oversimplified: motion speeds were normalized and unintended movements were ignored. We included these considerations in a new, more challenging virtual test called the Target Achievement Control Test (TAC Test). Five subjects with transradial amputation attempted to move a virtual arm into a target posture using myoelectric pattern recognition, performing the test with various classifier (1- vs 3-DOF) and task complexities (one vs three required motions per posture). We found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the 1- and 3-DOF classifiers (97.2% +/- 2.0% and 94.1% +/- 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.14). Subjects completed 31% fewer trials in significantly more time using the 3-DOF classifier and took 3.6 +/- 0.8 times longer to reach a three-motion posture compared with a one-motion posture. These results highlight the need for closed-loop performance measures and demonstrate that the TAC Test is a useful and more challenging tool to test real-time pattern-recognition performance.

  18. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes. National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A.

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified by researchers from four national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes.

  19. Challenges for regulating the private health services in India for achieving universal health care.

    PubMed

    Baru, Rama V

    2013-01-01

    Commercial interests pose a serious challenge for universalizing health-care. This is because "for-profit" health-care privileges individual responsibility and choice over principles of social solidarity. This fundamentally opposing tendency raises ethical dilemmas for designing a health service that is universal and equitable. It is an inadequate to merely state the need for regulating the private sector, the key questions relate to what must be done and how to do it. This paper identifies the challenges to regulating the private health services in India. It argues that regulation has been fragmented and largely driven by the center. Given the diversity of the private sector and health being a state subject, regulating this sector is fraught with the technical and socio-political factors.

  20. Comparison of the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test and Bender-Gestalt: Relationship with Achievement Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald B.; Wallbrown, Fred H.

    1983-01-01

    Compared the Bender Gestalt (BD) and Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) in predicting academic achievement for younger children (N=69). Results suggested that the MPD is more sensitive than the Bender in identifying visual-motor perception areas of achievement performance problems. (LLL)

  1. The Role of Achievement Goals in Online Test Anxiety and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yan; Taylor, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of achievement goals in online test anxiety and help-seeking while controlling for self-efficacy and potential demographic differences. A total of 150 online students participated in the survey. Separate hierarchical regression analysis results suggested the differential roles of achievement goals…

  2. Refugee Children in South Africa: Access and Challenges to Achieving Universal Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meda, L.; Sookrajh, R.; Maharaj, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper questions whether the second Millennium Development Goal of achieving universal primary education targets by 2015 for all children to complete a full course of primary schooling, can be realised. A key contention of this paper is that this forecast is far-fetched when we take into cognizance refugee children's accessibility to…

  3. Primary Progress, Secondary Challenge: A State-by-State Look at Student Achievement Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Daria; Kennedy, Shana

    2006-01-01

    The findings of this analysis represent cause for both optimism and concern. In most states, schools and systems are raising achievement and closing gaps, especially in the elementary grades. But in far too many states, they are struggling to educate students, especially low-income and minority students, to middle and high school standards.…

  4. Success in Higher Education: The Challenge to Achieve Academic Standing and Social Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Life, James

    2015-01-01

    When students look at their classmates in the classroom, consciously or unconsciously, they see competitors both for academic recognition and social success. How do they fit in relation to others and how do they succeed in achieving both? Traditional views on the drive to succeed and the fear of failure are well known as motivators for achieving…

  5. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Margaret

    2010-12-31

    Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  6. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    PubMed

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter.

  7. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  8. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  9. Meeting the Challenge: The Prospect of Achieving 30 Percent Savings Through the Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.

    2002-05-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program has been installing energy-efficiency measures in low-income houses for over 25 years, achieving savings exceeding 30 percent of natural gas used for space heating. Recently, as part of its Weatherization Plus initiative, the Weatherization Assistance Program adopted the goal of achieving 30 percent energy savings for all household energy usage. The expansion of the Weatherization Assistance Program to include electric baseload components such as lighting and refrigerators provides additional opportunities for saving energy and meeting this ambitious goal. This report documents an Oak Ridge National Laboratory study that examined the potential savings that could be achieved by installing various weatherization measures in different types of dwellings throughout the country. Three different definitions of savings are used: (1) reductions in pre-weatherization expenditures; (2) savings in the amount of energy consumed at the house site, regardless of fuel type (''site Btus''); and (3) savings in the total amount of energy consumed at the source (''source Btus''), which reflects the fact that each Btu* of electricity consumed at the household level requires approximately three Btus to produce at the generation source. In addition, the effects of weatherization efforts on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are examined.

  10. Achieving Sustainability Goals for Urban Coasts in the US Northeast: Research Needs and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Close, Sarah L.; Montalto, Franco; Orton, Philip; Antoine, Adrienne; Peters, Danielle; Jones, Hunter; Parris, Adam; Blumberg, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of Hurricane Sandy and other recent extreme events, urban coastal communities in the northeast region of the United States are beginning or stepping up efforts to integrate climate adaptation and resilience into long-term coastal planning. Natural and nature-based shoreline strategies have emerged as essential components of coastal resilience and are frequently cited by practitioners, scientists, and the public for the wide range of ecosystem services they can provide. However, there is limited quantitative information associating particular urban shoreline design strategies with specific levels of ecosystem service provision, and research on this issue is not always aligned with decision context and decision-maker needs. Engagement between the research community, local government officials and sustainability practitioners, and the non-profit and private sectors can help bridge these gaps. A workshop to bring together these groups discussed research gaps and challenges in integrating ecosystem services into urban sustainability planning in the urban northeast corridor. Many themes surfaced repeatedly throughout workshop deliberations, including the challenges associated with ecosystem service valuation, the transferability of research and case studies within and outside the region, and the opportunity for urban coastal areas to be a focal point for education and outreach efforts related to ecosystem services.

  11. Achieving Metabolic Flux Analysis for S. cerevisiae at a Genome-Scale: Challenges, Requirements, and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Saratram; Maranas, Costas D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in 13C-Metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) have increased its capability to accurately resolve fluxes using a genome-scale model with narrow confidence intervals without pre-judging the activity or inactivity of alternate metabolic pathways. However, the necessary precautions, computational challenges, and minimum data requirements for successful analysis remain poorly established. This review aims to establish the necessary guidelines for performing 13C-MFA at the genome-scale for a compartmentalized eukaryotic system such as yeast in terms of model and data requirements, while addressing key issues such as statistical analysis and network complexity. We describe the various approaches used to simplify the genome-scale model in the absence of sufficient experimental flux measurements, the availability and generation of reaction atom mapping information, and the experimental flux and metabolite labeling distribution measurements to ensure statistical validity of the obtained flux distribution. Organism-specific challenges such as the impact of compartmentalization of metabolism, variability of biomass composition, and the cell-cycle dependence of metabolism are discussed. Identification of errors arising from incorrect gene annotation and suggested alternate routes using MFA are also highlighted. PMID:26393660

  12. Achieving Reproducible Performance of Electrochemical, Folding Aptamer-Based Sensors on Microelectrodes: Challenges and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Combining specific recognition capabilities with the excellent spatiotemporal resolution of small electrodes represents a promising methodology in bioanalytical and chemical sensing. In this paper, we report the development of reproducible electrochemical, aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors on a gold microelectrode platform. Specifically, we develop microscale sensors (25 μm diameter) for two representative small molecule targets–adenosine triphosphate and tobramycin. Furthermore, we report on the challenges encountered at this size scale including small-magnitude signals and interference from the irreversible reduction of dissolved oxygen and present methods to circumvent these challenges. Through the electrochemical deposition of dendritic gold nanostructures, we demonstrate microscale sensors with improved performance by increasing signal-to-noise and consequently sensitivity. Finally, we report on the use of the nonspecific adsorption of serum proteins as an additional layer of surface passivation for stable sensor performance. The sensor development here represents general guidelines for fabricating electrochemical, folding aptamer-based sensors on small-scale electrodes. PMID:25337781

  13. Introducing Diagnosis-Related Groups in Kazakhstan: Evolution, achievements, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Chanturidze, Tata; Esau, Mike; Hölzer, Simon; Richardson, Erica

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, Kazakhstan introduced Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs), as part of a package of reforms which sought to contain costs and to improve efficiency and transparency in the health system; but the main challenge was to design and implement a DRG system in just one year. In 2011-2012, Kazakhstan developed its own DRG system. Initially 180 DRGs were defined to group inpatient cases but this number was subsequently expanded to more than 400. Because of time limits, the cost weights had to be derived in the absence of existing standard hospital cost accounting systems, and a national patient data transfer system also needed developing. Most importantly, huge efforts were needed to develop a regulatory framework and build up DRG capabilities at a national level. The implementation of DRGs was facilitated by strong political will for their introduction as part of a coherent package of health reforms, and consolidated efforts to build capacity. DRGs are now the key payment mechanism for hospitals. However the reforms are not fully institutionalized: the DRG structure is continuously being refined in a context of data limitations, and the revision of cost weights is most affected by insufficient data and the lack of standardized reporting mechanisms. Capacity around DRG coding is also still being developed. Countries planning to introduce DRG systems should be aware of the challenges in moving too quickly to implement DRGs as the main hospital reimbursement mechanism. PMID:27496156

  14. Classroom attributes and achievement test scores for deaf and hard of hearing students.

    PubMed

    Holt, J

    1994-10-01

    This study examined reading comprehension and mathematics computation achievement of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in a variety of school settings. Data were collected by Gallaudet University's Center for Assessment and Demographic Studies during its 1990 standardization of the 8th Edition Stanford Achievement Test. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the relationships among achievement scores, classroom attributes, and demographic factors associated with achievement. Based on the results of this study, inclusion with hearing students in regular classrooms is related to a variety of demographic factors. When reading comprehension and mathematics computation scores are adjusted for these factors, they are higher for the deaf and hard-of-hearing students in regular classrooms. However, it is not known whether the higher achievement is due to inclusion or whether students were selected for inclusion due to their higher achievement levels.

  15. Organotypic liver culture models: Meeting current challenges in toxicity testing

    PubMed Central

    LeCluyse, Edward L.; Witek, Rafal P.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Powers, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in humans from in vitro data continues to be a significant challenge for the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Generally, conventional in vitro hepatic model systems (i.e. 2-D static monocultures of primary or immortalized hepatocytes) are limited by their inability to maintain histotypic and phenotypic characteristics over time in culture, including stable expression of clearance and bioactivation pathways, as well as complex adaptive responses to chemical exposure. These systems are less than ideal for longer-term toxicity evaluations and elucidation of key cellular and molecular events involved in primary and secondary adaptation to chemical exposure, or for identification of important mediators of inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis. Progress in implementing a more effective strategy for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation and human risk assessment depends on significant advances in tissue culture technology and increasing their level of biological complexity. This article describes the current and ongoing need for more relevant, organotypic in vitro surrogate systems of human liver and recent efforts to recreate the multicellular architecture and hemodynamic properties of the liver using novel culture platforms. As these systems become more widely used for chemical and drug toxicity testing, there will be a corresponding need to establish standardized testing conditions, endpoint analyses and acceptance criteria. In the future, a balanced approach between sample throughput and biological relevance should provide better in vitro tools that are complementary with animal testing and assist in conducting more predictive human risk assessment. PMID:22582993

  16. New challenge of field testing dense WDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Lynn

    1998-09-01

    Dense wavelength-division multiplexing fiber-optic techniques hold great promise as tools to address many of the challenges facing communication system operators. This new technical solution can increase the capacity of existing networks without the need for expensive re-cabling and is also an open door toward all optical network design. But the many advantages they offer come at a price: optical component properties and cable characteristics must be addressed that could safely be neglected in systems using simpler transmission techniques. The new spectral dimension brought by testing capabilities must now be provided to the field, capabilities that are usable by maintenance personnel working in conditions that are very different from those in the stable, controlled laboratory environment.

  17. Key Challenges to Achieving Health for All in an Inequitable Society: The Case of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, David; Chopra, Mickey

    2006-01-01

    The health inequalities in South Africa are rapidly worsening. Since 1994, the new democratic government has initiated a number of large-scale policies and programs with explicit pro-equity objectives that have improved access to health care and other social resources. However, these policies and programs have been constrained by macroeconomic policies that dictate fiscal restraint and give priority to technical rather than developmental considerations. We propose an approach to improving health for all that focuses on equity in the allocation of health resources. The implementation of pro-equity policies requires, in addition to technically efficacious interventions, both advocacy initiatives and communication with, and the involvement of, affected communities. The Cape Town Equity Gauge project is presented as one example of a response to the challenge of inequity. PMID:16317201

  18. Image reconstruction for PET/CT scanners: past achievements and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shan; Alessio, Adam M; Kinahan, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    PET is a medical imaging modality with proven clinical value for disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring. The integration of PET and CT on modern scanners provides a synergy of the two imaging modalities. Through different mathematical algorithms, PET data can be reconstructed into the spatial distribution of the injected radiotracer. With dynamic imaging, kinetic parameters of specific biological processes can also be determined. Numerous efforts have been devoted to the development of PET image reconstruction methods over the last four decades, encompassing analytic and iterative reconstruction methods. This article provides an overview of the commonly used methods. Current challenges in PET image reconstruction include more accurate quantitation, TOF imaging, system modeling, motion correction and dynamic reconstruction. Advances in these aspects could enhance the use of PET/CT imaging in patient care and in clinical research studies of pathophysiology and therapeutic interventions. PMID:21339831

  19. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Updated Analyses with NAEP Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The present research is a follow-up study of earlier published analyses that looked at the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement in 25 states. Using the previously derived Accountability Pressure Index (APR) as a measure of state-level policy pressure for performance on standardized tests, a series of…

  20. Some Considerations When Using A Domain-Referenced System of Achievement Tests in Instructional Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitko, Anthony J.

    The problem of using a domain-referenced system of achievement tests is discussed as it relates to the design of instruction. Testing problems are discussed from the point of view that the teacher, pupil, and/or automation needs certain kinds of information in order to make instructional decisions that are adaptive to the individual learner. The…

  1. Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1986 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains eight short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, and poetry, including the following: "Thieving Raffles" (Eric Nicol); "Flight of the Roller Coaster"…

  2. Academic Achievement, Perfectionism and Social Support as Predictors of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Ibrahim; Genctanirim, Dilek; Yalcin, Ilhan; Baydan, Yaprak

    2008-01-01

    This study examined likelihood of high school students' gender, levels of academic achievement, perfectionism and perceived social support in predicting their degree of test anxiety. Participants were 505 students from high schools in the Ankara metropolitan area. The Test Anxiety Inventory, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and Perceived…

  3. A Theoretical and Empirical Comparison of Three Approaches to Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Tom; Roid, Gale

    Three approaches to the construction of achievement tests are compared: construct, operational, and empirical. The construct approach is based upon classical test theory and measures an abstract representation of the instructional objectives. The operational approach specifies instructional intent through instructional objectives, facet design,…

  4. On-Line Tutoring for Math Achievement Testing: A Controlled Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Walles, Rena; Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly P.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a controlled evaluation of an interactive on-line tutoring system for high school math achievement test problem solving. High school students (N = 202) completed a math pre-test and were then assigned by teachers to receive interactive on-line multimedia tutoring or their regular classroom instruction. The on-line tutored…

  5. Developing Item Bank Based Achievement Tests and Curriculum-Based Measures: Lessons Learned Enroute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mengel, Bill E.; Schorr, Larry L.

    The experience of the Colorado Springs (Colorado) Public Schools (CSPS) in using different assessment forms for different purposes is detailed. A small niche is reserved for national norm-referenced testing to fill the state achievement testing mandate and for Chapter 1 accountability. A second, and larger, part of the assessment program will be…

  6. Developing an Achievement Test for the Subject of Sound in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sözen, Merve; Bolat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an achievement test which includes the basic concepts about the subject of sound and its properties in middle school science lessons and which at the same time aims to reveal the alternative concepts that the students already have. During the process of the development of the test, studies in the field and…

  7. Relationships Between the Gesell School Readiness Test and Standardized Achievement and Intelligence Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    The relationships between the Gesell School Readiness Test and standarized achievement and intelligence measures were examined. Children were tested before kindergarten, at the end of kindergarten, and at the end of first grade. Correlation coefficients varied from grade to grade, but did not show a higher correlation between related measures.…

  8. Measuring the Outliers: An Introduction to Out-of-Level Testing with High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Warne, Russell T.

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing is an underused strategy for addressing the needs of students who score in the extremes, and when used wisely, it could provide educators with a much more accurate picture of what students know. Out-of-level testing has been shown to be an effective assessment strategy with high-achieving students; however, out-of-level…

  9. Student science achievement and the integration of indigenous knowledge in the classroom and on standardized tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Juliann

    In science education, there has been little research focused on indigenous students' achievement on science standardized tests when indigenous knowledge is integrated into the test questions. However, there has been an increased amount of research investigating the impact of culturally relevant curriculum adaptations on indigenous students' achievement in standardized assessments (Aikenhead, 1997, 2001b; Barnhardt, 2005b). This dissertation examines the achievement gap that is present between American Indian and White students in Montana. I use data from Montana eighth-grade standardized state science tests to determine whether incorporating indigenous material into classrooms and on state standardized science tests supported these initiatives and whether expected outcomes, such as a decrease in the achievement gap and in increase in Native student test scores, are being generated. Using a quantitative methodology, this study focuses on how American Indian students in Montana perform on standardized state science assessments when knowledge from a cultural curriculum, "Indian Education for All," has been included on the tests. Montana is the first state in the United States to use a culturally relevant curriculum in all schools and to create standardized test items based on this curriculum. This study compares White and American Indian students' test scores on these particular test items and overall test scores to determine the effectiveness of the culturally relevant educational initiatives implemented by Montana's Office of Public Instruction in terms of student achievement on state standardized tests. Results of this study uncover the persistence of an achievement gap, with Native students still underperforming when compared to their majority counterparts. American Indian students continue to score at the "nearing proficiency" level, which is one level lower than White students are scoring, at the proficient level. When scores are investigated for items written

  10. Rapid HIV testing for developing countries: the challenge of false-negative tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogev, Ram

    2012-06-01

    It is a common practice in resource-constrained countries to accept two positive rapid HIV antibody test results as diagnostic for HIV infection. Because these tests are inexpensive and results are obtained quickly, they are recommended by the WHO to "scale-up" HIV testing to increase the number of people tested. The negative predictive value of rapid HIV tests is so high that negative results are considered conclusive despite the fact that false-negative results can occur in several situations. While the specificity and sensitivity of rapid HIV tests in resource-rich countries is acceptable, there are only limited data about their performance in resource-constrained countries. The challenges of rapid HIV testing in these situations will be discussed.

  11. Component Prioritization Schema for Achieving Maximum Time and Cost Benefits from Software Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Praveen Ranjan; Pareek, Deepak

    Software testing is any activity aimed at evaluating an attribute or capability of a program or system and determining that it meets its required results. Defining the end of software testing represents crucial features of any software development project. A premature release will involve risks like undetected bugs, cost of fixing faults later, and discontented customers. Any software organization would want to achieve maximum possible benefits from software testing with minimum resources. Testing time and cost need to be optimized for achieving a competitive edge in the market. In this paper, we propose a schema, called the Component Prioritization Schema (CPS), to achieve an effective and uniform prioritization of the software components. This schema serves as an extension to the Non Homogenous Poisson Process based Cumulative Priority Model. We also introduce an approach for handling time-intensive versus cost-intensive projects.

  12. Correlations for the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement.

    PubMed

    Leverett, J Patrick; Lassiter, Kerry S; Buchanan, Gray M

    2002-04-01

    The present investigation examined the relationships for scores on the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement within an adult population. The Stroop Color and Word Test, Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised, and Wide Range Achievement Test-3 were administered to 99 men ranging in age from 18 to 27 years. Pearson product-moment correlations indicated that the Stroop Word task was positively associated with scores on the WRAT-3 Spelling task, the Woodcock-Johnson Basic and Broad Reading tasks, and the Nelson-Denny Rcading Rate and Comprehension tasks. These and other significant relationships were discussed in terms of possible implications regarding the assessment of reading achievement.

  13. Review of spectral imaging technology in biomedical engineering: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; He, Xiaofu; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Xu, Dongrong; Guo, Fangmin

    2013-10-01

    Spectral imaging is a technology that integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy to get both spatial and spectral information from an object. Although this technology was originally developed for remote sensing, it has been extended to the biomedical engineering field as a powerful analytical tool for biological and biomedical research. This review introduces the basics of spectral imaging, imaging methods, current equipment, and recent advances in biomedical applications. The performance and analytical capabilities of spectral imaging systems for biological and biomedical imaging are discussed. In particular, the current achievements and limitations of this technology in biomedical engineering are presented. The benefits and development trends of biomedical spectral imaging are highlighted to provide the reader with an insight into the current technological advances and its potential for biomedical research.

  14. Performance Achievements and Challenges for FELs based on Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2006-08-27

    During the past decade several groups have assembled free electron lasers based on energy recovered linacs (ERLs). Such arrangements have been built to obtain high average power electron and photon beams, by using high repetition rate beam pulses driving FEL oscillators. In this paper the performance of many existing and several proposed facilities from around the world are reviewed. Going forward, many questions must be addressed to achieve still better performance including: higher average current injectors, better optimized accelerating cavities, higher energy acceptance and lower loss beam recirculation systems, and better optical cavity designs for dealing with the optical beam power circulating in the ERL FELs. This paper presents some of the current thinking on each of these issues.

  15. Achieving the HIV prevention impact of voluntary medical male circumcision: lessons and challenges for managing programs.

    PubMed

    Sgaier, Sema K; Reed, Jason B; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform.

  16. Achieving the HIV prevention impact of voluntary medical male circumcision: lessons and challenges for managing programs.

    PubMed

    Sgaier, Sema K; Reed, Jason B; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform. PMID:24800840

  17. Achieving the HIV Prevention Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Lessons and Challenges for Managing Programs

    PubMed Central

    Sgaier, Sema K.; Reed, Jason B.; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009–2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection “Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up.” The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform. PMID:24800840

  18. Environmental health in China: challenges to achieving clean air and safe water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Mauzerall, Denise L.; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of environmental risks, especially those of air and water pollution, remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are routinely burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and santiation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions remains high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrializing with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. While economic growth resulting from industrialization has improved health and quality of life indicators in China, it has also increased the incidence of environmental disasters and the release of chemical toxins into the environment, with severe impacts on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health problems, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental problems, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. China has the opportunity to both address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment. PMID:20346817

  19. Reproductive health in Iran: pragmatic achievements, unmet needs, and ethical challenges in a theocratic system.

    PubMed

    Mehryar, Amir H; Ahmad-Nia, Shirin; Kazemipour, Shahla

    2007-12-01

    Since its revival in 1989, the reproductive health and family planning program of Iran has made great strides in raising the contraceptive prevalence rate and reducing fertility. The majority of couples are using modern methods promoted and provided by the national program, although a sizable proportion of couples continue to depend on the traditional method of withdrawal. The longstanding urban-rural gap in contraceptive prevalence rates has been reduced to about 10 percent, which is mainly the result of better-educated urban couples' continued practice of withdrawal. Despite its enormous success in meeting the needs of married couples, in narrowing the urban-rural gap in access to and use of modern contraceptives, and in reducing fertility, the Iranian family planning program is open to criticism for confining its target audience to married couples and failing to address the issue of abortion. The restrictive aspects of the program are often justified on the grounds of religious values and fear of encouraging sexual promiscuity. Because of the theocratic nature of the political system and the immense power enjoyed by Shiite ulama (religious leaders), no step can be taken to address these restrictions without their implicit support and approval. This study describes some of the ethical issues facing the reproductive health program of Iran and indicates how pragmatic approaches adopted by the ruling Shiite ulama to solve some of the social and medical challenges of a rapidly modernizing society may be extended to overcome ethical hurdles faced by the reproductive health program. PMID:18284048

  20. Terrestrial rabies control in the European Union: historical achievements and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Wysocki, Patrick; Roumiantzeff, Micha; Freney, Jean; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Vos, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the implementation of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes, the European Union (EU) is becoming progressively free of red fox (Vulpes vulpes)-mediated rabies. Over the past three decades, the incidence of rabies had decreased substantially and vast areas of Western and Central Europe have been freed from rabies using this method of controlling an infectious disease in wildlife. Since rabies control is a top priority in the EU, the disease is expected to be eliminated from the animal source in the near future. While responsible authorities may consider the mission of eliminating fox rabies from the EU almost accomplished, there are still issues to be dealt with and challenges to be met that have not yet been in the focus of attention, but could jeopardise the ultimate goal. Among them are increasing illegal movements of animals, maintaining funding support for vaccination campaigns, devising alternative vaccine strategies in neighbouring Eastern European countries and the expanding distribution range of several potential rabies reservoir species in Europe.

  1. Tuberculosis research in the European union: past achievements and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Lång, Hannu; Quaglio, GianLuca; Olesen, Ole F

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) supports a large number of research activities in tuberculosis through the EU Framework Programmes for Research and Development (FP). By utilizing a variety of funding instruments, the EC has established a mixed portfolio of research projects, ranging from small discovery projects to large multidisciplinary consortia with sufficient critical mass to undertake translational and clinical research. The European investments in TB research have generated promising results with new vaccine candidates, drug leads, diagnostic markers and basic research results starting to emerge. In the light of a rapidly changing global research environment it has therefore become timely to review and update the priorities for TB research. To facilitate this process, a high-level conference on "Challenges for the future: research on HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis" was convened in Brussels on November 2008. This review gives an overview of the present portfolio of EC funded TB research, and summarises the conclusions from the conference on future perspectives for TB research in Europe and beyond.

  2. The soil education technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: achievements and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Aparecida de Mello, Nilvania

    2013-04-01

    last three symposia was dramatically changed compared to the former ones, considering both participants and papers: basic school teachers, science mediators instead of university docents and a prevalence of papers on soil education in basic schools and non-formal education. The main challenge for soil scientists remains in how to spread the knowledge about the importance of soil and its care among individuals and society in general. Diversified experiences, strategies and instruments are on the move, still soils are overlooked in the present environmental issues. Within the commission the challenge remains with the popularity of the subject in the academic world: it is marginal, it is an interface between knowledge areas and it is commonly the second subject of researchers, easily abandoned when work pressure grows.

  3. Chemokine Receptor-Specific Antibodies in Cancer Immunotherapy: Achievements and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Maria; Aris, Mariana; Llorente, Mercedes; Garcia-Sanz, Jose A.; Kremer, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    The 1990s brought a burst of information regarding the structure, expression pattern, and role in leukocyte migration and adhesion of chemokines and their receptors. At that time, the FDA approved the first therapeutic antibodies for cancer treatment. A few years later, it was reported that the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 were involved on directing metastases to liver, lung, bone marrow, or lymph nodes, and the over-expression of CCR4, CCR6, and CCR9 by certain tumors. The possibility of inhibiting the interaction of chemokine receptors present on the surface of tumor cells with their ligands emerged as a new therapeutic approach. Therefore, many research groups and companies began to develop small molecule antagonists and specific antibodies, aiming to neutralize signaling from these receptors. Despite great expectations, so far, only one anti-chemokine receptor antibody has been approved for its clinical use, mogamulizumab, an anti-CCR4 antibody, granted in Japan to treat refractory adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma. Here, we review the main achievements obtained with anti-chemokine receptor antibodies for cancer immunotherapy, including discovery and clinical studies, proposed mechanisms of action, and therapeutic applications. PMID:25688243

  4. Ten years of RELEA: achievements and challenges for astronomy education development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Jafelice, Luiz Carlos; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    When an area of education, and more particularly the research within this area, is aimed to development, a basic requirement is the existence of a regular publication that accounts for the scientific production in that area. This study aims to analyze 10 years of Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA). Publishing policies of the RELEA and their context are discussed in relation to submission, refereeing and publication. The 75 articles published in 18 editions are analyzed and classified by: year of publication, edition, the authors' institutions, school level, study focus and content. The results present trends and shortcomings of the production. A comparison with the number of articles published in other Brazilian journals of education and an analysis of the international scene in relation to other type publications along these ten years is made. Given that this journal is now consolidated, its future prospects in the international landscape are further considered. The challenges related to article submission are discussed: how to increase their number, the submission of Latin American countries, and how to bring in the issues and subjects not addressed until now. It is also considered the possibility of encouraging graduate studies, new lines of research in astronomy education, and dissemination of material in schools and universities for teachers and students. Finally, future possibilities are discussed given the IAU development programs. For example, more article submission from Portuguese-speaking countries with the support of Regional Nodes and Language Expertise Centers, and opportunities for volunteer IAU members and global projects for the development of astronomy education.

  5. Academic achievement among undergraduate nursing students: the development and test of a causal model.

    PubMed

    Chacko, S B; Huba, M E

    1991-06-01

    This article tested relationships among variables depicted in a causal learning model of academic achievement developed by the authors. The Learning and Study Skills (LASSI), Life Experience Survey (LES), and ASSET test were administered to 134 first-semester nursing students at a 2-year community college. The path analysis supported 11 of the 14 pathways tested. Language ability, reading ability, and self-efficacy were found to be direct effects on academic achievement. When self-efficacy was the criterion, students' language ability, math ability, motivation, and concentration and preparation for class were direct effects. Life stress, motivation, and self-monitoring/use of study strategies were found to be direct effects on students' concentration and preparation for class. In turn, when the ability to self-monitor and use study strategies was the criterion, motivation was the only direct effect. Overall, the model explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement.

  6. Assessment of vehicle emission programs in China during 1998-2013: Achievement, challenges and implications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Huan; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-07-01

    China has been embracing rapid motorization since the 1990s, and vehicles have become one of the major sources of air pollution problems. Since the late 1990s, thanks to the international experience, China has adopted comprehensive control measures to mitigate vehicle emissions. This study employs a local emission model (EMBEV) to assess China's first fifteen-year (1998-2013) efforts in controlling vehicles emissions. Our results show that China's total annual vehicle emissions in 2013 were 4.16 million tons (Mt) of HC, 27.4 Mt of CO, 7.72 Mt of NOX, and 0.37 Mt of PM2.5, respectively. Although vehicle emissions are substantially reduced relative to the without control scenarios, we still observe significantly higher emission density in East China than in developed countries with longer histories of vehicle emission control. This study further informs China's policy-makers of the prominent challenges to control vehicle emissions in the future. First, unlike other major air pollutants, total NOX emissions have rapidly increased due to a surge of diesel trucks and the postponed China IV standard nationwide. Simultaneous implementation of fuel quality improvements and vehicle-engine emission standards will be of great importance to alleviate NOX emissions for diesel fleets. Second, the enforcement of increasingly stringent standards should include strict oversight of type-approval conformity, in-use complacence and durability, which would help reduce gross emitters of PM2.5 that are considerable among in-use diesel fleets at the present. Third, this study reveals higher HC emissions than previous results and indicates evaporative emissions may have been underestimated. Considering that China's overall vehicle ownership is far from saturation, persistent efforts are required through economic tools, traffic management and emissions regulations to lower vehicle-use intensity and limit both exhaust and evaporative emissions. Furthermore, in light of the complex

  7. Assessment of vehicle emission programs in China during 1998-2013: Achievement, challenges and implications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Huan; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-07-01

    China has been embracing rapid motorization since the 1990s, and vehicles have become one of the major sources of air pollution problems. Since the late 1990s, thanks to the international experience, China has adopted comprehensive control measures to mitigate vehicle emissions. This study employs a local emission model (EMBEV) to assess China's first fifteen-year (1998-2013) efforts in controlling vehicles emissions. Our results show that China's total annual vehicle emissions in 2013 were 4.16 million tons (Mt) of HC, 27.4 Mt of CO, 7.72 Mt of NOX, and 0.37 Mt of PM2.5, respectively. Although vehicle emissions are substantially reduced relative to the without control scenarios, we still observe significantly higher emission density in East China than in developed countries with longer histories of vehicle emission control. This study further informs China's policy-makers of the prominent challenges to control vehicle emissions in the future. First, unlike other major air pollutants, total NOX emissions have rapidly increased due to a surge of diesel trucks and the postponed China IV standard nationwide. Simultaneous implementation of fuel quality improvements and vehicle-engine emission standards will be of great importance to alleviate NOX emissions for diesel fleets. Second, the enforcement of increasingly stringent standards should include strict oversight of type-approval conformity, in-use complacence and durability, which would help reduce gross emitters of PM2.5 that are considerable among in-use diesel fleets at the present. Third, this study reveals higher HC emissions than previous results and indicates evaporative emissions may have been underestimated. Considering that China's overall vehicle ownership is far from saturation, persistent efforts are required through economic tools, traffic management and emissions regulations to lower vehicle-use intensity and limit both exhaust and evaporative emissions. Furthermore, in light of the complex

  8. Performance-based alternative assessments as a means of eliminating gender achievement differences on science tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Norman Merrill

    1998-09-01

    Historically, researchers have reported an achievement difference between females and males on standardized science tests. These differences have been reported to be based upon science knowledge, abstract reasoning skills, mathematical abilities, and cultural and social phenomena. This research was designed to determine how mastery of specific science content from public school curricula might be evaluated with performance-based assessment models, without producing gender achievement differences. The assessment instruments used were Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement's GOALSsp°ler: A Performance-Based Measure of Achievement and the performance-based portion of the Stanford Achievement Testspcopyright, Ninth Edition. The identified independent variables were test, gender, ethnicity, and grade level. A 2 x 2 x 6 x 12 (test x gender x ethnicity x grade) factorial experimental design was used to organize the data. A stratified random sample (N = 2400) was selected from a national pool of norming data: N = 1200 from the GOALSsp°ler group and N = 1200 from the SAT9spcopyright group. The ANOVA analysis yielded mixed results. The factors of test, gender, ethnicity by grade, gender by grade, and gender by grade by ethnicity failed to produce significant results (alpha = 0.05). The factors yielding significant results were ethnicity, grade, and ethnicity by grade. Therefore, no significant differences were found between female and male achievement on these performance-based assessments.

  9. PEPFAR Scale-up of Pediatric HIV Services: Innovations, Achievements, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Elaine J.; Simonds, R. J.; Modi, Surbhi; Rivadeneira, Emilia; Vaz, Paula; Kankasa, Chipepo; Tindyebwa, Denis; Phelps, B. Ryan; Bowsky, Sara; Teasdale, Chloe A.; Koumans, Emilia; Ruff, Andrea J.

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has had a profound impact on children around the world since the start of the epidemic. There are currently 3.4 million children under the age of 15 years living with HIV globally, and more than 450,000 children currently receiving lifesaving antiretroviral treatment. This article describes efforts supported by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to expand access to treatment for children living with HIV in high-burden countries. The article also highlights a series of case studies that illustrate the impact that the PEPFAR initiative has had on the pediatric HIV epidemic. Through its support of host governments and partner organizations, the PEPFAR initiative has expanded HIV testing and treatment for pregnant women to reduce vertical transmission of HIV, increased access to early infant diagnosis for HIV-exposed infants, improved training and resources for clinicians who provide pediatric care and antiretroviral treatment, and, through public–private partnerships with pharmaceutical manufacturers, helped increase the number of medications available for the treatment of HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. PMID:22797731

  10. Blood donation in China: sustaining efforts and challenges in achieving safety and availability.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yong-Hua; Li, Chang-Qing; Liu, Zhong

    2015-10-01

    China has entered a new phase in blood safety and availability through persistent efforts in the past decades. Based on national data from 2008 to 2012, we present a comprehensive review on the blood services ranging from policy and organization, supply, donors, screening and processing, and clinical use to government response in contemporary China. Current evidence suggests that the Chinese blood industries, after continual efforts in reforms on the legal framework and national management system, have been in a relatively steady but bottleneck stage. Although the blood industries have had an impressive track record on management and resolving problems, such as low availability, limited donors, deficient laboratory tests, shortage of blood products, and unnecessary clinical usage of blood still exist nationwide. While medical technology and services have seen a rapid increase in progress in recent years, they have not coordinated with the development of the national health care system. This article presents an analysis with detailed data, rich contents, and recent response from the Chinese government, allowing readers to appreciate how China, a country with more than 19.13% of the world's population, has long endeavored to improve safety and availability of blood. Meantime, the article sincerely welcomes the guidance on policymaking and technical assistance from the international community. Data in this article do not include those of Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan.

  11. PEPFAR scale-up of pediatric HIV services: innovations, achievements, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Elaine J; Simonds, R J; Modi, Surbhi; Rivadeneira, Emilia; Vaz, Paula; Kankasa, Chipepo; Tindyebwa, Denis; Phelps, B Ryan; Bowsky, Sara; Teasdale, Chloe A; Koumans, Emilia; Ruff, Andrea J

    2012-08-15

    HIV/AIDS has had a profound impact on children around the world since the start of the epidemic. There are currently 3.4 million children under the age of 15 years living with HIV globally, and more than 450,000 children currently receiving lifesaving antiretroviral treatment. This article describes efforts supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to expand access to treatment for children living with HIV in high-burden countries. The article also highlights a series of case studies that illustrate the impact that the PEPFAR initiative has had on the pediatric HIV epidemic. Through its support of host governments and partner organizations, the PEPFAR initiative has expanded HIV testing and treatment for pregnant women to reduce vertical transmission of HIV, increased access to early infant diagnosis for HIV-exposed infants, improved training and resources for clinicians who provide pediatric care and antiretroviral treatment, and, through public-private partnerships with pharmaceutical manufacturers, helped increase the number of medications available for the treatment of HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings.

  12. PEPFAR scale-up of pediatric HIV services: innovations, achievements, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Elaine J; Simonds, R J; Modi, Surbhi; Rivadeneira, Emilia; Vaz, Paula; Kankasa, Chipepo; Tindyebwa, Denis; Phelps, B Ryan; Bowsky, Sara; Teasdale, Chloe A; Koumans, Emilia; Ruff, Andrea J

    2012-08-15

    HIV/AIDS has had a profound impact on children around the world since the start of the epidemic. There are currently 3.4 million children under the age of 15 years living with HIV globally, and more than 450,000 children currently receiving lifesaving antiretroviral treatment. This article describes efforts supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to expand access to treatment for children living with HIV in high-burden countries. The article also highlights a series of case studies that illustrate the impact that the PEPFAR initiative has had on the pediatric HIV epidemic. Through its support of host governments and partner organizations, the PEPFAR initiative has expanded HIV testing and treatment for pregnant women to reduce vertical transmission of HIV, increased access to early infant diagnosis for HIV-exposed infants, improved training and resources for clinicians who provide pediatric care and antiretroviral treatment, and, through public-private partnerships with pharmaceutical manufacturers, helped increase the number of medications available for the treatment of HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. PMID:22797731

  13. Fit for high altitude: are hypoxic challenge tests useful?

    PubMed

    Matthys, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Altitude travel results in acute variations of barometric pressure, which induce different degrees of hypoxia, changing the gas contents in body tissues and cavities. Non ventilated air containing cavities may induce barotraumas of the lung (pneumothorax), sinuses and middle ear, with pain, vertigo and hearing loss. Commercial air planes keep their cabin pressure at an equivalent altitude of about 2,500 m. This leads to an increased respiratory drive which may also result in symptoms of emotional hyperventilation. In patients with preexisting respiratory pathology due to lung, cardiovascular, pleural, thoracic neuromuscular or obesity-related diseases (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea) an additional hypoxic stress may induce respiratory pump and/or heart failure. Clinical pre-altitude assessment must be disease-specific and it includes spirometry, pulsoximetry, ECG, pulmonary and systemic hypertension assessment. In patients with abnormal values we need, in addition, measurements of hemoglobin, pH, base excess, PaO2, and PaCO2 to evaluate whether O2- and CO2-transport is sufficient.Instead of the hypoxia altitude simulation test (HAST), which is not without danger for patients with respiratory insufficiency, we prefer primarily a hyperoxic challenge. The supplementation of normobaric O2 gives us information on the acute reversibility of the arterial hypoxemia and the reduction of ventilation and pulmonary hypertension, as well as about the efficiency of the additional O2-flow needed during altitude exposure. For difficult judgements the performance of the test in a hypobaric chamber with and without supplemental O2-breathing remains the gold standard. The increasing numbers of drugs to treat acute pulmonary hypertension due to altitude exposure (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine, sildenafil) or to other etiologies (anticoagulants, prostanoids, phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists) including mechanical aids to reduce periodical or

  14. Fit for high altitude: are hypoxic challenge tests useful?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Altitude travel results in acute variations of barometric pressure, which induce different degrees of hypoxia, changing the gas contents in body tissues and cavities. Non ventilated air containing cavities may induce barotraumas of the lung (pneumothorax), sinuses and middle ear, with pain, vertigo and hearing loss. Commercial air planes keep their cabin pressure at an equivalent altitude of about 2,500 m. This leads to an increased respiratory drive which may also result in symptoms of emotional hyperventilation. In patients with preexisting respiratory pathology due to lung, cardiovascular, pleural, thoracic neuromuscular or obesity-related diseases (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea) an additional hypoxic stress may induce respiratory pump and/or heart failure. Clinical pre-altitude assessment must be disease-specific and it includes spirometry, pulsoximetry, ECG, pulmonary and systemic hypertension assessment. In patients with abnormal values we need, in addition, measurements of hemoglobin, pH, base excess, PaO2, and PaCO2 to evaluate whether O2- and CO2-transport is sufficient. Instead of the hypoxia altitude simulation test (HAST), which is not without danger for patients with respiratory insufficiency, we prefer primarily a hyperoxic challenge. The supplementation of normobaric O2 gives us information on the acute reversibility of the arterial hypoxemia and the reduction of ventilation and pulmonary hypertension, as well as about the efficiency of the additional O2-flow needed during altitude exposure. For difficult judgements the performance of the test in a hypobaric chamber with and without supplemental O2-breathing remains the gold standard. The increasing numbers of drugs to treat acute pulmonary hypertension due to altitude exposure (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine, sildenafil) or to other etiologies (anticoagulants, prostanoids, phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists) including mechanical aids to reduce periodical or

  15. Fit for high altitude: are hypoxic challenge tests useful?

    PubMed

    Matthys, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Altitude travel results in acute variations of barometric pressure, which induce different degrees of hypoxia, changing the gas contents in body tissues and cavities. Non ventilated air containing cavities may induce barotraumas of the lung (pneumothorax), sinuses and middle ear, with pain, vertigo and hearing loss. Commercial air planes keep their cabin pressure at an equivalent altitude of about 2,500 m. This leads to an increased respiratory drive which may also result in symptoms of emotional hyperventilation. In patients with preexisting respiratory pathology due to lung, cardiovascular, pleural, thoracic neuromuscular or obesity-related diseases (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea) an additional hypoxic stress may induce respiratory pump and/or heart failure. Clinical pre-altitude assessment must be disease-specific and it includes spirometry, pulsoximetry, ECG, pulmonary and systemic hypertension assessment. In patients with abnormal values we need, in addition, measurements of hemoglobin, pH, base excess, PaO2, and PaCO2 to evaluate whether O2- and CO2-transport is sufficient.Instead of the hypoxia altitude simulation test (HAST), which is not without danger for patients with respiratory insufficiency, we prefer primarily a hyperoxic challenge. The supplementation of normobaric O2 gives us information on the acute reversibility of the arterial hypoxemia and the reduction of ventilation and pulmonary hypertension, as well as about the efficiency of the additional O2-flow needed during altitude exposure. For difficult judgements the performance of the test in a hypobaric chamber with and without supplemental O2-breathing remains the gold standard. The increasing numbers of drugs to treat acute pulmonary hypertension due to altitude exposure (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine, sildenafil) or to other etiologies (anticoagulants, prostanoids, phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists) including mechanical aids to reduce periodical or

  16. The MICROSCOPE mission: a challenging free fall test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touboul, Pierre; Metris, Gilles; Robert, Alain; Levy, Agnes; Campergue, Gerard

    The electrostatic inertial sensors which compose the payload of the dedicated MICROSCOPE space mission include cylindrical test masses, made of different materials. Their orbital motion will be observed for the accurate test of the Universality of Free Fall, so performed with an ac-curacy of at least 10-15 . These Titanium and Platinum alloys concentric masses are maintained motion less at the center of a very accurate silica cage by means of electrostatic actuators which manage the electrical fields surrounding permanently the masses. Same gold coated electrodes are not only used for generating these electrical fields but also to measure any mass displace-ment with an accuracy better than 10-11 m by means of a well arranged set of capacitive sensors. The MICROSCOPE drag free satellite is controlled Earth pointing or rotating about the normal to the orbital plane with a very stable angular velocity. A very stringent control of the residual accelerations seen by the scientific payload itself is applied thanks to the drag free system, except the Earth common gravity field. At the selected circular orbit, with 810 km altitude and less than 5.10-3 eccentricity, the effects of the gravity gradients are carefully managed by mass centring and data corrections. On board thermal environment is also a key element of the detection of any violation of Einstein Equivalence Principle as most attempts of Grand Unification theories seem to conduct. An overview of the prepared mission is presented with the established strategies to deal with the space experiment specific challenges.

  17. Dopamine challenge tests as an indicator of psychological traits.

    PubMed

    Netter, P

    2006-03-01

    After discussing some introductory considerations about the value of challenge tests in general for discriminating personality dimensions which are considered extrapolations of psychopathological diseases, the present paper outlines the matter of responsivity to agonistic and antagonistic dopaminergic drugs or drugs of different mechanisms of action in the dopaminergic system, and elucidates that different hormones elicited by dopaminergic substances (prolactin, growth hormone) may indicate personality related differences in susceptibility of different brain areas. A further point was to demonstrate not only the well known relationship of dopaminergic hyperactivity with reward seeking and motivational factors associated with extraversion and novelty seeking, but also the relationship of dopaminergic hypofunction with the personality dimension of depression which had already been reported in studies on animals and psychiatric patients. A final point was to demonstrate that besides size of hormone responses additional parameters like time of response onset and initial prolactin increase can be used as biochemical indicators for identifying certain personality types, like highly depressive neurotic persons characterized by lower and later dopamine responses as compared to low depressives, and extraverted sensation-seeking types responding by an initial prolactin peak as opposed to low sensation seekers.

  18. Challenges of genetic testing in adolescents with cardiac arrhythmia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lilian Liou; Stolerman, Marina; Walsh, Christine; Wasserman, David; Dolan, Siobhan M

    2012-03-01

    The ability to sequence individual genomes is leading to the identification of an increasing number of genetic risk factors for serious diseases. Knowledge of these risk factors can often provide significant medical and psychological benefit, but also raises complex ethical and social issues. This paper focuses on one area of rapid progress: the identification of mutations causing long QT syndrome and other cardiac channel disorders, which can explain some previously unexplained deaths in infants (SIDS) and children and adults (SUDS) and prevent others from occurring. This genetic knowledge, discovered posthumously in many cases, has implications for clinical care for surviving family members who might carry the same mutations. The information obtained from genetic testing, in the context of personal and family history, can guide individually tailored interventions that reduce risk and save lives. At the same time, obtaining and disclosing genetic information raises difficult issues about confidentiality and decision making within families. We draw on the experience of the Montefiore-Einstein Center for Cardiogenetics, which has played a leading role in the genetic diagnosis and clinical management of cardiac channel diseases, to explore some of the challenging ethical questions arising in affected families with adolescent children. We focus on the related issues of (1) family confidentiality, privacy and disclosure and (2) adolescent decision making about genetic risk, and argue for the value of interdisciplinary dialogue with affected families in resolving these issues.

  19. Challenges of genetic testing in adolescents with cardiac arrhythmia syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lilian Liou; Stolerman, Marina; Walsh, Christine; Wasserman, David; Dolan, Siobhan M

    2011-01-01

    The ability to sequence individual genomes is leading to the identification of an increasing number of genetic risk factors for serious diseases. Knowledge of these risk factors can often provide significant medical and psychological benefit, but also raises complex ethical and social issues. This paper focuses on one area of rapid progress: the identification of mutations causing long QT syndrome and other cardiac channel disorders, which can explain some previously unexplained deaths in infants (SIDS) and children and adults (SUDS) and prevent others from occurring. This genetic knowledge, discovered posthumously in many cases, has implications for clinical care for surviving family members who might carry the same mutations. The information obtained from genetic testing, in the context of personal and family history, can guide individually tailored interventions that reduce risk and save lives. At the same time, obtaining and disclosing genetic information raises difficult issues about confidentiality and decision making within families. We draw on the experience of the Montefiore-Einstein Center for Cardiogenetics, which has played a leading role in the genetic diagnosis and clinical management of cardiac channel diseases, to explore some of the challenging ethical questions arising in affected families with adolescent children. We focus on the related issues of (1) family confidentiality, privacy and disclosure and (2) adolescent decision making about genetic risk, and argue for the value of interdisciplinary dialogue with affected families in resolving these issues. PMID:21955955

  20. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  1. The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test: Implications for the Diagnosis and Prediction of Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesiak, Judi

    1984-01-01

    Reviews 32 studies about the utility of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BG) as a predictor of reading, its relationship to reading achievement, and ability to differentiate between good and poor readers. Results question the use of the BG (scored using discrete error systems) in a diagnostic reading battery. (BH)

  2. Test Anxiety, Mathematics Anxiety, and Teacher Comments: Relationships to Achievement in Remedial Mathematics Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, LuEthel Tate

    1990-01-01

    Investigates test anxiety, mathematics anxiety, and teacher feedback among university students enrolled in remedial mathematics classes to explore student motivation within an instructional framework. Results indicate that text anxiety has a significant effect on remedial mathematics students' mathematics achievement, and that informative feedback…

  3. Mental Abilities and School Achievement: A Test of a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…

  4. Testing for All: The Emergence and Development of International Assessment of Student Achievement, 1958-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizmony-Levy, Oren

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines a vital catalyst in the globalization of education: international assessments--that involve testing and rankings--of student achievement in academic subjects. Nearly all high-income countries participate in international assessments such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Progress in…

  5. The Use of Achievement Test Results in Elementary School Guidance and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kyle; And Others

    Achievement test results, in combination with other data, are used to help guidance counselors plan students' future educational programs to the extent that such data assist school personnel in grouping students for optimal instructional benefits. Implementation of such plans may require fitting the curriculum to the student. Two types of schemata…

  6. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  7. Achievement-Based Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: A Test of Cognitive Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Judy; Pierce, W. David; Banko, Katherine M.; Gear, Amber

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed how rewards impacted intrinsic motivation when students were rewarded for achievement while learning an activity, for performing at a specific level on a test, or for both. Undergraduate university students engaged in a problem-solving activity. The design was a 2 * 2 factorial with 2 levels of reward in a learning phase…

  8. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Does Accountability Pressure Increase Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement across 25 states. Standardized portfolios were created for each study state. Each portfolio contained a range of documents that told the "story" of accountability implementation and impact in that state. Using the "law of comparative judgments," over…

  9. Do Peers Influence Achievement in High School Economics? Evidence from Georgia's Economics End of Course Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher; Scafidi, Benjamin; Swinton, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide the first estimates of the impact of peers on achievement in high school economics. The estimates are obtained by analyzing three years of data on all high school students who take Georgia's required economics course and its accompanying high-stakes End of Course Test (Georgia Department of Education). They use an instrumental…

  10. Science Anxiety: Relation with Gender, Year in Chemistry Class, Achievement, and Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynstra, Sharon; Cummings, Corenna

    The relationships of science anxiety to measures of achievement, test anxiety, year of chemistry taken, and gender were investigated for high school students; the study also attemped to establish reliability data on the Czerniak Assessment of Science Anxiety (CASA) of L. Chiarelott and C. Czerniak (1987). Subjects were 101 students (45 males and…

  11. Educational Assessment: Exploring the Relationship between Computer Adaptive Testing, Data Analysis, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donhost, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The research on the potential relationship of the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measures of Academic Progress (NWEA MAP) and the Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) was conducted in two phases and focused on middle schools with a grade configuration of 6-8 in the state of Illinois. The first phase of the research examined whether or…

  12. School and Individual Factors That Contribute to the Achievement Gap in College Admissions Tests in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Mejias, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    In Chile, reports and research papers have shown that there is an achievement gap in college admissions tests mostly associated to students' gender, socioeconomic status and type of school attended. This gap represents a barrier for low-income and female students to access higher education, as well as for graduates of public schools. Prior…

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARDIZED ACHIEVEMENT TEST FOR SMALL GASOLINE ENGINE INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EBBERT, J. MARVIN

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP A STANDARDIZED, MULTIPLE-CHOICE ACHIEVEMENT TEST ON THE OPERATION, CARE, AND MAINTENANCE OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. OBJECTIVES AND A UNIT OUTLINE WERE DEVELOPED WITH THE COOPERATION OF 75 INDIANA VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS. A PANEL SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS, AND THE REFINED OBJECTIVES AND OUTLINE WERE…

  14. l[subscript z] Person-Fit Index to Identify Misfit Students with Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong Gi; Weiss, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of the l[subscript z] person-fit index was investigated with achievement test data from 20 exams given to more than 3,200 college students. Results for three methods of estimating ? showed that the distributions of l[subscript z] were not consistent with its theoretical distribution, resulting in general overfit to the item response…

  15. The Effects of Diagnostic Testing and Remediation on Science Achievement and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joe C.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to provide students with differing types of learning needs instruction following diagnostic testing; also examined were the effects of the instruction on science achievement and retention. A total of 154 seventh-grade students from six classes completed a five-week block of instruction in earth science composed of…

  16. The Influence of Pre-University Students' Mathematics Test Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…

  17. The Correlation among EFL Learners' Test Anxiety, Foreign Language Anxiety and Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakici, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlation among test anxiety (TA), foreign language anxiety (FLA) and language achievement of university preparatory students learning English as a foreign language. The sample of the research consisted of 301 (211 females, 90 males) attending a one-year EFL preparatory school at Ondokuz Mayis…

  18. Student science achievement and the integration of Indigenous knowledge on standardized tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Juliann; Abrams, Eleanor

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we examine how American Indian students in Montana performed on standardized state science assessments when a small number of test items based upon traditional science knowledge from a cultural curriculum, "Indian Education for All", were included. Montana is the first state in the US to mandate the use of a culturally relevant curriculum in all schools and to incorporate this curriculum into a portion of the standardized assessment items. This study compares White and American Indian student test scores on these particular test items to determine how White and American Indian students perform on culturally relevant test items compared to traditional standard science test items. The connections between student achievement on adapted culturally relevant science test items versus traditional items brings valuable insights to the fields of science education, research on student assessments, and Indigenous studies.

  19. Meta-Analysis of the Research on Response Cards: Effects on Test Achievement, Quiz Achievement, Participation, and Off-Task Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.

    2007-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, the author analyzed 18 response card articles, theses, or dissertations to determine the magnitude of effect that response card strategies have on test achievement, quiz achievement, class participation, and intervals of off-task behavior. The author also determined whether the type of response cards used or the presence or…

  20. Growth and gaps in mathematics achievement of students with and without disabilities on a statewide achievement test.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C; Elliott, Stephen N; Nese, Joseph F T; Tindal, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated mathematics achievement growth trajectories in a statewide sample of 92,045 students with and without disabilities over Grades 3 to 7. Students with disabilities (SWDs) were identified in seven exceptionality categories. Students without disabilities (SWoDs) were categorized as General Education (GE) or Academically/Intellectually Gifted (AIG). Students in all groups showed significant growth that decelerated over grades as well as significant variability in achievement by student group, both at the initial assessment in Grade 3 and in rates of growth over time. Race/ethnicity, gender, parental education, free/reduced lunch status, and English language proficiency were also significant predictors of achievement. Effect size estimates showed substantial year-to-year growth that decreased over grades. Sizeable achievement gaps that were relatively stable over grades were observed between SWoDs and students in specific exceptionality categories. Our study also demonstrated the importance of statistically controlling for variation related to student demographic characteristics. Additional research is needed that expands on these results with the same and additional exceptionality groups. PMID:25636260

  1. Growth and gaps in mathematics achievement of students with and without disabilities on a statewide achievement test.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C; Elliott, Stephen N; Nese, Joseph F T; Tindal, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated mathematics achievement growth trajectories in a statewide sample of 92,045 students with and without disabilities over Grades 3 to 7. Students with disabilities (SWDs) were identified in seven exceptionality categories. Students without disabilities (SWoDs) were categorized as General Education (GE) or Academically/Intellectually Gifted (AIG). Students in all groups showed significant growth that decelerated over grades as well as significant variability in achievement by student group, both at the initial assessment in Grade 3 and in rates of growth over time. Race/ethnicity, gender, parental education, free/reduced lunch status, and English language proficiency were also significant predictors of achievement. Effect size estimates showed substantial year-to-year growth that decreased over grades. Sizeable achievement gaps that were relatively stable over grades were observed between SWoDs and students in specific exceptionality categories. Our study also demonstrated the importance of statistically controlling for variation related to student demographic characteristics. Additional research is needed that expands on these results with the same and additional exceptionality groups.

  2. Evaluation of English Achievement Test: A Comparison between High and Low Achievers amongst Selected Elementary School Students of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Zubair; Latif, Farah; Akhtar, Samina; Mushtaq, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Validity, reliability and item analysis are critical to the process of evaluating the quality of an educational measurement. The present study evaluates the quality of an assessment constructed to measure elementary school student's achievement in English. In this study, the survey model of descriptive research was used as a research method.…

  3. Effects of Gender, Math Ability, Trait Test Anxiety, Statistics Course Anxiety, Statistics Achievement, and Perceived Test Difficulty on State Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook

    A path analytic model of state test anxiety was tested in 169 college students who were enrolled in statistics courses. Variables in the model included gender, mathematics ability, trait test anxiety (trait worry and trait emotionality as separate variables), statistics course anxiety, statistics achievement (scores on midterm examinations),…

  4. Test of the definition of learning disability based on the difference between IQ and achievement.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L

    2005-08-01

    A learning disability is commonly defined as a discrepancy between IQ and achievement. This has been criticized for identifying too many children as having a learning disability who have high IQs and average academic achievement. Such overidentification as actually occurred was assessed in 473 referred children (8-16 years, M= 10, SD=2) with normal intelligence. Learning disability was defined as a significant discrepancy (p<.05) between predicted and obtained achievement in reading, mathematics, or written expression on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test. Predicted achievement was based on the child's WISC-III Full Scale IQ. Overidentification was considered to occur when a child scored at or above age level in reading, mathematics, and writing but still had a significant discrepancy between predicted and obtained achievement by virtue of a high IQ. Learning disability was diagnosed in 312 (66%) of the children. There was no overidentification because all children had one or more WIAT scores below the normative level for their age, i.e., < 100. Further, only 7% of the children were identified with a learning disability based on a WIAT score in the 90s. These children had a mean IQ of 123 and were rated by their teachers and parents as having learning problems.

  5. The establisment of an achievement test for determination of primary teachers' knowledge level of earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Süleyman; Haşiloǧlu, M. Akif; Kunduraci, Ayşe

    2016-04-01

    In this study it was aimed to improve an academic achievement test to establish the students' knowledge about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. In the method of this study, the steps that Webb (1994) was created to improve an academic achievement test for a unit were followed. In the developmental process of multiple choice test having 25 questions, was prepared to measure the pre-service teachers' knowledge levels about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. The multiple choice test was presented to view of six academics (one of them was from geographic field and five of them were science educator) and two expert teachers in science Prepared test was applied to 93 pre-service teachers studying in elementary education department in 2014-2015 academic years. As a result of validity and reliability of the study, the test was composed of 20 items. As a result of these applications, Pearson Moments Multiplication half-reliability coefficient was found to be 0.94. When this value is adjusted according to Spearman Brown reliability coefficient the reliability coefficient was set at 0.97.

  6. A Comparison of an Achievement Battery with Two Tests of Ability with Educable Mental Retardates. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Ronald C.; Elliott, Charles

    To find the concurrent validity of two scholastic aptitude tests when a scholastic achievement test was used as a criterion for use in placement of mentally retarded children, 127 subjects were involved. The California Achievement Test (CAT) was used as a criterion measure, and the Primary Mental Abilities test (PMA) and the Slosson Intelligence…

  7. Implementing Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Pregnancy: Review of Prospects, Achievements, Challenges and Agenda for Research

    PubMed Central

    Mubyazi, Godfrey Martin; Magnussen, Pascal; Goodman, Catherine; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Kitua, Andrew Yona; Olsen, Øystein Evjen; Byskov, Jens; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Bloch, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Implementing Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria in Pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through antenatal care (ANC) clinics is recommended for malaria endemic countries. Vast biomedical literature on malaria prevention focuses more on the epidemiological and cost-effectiveness analyses of the randomised controlled trials carried out in selected geographical settings. Such studies fail to elucidate the economic, psychosocial, managerial, organization and other contextual systemic factors influencing the operational effectiveness, compliance and coverage of the recommended interventions. Objective To review literature on policy advances, achievements, constraints and challenges to malaria IPTp implementation, emphasising on its operational feasibility in the context of health-care financing, provision and uptake, resource constraints and psychosocial factors in Africa. Results The importance of IPTp in preventing unnecessary anaemia, morbidity and mortality in pregnancy and improving childbirth outcomes is highly acknowledged, although the following factors appear to be the main constraints to IPTp service delivery and uptake: cost of accessing ANC; myths and other discriminatory socio-cultural values on pregnancy; target users, perceptions and attitudes towards SP, malaria, and quality of ANC; supply and cost of SP at health facilities; understaffing and demoralised staff; ambiguity and impracticability of user-fee exemption policy guidelines on essential ANC services; implementing IPTp, bednets, HIV and syphilis screening programmes in the same clinic settings; and reports on increasing parasite resistant to SP. However, the noted increase in the coverage of the delivery of IPTp doses in several countries justify that IPTp implementation is possible and better than not. Conclusion IPTp for malaria is implemented in constrained conditions in Africa. This is a challenge for higher coverage of at least two doses and attainment

  8. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  9. EMC Test Challenges for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  10. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  11. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl). The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. Methods This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. Results The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels), ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were approximately 1. Thus, when the

  12. Three Decades of Precision Orbit Determination Progress, Achievements, Future Challenges and its Vital Contribution to Oceanography and Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Zelensky, Nikita; Beckley, Brian; Klosko, Steve; Chinn, Doug

    2006-01-01

    consistent time series of improved orbits across multiple missions and decades required for the most stringent climate-related research. This presentation discusses the POD progress and achievements made over nearly three decades, and presents the future challenges, goals and their impact on altimetric derived ocean sciences.

  13. Basophil activation test: food challenge in a test tube or specialist research tool?

    PubMed

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the gold-standard to diagnose food allergy; however, it is a labour and resource-intensive procedure with the risk of causing an acute allergic reaction, which is potentially severe. Therefore, OFC are reserved for cases where the clinical history and the results of skin prick test and/or specific IgE do not confirm or exclude the diagnosis of food allergy. This is a significant proportion of patients seen in Allergy clinics and results in a high demand for OFC. The basophil activation test (BAT) has emerged as a new diagnostic test for food allergy. With high diagnostic accuracy, it can be particularly helpful in the cases where skin prick test and specific IgE are equivocal and may allow reducing the need for OFC. BAT has high specificity, which confers a high degree of certainty in confirming the diagnosis of food allergy and allows deferring the performance of OFC in patients with a positive BAT. The diagnostic utility of BAT is allergen-specific and needs to be validated for different allergens and in specific patient populations. Standardisation of the laboratory methodology and of the data analyses would help to enable a wider clinical application of BAT. PMID:26981234

  14. Basophil activation test: food challenge in a test tube or specialist research tool?

    PubMed

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the gold-standard to diagnose food allergy; however, it is a labour and resource-intensive procedure with the risk of causing an acute allergic reaction, which is potentially severe. Therefore, OFC are reserved for cases where the clinical history and the results of skin prick test and/or specific IgE do not confirm or exclude the diagnosis of food allergy. This is a significant proportion of patients seen in Allergy clinics and results in a high demand for OFC. The basophil activation test (BAT) has emerged as a new diagnostic test for food allergy. With high diagnostic accuracy, it can be particularly helpful in the cases where skin prick test and specific IgE are equivocal and may allow reducing the need for OFC. BAT has high specificity, which confers a high degree of certainty in confirming the diagnosis of food allergy and allows deferring the performance of OFC in patients with a positive BAT. The diagnostic utility of BAT is allergen-specific and needs to be validated for different allergens and in specific patient populations. Standardisation of the laboratory methodology and of the data analyses would help to enable a wider clinical application of BAT.

  15. In vitro biocompatibility testing of some synthetic polymers used for the achievement of nervous conduits

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, IP; Coroiu, V; Oancea, A; Lungu, M

    2011-01-01

    Biocompatible synthetic polymers are largely used in the bio–medical domain, tissue engineering and in controlled release of medicines. Polymers can be used in the achievement of cardiac and vascular devices, mammary implants, eye lenses, surgical threads, nervous conduits, adhesives, blood substitutes, etc. Our study was axed on the development of cytotoxicity tests for 3 synthetic polymers, namely polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl chloride. These tests targeted to determine the viability and morphology of cells (fibroblasts) that were in indirect contact with the studied polymers. Cell viability achieved for all the studied synthetic polymers allowed their frame in biocompatible material category. Cell morphology did not significantly change, thus accomplishing a new biocompatibility criterion. The degree of biocompatibility of the studied polymers varied. Polyvinyl alcohol presented the highest grade of biocompatibility and polyvinyl chloride placed itself at the lowest limit of biocompatibility. The results achieved allowed the selection of those polymers that (by enhancing their degrees of biocompatibility due to the association with various biopolymers) will be used in the development of new biocompatible materials, useful in nervous conduits manufacture. PMID:22567047

  16. Comparison of the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test-Revised and Bender-Gestalt in Predicting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald B.; Vance, Booney

    1993-01-01

    Investigated whether Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test-Revised (MPD-R) or Bender-Gestalt Test (BG) would more accurately predict achievement at first-, third-, and fifth-grade levels. Administered both tests to 84 children in counterbalanced order. Results indicated that MPD-R was better predictor of achievement than BG, especially at first- and…

  17. Development and Validation of a Physics Achievement Test to Identify Instructor Variables Associated with Students' Physics Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacambra, Wilfredo T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common ways of detecting whether an improvement is achieved by an education institution is through measuring the students' achievement in a test. Testing is generally thought of as a means of assessing the knowledge and skills students have acquired through learning (Du-chastel and Nungester, 1998). Test results, besides assisting…

  18. [Non-invasive prenatal testing: challenges for future implementation].

    PubMed

    Henneman, Lidewij; Page-Chrisiaens, G C M L Lieve; Oepkes, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) is an accurate and safe test in which blood from the pregnant woman is used to investigate if the unborn child possibly has trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome) or trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Since April 2014 the NIPT has been available in the Netherlands as part of the TRIDENT implementation project for those in whom the first trimester combined test showed an elevated risk (> 1:200) of trisomy, or on medical indication, as an alternative to chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. Since the introduction of the NIPT the use of these invasive tests, which are associated with a risk of miscarriage, has fallen steeply. The NIPT may replace the combined test. Also the number of conditions that is tested for can be increased. Modification of current prenatal screening will require extensive discussion, but whatever the modification, careful counseling remains essential to facilitate pregnant women's autonomous reproductive decision making. PMID:26530119

  19. Maladaptive achievement patterns: a test of a diathesis-stress analysis of helplessness.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, A K

    1998-06-01

    The present study tested the assumptions, derived from a diathesis-stress model, that students' perceptions of autonomy-support in their classroom produce a relatively intrinsic as opposed to extrinsic motivational approach to academic tasks and that this approach, in turn, predicts qualitatively different responses to uncontrollable events. It was further assumed that students' motivational orientation would be more reliable than attributional style or perceptions of competence in predicting achievement patterns, including performance level after failure, use of adaptive attributions, and overall achievement scores. Results supported these predictions and further demonstrated, in longitudinal analyses, that motivational orientation may contribute to the formation of perceptions of competence and attributional style in students. PMID:9654766

  20. The challenge of realistic testing of multiphase flowmeters

    SciTech Connect

    Sten-Halvorsen, V.

    1995-12-31

    Multiphase flowmeters is new technology for the oil industry, and needs to be tested under realistic conditions to prove their performance. The complex nature of multiphase flow, means that test conditions in a laboratory may not necessarily represent the real flow conditions at a field installation. As a consequence, severe field testing is also required to gain experience with the meters and qualify them for field applications.

  1. Design, Development and Test Challenges: Separation Mechanisms for the Orion Pad Abort-1 Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinsel, Alison; Morrey, Jeremy M.; OMalley, Patrick; Park, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    On May 6, 2010, NASA launched the first successful integrated flight test, Pad Abort-1, of the Orion Project from the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, New Mexico. This test demonstrated the ability to perform an emergency pad abort of a full-scale 4.8 m diameter, 8200 kg crew capsule. During development of the critical separation mechanisms for this flight test, various challenges were overcome related to environments definition, installation complications, separation joint retraction speed, thruster ordnance development issues, load path validation and significant design loads increases. The Launch Abort System retention and release (LAS R&R) mechanism consisted of 6 discrete structural connections between the LAS and the crew module (CM) simulator, each of which had a preloaded tension tie, Superbolt torque-nut and frangible nut. During the flight test, the frangible nuts were pyrotechnically split, permitting the CM to separate from the LAS. The LAS separation event was the driving case in the shock environment for many co-located hardware items. During development testing, it was necessary to measure the source shock during the separation event so the predicted shock environment could be validated and used for certification testing of multiple hardware items. The Lockheed Martin test team measured the source separation shock due to the LAS R&R function, which dramatically decreased the predicted environment by 90% at 100 Hz. During development testing a hydraulic tensioner was used to preload the joint; however, the joint relaxation with the tensioner proved unsatisfactory so the design was modified to include a Superbolt torque-nut. The observed preload creep during lab testing was 4% after 30 days, with 2.5% occurring in the first 24 hours. The conversion of strain energy (preload) to kinetic energy (retraction) was measured to be 50-75%. Design features and careful monitoring of multiple strain gauges on each tension tie allowed a pure tensile load

  2. A Technical and Cost Perspective on Radiation Testing Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohen, Lewis M.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation detailing costs and technical perspectives on radiation testing is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction - a Changing Microelectronics World; 2) Sample Technology Changes and Related Impacts on Radiation Testing; 3) Perspective on the "New" Cost or Doing Business; and 4) Considerations.

  3. The Math Challenge: Preparing for the GED Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanthournout, Steve

    1989-01-01

    Significant changes in the General Educational Development Math Test require a change in teaching methods. A structured problem-solving approach focused on applying principles and interpreting abstract data will stress process as well as content as required by the test. (SK)

  4. A proposed optical test for Popper's challenge to quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reintjes, J.; Bashkansky, Mark

    2016-05-01

    We describe an optical configuration that is predicted to exhibit the behavior described by Popper in his challenge to conventional quantum mechanics. Popper rejected this behavior on the grounds that it was unphysical because it relied on observer knowledge as a causative agent. We offer an interpretation in which the behavior arises simply out of the mode properties of an entangled system. In this interpretation the observer knowledge reveals in which mode an excitation occurs, but does not affect future behavior as asserted by Popper. We also discuss the relation of our system to the quantum eraser.

  5. The Challenges of Meeting the "Standards": A Perspective from the Test Publishing Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the challenges that test publishers face in constructing educational assessments that meet high technical quality as prescribed in the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (AERA, APA, NCME, 1999) are examined. Federal educational initiatives are used to illustrate demands on technical quality that challenge the efforts of…

  6. Effects of Concept Map Extraction and a Test-Based Diagnostic Environment on Learning Achievement and Learners' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Liew, Keng-Hou; Chu, Chih-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Computerised testing and diagnostics are critical challenges within an e-learning environment, where the learners can assess their learning performance through tests. However, a test result based on only a single score is insufficient information to provide a full picture of learning performance. In addition, because test results implicitly…

  7. Building America Case Study: Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings, Upstate New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  8. The 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in Predicting Online Student Test Anxiety and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yan; Taylor, Jeff; Cao, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of the new 3 × 2 achievement goal model in predicting online student test anxiety and help-seeking. Achievement goals refer to students' general aims for participating in learning and the standard by which they judge their achievement (Pintrich, 2000). According to Elliot and his colleagues (2011), there are six…

  9. Digynic triploidy: utility and challenges of noninvasive prenatal testing

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Julie; Shenoy, Archana; Goetzinger, Katherine; Cottrell, Catherine E; Baldridge, Dustin; White, Frances V; Shinawi, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Low fraction fetal DNA in noninvasive prenatal testing in the context of fetal growth restriction and multiple congenital anomalies should alert medical professionals to the possibility of digynic triploidy. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray can detect the parental origin of triploidy and explain its mechanism. PMID:26185638

  10. Opting Out: Parents Creating Contested Spaces to Challenge Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana; Mann, Bryan; Hlavacik, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We explore how the opt-out movement has responded to the combination of a stringent federal policy with weak and often variable implementation among the states. Gaps between federal expectations and states' understandings of just how to make NCLB's demands a reality have created policy ambiguity. Parents who oppose standardized testing have…

  11. Aptitude Tests Versus School Exams as Selection Tools for Higher Education and the Case for Assessing Educational Achievement in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Advocates of using a US-style SAT for university selection claim that it is fairer to applicants from disadvantaged backgrounds than achievement tests because it assesses potential, not achievement, and that it allows finer discrimination between top applicants than GCEs. The pros and cons of aptitude tests in principle are discussed, focusing on…

  12. Language Learner Strategies and Linguistic Competence as Factors Affecting Achievement Test Scores in English for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkovic, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the effect of two factors on achievement test scores in English as a foreign language for specific purposes in higher education: preexisting linguistic competence and frequency of use of language learner strategies. The rationale for the analysis of language learner strategies as a factor affecting achievement test outcomes is…

  13. Evaluation of Science Achievement and Science Test Development in an International Context: The IEA Study in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the development of cognitive tests and their administration to four student populations in a cross-nation study on science achievement by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. Included are illustrative items, a table of behavior-subject area grid, and test scores by countries. (CC)

  14. The Process of Customization of the "Metropolitan Achievement Test" (MAT-6) in Mathematics for New York City Public School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleporos, Betsy; And Others

    In the spring of 1986, New York City began using the Metropolitan Achievement Test-6 (MAT-6) series to assess achievement in mathematics as part of a continuing end-of-year testing program. During the first two years of the program, appropriate levels of the shelf version of MAT-6 (Forms L and M) were administered to second through eighth graders.…

  15. The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding the…

  16. Challenges in striving to simultaneously achieve multiple resource allocation goals: the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) example.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Heather; Charles, Cathy; Elit, Laurie; Gafni, Amiram

    2016-01-01

    The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) makes recommendations to Canada's provinces and territories (except Quebec) to guide their cancer drug funding decisions. The objective of this paper is to explore, using an economic perspective and the pCODR as an example, the challenges associated with striving to simultaneously achieve the goals of maximizing health benefits with available resources and improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. The first challenge concerns how to interpret the goals in order to determine how resources should be allocated to achieve each goal. The second challenge relates to whether, if pursued simultaneously, both goals can be achieved to the same extent that each goal could have been achieved alone with the same available resources. Regarding the first challenge, we illustrate that, due to a lack of definitional clarity, it is difficult to determine exactly how resources should be allocated in order to achieve the goal of improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. Regarding the second challenge, we illustrate that choosing to strive for both of the pCODR goals simultaneously will likely be associated with tradeoffs in the extent to which one or both goals can be achieved (relative to what could have been achieved for each goal alone with the same available resources). We suggest that, if the pCODR and the provincial drug plan decision-makers it supports want to strive for both goals simultaneously, they must prioritize the goals and explicitly identify the tradeoffs associated with the prioritization. This will ensure that the consequences of striving to simultaneously achieve both goals are explicit, transparent, and predictable for provincial drug plan decision-makers, physicians, patients, caregivers, and society as a whole. PMID:27489586

  17. Challenges in striving to simultaneously achieve multiple resource allocation goals: the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) example

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Cathy; Elit, Laurie; Gafni, Amiram

    2016-01-01

    The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) makes recommendations to Canada's provinces and territories (except Quebec) to guide their cancer drug funding decisions. The objective of this paper is to explore, using an economic perspective and the pCODR as an example, the challenges associated with striving to simultaneously achieve the goals of maximizing health benefits with available resources and improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. The first challenge concerns how to interpret the goals in order to determine how resources should be allocated to achieve each goal. The second challenge relates to whether, if pursued simultaneously, both goals can be achieved to the same extent that each goal could have been achieved alone with the same available resources. Regarding the first challenge, we illustrate that, due to a lack of definitional clarity, it is difficult to determine exactly how resources should be allocated in order to achieve the goal of improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. Regarding the second challenge, we illustrate that choosing to strive for both of the pCODR goals simultaneously will likely be associated with tradeoffs in the extent to which one or both goals can be achieved (relative to what could have been achieved for each goal alone with the same available resources). We suggest that, if the pCODR and the provincial drug plan decision-makers it supports want to strive for both goals simultaneously, they must prioritize the goals and explicitly identify the tradeoffs associated with the prioritization. This will ensure that the consequences of striving to simultaneously achieve both goals are explicit, transparent, and predictable for provincial drug plan decision-makers, physicians, patients, caregivers, and society as a whole. PMID:27489586

  18. The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading Subtest “Holds” in HIV-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Casaletto, K. B.; Cattie, J.; Franklin, D. R.; Moore, D. J.; Woods, S. P.; Grant, I.; Heaton, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to detect HIV-associated neurocognitive decline, it is important to accurately estimate individuals’ premorbid levels of cognitive functioning. Although previous studies have operated under the assumption that word reading tests are valid and stable indicators of premorbid abilities in HIV infection, studies of other populations have found this is not always the case. Therefore, it is important to empirically examine the validity of word reading tests as estimates of premorbid functioning specifically within the HIV population. Methods The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest (WRAT-4 Reading) was administered along with comprehensive neurocognitive assessments to 150 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 76 HIV seronegative (HIV-) age-, education-, and sex-matched participants at baseline; a subset of 48 HIV+ individuals completed a second study visit (M=14.4 months), in which the alternate version of the WRAT-4 was administered. Results Although HIV+ individuals evidenced worse current neurocognitive functioning than HIV- participants, WRAT-4 Reading performance was comparable between groups. Longitudinally, HIV+ participants evidenced improved disease and neuropsychological functioning, yet WRAT-4 Reading demonstrated strong test-retest reliability, no practice effect, and did not differ between the initial and follow-up assessments. Test-retest differences in reading performance were minor and not associated with changes in neurocognitive performance or changes in HIV disease. Conclusions We found no evidence of WRAT-4 Reading performance decline in HIV infection, despite HIV+/HIV- group differences in neurocognitive functioning. Additionally, reading performances among HIV+ individuals demonstrated consistency across study visits. These results begin to support the validity of the WRAT-4 Reading subtest as an indicator of premorbid cognitive functioning in HIV+ individuals. PMID:25283135

  19. What Do We Know About Teaching and Learning in Urban Schools? Volume 4: Achievement Tests in Urban Schools: New Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva

    This paper reviews the research in the area of achievement tests. The findings indicate: (1) there is little evidence that educational decision makers use the large amount of test data collected; (2) a larger number of tests are being required of students for personal certification; (3) reasons for the lack of application of test results include…

  20. Effectiveness of a test-taking strategy on achievement in essay tests for students with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Therrien, William J; Hughes, Charles; Kapelski, Cory; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted to ascertain if an essay-writing strategy was effective at improving the achievement on essay tests for 7th- and 8th-grade students with reading and writing disabilities. Students were assigned via a stratified random sample to treatment or control group. Student scores were also compared to students without learning disabilities nominated by teachers as average writers. A 6-step essay strategy was taught that included analyzing the essay prompt, outlining, writing a response, and reviewing the answer. On the posttest, intervention group students significantly outperformed control group students on essay measures related to strategy use, content, and organization. There was no significant difference between treatment group and students without learning disabilities on posttest measures of content and organization.

  1. Life insurance and genetic test results: a mutation carrier's fight to achieve full cover.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Louise A; Otlowski, Margaret F A

    2013-09-01

    Currently, there is debate about life insurance companies' use of genetic information for assessing applicants. In his early 20s, James (pseudonym) was denied full life insurance cover because he revealed that he had discussed genetic testing with a genetic counsellor. He was later tested and found to carry a mutation in the MSH6 gene; after disclosing this, he was denied cover for cancer by two other life insurance companies. Unsatisfied with the insurance companies' risk assessments, and based on his understanding that regular colonoscopy significantly reduced his risk of cancer, James made a complaint to the Australian Human Rights Commission. After informing the third insurance company that he had done so, he was offered full coverage, which suggests that the company did not have actuarial data to justify its decision. This case provides evidence of the high level of initiative and proactivity required for a consumer to achieve a fair result. Few Australians would be in a position to pursue the level of research and advocacy undertaken by James (a professional with scientific training). We call on a collaborative approach between industry, government and researchers to address the issues that James's case raises about genetic testing and life insurance.

  2. Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance while Reducing Achievement Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Pennebaker, James W.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Ferrell, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901) brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935). Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses. PMID:24278176

  3. Skin testing and food challenges for the evaluation of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Williams, L W

    2001-01-01

    Skin testing by prick technique has an excellent safety record in the evaluation of food hypersensitivity. Skin prick tests for the common food allergens are excellent tools for identifying those at very low risk of reaction on eating the food but are of variable value in identifying patients who will be positive on challenge. Intradermal skin tests to foods are less safe and appear to add no predictive information. Skin tests to less common food allergens, especially fruits, are less well characterized and may require use of the food item itself as the source of allergen rather than a commercial extract. For a few foods, the CAP system fluorescent enzyme immunoassay (Pharmacia, Peapack, NJ) recently has been shown to have good ability to identify patients at very high probability of reaction on oral challenge. Oral challenge remains the definitive method of demonstrating sensitivity or tolerance to a food. The double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge is the gold standard of diagnosis, but in many situations, simpler open or single-blind challenge procedures may be substituted. With careful, incremental dosing and a low starting dose, oral challenges for food hypersensitivity have an excellent safety record. Skin prick tests are of little value in the evaluation of adverse food reactions not mediated by IgE. Oral challenge is relied upon in this situation for definitive diagnosis, but challenges may be cumbersome if the time course of the presumed reaction is not rapid.

  4. Assessing Perceived Challenges to Laboratory Testing at a Malawian Referral Hospital.

    PubMed

    Petrose, Lia G; Fisher, Arielle M; Douglas, Gerald P; Terry, Martha A; Muula, Adamson; Chawani, Marlen S; Limula, Henry; Driessen, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Adequate laboratory infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa is vital for tackling the burden of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, malaria, and tuberculosis, yet laboratories are ill-integrated into the diagnostic and care delivery process in low-resource settings. Although much of the literature focuses on disease-specific challenges around laboratory testing, we sought to identify horizontal challenges to the laboratory testing process through interviews with clinicians involved in the diagnostic process. Based on 22 interviews with physicians, nurses, clinical officers, medical students, and laboratory technicians, technologists and supervisors, we identified 12 distinct challenges in the areas of staff, materials, workflow, and the blood bank. These challenges underscore the informational challenges that compound more visible resource shortages in the laboratory testing process, which lend themselves to horizontal strengthening efforts around the diagnostic process. PMID:27022150

  5. 'Give us the full story': overcoming the challenges to achieving informed choice about fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kayli; Maypilama, Elaine Lawurrpa; Kildea, Sue; Boyle, Jacqueline; Barclay, Lesley; Rumbold, Alice

    2013-12-01

    This cross-cultural qualitative study examined the ethical, language and cultural complexities around offering fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities. There were five study sites across the Northern Territory (NT), including urban and remote Aboriginal communities. In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2009 and August 2010, and included 35 interviews with 59 health providers and 33 interviews with 62 Aboriginal women. The findings show that while many providers espoused the importance of achieving equity in access to fetal anomaly screening, their actions were inconsistent with this ideal. Providers reported they often modified their practice depending on the characteristics of their client, including their English skills, the perception of the woman's interest in the tests and assumptions based on their risk profile and cultural background. Health providers were unsure whether it was better to tailor information to the specific needs of their client or to provide the same level of information to all clients. Very few Aboriginal women were aware of fetal anomaly screening. The research revealed they did want to be offered screening and wanted the 'full story' about all aspects of the tests. The communication processes advocated by Aboriginal women to improve understanding about screening included community discussions led by elders and educators. These processes promote culturally defined ways of sharing information, rather than the individualised, biomedical approaches to information-giving in the clinical setting. A different and arguably more ethical approach to introducing fetal anomaly screening would be to initiate dialogue with appropriate groups of women in the community, particularly young women, build relationships and utilise Aboriginal health workers. This could accommodate individual choice and broader cultural values and allow women to discuss the moral and philosophical debates surrounding fetal anomaly screening

  6. Full-scale phosphorus recovery from digested waste water sludge in Belgium - part I: technical achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Marchi, A; Geerts, S; Weemaes, M; Schiettecatte, W; Wim, S; Vanhoof, C; Christine, V

    2015-01-01

    To date, phosphorus recovery as struvite in wastewater treatment plants has been mainly implemented on water phases resulting from dewatering processes of the sludge line. However, it is possible to recover struvite directly from sludge phases. Besides minimising the return loads of phosphorus from the sludge line to the water line, placing such a process within the sludge line is claimed to offer advantages such as a higher recovery potential, enhanced dewaterability of the treated sludge, and reduced speed of scaling in pipes and dewatering devices. In the wastewater treatment plant at Leuven (Belgium), a full-scale struvite recovery process from digested sludge has been tested for 1 year. Several monitoring campaigns and experiments provided indications of the efficiency of the process for recovery. The load of phosphorus from the sludge line returning to the water line as centrate accounted for 15% of the P-load of the plant in the reference situation. Data indicated that the process divides this phosphorus load by two. An improved dewaterability of 1.5% of dry solids content was achieved, provided a proper tuning of the installation. Quality analyses showed that the formed struvite was quite pure.

  7. Organizational and media stress among professional football players: testing an achievement goal theory model.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, E; Halvari, H; Roberts, G C

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M(age) =25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects.

  8. Effects of parabens and isothiazolinone on the microbiological quality of baby shampoo: the challenge test.

    PubMed

    Smaoui, Slim; Hlima, Hajer Ben

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro microbial challenge test has been developed to predict the likelihood of consumer contamination of baby shampoo. Four preservatives were tested in our study: the parbens Medcide D, Medcide PB, Sepicide HB. and isothiazolinone Methylisothiazolinone/Chloromethylisothiazolinone [MI/MCI]. These preservatives were tested separately and in combination. The challenge test involved inoculating the product with Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus brasiliensis and Candida albicans. Inhibition growth of these microorganisms at each preservative concentration was followed over a 28 d period. The test was used to classify products as poorly preserved, marginally preserved, or well-preserved. Interestingly, it was the combination (0.1% Isothiazolinone [MI/MCI] and 0.1% Sepicide HB) which inhibited most the microbial growth of microorganims while preserving the physicochemical properties of the product. As a result, the challenge test described can be accurately used to predict the risk of consumer contamination of cosmetic products.

  9. Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not out perform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation…

  10. Meta-Analyses of the Relationship of Creative Achievement to both IQ and Divergent Thinking Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hee

    2008-01-01

    There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted…

  11. Compounding Challenges: Student Achievement and the Distribution of Human and Fiscal Resources in Oregon's Rural School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    This report presents findings from an investigation into relationships between academic achievement and the distribution of fiscal resources among rural school districts in Oregon. The investigation was prompted by earlier-reported findings suggesting the critical nature of both achievement gaps and resource gaps among rural school districts in…

  12. A Cultural Analysis of the Achievement Gap Discourse: Challenging the Language and Labels Used in the Work of School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Roderick L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I critique the labels and terms used to frame practices aimed at closing the achievement gap. I examine how an unacknowledged "achievement gap Discourse" has emerged from the language that informs practices and policies of contemporary school reform. I use Gee's uppercase "Discourse" and a cultural…

  13. Relationship between Patterns of Personality of Campus Leaders and Scholastic Achievement in Elementary Schools: A Test of Holland's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Linda Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine student achievement as a function of principal personality and assistant principal personality in an elementary school setting. Student achievement, the dependent variable, was fifth grade campus mean scale scores on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills test for reading, math, and science. Holland's…

  14. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  15. The Effect of Grade Norms in College Students: Using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cressman, Markus N.; Liljequist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The "Woodcock-Johnson III" Tests of Achievement grade norms versus age norms were examined in the calculation of discrepancy scores in 202 college students. Difference scores were calculated between the "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition" Full Scale IQ and the "Woodcock-Johnson III" Total Achievement,…

  16. Clomiphene citrate challenge test in the assessment of ovarian reserve before controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, S; Vicdan, K; Işik, A Z; Ozgün, O D; Alaybeyoğlu, L; Polat, G; Biberoğlu, K

    1997-06-01

    of patients. In conclusion, an abnormal CC challenge test is a good predictor of diminished ovarian reserve and it is better than a basal FSH concentration on day 3. It provides valuable information for both patients as to their chances of achieving a pregnancy and also for the medical team deciding on options for stimulation protocols.

  17. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  18. Dobutamine stress echo is superior to exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate among patients on beta blockers.

    PubMed

    Sabbath, Adam; Pack, Michael; Markiewicz, Richard; John, Jooby; Gaballa, Mohamed; Goldman, Steven; Thai, Hoang

    2005-01-01

    Published guidelines recommend continuing beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in patients undergoing stress testing. We evaluated the role of pharmacological versus exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate (THR) among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade. We compared data from 140 patients who underwent dobutamine stress echo (DSE) and 143 patients who underwent exercise treadmill testing (ETT). In both groups, beta-adrenergic blocker was continued at the time of stress testing. Overall, patients undergoing DSE achieved THR more frequently than ETT. With beta-adrenergic blockade, DSE patients met THR more frequently than ETT patients (p < 0.001). Without beta-adrenergic blockade, there was no difference between either modality in achieving THR. In both DSE and ETT patients, absence of beta-adrenergic blockade increased the odds of achieving THR [odds ratio (OR): 2.46, p = 0.042 and OR: 7.44, p < 0.001, respectively]. Atropine use with DSE increased the odds of achieving THR (OR: 3.76, p = 0.006). In conclusion, pharmacological stress testing appears to be superior to exercise stress testing in achieving THR among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade.

  19. Big fish in big ponds: a multilevel analysis of test anxiety and achievement in special gifted classes.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Thomas; Preckel, Franzis; Zeidner, Moshe; Schleyer, Esther

    2008-04-01

    This study analyzes the effects of individual achievement and achievement level of student reference group on test anxiety in a national sample of 769 gifted Israeli students (grade levels 4-9), which was previously investigated by Zeidner and Schleyer (1999a). We hypothesized that when controlling for individual achievement, students' experiences of test anxiety should increase with the increasing ability level of their peer reference group. It was assumed that this effect was largely mediated by reference group effects on academic self-concept (big-fish-little-pond effect). Zeidner and Schleyer found that gifted students within a gifted peer reference group showed higher levels of test anxiety than gifted students within a non-gifted peer reference group. Of note, the present study focused exclusively on gifted students attending special gifted classes. The main research question was whether or not the assumed effects of individual and class achievement can be found for gifted students in special gifted classes when taking the variance of achievement level (grades) of the special gifted classes into account. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methodology, the assumed effects were vindicated for this special group of high ability students. Thus, in line with previous results, the Worry component of test anxiety was more highly reactive to the effects of individual achievement than the Emotionality component. Also, in line with our theoretical assumptions, achievement/anxiety relations were largely mediated by the effects of academic self-concept. PMID:18350396

  20. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  1. Radiation Testing on State-of-the-Art CMOS: Challenges, Plans, and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    At GOMAC 2007 and 2008, we discussed a variety of challenges for radiation testing of modern semiconductor devices and technologies [1, 2]. In this presentation, we provide more specific details in this on-going investigation focusing on out-of-the-box lessons observed for providing radiation effects assurances as well as preliminary test results.

  2. Repeated Challenge Studies: A Comparison of Union-Intersection Testing with Linear Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Richard A.; Ohman, Pamela A.

    1997-01-01

    Challenge studies can be used to see whether there is a causal relationship between an agent of interest and a response. An approach based on union-intersection testing is presented that allows researchers to examine observations on a single subject and test the hypothesis of interest. An application using psychological data is presented. (SLD)

  3. Advanced Electronics Technologies: Challenges for Radiation Effects Testing, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2005-01-01

    Emerging Electronics Technologies include: 1) Changes in the commercial semiconductor world; 2) Radiation Effects Sources (A sample test constraint); and 3) Challenges to Radiation Testing and Modeling: a) IC Attributes-Radiation Effects Implication b) Fault Isolation c) Scaled Geometry d) Speed e) Modeling Shortfall f) Knowledge Status

  4. Integration of ICT in Curriculum: Expected Achievements and Challenges. Integration of ICT in Curriculum--The Pakistani Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanveer, Asma

    2010-01-01

    In this age of information and technology, educational institutions not just impart knowledge to individuals, but strive to change them into lifelong learners. ICT challenges the traditional method of teaching and learning through its potential as a source of knowledge. Like other developing countries of the world, a computer revolution has taken…

  5. The Effects of Written Teacher Feedback on the Academic Achievement of Fifth-Grade Students with Learning Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewert, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Teacher feedback is an important aspect of any classroom. However, because of the increasing demands on teachers' time, the delivery of feedback to students has been reduced. The author investigated the types and necessity of teacher feedback for students with learning challenges. The method for analysis was in the form of written teacher…

  6. Testing Structural Invariance of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire in American, Chinese, and Dutch College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Huaping; Hernandez, Diley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the structural invariance of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) in American, Chinese, and Dutch college students. Using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), the authors found evidence for the four-factor structure of achievement goals in all three samples. Subsequent multigroup CFAs supported structural invariance of…

  7. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 5: Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; Kober, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). In most states, these tests are first administered in grade…

  9. The Black-White Scoring Gap on SAT II Achievement Tests: Some of the News Is Cheering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Academically accomplished applicants to the nation's top colleges usually take SAT II Achievement Tests. While scoring gaps between college-bound Blacks and Whites on these tests tend to be smaller than gaps on the basic SAT, a racial scoring gap persists. However, black students appear to be making progress in closing the racial scoring gap on…

  10. Achievement at Whose Expense? A Literature Review of Test-Based Grade Retention Policies in U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The author uses Maxwell's method of literature reviews for educational research to focus on literature relevant to test-based grade retention policies to make the following argument: although some studies have documented average gains in academic achievement through test-based grade retention, there is increasing evidence that these gains…

  11. Investigating the Relationship among Test Anxiety, Gender, Academic Achievement and Years of Study: A Case of Iranian EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one's life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done…

  12. The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories…

  13. Relationships between Scores of Gifted Children on the Stanford-Binet IV and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Howard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Forty-five gifted children, ages 11-17, were tested with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement. Results indicated 18 of 20 correlations between the area and composite scores were significant. The Stanford-Binet Short-Term Memory standard age score mean was lower than other scores' means. (Author/JDD)

  14. Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Close-up view of the liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51L taken from camera site 39B-2/T3. From this camera position, a cloud of grey-brown smoke can be seen on the right side of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) on a line directly across from the letter 'U' in United States. This was the first visible sign that an SRB joint breach may have occured. On January 28, 1986 frigid overnight temperatures caused normally pliable rubber O-ring seals and putty that are designed to seal and establish joint integrity between the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) joint segments, to become hard and non- flexible. At the instant of SRB ignition, tremendous stresses and pressures occur within the SRB casing and especially at the joint attachmentment points. The failure of the O-rings and putty to 'seat' properly at motor ignition, caused hot exhaust gases to blow by the seals and putty. During Challenger's ascent, this hot gas 'blow by' ultimately cut a swath completely through the steel booster casing; and like a welder's torch, began cutting into the External Tank (ET). It is believed that the ET was compromised in several locations starting in the aft at the initial point where SRB joint failure occured. The ET hydrogen tank is believed to have been breached first, with continuous rapid incremental failure of both the ET and SRB. A chain reaction of events occurring in milliseconds culminated in a massive explosion. The orbiter Challenger was instantly ejected by the blast and went askew into the supersonic air flow. These aerodynamic forces caused structural shattering and complete destruction of the orbiter. Though it was concluded that the G-forces experienced during orbiter ejection and break-up were survivable, impact with the ocean surface was not. Tragically, all seven crewmembers perished.

  15. Accountability, Rigor, and Detracking: Achievement Effects of Embracing a Challenging Curriculum as a Universal Good for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Carol Corbet; Wiley, Ed; Welner, Kevin G.; Murphy, John

    2008-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal study examines the long-term effects on the achievement of students at a diverse suburban high school after all students were given accelerated mathematics in a detracked middle school as well as ninth-grade "high-track" curriculum in all subjects in heterogeneously grouped classes. Despite considerable research…

  16. Challenge and Success: A Qualitative Study of the Career Development of Highly Achieving Women With Physical and Sensory Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Brigid M.; Gallor, Susanna M.; Hensler-McGinnis, Nancy F.; Fassinger, Ruth E.; Wang, Shihwe; Goodman, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the career development experiences of 17 highly achieving women with physical and sensory disabilities. Interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using modified grounded theory strategies (A. L. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1998). The emergent theoretical model was conceptualized as a system of influences organized…

  17. The Liberty Elementary Story: Confronting the Challenge of Falling Student Achievement, Low Teacher Morale, and Community Disengagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ellen J.; Matthews, Joe

    2005-01-01

    Principals play a major role in uniting faculties into collective action to improve teaching and learning. Researchers have found that schools that function as teaching and learning communities are successful in raising student academic achievement. To create a learning community, principals must transform their school cultures from places of…

  18. Evaluation of intolerance to analgesics, preservatives and food colorants with challenge tests.

    PubMed

    Rosenhall, L

    1982-09-01

    In 504 patients with asthma or rhinitis 1,868 oral challenge tests with analgesics, preservatives and food colorants were performed. Sodium benzoate and other benzoic compounds, as well as tartrazine and other azo dyes, were found to give similar but milder adverse reactions than acetylsalicylic acid. No patients reacted to potassium sorbate, another preservative, or to Patent Blue, which is not an azo dye. Intolerance was demonstrated most frequently in patients with a history of adverse reactions to analgesics or food, but also in 6% of patients investigated for other reasons. There are obvious risks for false positive or false negative results with a challenge test. Examples of these are given. The need for repeated tests and the clinical importance of all reproducible challenge reactions is stressed. PMID:7140873

  19. Microbiological Challenge Testing for Listeria Monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Food: A Practical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Scarano, Christian; Ibba, Michela; Pala, Carlo; Spanu, Vincenzo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Food business operators (FBOs) are the primary responsible for the safety of food they place on the market. The definition and validation of the product’s shelf-life is an essential part for ensuring microbiological safety of food and health of consumers. In the frame of the Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, FBOs shall conduct shelf-life studies in order to assure that their food does not exceed the food safety criteria throughout the defined shelf-life. In particular this is required for ready-to-eat (RTE) food that supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Among other studies, FBOs can rely on the conclusion drawn by microbiological challenge tests. A microbiological challenge test consists in the artificial contamination of a food with a pathogen microorganism and aims at simulating its behaviour during processing and distribution under the foreseen storage and handling conditions. A number of documents published by international health authorities and research institutions describes how to conduct challenge studies. The authors reviewed the existing literature and described the methodology for implementing such laboratory studies. All the main aspects for the conduction of L. monocytogenes microbiological challenge tests were considered, from the selection of the strains, preparation and choice of the inoculum level and method of contamination, to the experimental design and data interpretation. The objective of the present document is to provide an exhaustive and practical guideline for laboratories that want to implement L. monocytogenes challenge testing on RTE food. PMID:27800369

  20. HEV dynamometer testing with state-of-charge corrections in the 1995 HEV challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.

    1996-03-01

    In the 1995 HEV Challenge competition, 17 prototype Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) were tested by using special HEV test procedures. The contribution of the batteries during the test, as measured by changes in battery state-of-charge (SOC), were accounted for by applying SOC corrections to the test data acquired from the results of the HEV test. The details of SOC corrections are described and two different HEV test methods are explained. The results of the HEV test methods are explained. The results of the HEV tests and the effects on the test outcome of varying HEV designs and control strategies are examined. Although many teams had technical problems with their vehicles, a few vehicles demonstrated high fuel economy and low emissions. One vehicle had emissions lower than California`s ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) emissions rates, and two vehicles demonstrated higher fuel economy and better acceleration than their stock counterparts.

  1. Adenosine dry powder inhalation for bronchial challenge testing, part 2: proof of concept in asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Lexmond, Anne J; van der Wiel, Erica; Hagedoorn, Paul; Bult, Wouter; Frijlink, Henderik W; ten Hacken, Nick H T; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-09-01

    Adenosine is an indirect stimulus to assess bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR(2)) in asthma. Bronchial challenge tests are usually performed with nebulised solutions of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP(3)). The nebulised AMP test has several disadvantages, like long administration times and a restrictive maximum concentration that does not result in BHR in all patients. In this study, we investigated the applicability of dry powder adenosine for assessment of BHR in comparison to nebulised AMP. Dry powder adenosine was prepared in doubling doses (0.01-80 mg) derived from the nebulised AMP test with addition of two higher doses. Five asthmatic subjects performed two bronchial challenge tests, one with nebulised AMP following the 2-min tidal breathing method; the second with dry powder adenosine administered with an investigational inhaler and single slow inhalations (inspiratory flow rate 30-40 L/min). All subjects reached a 20% fall in FEV₁(4) with the new adenosine test (PD20(5)) compared to four subjects with the AMP test (PC₂₀(6)). Dry powder adenosine was well tolerated by all subjects and better appreciated than nebulised AMP. In conclusion, this new bronchial challenge test appears to be a safe and convenient alternative to the nebulised AMP test to assess BHR in asthmatic subjects.

  2. Helping people make well-informed decisions about health care: old and new challenges to achieving the aim of the Cochrane Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Andrew D

    2013-09-20

    The aim of the Cochrane Collaboration is to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of health care interventions. This aim is as relevant now as it was 20 years ago, when the Cochrane Collaboration was established. Substantial progress has been made toward addressing challenges to achieving the Collaboration's aim. At the same time, a huge amount of work remains to be done. Current challenges include improving the quality of reviews, methodological challenges, meeting the needs of contributors and users and taking on new challenges while staying focused on the Collaboration's aim. Radical thinking and substantial change may be needed to identify and implement pragmatic strategies to ensure that reviews are up-to-date and informative. Methodological challenges include the development and application of better methods for addressing explanatory factors, incorporating non-randomized evidence and making comparisons across multiple interventions. Innovations in editorial processes and strategies to meet the needs of low- and middle-income countries and diverse users of Cochrane reviews are needed. Finally, although it is important to consider broadening the aims of the Collaboration to include types of questions other than the effects of interventions and types of products other than the Cochrane Library, we should not lose sight of the aim of the Cochrane Collaboration. Addressing that aim is still a major challenge that requires the collaboration of thousands of people around the world and continuing improvements in the methods used to achieve that aim.

  3. The Relationship between Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Student Achievement on Language Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umstead, Lyubov

    2013-01-01

    The number of English Language Learners (ELLs) is rapidly growing. Teachers continue facing challenges in providing effective content instruction to ELLs while helping them learn English. New and improved approaches are necessary to meet the individual learning needs of this diverse group of students and help them progress academically while…

  4. Exploring the Underachievement of Elementary Gifted Students: An Analysis of Classroom Achievement and Standardized Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govan, Charissa M.

    2012-01-01

    Underachieving gifted students, described by Gowan (1955) as "one of the greatest social wastes in our culture," are a challenge to educational stakeholders and a loss to society. Gifted children, who are often identified at an early age, possess unique talents and abilities that set them apart from their peers. Young gifted children are…

  5. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  6. Collaborative Testing and Achievement: Are Two Heads Really Better than One?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberyan, April; Barnett, Jerrold

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the impact of collaborative testing on exam scores for psychology students at a moderately selectivue Midwestern University. The first study was a replication of previous classroom research where students could choose to test with a partner or alone. No significant differences were found between those taking tests alone or…

  7. The Relationship between Students' Performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the Fourth and Fifth Grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnimont, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…

  8. Relationship Between the Clinical Components of the Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns and the Stanford Achievement Test: Validity of the Boder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the concurrent validity of the diagnostic components of the Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns with the reading and spelling measures of the Stanford Achievement Reading Test (SAT) in 87 reading-disabled elementary school students. Results indicated the relationship between the reading components of the Boder and SAT were…

  9. Relationships between Teacher-Assigned Grades and Academic Achievement as Determined by AIMS Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationships between student achievement, as measured by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards, and teacher-assigned grades within a large, urban Phoenix, Arizona school district. For the quantitative component of the study, a proportionate stratified random sample of 3rd grade students from…

  10. Relationships Among Simple Measures of Reading and Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deno, Stanley L.; And Others

    Three concurrent validity studies were conducted to determine the relationship between performances on formative measures of reading and standardized achievement measures of reading. Correlational analyses for five formative measures and three standardized measures provided evidence for the validity of Words in Isolation, Words in Context, and…

  11. The White British-Black Caribbean Achievement Gap: Tests, Tiers and Teacher Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2012-01-01

    A recent analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) indicates a White British-Black Caribbean achievement gap at age 14 which cannot be accounted for by socio-economic variables or a wide range of contextual factors. This article uses the LSYPE to analyse patterns of entry to the different tiers of national mathematics…

  12. Predicting End-of-Year Achievement Test Performance: A Comparison of Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kurz, Alexander; Zigmond, Naomi; Lemons, Christopher J.; Kloo, Amanda; Shrago, Jacqueline; Beddow, Peter A.; Williams, Leila; Bruen, Charles; Lupp, Lynda; Farmer, Jeanie; Mosiman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the multiple-measures clause of recent federal policy regarding student eligibility for alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MASs), this study examined how scores or combinations of scores from a diverse set of assessments predicted students' end-of-year proficiency status on statewide…

  13. Testing Multiple Goals Theory in an Asian Context: Filipino University Students' Motivation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dela Rosa, Elmer D.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals research has focused on the importance of mastery relative to performance goals, but the multiple goals perspective asserts that performance goals also lead to positive outcomes and that learners adopt multiple goals in adaptive ways. However, this multiple-goals perspective has not been extensively studied in Asian students. The…

  14. Attacking the African American-White Achievement Gap on College Admissions Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Michael T.; Millett, Catherine M.; Ready, Douglas D.

    2003-01-01

    The African American-white achievement gap exists even among the youngest children; African American students arrive at kindergarten considerably behind their white peers in measurable cognitive skills. Although the gap has narrowed somewhat over the past several decades, the average African American still scores below 75 percent of white students…

  15. Homogeneous Grouping in the Context of High-Stakes Testing: Does It Improve Reading Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcedo-Gonzalez, Trena

    2012-01-01

    As accountability reform intensifies, urban school districts strive to meet No Child Left Behind mandates to avoid severe penalties. This study investigated the resurgence of homogeneous grouping methods as a means to increase reading achievement and meet English Language Arts Adequate Yearly Progress requirements. Specifically, this study…

  16. Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap between Urban and Suburban Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Jonathan; Duncan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that…

  17. "Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

  18. New challenges for BRCA testing: a view from the diagnostic laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Increased demand for BRCA testing is placing pressures on diagnostic laboratories to raise their mutation screening capacity and handle the challenges associated with classifying BRCA sequence variants for clinical significance, for example interpretation of pathogenic mutations or variants of unknown significance, accurate determination of large genomic rearrangements and detection of somatic mutations in DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumour samples. Many diagnostic laboratories are adopting next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to increase their screening capacity and reduce processing time and unit costs. However, migration to NGS introduces complexities arising from choice of components of the BRCA testing workflow, such as NGS platform, enrichment method and bioinformatics analysis process. An efficient, cost-effective accurate mutation detection strategy and a standardised, systematic approach to the reporting of BRCA test results is imperative for diagnostic laboratories. This review covers the challenges of BRCA testing from the perspective of a diagnostics laboratory.

  19. New challenges for BRCA testing: a view from the diagnostic laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Increased demand for BRCA testing is placing pressures on diagnostic laboratories to raise their mutation screening capacity and handle the challenges associated with classifying BRCA sequence variants for clinical significance, for example interpretation of pathogenic mutations or variants of unknown significance, accurate determination of large genomic rearrangements and detection of somatic mutations in DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumour samples. Many diagnostic laboratories are adopting next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to increase their screening capacity and reduce processing time and unit costs. However, migration to NGS introduces complexities arising from choice of components of the BRCA testing workflow, such as NGS platform, enrichment method and bioinformatics analysis process. An efficient, cost-effective accurate mutation detection strategy and a standardised, systematic approach to the reporting of BRCA test results is imperative for diagnostic laboratories. This review covers the challenges of BRCA testing from the perspective of a diagnostics laboratory. PMID:27514839

  20. Radiation Testing, Characterization and Qualification Challenges for Modern Microelectronics and Photonics Devices and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2008-01-01

    At an earlier conference we discussed a selection of the challenges for radiation testing of modern semiconductor devices focusing on state-of-the-art CMOS technologies. In this presentation, we extend this discussion focusing on the following areas: (1) Device packaging, (2) Evolving physical single even upset mechanisms, (3) Device complexity, and (4) the goal of understanding the limitations and interpretation of radiation testing results.

  1. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small, Multiple Satellite Missions: Experiences From The Space Technology 5 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This brief presentation describes the mechanical and electrical integration activities and environmental testing challenges of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Project. Lessons learned during this process are highlighted, including performing mechanical activities serially to gain efficiency through repetition and performing electrical activities based on the level of subsystem expertise available.

  2. The importance of thermal-vacuum testing in achieving high reliability of spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K.

    1984-01-01

    The work performed on thermal vacuum testing of complex mechanisms is described. The objective of these tests is to assess the mechanism reliability by monitoring performance in an environment that closely resembles the environment that will occur during flight. To be both valid and cost effective, these tests are performed in a detailed, formally controlled manner. A review of the major test observations is given, during which time some failure modes are detected. Full confidence now exists in many mechanism and component designs, and much valuable data obtained.

  3. A technique to achieve uniform stress distribution in compressive creep testing of advanced ceramics at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.C.; Stevens, C.O.; Brinkman, C.R.; Holshauser, N.E.

    1996-05-01

    A technique to achieve stable and uniform uniaxial compression is offered for creep testing of advanced ceramic materials at elevated temperatures, using an innovative self-aligning load-train assembly. Excellent load-train alignment is attributed to the inherent ability of a unique hydraulic universal coupler to maintain self-aligning. Details of key elements, design concept, and pricniples of operation of the self-aligning coupler are described. A method of alignment verification using a strain-gaged specimen is then discussed. Results of verification tests indicate that bending below 1.5% is routinely achievable usin the load-train system. A successful compression creep test is demonstrated using a dumbbell-shpaed Si nitride specimen tested at 1300 C for over 4000 h.

  4. Overview of status and challenges of system testing on chip with embedded DRAMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falter, T.; Richter, D.

    2000-05-01

    The combination of logic together with DRAM as a system on chip (SOC) has many advantages for a large variety of computing and network applications. The goal of testing a system is to detect the fabrication caused faults in order to guarantee the defined quality. The increasing size of memories, shrinking dimensions, higher demands on application (frequency and temperature range) and quality cause new problems and higher costs of testing. On the other hand the pressure to serve the market with low cost products forces the test engineer to reduce test costs by reducing test times and using low cost test equipment. Different solutions are discussed in this paper in order to meet these challenges. The variety of test approaches for testing SOC with embedded DRAMs reaches from testing with completely chip external test logic, a simple on-chip test logic up to a full blown built-in self test (BIST) on chip. Which choice is the right one depends on different criteria e.g. memory size, quality demands and application of the product. As an example the modular embedded DRAM core concept from Infineon Technologies is discussed, which includes a dedicated modular test concept based on on-chip integration of a test controller.

  5. A Case Study to Explore Rigorous Teaching and Testing Practices to Narrow the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isler, Tesha

    2012-01-01

    The problem examined in this study: Does the majority of teachers use rigorous teaching and testing practices? The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore the classroom techniques of six effective teachers who use rigorous teaching and testing practices. The hypothesis for this study is that the examination of the…

  6. Write on Target: Preparing Young Writers To Succeed on State Writing Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Tommy; York, Carol

    This handbook guides teachers through nine workshops designed to share strategies for success on writing tests. The workshops in the handbook give practical ideas that can be implemented in the elementary classroom to set the stage for test success without compromising children's growth as writers. Following a foreword by Michael R. Sampson and…

  7. The Shrinking Black-White Gap on SAT II Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Recent research shows that the SAT II test is a much better predictor of college success than the standard SAT. In recent years, black students appear to be making progress in closing the racial scoring gap on the wide variety of academic subjects (particularly chemistry, world history, and biology) that are measured by the SAT II test. (SM)

  8. Achievement Gap Projection for Standardized Testing through Logistic Regression within a Large Arizona School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermeyer, Steven Bruce

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades high-stakes testing has become more political than educational. The Districts within Arizona are bound by the mandates of both AZ LEARNS and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. At the time of this writing, both legislative mandates relied on the Arizona Instrument for Measuring Standards (AIMS) as State Tests for gauging…

  9. Claims, Evidence, and Achievement-Level Descriptors as a Foundation for Item Design and Test Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Amy; Huff, Kristen; Luecht, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-centered assessment design (ECD) explicates a transparent evidentiary argument to warrant the inferences we make from student test performance. This article describes how the vehicles for gathering student evidence--task models and test specifications--are developed. Task models, which are the basis for item development, flow directly…

  10. Tests Built from Piaget's and Gesell's Tasks as Predictors of First-Grade Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; Kaufman, Nadeen L.

    1972-01-01

    Results offer empirical support to Ilg and Ames's claim that the Gesell battery is an excellent predictor of school readiness. The close similarity of the Piaget and Gesell tests accords well with previous findings that the two tests have much in common. (Authors/MB)

  11. A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Student Achievement Using Standardized and Performance-Based Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinter, Brad; Matchock, Robert L.; Charles, Eric P.; Balch, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Three groups of undergraduates (42 senior graduating psychology majors, 27 first-year premajors taking introductory psychology, and 24 first-year, high-performing nonmajors taking introductory psychology) completed the Psychology Major Field Test (MFT) and a short-answer (SA) essay test on reasoning about core knowledge in psychology. Graduating…

  12. Direct-field acoustic testing of a flight system : logistics, challenges, and results.

    SciTech Connect

    Stasiunas, Eric Carl; Gurule, David Joseph; Babuska, Vit; Skousen, Troy J.

    2010-10-01

    Before a spacecraft can be considered for launch, it must first survive environmental testing that simulates the launch environment. Typically, these simulations include vibration testing performed using an electro-dynamic shaker. For some spacecraft however, acoustic excitation may provide a more severe loading environment than base shaker excitation. Because this was the case for a Sandia Flight System, it was necessary to perform an acoustic test prior to launch in order to verify survival due to an acoustic environment. Typically, acoustic tests are performed in acoustic chambers, but because of scheduling, transportation, and cleanliness concerns, this was not possible. Instead, the test was performed as a direct field acoustic test (DFAT). This type of test consists of surrounding a test article with a wall of speakers and controlling the acoustic input using control microphones placed around the test item, with a closed-loop control system. Obtaining the desired acoustic input environment - proto-flight random noise input with an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of 146.7 dB-with this technique presented a challenge due to several factors. An acoustic profile with this high OASPL had not knowingly been obtained using the DFAT technique prior to this test. In addition, the test was performed in a high-bay, where floor space and existing equipment constrained the speaker circle diameter. And finally, the Flight System had to be tested without contamination of the unit, which required a contamination bag enclosure of the test unit. This paper describes in detail the logistics, challenges, and results encountered while performing a high-OASPL, direct-field acoustic test on a contamination-sensitive Flight System in a high-bay environment.

  13. [Application of model 4650 type I compressor atomizer in bronchial challenge test].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Wang, Y; Zeng, J; He, T

    2000-06-01

    This study was directed to the feasibility of applying a simple atomizer-model 4650 type I (abbrev. M)-to bronchial challenge test. 92 cases of asthma were divided into 3 groups randomly. All of them were subjected to the bronchial challenge test by M atomizer, and by standard Dosimeter atomizer (abbrev. D) as a comparison. In the test by M atomizer, the times for inspiring challenging medicine were 1, 1.5 and 2 minutes for the 3 groups respectively, while the time for D atomizer was 1 minute for all. The results showed no significant differences (P > 0.2-0.5) between the two atomizers in the 3 groups, their values were linear correlated. When the inspiring time was 1 minute for both M and D, the test needed a higher concentration of challenging medicine for M than for D, their coefficient of correlation (r = 0.285) was relatively low. When inspiring time postponed to 1.5 minute for M, the difference in medicine concentration between M and D was smallest (-0.075 g/L), r = 0.665. However, a further postponed inspiring time to 2 minute for M reversely broadened their difference. These results indicated that the efficiency of M atomizer was a little lower than that of D, postponing the inspiring time for M could make up this weakness. A 1.5 minute inspiring time for M atomizer was the suggestion. Some modifications on M atomizer were done by us for a better efficiency, and the cheap and popular M atomizer could be a good replacement in bronchial challenge test.

  14. Testing for Accountability: A Balancing Act That Challenges Current Testing Practices and Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Koretz, in his article published in this issue, provides compelling arguments that the high stakes currently associated with accountability testing lead to behavioral changes in students, teachers, and other stakeholders that often have negative consequences, such as inflated scores. Koretz goes on to argue that these negative consequences require…

  15. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  16. A Study of the Physical Fitness Test in Relation to Demographics, Academic Achievement, and Students' Physical Fitness Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilia-Jones, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall results of the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and the six fitness areas of the PFT, academic achievement, demographics and self perceptions and the potential impact on students' performance on the PFT. While academic expectations are increasing, the adolescent obesity rate is also increasing, producing a decline in the…

  17. The Tested Achievement of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 Eighth Grade Class. E.D. Tabs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Donald A.; And Others

    Sixty tables are presented, which examine the test achievement of a national probability sample of eighth graders in public and private schools. Statistics were obtained from the base-year student survey of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). The NELS:88 monitors the transition of a national sample of young adults as they…

  18. The Relationship between Students' Reading Performance on Diagnostic Assessments and the Third Grade Reading Achievement Test in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…

  19. Predicting Performance on State Achievement Tests Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading: A Multilevel Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Seungsoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the relationship between Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and statewide achievement tests in reading. A multilevel meta-analysis was used to calculate the correlation coefficient of the population for 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Results showed an overall large correlation coefficient…

  20. A Comparison of Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9) Performance across Grade, Gender, Ethnicity, and Educational Program Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Kathryn; Kellow, Tom; Ye, Renmin

    This study compared Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9) academic subtest scores by students' grade, gender, and ethnicity and across different educational programs (e.g., Title I and special education). The study sample consisted of 144,701 students from public schools in a large city in the Southwest United States (grades 1-11). Raw data were taken…

  1. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  2. "Does Charter School Attendance Improve Test Scores?" Comments and Reactions on the Arizona Achievement Study. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Christopher; Hollenbeck, Kevin

    In a recent report, Lewis Solmon, Kern Paark, and David Garcia (2001) seek to identify the impact of attending charter schools on student achievement using data from Arizona. Based on a sophisticated statistical analysis, these authors report that charter school attendance increases test score gains of students. This note raises some questions…

  3. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

  4. Differential Validity and Utility of Successive and Simultaneous Approaches to the Development of Equivalent Achievement Tests in French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Gierl, Mark J.; Tardif, Claudette; Lin, Jie; Rinaldi, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Described in this paper are the first three activities of a research program designed to assess the differential validity and utility of successive and simultaneous approaches to the development of equivalent achievement tests in the French and English languages. Two teams of multilingual/multicultural French-English teachers used the simultaneous…

  5. Implications of Deployed and Nondeployed Fathers on Seventh Graders' California Achievement Test Scores during a Military Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisano, Mark C.

    The differences in California Achievement Test (CAT) scores from 1990 to 1991 in seventh graders, currently enrolled in Albritton Junior High School in the Fort Bragg Schools, of deployed and nondeployed fathers were analyzed. CAT percentile scores from 1990 and 1991 (1991 being the year of "Desert Storm") were obtained in reading, math and…

  6. Predictive Validity of Pre-University Examinations Test Scores for University Science Undergraduates' Academic Achievement in South West, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, L. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of pre-university examinations test scores (university matriculation examination (UME), Post-UME and pre-degree) for undergraduate academic achievement. The study is planned along the lines of correlational and ex-post-facto research design. A sample of four hundred university science based…

  7. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  8. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  9. Science standardized achievement tests: The relationship between publishers, textbook completion, admission standards and science test scores of seventh through ninth grade students in FACCS schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Sharon J.

    Scaled scores from the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition were examined in this causal-comparative study to determine if science publishers in Florida Association of Christian Colleges and Schools (FACCS), textbook completion rates, and admission standards affect standardized test scores. Administrators from 34 schools in FACCS participated in the study by returning an original eleven-question survey instrument to help ascertain what differences or relationships affect standardized test scores. Nine Mann-Whitney tests, one for each grade level in seventh through ninth, did not reveal a significant difference on hypotheses 1a-3c. Publishers (BJ U Press, A.C.E., Glencoe, Prentice Hall), standardized tests, entrance exams, GPA, and ability index factors were reviewed in the study. The results of this study might prompt administrators to consider factors other than publisher usage, textbook completion, and admission standards when attempting to close achievement gaps.

  10. Challenges of Cold Conditioning and Static Testing the Second Ares Demonstration Motor (DM-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Shyla; Davis, Larry C.

    2011-01-01

    On August 31, 2010, a five-segment demonstration motor (DM) for the Ares program was successfully tested. A series of demonstration motors (DMs) will be tested in different conditioned environments to confirm they meet their design specifications. The second demonstration motor (DM-2) was the first cold motor. The motor needed to be subjected to sub-freezing temperatures for two months so that its internal propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was approximately 40 F. Several challenges had to be overcome to make this a successful test. One challenge was to condition four field joints to get the O-rings approximately 32 F. This would be done by applying conditioning shrouds to externally cool each field joint after the test bay was pulled off. The purpose of this conditioning was to validate the new O-ring design and allow joint heaters to be eliminated. Another challenge was maintaining temperature requirements for components in the nozzle vectoring system. A separate heating system was used to warm these components during cold conditioning. There were 53 test objectives that required 764 channels of data to be recorded; 460 were specific to DM-2. This instrumentation had to be installed prior to conditioning, which meant the baseline process and timeline had to be modified to meet this time critical schedule.

  11. Claims, Evidence and Achievement Level Descriptors as a Foundation for Item Design and Test Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Amy; Huff, Kristen; Luecht, Ric

    2009-01-01

    [Slides] presented at the Annual Meeting of National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in San Diego, CA in April 2009. This presentation describes how the vehicles for gathering student evidence--task models and test specifications--are developed.

  12. Challenges in molecular testing in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with advanced disease.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Crispin T; Le Quesne, John; Santis, George; Sharpe, Rowena; de Castro, David Gonzalez; Middleton, Gary; Swanton, Charles

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer diagnostics have progressed greatly in the previous decade. Development of molecular testing to identify an increasing number of potentially clinically actionable genetic variants, using smaller samples obtained via minimally invasive techniques, is a huge challenge. Tumour heterogeneity and cancer evolution in response to therapy means that repeat biopsies or circulating biomarkers are likely to be increasingly useful to adapt treatment as resistance develops. We highlight some of the current challenges faced in clinical practice for molecular testing of EGFR, ALK, and new biomarkers such as PDL1. Implementation of next generation sequencing platforms for molecular diagnostics in non-small-cell lung cancer is increasingly common, allowing testing of multiple genetic variants from a single sample. The use of next generation sequencing to recruit for molecularly stratified clinical trials is discussed in the context of the UK Stratified Medicine Programme and The UK National Lung Matrix Trial. PMID:27598680

  13. The Development, Validation and Application of an External Criterion Measure of Achievement Test Item Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Robert A.

    Based on John Rawls' theory of justice as fairness, a nine-item rating scale was developed to serve as a criterion in studies of test item bias. Two principles underlie the scale: (1) Within a defined usage, test items should not affect students so that they are unable to do as well as their abilities would indicate; and (2) within the domain of a…

  14. Modeling and design of challenge tests: Inflammatory and metabolic biomarker study examples.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Johan; Hjorth, Stephan; Vogg, Barbara; Harlfinger, Stephanie; Gutierrez, Pablo Morentin; Peletier, Lambertus; Pehrson, Rikard; Davidsson, Pia

    2015-01-25

    Given the complexity of pharmacological challenge experiments, it is perhaps not surprising that design and analysis, and in turn interpretation and communication of results from a quantitative point of view, is often suboptimal. Here we report an inventory of common designs sampled from anti-inflammatory, respiratory and metabolic disease drug discovery studies, all of which are based on animal models of disease involving pharmacological and/or patho/physiological interaction challenges. The corresponding data are modeled and analyzed quantitatively, the merits of the respective approach discussed and inferences made with respect to future design improvements. Although our analysis is limited to these disease model examples, the challenge approach is generally applicable to the vast majority of pharmacological intervention studies. In the present five Case Studies results from pharmacodynamic effect models from different therapeutic areas were explored and analyzed according to five typical designs. Plasma exposures of test compounds were assayed by either liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry or ligand binding assays. To describe how drug intervention can regulate diverse processes, turnover models of test compound-challenger interaction, transduction processes, and biophase time courses were applied for biomarker response in eosinophil count, IL6 response, paw-swelling, TNFα response and glucose turnover in vivo. Case Study 1 shows results from intratracheal administration of Sephadex, which is a glucocorticoid-sensitive model of airway inflammation in rats. Eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluid were obtained at different time points via destructive sampling and then regressed by the mixed-effects modeling. A biophase function of the Sephadex time course was inferred from the modeled eosinophil time courses. In Case Study 2, a mouse model showed that the time course of cytokine-induced IL1β challenge was altered with or without drug intervention. Anakinra

  15. Modeling and design of challenge tests: Inflammatory and metabolic biomarker study examples.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Johan; Hjorth, Stephan; Vogg, Barbara; Harlfinger, Stephanie; Gutierrez, Pablo Morentin; Peletier, Lambertus; Pehrson, Rikard; Davidsson, Pia

    2015-01-25

    Given the complexity of pharmacological challenge experiments, it is perhaps not surprising that design and analysis, and in turn interpretation and communication of results from a quantitative point of view, is often suboptimal. Here we report an inventory of common designs sampled from anti-inflammatory, respiratory and metabolic disease drug discovery studies, all of which are based on animal models of disease involving pharmacological and/or patho/physiological interaction challenges. The corresponding data are modeled and analyzed quantitatively, the merits of the respective approach discussed and inferences made with respect to future design improvements. Although our analysis is limited to these disease model examples, the challenge approach is generally applicable to the vast majority of pharmacological intervention studies. In the present five Case Studies results from pharmacodynamic effect models from different therapeutic areas were explored and analyzed according to five typical designs. Plasma exposures of test compounds were assayed by either liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry or ligand binding assays. To describe how drug intervention can regulate diverse processes, turnover models of test compound-challenger interaction, transduction processes, and biophase time courses were applied for biomarker response in eosinophil count, IL6 response, paw-swelling, TNFα response and glucose turnover in vivo. Case Study 1 shows results from intratracheal administration of Sephadex, which is a glucocorticoid-sensitive model of airway inflammation in rats. Eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluid were obtained at different time points via destructive sampling and then regressed by the mixed-effects modeling. A biophase function of the Sephadex time course was inferred from the modeled eosinophil time courses. In Case Study 2, a mouse model showed that the time course of cytokine-induced IL1β challenge was altered with or without drug intervention. Anakinra

  16. Development of a national EUCAST challenge panel for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Desmet, S; Verhaegen, J; Glupzcynski, Y; Van Eldere, J; Melin, P; Goossens, H; Piérard, D; Declercq, P; Lagrou, K; Boel, A; Cartuyvels, R; Denis, O; Vandewal, W; Saegeman, V

    2016-08-01

    A challenge panel of bacterial strains useful for clinical laboratories to validate their European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) system was established. A total of 117 strains, obtained from Belgian Reference Centres (n = 57) and from routine clinical samples (n = 60) was selected based on resistance pattern. These strains were analysed in seven different laboratories by three different automated AST systems (Vitek (n = 2), Phoenix (n = 2) and Microscan (n = 2)) and by disc diffusion from five different manufacturers (Rosco (n = 2), Becton-Dickinson (n = 2), Biomérieux (n = 1), Bio-rad (n = 1) and i2a (n = 1)). To select the challenge panel, selection criteria were set for categorical agreement between the different systems and the number of very major errors, major errors and minor errors. Very major and major errors for at least two antibiotics were observed in 43% of all strains, leading to the exclusion of these strains from the selected panel. In only 10% of all tested strains was there 100% categorical agreement for all antibiotics. Finally, 28 strains (14 Gram-positive and 14 Gram-negative) covering a wide spectrum of resistance mechanisms were selected. Pilot-testing of this challenge panel in 20 laboratories mainly confirmed the results of the validation study. Only six strains withheld for the pilot study could not be used as challenge strain due to an overall (very) major error rate of >5% for a particular antibiotic (n = 5) or for two antibiotics (n = 1). To conclude, this challenge panel should facilitate the implementation and use of EUCAST breakpoints in laboratories. PMID:27234934

  17. [New challenge of tissue repair and regenerative medicine: to achieve a perfect repair and regeneration of multiple tissues in wound sites].

    PubMed

    Fu, X B

    2016-01-01

    Great achievements in the study of tissue repair and regeneration have been made, and many of these successes have been shown to be beneficial to the patients in recent years. However, perfect tissue repair and regeneration of damaged tissues and organs remain to be great challenges in the management of trauma and diseases. Based on the progress in developmental biology in animals and advances in stem cell biology, it is possible to attain the aim of perfect repair and regeneration by means of somatic cell reprogramming and different inducing techniques.

  18. Nonclinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals--Addressing current challenges of these novel and emerging therapies.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Frank R; Baumann, Andreas; Blaich, Guenter; de Haan, Lolke; Fagg, Rajni; Kiessling, Andrea; Kronenberg, Sven; Locher, Mathias; Milton, Mark; Tibbitts, Jay; Ulrich, Peter; Weir, Lucinda

    2015-10-01

    Non-clinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals can present significant challenges to human risk assessment with these often innovative and complex drugs. Hot Topics in this field were discussed recently at the 4th Annual European Biosafe General Membership meeting. In this feature article, the presentations and subsequent discussions from the main sessions are summarized. The topics covered include: (i) wanted versus unwanted immune activation, (ii) bi-specific protein scaffolds, (iii) use of Pharmacokinetic (PK)/Pharmacodynamic (PD) data to impact/optimize toxicology study design, (iv) cytokine release and challenges to human translation (v) safety testing of cell and gene therapies including chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells and retroviral vectors and (vi) biopharmaceutical development strategies encompassing a range of diverse topics including optimizing entry of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) into the brain, safety testing of therapeutic vaccines, non-clinical testing of biosimilars, infection in toxicology studies with immunomodulators and challenges to human risk assessment, maternal and infant anti-drug antibody (ADA) development and impact in non-human primate (NHP) developmental toxicity studies, and a summary of an NC3Rs workshop on the future vision for non-clinical safety assessment of biopharmaceuticals.

  19. Georgia High-Stakes Testing: The Correlation between Eighth Grade and Ninth Grade Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Venita L.

    2011-01-01

    Standardized tests are an education reality and an important accountability consideration in most states and school systems. Most states require standardized assessments to meet requirements of the federal "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. Changes to curriculum and instruction and to the school culture frequently occur through a school…

  20. The Influence of Multiple Administrations of a State Achievement Test on Passing Rates for Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Joseph F. T.; Tindal, Gerald; Stevens, Joseph J.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The stakes of large-scale testing programs have grown considerably in the past decade with the enactment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and Race To The Top (RTTT) legislations. A significant component of NCLB has been required reporting of annual yearly progress (AYP) of student subgroups disaggregated by sex, special education status, English…

  1. End of Course Grades and Standardized Test Scores: Are Grades Predictive of Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which end-of-course grades are predictive of Virginia Standards of Learning test scores in nine high school content areas. It also analyzed the impact of the variables school cluster attended, gender, ethnicity, disability status, Limited English Proficiency status, and socioeconomic status on the relationship…

  2. Validity of the Simultaneous Approach to the Development of Equivalent Achievement Tests in English and French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Lin, Jie; Rinaldi, Christia M.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence gathered in the present study supports the use of the simultaneous development of test items for different languages. The simultaneous approach used in the present study involved writing an item in one language (e.g., French) and, before moving to the development of a second item, translating the item into the second language (e.g.,…

  3. Predictive Validity of the Vane for the Stanford Early School Achievement Test. Report No. l25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Leonard R.

    Evidence on the predictive validity of the Vane Kindergarten Test (VKT) as a part of the comprehensive screening and assessment battery administered by the Horseheads Central School District in New York is presented. Variable numbers of students at each of six elementary schools were administered the VKT. At the end of the kindergarten year, all…

  4. The Benefits of Preschool: Do Children Who Attend Preschool Prior to Kindergarten Achieve Higher Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine what, if any, impact that attending a four year old kindergarten program had on five year old kindergarteners reading ability as measured by Dominie testing, compared to those five year olds who did not attend a four year old program at Inman Elementary School. The significance of this study…

  5. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2008-01-01

    Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries' rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum's Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI).…

  6. Evaluation of Madison Park PLATO Training on August 2000 BPS City Algebra Test Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Christopher F.

    This report presents empirical findings from the analysis of the performance of 85 students from Madison Park High School, Boston, Massachusetts, on the Boston Public Schools City Algebra Test (BPSCAT) in June and August 2000, and how their participation in Jobs for Youths Boston PLATO computer-based instruction in the intervening months may have…

  7. Stereotypes and the Achievement Gap: Stereotype Threat Prior to Test Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Markus; Kronberger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat is known as a situational predicament that prevents members of negatively stereotyped groups to perform up to their full ability. This review shows that the detrimental influence of stereotype threat goes beyond test taking: It impairs stereotyped students to build abilities in the first place. Guided by current theory on…

  8. A SOLAS challenge: How can we test test feedback loops involving air-sea exchange?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebert, B. J.

    2004-12-01

    the need for them. Achieving IGBP's goals requires new observational and organizational strategies. Some relatively modest changes in the ways that facilities and grants are awarded could make it possible to do multidisciplinary experiments of the type described in the SOLAS Science Plan and Implementation Strategy.

  9. Clinical challenges and the relevance of materials testing for posterior composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Sarrett, David C

    2005-01-01

    Posterior composite restorations have been in use for approximately 30 years. The early experiences with this treatment indicated there were more clinical challenges and higher failure rates than amalgam restorations. Since the early days of posterior composites, many improvements in materials, techniques, and instruments for placing these restorations have occurred. This paper reviews what is known regarding current clinical challenges with posterior composite restorations and reviews the primary method for collecting clinical performance data. This review categorizes the challenges as those related to the restorative materials, those related to the dentist, and those related to the patient. The clinical relevance of laboratory tests is discussed from the perspective of solving the remaining clinical challenges of current materials and of screening new materials. The clinical problems related to early composite materials are no longer serious clinical challenges. Clinical data indicate that secondary caries and restoration fracture are the most common clinical problems and merit further investigation. The effect of the dentist and patient on performance of posterior composite restorations is unclear and more clinical data from hypothesis-driven clinical trials are needed to understand these factors. Improvements in handling properties to ensure void-free placement and complete cure should be investigated to improve clinical outcomes. There is a general lack of data that correlates clinical performance with laboratory materials testing. A proposed list of materials tests that may predict performance in a variety of clinical factors is presented. Polymerization shrinkage and the problems that have been attributed to this property of composite are reviewed. There is a lack of evidence that indicates polymerization shrinkage is the primary cause of secondary caries. It is recommended that composite materials be developed with antibacterial properties as a way of

  10. House-dust Mite Asthma. Results of Challenge Tests on Five Criteria with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    PubMed Central

    McAllen, Monica K.; Assem, E. S. K.; Maunsell, K.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with asthma and house-dust allergy were investigated by five different challenge tests with mite extract (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus). These tests were performed on the skin, bronchi, nasal mucosa, and leucocytes, and on normal human lung tissue passively sensitized by the patients' serum. The results were compared with each other and with the clinical state of the patients. Of 21 patients on whom all five tests were carried out, positive reactions to every test were found in 14 (67%). Asthmatic attacks were readily induced by inhalation of the mite extract and occurred in 18 (86%). Nasal reactions were provoked in 18 (86%) and were not followed by asthmatic symptoms. A leucocyte test was positive in 19 (90%) and the serum test was positive in all (100%). Delayed asthmatic responses to bronchial challenge were seen in six patients, but there was no evidence that these were mediated by precipitins. Quantitatively there was no fixed pattern between the degrees of sensitivity of the different tissues in the same patient. The amount of mite antigen capable of causing an asthmatic reaction was extremely small—less than 1 μg. of mite material in several patients. In view of the prevalence of D. pteronyssinus in this country and its high allergenic potency, it is considered that this mite is an important factor in allergic asthma. PMID:4987898

  11. Testing hybrid electric vehicle emissions and fuel economy at the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Duoba, M.; Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Larsen, R.P.

    1995-06-01

    From June 12--20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, challenged the teams to build a superior HEV. One component of this comprehensive competition was the emissions event. Special HEV testing procedures were developed for the competition to find vehicle emissions and correct for battery state-of-charge while fitting into event time constraints. Although there were some problems with a newly-developed data acquisition system, they were able to get a full profile of the best performing vehicles as well as other vehicles that represent typical levels of performance from the rest of the field. This paper will explain the novel test procedures, present the emissions and fuel economy results, and provide analysis of second-by-second data for several vehicles.

  12. [Utility of challenge test in immediate hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone sodium succinate].

    PubMed

    Amaya-Mejía, Adela Sisy; Galindo-Pacheco, Lucy Vania; O'Farrill-Romanillos, Patricia María; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen Alicia; Campos-Romero, Freya Helena; del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroid hypersensitivity is a complex phenomenon in which many factors interact, such as idiosyncrasy, intolerance or allergic reactions. The prevalence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids is 0.2%-0.5%. Corticosteroids have major therapeutic implications; thus, when hypersensitivity is suspected, in-vitro and/or in-vivo testing can be performed to confirm diagnosis, being the drug challenge the gold standard. After definitive diagnosis, cross-reactivity among the different corticosteroid groups should be considered, to choose wisely if corticosteroid therapy is still required. In Coopman classification, steroids belonging to groups A, B and D2 have high cross-reactivity, however, more studies are needed to determine the degree of cross-reaction among these drugs. This paper presents the case of a woman, in who hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone succinate was confirmed by drug challenge test.

  13. Having Fun and Accepting Challenges Are Natural Instincts: Jigsaw Puzzles to Challenge Students and Test Their Abilities While Having Fun!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodenbaugh, Hanna R.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Rodenbaugh, David W.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Because jigsaw puzzles are fun, and challenging, students will endure and discover that persistence and grit are rewarded. Importantly, play and fun have a biological place just like sleep and dreams. Students also feel a sense of accomplishment when they have completed a puzzle. Importantly, the reward of mastering a challenge builds confidence…

  14. Challenge tests to assess airway hyperresponsiveness and efficacy of drugs used in the treatment of asthma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S D

    1996-01-01

    Bronchial provocation tests are useful to diagnose and assess severity of asthma and to follow response to treatment. The tests used include those stimuli that act "directly" on receptors causing contraction of airway smooth muscle, e.g., pharmacological agents, and those stimuli that act "indirectly" by causing release of endogenous mediators that cause the airways to narrow. These "indirect" stimuli include physical ones such as airway drying from hyperpnea and changes in airway osmolarity from inhaling aerosols of water and hyperosmolar saline. Indirect stimuli cause the airways to narrow in response to endogenously released substances from inflammatory cells or nerves and responses are thought to reflect the presence and severity of inflammation of asthma. Challenge with hyperosmolar saline is now being used as an indirect test because it also identifies persons with exercise-induced asthma and is appropriate to assess suitability for diving with SCUBA. Hyperosmolar challenge is also useful to assess the effect of both the acute and chronic treatment with antiinflammatory drugs. This, combined with the potential to collect inflammatory cells in sputum induced by the same stimulus should result in this challenge being more widely used, not only in the hospital laboratory but also in epidemiology and occupational asthma.

  15. The challenges of introducing routine G6PD testing into radical cure: a workshop report.

    PubMed

    Ley, Benedikt; Luter, Nick; Espino, Fe Esperanza; Devine, Angela; Kalnoky, Michael; Lubell, Yoel; Thriemer, Kamala; Baird, J Kevin; Poirot, Eugenie; Conan, Nolwenn; Kheong, Chong Chee; Dysoley, Lek; Khan, Wasif Ali; Dion-Berboso, April G; Bancone, Germana; Hwang, Jimee; Kumar, Ritu; Price, Ric N; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2015-09-29

    The only currently available drug that effectively removes malaria hypnozoites from the human host is primaquine. The use of 8-aminoquinolines is hampered by haemolytic side effects in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient individuals. Recently a number of qualitative and a quantitative rapid diagnostic test (RDT) format have been developed that provide an alternative to the current standard G6PD activity assays. The WHO has recently recommended routine testing of G6PD status prior to primaquine radical cure whenever possible. A workshop was held in the Philippines in early 2015 to discuss key challenges and knowledge gaps that hinder the introduction of routine G6PD testing. Two point-of-care (PoC) test formats for the measurement of G6PD activity are currently available: qualitative tests comparable to malaria RDT as well as biosensors that provide a quantitative reading. Qualitative G6PD PoC tests provide a binomial test result, are easy to use and some products are comparable in price to the widely used fluorescent spot test. Qualitative test results can accurately classify hemizygous males, heterozygous females, but may misclassify females with intermediate G6PD activity. Biosensors provide a more complex quantitative readout and are better suited to identify heterozygous females. While associated with higher costs per sample tested biosensors have the potential for broader use in other scenarios where knowledge of G6PD activity is relevant as well. The introduction of routine G6PD testing is associated with additional costs on top of routine treatment that will vary by setting and will need to be assessed prior to test introduction. Reliable G6PD PoC tests have the potential to play an essential role in future malaria elimination programmes, however require an improved understanding on how to best integrate routine G6PD testing into different health settings.

  16. Radiation Testing, Characterization and Qualification Challenges for Modern Microelectronics and Photonics Devices and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2008-01-01

    At GOMAC 2007, we discussed a selection of the challenges for radiation testing of modern semiconductor devices focusing on state-of-the-art memory technologies. This included FLASH non-volatile memories (NVMs) and synchronous dynamic random access memories (SDRAMs). In this presentation, we extend this discussion in device packaging and complexity as well as single event upset (SEU) mechanisms using several technology areas as examples including: system-on-a-chip (SOC) devices and photonic or fiber optic systems. The underlying goal is intended to provoke thought for understanding the limitations and interpretation of radiation testing results.

  17. Ares I-X Flight Test Development Challenges and Success Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce; Davis, Steve; Olsen, Ronald; Taylor, James

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program's Ares I-X rocket launched successfully on October 28, 2009 collecting valuable data and providing risk reduction for the Ares I project. The Ares I-X mission was formulated and implemented in less than four years commencing with the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in 2005. The test configuration was founded upon assets and processes from other rocket programs including Space Shuttle, Atlas, and Peacekeeper. For example, the test vehicle's propulsion element was a Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. The Ares I-X rocket comprised a motor assembly, mass and outer mold line simulators of the Ares I Upper Stage, Orion Spacecraft and Launch Abort System, a roll control system, avionics, and other miscellaneous components. The vehicle was 327 feet tall and weighed approximately 1,800,000 pounds. During flight the rocket reached a maximum speed of Mach 4.8 and an altitude of 150,000 feet. The vehicle demonstrated staging at 130,000 feet, tested parachutes for recovery of the motor, and utilized approximately 900 sensors for data collection. Developing a new launch system and preparing for a safe flight presented many challenges. Specific challenges included designing a system to withstand the environments, manufacturing large structures, and re-qualifying heritage hardware. These and other challenges, if not mitigated, may have resulted in test cancellation. Ares I-X succeeded because the mission was founded on carefully derived objectives, led by decisive and flexible management, implemented by an exceptionally talented and dedicated workforce, and supported by a thorough independent review team. Other major success factors include the use of proven heritage hardware, a robust System Integration Laboratory, multi-NASA center and contractor team, concurrent operations, efficient vehicle assembly, effective risk management, and decentralized element development with a centralized control board. Ares I-X was a technically complex test that

  18. Achieving Innovation and Affordability Through Standardization of Materials Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, M. H.; Zook, L. M.; Raley, R. E.; Chapman, C.

    2011-01-01

    The successful expansion of development, innovation, and production within the aeronautics industry during the 20th century was facilitated by collaboration of government agencies with the commercial aviation companies. One of the initial products conceived from the collaboration was the ANC-5 Bulletin, first published in 1937. The ANC-5 Bulletin had intended to standardize the requirements of various government agencies in the design of aircraft structure. The national space policy shift in priority for NASA with an emphasis on transferring the travel to low earth orbit to commercial space providers highlights an opportunity and a need for the national and global space industries. The same collaboration and standardization that is documented and maintained by the industry within MIL-HDBK-5 (MMPDS-01) and MIL-HBDK-17 (nonmetallic mechanical properties) can also be exploited to standardize the thermal performance properties, processing methods, test methods, and analytical methods for use in aircraft and spacecraft design and associated propulsion systems. In addition to the definition of thermal performance description and standardization, the standardization for test methods and analysis for extreme environments (high temperature, cryogenics, deep space radiation, etc) would also be highly valuable to the industry. Its subsequent revisions and conversion to MIL-HDBK-5 and then MMPDS-01 established and then expanded to contain standardized mechanical property design values and other related design information for metallic materials used in aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles. It also includes guidance on standardization of composition, processing, and analytical methods for presentation and inclusion into the handbook. This standardization enabled an expansion of the technologies to provide efficiency and reliability to the consumers. It can be established that many individual programs within the government agencies have been overcome with development costs

  19. The challenge of achieving 1% operative mortality for coronary artery bypass grafting: A multi-institution Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database analysis

    PubMed Central

    LaPar, Damien J.; Filardo, Giovanni; Crosby, Ivan K.; Speir, Alan M.; Rich, Jeffrey B.; Kron, Irving L.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cardiothoracic surgical leadership recently challenged the surgical community to achieve an operative mortality rate of 1.0% for the performance of isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The possibility of achieving this goal remains unknown due to the increasing number of high-risk patients being referred for CABG. The purpose of our study was to identify a patient population in which this operative mortality goal is achievable relative to the estimated operative risk. Methods Patient records from a multi-institution (17 centers) Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database for primary, isolated CABG operations (2001–2012) were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression modeling with spline functions for calculated STS predicted risk of mortality (PROM) was used to rigorously assess the relationship between estimated patient risk and operative mortality, adjusted for operative year and surgeon volume. Results A total of 34,416 patients (average patient age, 63.9 ± 10.7 years; 27% [n = 9190] women) incurred an operative mortality rate of 1.87%. Median STS predicted risk of mortality was 1.06% (interquartile range, 0.60% −2.13% ) and median surgeon CABG volume was 544 (interquartile range, 303–930) operations over the study period. After risk adjustment for the confounding influence of surgeon volume and operative year, the association between STS PROM and operative mortality was highly significant (P < .0001). More importantly, the adjusted spline function revealed that an STS PROM threshold value of 1.27% correlated with a 1.0% probability of death, accounting for 57.3% (n = 19,720) of the total study population. Further, the STS PROM demonstrated a limited predictive capacity for operative mortality for STS PROM > 25% as observed to expected mortality began to diverge. Conclusions Achieving the goal of 1.0% operative mortality for primary, isolated CABG is feasible in appropriately selected patients in the modern surgical era. However, this

  20. Superheavy Elements - Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, Dieter

    2009-03-04

    The search for superheavy elements (SHE) has yielded exciting results for both the 'cold fusion' approach with reactions employing Pb and Bi targets and the ''hot fusion'' reactions with {sup 48}Ca beams on actinide targets. The most recent activities at GSI were the successful production of a more neutron rich isotope of element 112 in the reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U confirming earlier result from FLNR, and the attempt to synthesize an isotope with Z 120 in the reaction {sup 64}Ni+{sup 238}U. Apart from the synthesis of new elements, advanced nuclear structure studies for heavy and super heavy elements promise a detailed insight in the properties of nuclear matter under the extreme conditions of high Z and A. The means are evaporation residue(ER)-{alpha}-{alpha} and -{alpha}-{gamma} coincidence techniques applied after separation of the reaction products from the beam. Recent examples of interesting physics to be discovered in this region of the chart of nuclides are the investigation of K-isomers observed for {sup 252,254}No and indicated for {sup 270}Ds. Fast chemistry and precision mass measurements deliver in addition valuable information on the fundamental properties of the SHE.

  1. Smoking control: challenges and achievements

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa; de Araújo, Alberto José; de Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases.

  2. Outpatient penicillin use after negative skin testing and drug challenge in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Picard, Matthieu; Paradis, Louis; Nguyen, Mélanie; Bégin, Philippe; Paradis, Jean; Des Roches, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The practice of elective penicillin skin testing could be compromised by the fact that patients, their parents, or their physicians remain reluctant to reuse penicillin-class antibiotics (PCAs) despite a negative evaluation by an allergist. This study addresses reuse of PCAs in a pediatric population after negative penicillin skin testing and drug challenge and factors associated with its reluctance. All children evaluated for a history of penicillin allergy at the CHU Sainte-Justine Allergy Clinic between January 1998 and June 2000 with negative skin testing and drug challenge were included in the study. A telephone survey was conducted between May and October 2002 to assess the perception of the initial reaction by the parents, subsequent use of antibiotics, and antibiotic-related adverse reactions. Among the 200 children selected, parents of 170 (85%) children completed the survey. Since the allergist evaluation, 130 (76%) children had received antibiotics. PCA was used in 59 (45%) children. Parents of 24 (18%) children refused PCAs because they still feared an adverse reaction. They were more likely to have been very frightened by their child's allergic reaction than other parents whose children had used PCAs (p = 0.008). Although elective penicillin skin testing is useful and safe in the pediatric population, a significant proportion of parents still refuse PCAs even though they are needed. Identification of parents that were very frightened by their children's allergic reactions and additional reassurance could improve this situation.

  3. Development of a BCG challenge model for the testing of vaccine candidates against tuberculosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Berg, Stefan; Chamberlain, Laura; McShane, Helen; Hewinson, R Glyn; Clifford, Derek; Vordermeier, Martin

    2014-09-29

    Vaccination is being considered as part of a sustainable strategy for the control of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the UK. The live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been used experimentally to vaccinate cattle against BTB. However, BCG confers partial protection against BTB and therefore, there is a need to develop improved vaccines. BTB vaccine efficacy experiments require the use of biosafety level 3 facilities which are expensive to maintain, generally oversubscribed and represent a bottle neck for the testing of vaccine candidates. One indicator of the induction of protective responses would be the ability of the host's immune response to control/kill mycobacteria. In this work we have evaluated an intranodal BCG challenge for the selection of vaccine candidates at biosafety level 2 which are capable of inducing mycobactericidal responses. To our knowledge, this is the first such report. Whilst BCG only confers partial protection, it is still the standard against which other vaccines are judged. Therefore we tested the BCG intranodal challenge in BCG (Danish strain) vaccinated cattle and showed that vaccinated cattle had lower BCG cfu counts than naïve cattle at 14 and 21 days after intranodal challenge with BCG (Tokyo strain). This model could help prioritize competing TB vaccine candidates and exploration of primary and secondary immune responses to mycobacteria. PMID:25138291

  4. Diagnostic Role of Captopril Challenge Test in Korean Subjects with High Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hee; Park, Kyeong Seon; Hong, A Ram; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) begins with aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) measurement followed by confirmative tests. However, the ARR has high false positive rates which led to unnecessary confirmatory tests. Captopril challenge test (CCT) has been used as one of confirmatory tests, but the accuracy of it in the diagnosis of PA is still controversial. We aimed to examine the clinical efficacy of CCT as a post-screening test in PA. Methods In a prospective study, we enrolled subjects with suspected PA who had hypertension and ARR >20 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/hr). Sixty-four patients who underwent both the saline infusion test and the CCT were included. Results The diagnostic performance of plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) post-CCT was greater than that of ARR post-CCT and ARR pre-CCT in PA (area under the curve=0.956, 0.797, and 0.748, respectively; P=0.001). A cut-off value of 13 ng/dL showed the highest diagnostic odds ratio considering PAC post-CCT at 60 and 90 minutes. A PAC post-CCT of 19 ng/dL had a specificity of 100%, which can be used as a cut-off value for the confirmative test. Determining the diagnostic performance of PAC post-CCT at 90 minutes was sufficient for PA diagnosis. Subjects with PAC post-CCT at 90 minutes <13 ng/dL are less likely to have PA, and those with PAC post-CCT at 90 minutes ≥13 but <19 ng/dL should undergo secondary confirmatory tests. Conclusion The CCT test may be a reliable post-screening test to avoid the hospitalization in the setting of falsely elevated ARR screening tests. PMID:27184013

  5. Adaptive identification and interpretation of pressure transient tests of horizontal wells: challenges and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, V. L.; Van Hoang, Dong

    2016-09-01

    The paper deals with a topical issue of defining oil reservoir properties during transient tests of horizontal wells equipped with information-measuring systems and reducing well downtime. The aim is to consider challenges and perspectives of developing models and algorithms for adaptive identification and interpretation of transient tests in horizontal wells with pressure buildup curve analysis. The models and algorithms should allow analyzing flow behavior, defining oil reservoir properties and determining well test completion time, as well as reducing well downtime. The present paper is based on the previous theoretical and practical findings in the spheres of transient well testing, systems analysis, system identification, function optimization and linear algebra. Field data and results of transient well tests with pressure buildup curve analysis have also been considered. The suggested models and algorithms for adaptive interpretation of transient tests conducted in horizontal wells with resulting pressure buildup curve make it possible to analyze flow behavior, as well as define the reservoir properties and determine well test completion time. The algorithms for adaptive interpretation are based on the integrated system of radial flow PBC models with time- dependent variables, account of additional a priori information and estimates of radial flow permeability. Optimization problems are solved with the case study of PBC interpretation for five horizontal wells of the Verkhnechonsk field.

  6. Relating children's attentional capabilities to intelligence, memory, and academic achievement: a test of construct specificity in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Annett, Robert D; Bender, Bruce G; Gordon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between attention, intelligence, memory, achievement, and behavior in a large population (N = 939) of children without neuropsychologic problems was investigated in children with mild and moderate asthma. It was hypothesized that different levels of children's attentional capabilities would be associated with different levels of intellectual, memory, and academic abilities. Children ages 6-12 at the eight clinical centers of the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) were enrolled in this study. Standardized measures of child neuropsychological and behavioral performance were administered to all participants, with analyses examining both the developmental trajectory of child attentional capabilities and the associations between Continuous Performance Test (CPT) scores and intellectual functioning, and measures of memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning. Findings demonstrated that correct responses on the CPT increase significantly with age, while commission errors decrease significantly with age. Performance levels on the CPT were associated with differences in child intellectual function, memory, and academic achievement. Overall these findings reveal how impairments in child attention skills were associated with normal levels of performance on measures of children's intelligence, memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning, suggesting that CPT performance is a salient marker of brain function.

  7. Design Challenges Encountered in a Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft Flight Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maine, Trindel; Burken, John; Burcham, Frank; Schaefer, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center conducted flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft system on an F-15 airplane. This system was designed to explore the feasibility of providing safe emergency landing capability using only the engines to provide flight control in the event of a catastrophic loss of conventional flight controls. Control laws were designed to control the flightpath and bank angle using only commands to the throttles. Although the program was highly successful, this paper highlights some of the challenges associated with using engine thrust as a control effector. These challenges include slow engine response time, poorly modeled nonlinear engine dynamics, unmodeled inlet-airframe interactions, and difficulties with ground effect and gust rejection. Flight and simulation data illustrate these difficulties.

  8. Scale-up of Routine Viral Load Testing in Resource-Poor Settings: Current and Future Implementation Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Teri; Cohn, Jennifer; Bonner, Kimberly; Hargreaves, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Despite immense progress in antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up, many people still lack access to basic standards of care, with our ability to meet the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 90-90-90 treatment targets for HIV/AIDS dependent on dramatic improvements in diagnostics. The World Health Organization recommends routine monitoring of ART effectiveness using viral load (VL) testing at 6 months and every 12 months, to monitor treatment adherence and minimize failure, and will publish its VL toolkit later this year. However, the cost and complexity of VL is preventing scale-up beyond developed countries and there is a lack of awareness among clinicians as to the long-term patient benefits and its role in prolonging the longevity of treatment programs. With developments in this diagnostic field rapidly evolving—including the recent improvements for accurately using dried blood spots and the imminent appearance to the market of point-of-care technologies offering decentralized diagnosis—we describe current barriers to VL testing in resource-limited settings. Effective scale-up can be achieved through health system and laboratory system strengthening and test price reductions, as well as tackling multiple programmatic and funding challenges. PMID:26743094

  9. Virus removal retention challenge tests performed at lab scale and pilot scale during operation of membrane units.

    PubMed

    Humbert, H; Machinal, C; Labaye, Ivan; Schrotter, J C

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the virus retention capabilities of UF units during operation is essential for the operators of drinking water treatment facilities in order to guarantee an efficient and stable removal of viruses through time. In previous studies, an effective method (MS2-phage challenge tests) was developed by the Water Research Center of Veolia Environnement for the measurement of the virus retention rates (Log Removal Rate, LRV) of commercially available hollow fiber membranes at lab scale. In the present work, the protocol for monitoring membrane performance was transferred from lab scale to pilot scale. Membrane performances were evaluated during pilot trial and compared to the results obtained at lab scale with fibers taken from the pilot plant modules. PFU culture method was compared to RT-PCR method for the calculation of LRV in both cases. Preliminary tests at lab scale showed that both methods can be used interchangeably. For tests conducted on virgin membrane, a good consistency was observed between lab and pilot scale results with the two analytical methods used. This work intends to show that a reliable determination of the membranes performances based on RT-PCR analytical method can be achieved during the operation of the UF units.

  10. Ground test challenges in the development of the Space Shuttle orbiter auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffee, N. H.; Lance, R. J.; Weary, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    A conventional aircraft hydraulic system design approach was selected to provide fluid power for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Developing the power unit, known as the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), to drive the hydraulic pumps presented a major technological challenge. A small, high speed turbine drive unit powered by catalytically decomposed hydrazine and operating in the pulse mode was selected to meet the requirement. Because of limitations of vendor test facilities, significant portions of the development, flight qualification, and postflight anomaly testing of the Orbiter APU were accomplished at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) test facilities. This paper discusses the unique requirements of attitude, gravity forces, pressure profiles, and thermal environments which had to be satisfied by the APU, and presents the unique test facility and simulation techniques employed to meet the ground test requirements. In particular, the development of the zero-g lubrication system, the development of necessary APU thermal control techniques, the accomplishment of integrated systems tests, and the postflight investigation of the APU lube oil cooler behavior are discussed.

  11. [Expansion of HIV counseling and testing strategies: technical challenges and ethical-political tensions].

    PubMed

    Mora Cárdenas, Claudia Mercedes; Monteiro, Simone; Moreira, Carlos Otávio Fiúza

    2014-08-01

    Incentives to provide universal access to antiretroviral therapy in order to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic also encouraged the diversification of HIV testing strategies, as demonstrated by the simultaneous existence of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) and Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling (PITC). This paper analyzes the concepts, principles and implementation of the VCT and PITC models regarding counseling, confidentiality and informed consent in Brazil and other countries, based on a literature review of works in the Lilacs, Medline, Sociological Abstracts and Cochrane databases published between 2000 and 2013. According to the literature, PITC increases rates of testing in comparison with VCT, but reduces sexual and reproductive rights and the autonomy of users. These findings suggest technical challenges and ethical tensions between the paradigm of exceptionalism and the normalization of HIV testing. The necessity to reconcile increased access to HIV tests with the local capacity to offer comprehensive care for people living with HIV/AIDS is highlighted. It is recommended that interdisciplinary studies about the social effects of VCT and PITC be amplified.

  12. [Trends and Challenges of the Statutory Regulation of Molecular Genetic Tests].

    PubMed

    Nobori, Tsutomu

    2015-07-01

    Advances in basic science have made it possible to characterize tumors at molecular levels and exploit the differences in the genetic makeup of tumors for personalized cancer treatment. Biomarker tests are essential to stratify patients with the same tumor histology for appropriate treatment. Such tests are developed together with drugs, involving mainly molecular genetic tests at present, and are called companion diagnostics (CDx). Under the universal health care system in Japan, molecular genetic tests are permitted in clinics, and the fees are reimbursed only when approved diagnostic reagents or kits are used. However, new tests are developed so fast that the regulation cannot keep up with the pace. To fill this gap, the framework of advanced medical technologies was introduced in 1984. In 2012, this framework was amended to classify medical technology using unapproved diagnostics or home-brew assays as advanced medical technologies A. In my talk at this symposium, trends and challenges of the statutory regulation of molecular genetic tests in Japan were discussed, followed by personal proposals to advance the clinical application of novel medical technologies in the field of personalized cancer treatment.

  13. Halogen bonded supramolecular capsules: a challenging test case for quantum chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Sure, Rebecca; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Recently, Diederich et al. synthesized the first supramolecular capsule with a well-defined four-point halogen bonding interaction [Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2015, 54, 12339]. This interesting system comprising about 400 atoms represents a challenging test case for accurate quantum chemical methods. We investigate it with our new density functional based composite method for structures and noncovalent interactions (PBEh-3c) as well as our standard protocol for supramolecular thermochemistry and give predictions for chemical modifications to improve the binding strength. PMID:27416814

  14. Behaviour of Listeria Monocytogenes in Artisanal Raw Milk Pecorino Umbro Cheese: A Microbiological Challenge Test

    PubMed Central

    Ortenzi, Roberta; Branciari, Raffaella; Primavilla, Sara; Valiani, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a microbiological challenge test in artificially contaminated raw milk Pecorino Umbro cheese during cheese-making was carried out. Raw ewe milk was contaminated by a suspension of particular Listeria monocytogenes strains. The number of L. monocytogenes and L. monocytogenes dynamic growth were evaluated during cheese-making and storage. A significant decrease of the viable count of L. monocytogenes was observed during ripening and L. monocytogenes viable count was below the limit of quantification during storage. The results show that the product is unable to support the growth of the pathogen. PMID:27800412

  15. Prospects, achievements, challenges and opportunities for scaling-up malaria chemoprevention in pregnancy in Tanzania: the perspective of national level officers

    PubMed Central

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Magnussen, Pascal; Olsen, Øystein; Byskov, Jens; Hansen, Kristian S; Bloch, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prospects, achievements, challenges and opportunities for implementing intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in Tanzania in light of national antenatal care (ANC) guidelines and ability of service providers to comply with them. Methods In-depth interviews were made with national level malaria control officers in 2006 and 2007. Data was analysed manually using a qualitative content analysis approach. Results IPTp has been under implementation countrywide since 2001 and the 2005 evaluation report showed increased coverage of women taking two doses of IPTp from 29% to 65% between 2001 and 2007. This achievement was acknowledged, however, several challenges were noted including (i) the national antenatal care (ANC) guidelines emphasizing two IPTp doses during a woman's pregnancy, while other agencies operating at district level were recommending three doses, this confuses frontline health workers (HWs); (ii) focused ANC guidelines have been revised, but printing and distribution to districts has often been delayed; (iii) reports from district management teams demonstrate constraints related to women's late booking, understaffing, inadequate skills of most HWs and their poor motivation. Other problems were unreliable supply of free SP at private clinics, clean and safe water shortage at many government ANC clinics limiting direct observation treatment and occasionally pregnant women asked to pay for ANC services. Finally, supervision of peripheral health facilities has been inadequate and national guidelines on district budgeting for health services have been inflexible. IPTp coverage is generally low partly because IPTp is not systematically enforced like programmes on immunization, tuberculosis, leprosy and other infectious diseases. Necessary concerted efforts towards fostering uptake and coverage of two IPTp doses were emphasized by the national level officers, who called for further action including operational

  16. Feasibility of HIV point-of-care tests for resource-limited settings: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Wendy; Gous, Natasha; Ford, Nathan; Scott, Lesley E

    2014-01-01

    Improved access to anti-retroviral therapy increases the need for affordable monitoring using assays such as CD4 and/or viral load in resource-limited settings. Barriers to accessing treatment, high rates of loss to initiation and poor retention in care are prompting the need to find alternatives to conventional centralized laboratory testing in certain countries. Strong advocacy has led to a rapidly expanding repertoire of point-of-care tests for HIV. point-of-care testing is not without its challenges: poor regulatory control, lack of guidelines, absence of quality monitoring and lack of industry standards for connectivity, to name a few. The management of HIV increasingly requires a multidisciplinary testing approach involving hematology, chemistry, and tests associated with the management of non-communicable diseases, thus added expertise is needed. This is further complicated by additional human resource requirements and the need for continuous training, a sustainable supply chain, and reimbursement strategies. It is clear that to ensure appropriate national implementation either in a tiered laboratory model or a total decentralized model, clear country-specific assessments need to be conducted. PMID:25197773

  17. Cell culture adapted sheeppox virus as a challenge virus for potency testing of sheeppox vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hosamani, M; Bhanuprakash, V; Kallesh, D J; Balamurugan, V; Pande, A; Singh, R K

    2008-10-01

    Sheeppox virus from an outbreak of sheeppox that occurred in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir, India) in 2000 was isolated by inoculation of susceptible sheep and further re-isolated in cell culture. The field virus, adapted to grow in lamb testes culture, was evaluated for its potential use as challenge virus in potency testing of sheeppox vaccine currently in use. The virus (passage 6) produced severe disease in susceptible sheep when inoculated subcutaneously with a dose of 106.2 TCID50. The virus identity was confirmed by PCR, sequencing of P32 gene and species-specific signature residues identified in deduced aa sequence of the gene. The virus was successfully evaluated for its virulence using two batches of sheep pox vaccines. Use of this field virus enables consistent potency experiments of sheeppox vaccines avoiding use of animals for its propagation and titration.

  18. A comparison of fasting plasma glucose and glucose challenge test for screening of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Poomalar, G K; Rangaswamy, V

    2013-07-01

    Glucose challenge test (GCT) has been used as an effective screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), though it has its own limitations. Hence, we assessed the effectiveness of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a simpler alternative procedure. A prospective study was done in 500 pregnant women with gestational age between 22 and 37 weeks. FPG, GCT and GTT were performed in all patients using the glucose oxidase/peroxidase method. The overall sensitivity and specificity of GCT were 75.0% and 92.0%, respectively and the corresponding values for FPG were 88.8% and 95.2%. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 42.2% and 97.9% for GCT and 59.2% and 99.1% for FPG, respectively. We conclude that FPG can be used as an effective screening tool for gestational diabetes mellitus.

  19. Addressing Achievement Gaps: Educational Testing in America: State Assessments, Achievement Gaps, National Policy and Innovations. ETS Policy Notes. Volume 17, Number 1, Winter 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah; Coley, Richard J., Ed.; Pliskin, Richard, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Annual standardized testing lies at the heart of the accountability system that American education reformers and policymakers have established during the past decade in an effort to ensure equal opportunity for all students, no matter their race, ethnicity or wealth. The new testing regime has brought national attention to the schooling of…

  20. Insights about fracture shape and aperture from push-pull thermal tracer tests achieved at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepikova, Maria V.; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Bour, Olivier; Hochreutener, Rebecca; Lavenant, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    The prediction of transport patterns in fractured media is a challenging task. Different transport mechanisms are generally contributing: dispersion at fracture scale related to aperture variability, dispersion at network scale due to transport in different flowpaths and matrix diffusion. It is however difficult to know which mechanism is dominant. In this study we test the interest of heat tracer tests for providing new constraints on transport in fractured media by interpreting three push-pull tests of different duration. A series of heat and solute push-pull tracer test with Dirac-type injection was conducted in fractured aquifer of Ploemeur, France. The comparison of solute and heat breakthrough curves shows that due to thermal loss to the rock matrix temperature recovery peak arrives earlier than concentration peak. Moreover, the peak is significantly smaller for temperature recovery while it exhibits a longest tailing. Finally, we found that the recovered peak temperature decreases with scale and has a power law slope of -1 on a log-log plot. By means of flow and heat numerical model, we investigate the relevance of different conceptual models: single 'plate', 'tube' and 'ellipse' homogeneous fracture models at different scales. For all tested fracture geometries temperature breakthrough curves were found to be sensitive to fracture aperture. An 'elliptical tube' fracture model was found to provide the best fit to the data and based on this model, we were able to estimate the aperture of the fracture in the present case. Moreover, the comparison of experimental breakthrough curves and modelling results also suggests that the effective fracture aperture may increase with scale. This work emphasizes that multiple-scale push-pull thermal tests can provide valuable insights on fracture geometry and fracture aperture.

  1. Review of achievements of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials' Testing and Assessment Programme. From exploratory testing to test guidelines.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; González, Mar; Kearns, Peter; Sintes, Juan Riego; Rossi, François; Sayre, Phil

    2016-02-01

    This paper charts the almost ten years of history of OECD's work on nanosafety, during which the programme of the OECD on the Testing and Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials covered the testing of eleven nanomaterials for about 59 end-points addressing physical-chemical properties, mammalian and environmental toxicity, environmental fate and material safety. An overview of the materials tested, the test methods applied and the discussions regarding the applicability of the OECD test guidelines, which are recognised methods for regulatory testing of chemicals, are given. The results indicate that many existing OECD test guidelines are suitable for nanomaterials and consequently, hazard data collected using such guidelines will fall under OECD's system of Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) which is a legally binding instrument to facilitate the international acceptance of information for the regulatory safety assessment of chemicals. At the same time, some OECD test guidelines and guidance documents need to be adapted to address nanomaterials while new test guidelines and guidance documents may be needed to address endpoints that are more relevant to nanomaterials. This paper presents examples of areas where test guidelines or guidance for nanomaterials are under development. PMID:26603783

  2. Review of achievements of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials' Testing and Assessment Programme. From exploratory testing to test guidelines.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; González, Mar; Kearns, Peter; Sintes, Juan Riego; Rossi, François; Sayre, Phil

    2016-02-01

    This paper charts the almost ten years of history of OECD's work on nanosafety, during which the programme of the OECD on the Testing and Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials covered the testing of eleven nanomaterials for about 59 end-points addressing physical-chemical properties, mammalian and environmental toxicity, environmental fate and material safety. An overview of the materials tested, the test methods applied and the discussions regarding the applicability of the OECD test guidelines, which are recognised methods for regulatory testing of chemicals, are given. The results indicate that many existing OECD test guidelines are suitable for nanomaterials and consequently, hazard data collected using such guidelines will fall under OECD's system of Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) which is a legally binding instrument to facilitate the international acceptance of information for the regulatory safety assessment of chemicals. At the same time, some OECD test guidelines and guidance documents need to be adapted to address nanomaterials while new test guidelines and guidance documents may be needed to address endpoints that are more relevant to nanomaterials. This paper presents examples of areas where test guidelines or guidance for nanomaterials are under development.

  3. Reliability and Levels of Difficulty of Objective Test Items in a Mathematics Achievement Test: A Study of Ten Senior Secondary Schools in Five Local Government Areas of Akure, Ondo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebule, S. O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and difficult indices of Multiple Choice (MC) and True or False (TF) types of objective test items in a Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). The instruments used were two variants- 50-items Mathematics achievement test based on the multiple choice and true or false test formats. A total of five hundred (500)…

  4. Pre-Type 1 Diabetes Dysmetabolism: Maximal sensitivity achieved with Both Oral and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jennifer M.; McFann, Kim; Harrison, Leonard C.; Fourlanos, Spiros; Krischer, Jeffrey; Cuthbertson, David; Chase, H. Peter; Eisenbarth, George S.; Group, the DPT-1 Study

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of intravenous (IVGTT) and oral (OGTT) glucose tolerance tests abnormalities to diabetes development in a high-risk pre-diabetic cohort and identify an optimal testing strategy for detecting pre-clinical diabetes. Study design Diabetes Prevention Trial Type 1 randomized subjects to oral (n=372) and parenteral (n=339) insulin prevention trials. Subjects were followed with IVGTTs and OGTTs. Factors associated with progression to diabetes were evaluated. Results Survival analysis revealed that higher quartiles of 2-hour glucose and lower quartiles of FPIR at baseline were associated with decreased diabetes-free survival. Cox proportional hazards modeling showed that baseline BMI, FPIR and 2-hour glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard for diabetes. On testing performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis, 3% (1/32) had normal first phase insulin response (FPIR) and normal 2-hour glucose on OGTT. The sensitivities for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and low FPIR performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis were equivalent (76% vs. 73%). Conclusions Most (97%) subjects had abnormal IVGTTs and/or OGTTs prior to the development of diabetes. The highest sensitivity is achieved using both tests. PMID:17188609

  5. Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling: Subsystem Design and Test Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jandura, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling subsystem for the Mars Science Laboratory is a highly-mechanized, Rover-based sampling system that acquires powdered rock and regolith samples from the Martian surface, sorts the samples into fine particles through sieving, and delivers small portions of the powder into two science instruments inside the Rover. SA/SPaH utilizes 17 actuated degrees-of-freedom to perform the functions needed to produce 5 sample pathways in support of the scientific investigation on Mars. Both hardware redundancy and functional redundancy are employed in configuring this sampling system so some functionality is retained even with the loss of a degree-of-freedom. Intentional dynamic environments are created to move sample while vibration isolators attenuate this environment at the sensitive instruments located near the dynamic sources. In addition to the typical flight hardware qualification test program, two additional types of testing are essential for this kind of sampling system: characterization of the intentionally-created dynamic environment and testing of the sample acquisition and processing hardware functions using Mars analog materials in a low pressure environment. The overall subsystem design and configuration are discussed along with some of the challenges, tradeoffs, and lessons learned in the areas of fault tolerance, intentional dynamic environments, and special testing

  6. Non-invasive prenatal testing: a review of international implementation and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Allyse, Megan; Minear, Mollie A; Berson, Elisa; Sridhar, Shilpa; Rote, Margaret; Hung, Anthony; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT) is an advance in the detection of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies that analyzes cell-free fetal DNA in the blood of a pregnant woman. Since its introduction to clinical practice in Hong Kong in 2011, NIPT has quickly spread across the globe. While many professional societies currently recommend that NIPT be used as a screening method, not a diagnostic test, its high sensitivity (true positive rate) and specificity (true negative rate) make it an attractive alternative to the serum screens and invasive tests currently in use. Professional societies also recommend that NIPT be accompanied by genetic counseling so that families can make informed reproductive choices. If NIPT becomes more widely adopted, States will have to implement regulation and oversight to ensure it fits into existing legal frameworks, with particular attention to returning fetal sex information in areas where sex-based abortions are prevalent. Although there are additional challenges for NIPT uptake in the developing world, including the lack of health care professionals and infrastructure, the use of NIPT in low-resource settings could potentially reduce the need for skilled clinicians who perform invasive testing. Future advances in NIPT technology promise to expand the range of conditions that can be detected, including single gene disorders. With these advances come questions of how to handle incidental findings and variants of unknown significance. Moving forward, it is essential that all stakeholders have a voice in crafting policies to ensure the ethical and equitable use of NIPT across the world. PMID:25653560

  7. Developing a Test for Exploring Student Performance in a Complex Domain: Challenges Faced, Decisions Made, and Implications Drawn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalambous, Charalambos Y.; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Philippou, George N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the application of existing guidelines to develop a test grounded in theoretical perspectives and empirical findings in the area of problem solving. By documenting this process, the paper outlines the challenges test developers face when seeking to construct a theory/research-driven test, discusses the decisions made at…

  8. Modifying Achievement Test Items: A Theory-Guided and Data-Based Approach for Better Measurement of What Students with Disabilities Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Beddow, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Federal regulations allow up to 2% of the student population of a state to achieve proficiency for adequate yearly progress by taking an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). Such tests are likely to be easier, but as long as a test is considered a valid measure of grade level content, it is allowable as…

  9. The Role of Stanford Achievement Test 10[TM] Subtests in Sixth Grade as a Predictor of Success on ACT's Eighth Grade Explore Exam[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a predictive correlation between a specific sixth grade achievement test known as the Stanford Achievement Test 10 and the eighth grade college readiness assessment instrument known as the Explore Exam for a group of North Texas students. Following an assessment during sixth grade, via the…

  10. The Current Landscape of Genetic Testing in Cardiovascular Malformations: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Benjamin J.; Ware, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Human cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) frequently have a genetic contribution. Through the application of novel technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, DNA sequence variants associated with CVMs are being identified at a rapid pace. While clinicians are now able to offer testing with NGS gene panels or whole exome sequencing to any patient with a CVM, the interpretation of genetic variation remains problematic. Variable phenotypic expression, reduced penetrance, inconsistent phenotyping methods, and the lack of high-throughput functional testing of variants contribute to these challenges. This article elaborates critical issues that impact the decision to broadly implement clinical molecular genetic testing in CVMs. Major benefits of testing include establishing a genetic diagnosis, facilitating cost-effective screening of family members who may have subclinical disease, predicting recurrence risk in offsprings, enabling early diagnosis and anticipatory management of CV and non-CV disease phenotypes, predicting long-term outcomes, and facilitating the development of novel therapies aimed at disease improvement or prevention. Limitations include financial cost, psychosocial cost, and ambiguity of interpretation of results. Multiplex families and patients with syndromic features are two groups where disease causation could potentially be firmly established. However, these account for the minority of the overall CVM population, and there is increasing recognition that genotypes previously associated with syndromes also exist in patients who lack non-CV findings. In all circumstances, ongoing dialog between cardiologists and clinical geneticists will be needed to accurately interpret genetic testing and improve these patients’ health. This may be most effectively implemented by the creation and support of CV genetics services at centers committed to pursuing testing for patients. PMID:27504451

  11. The Current Landscape of Genetic Testing in Cardiovascular Malformations: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Landis, Benjamin J; Ware, Stephanie M

    2016-01-01

    Human cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) frequently have a genetic contribution. Through the application of novel technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, DNA sequence variants associated with CVMs are being identified at a rapid pace. While clinicians are now able to offer testing with NGS gene panels or whole exome sequencing to any patient with a CVM, the interpretation of genetic variation remains problematic. Variable phenotypic expression, reduced penetrance, inconsistent phenotyping methods, and the lack of high-throughput functional testing of variants contribute to these challenges. This article elaborates critical issues that impact the decision to broadly implement clinical molecular genetic testing in CVMs. Major benefits of testing include establishing a genetic diagnosis, facilitating cost-effective screening of family members who may have subclinical disease, predicting recurrence risk in offsprings, enabling early diagnosis and anticipatory management of CV and non-CV disease phenotypes, predicting long-term outcomes, and facilitating the development of novel therapies aimed at disease improvement or prevention. Limitations include financial cost, psychosocial cost, and ambiguity of interpretation of results. Multiplex families and patients with syndromic features are two groups where disease causation could potentially be firmly established. However, these account for the minority of the overall CVM population, and there is increasing recognition that genotypes previously associated with syndromes also exist in patients who lack non-CV findings. In all circumstances, ongoing dialog between cardiologists and clinical geneticists will be needed to accurately interpret genetic testing and improve these patients' health. This may be most effectively implemented by the creation and support of CV genetics services at centers committed to pursuing testing for patients. PMID:27504451

  12. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    PubMed

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint.

  13. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  14. Physical competition increases testosterone among Amazonian forager-horticulturalists: a test of the 'challenge hypothesis'.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Cummings, Daniel; von Rueden, Christopher; O'Connor, Kathleen A; Smith, Eric A; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard

    2012-07-22

    The challenge hypothesis posits that acute increases in testosterone (T) during male-male competition enhance performance and survivability while limiting the physiological costs of consistently high T. Human challenge hypothesis research focuses on young men in industrial populations, who have higher baseline T levels than men in subsistence populations. We tested whether the Tsimane, pathogenically stressed forager-horticulturalists of the Bolivian Amazon, would express acute T increases in response to physical competition. Saliva was collected from 88 Tsimane men (aged 16-59 years) before and after a competitive soccer match. Tsimane men had significantly lower baseline levels of T (β = -0.41, p < 0.001) when compared with age-matched United States (US) males. Linear mixed-effects models were used to establish that T increased significantly immediately following competition (β = 0.23, p < 0.001), remaining high 1 h later (β = 0.09, p = 0.007); equivalent to 30.1 and 15.5 per cent increases in T, respectively. We did not find larger increases in T among winners (p = 0.412), although T increases were positively associated with self-rated performance (β = 9.07, p = 0.004). These results suggest that despite lower levels of T than US males, Tsimane males exhibit acute increases in T at the same relative magnitude reported by studies in industrialized settings, with larger increases in T for those who report better individual performance.

  15. Challenges in the development of an immunochromatographic interferon-gamma test for diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Denkinger, Claudia M; Kalantri, Yatiraj; Schumacher, Samuel G; Michael, Joy S; Shankar, Deepa; Saxena, Arvind; Sriram, Natarajan; Balamugesh, Thangakunam; Luo, Robert; Pollock, Nira R; Pai, Madhukar; Christopher, Devasahayam J

    2013-01-01

    Existing diagnostic tests for pleural tuberculosis (TB) have inadequate accuracy and/or turnaround time. Interferon-gamma (IFNg) has been identified in many studies as a biomarker for pleural TB. Our objective was to develop a lateral flow, immunochromatographic test (ICT) based on this biomarker and to evaluate the test in a clinical cohort. Because IFNg is commonly present in non-TB pleural effusions in low amounts, a diagnostic IFNg-threshold was first defined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IFNg in samples from 38 patients with a confirmed clinical diagnosis (cut-off of 300 pg/ml; 94% sensitivity and 93% specificity). The ICT was then designed; however, its achievable limit of detection (5000 pg/ml) was over 10-fold higher than that of the ELISA. After several iterations in development, the prototype ICT assay for IFNg had a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval (CI): 50-83) and a specificity of 94% (95% CI: 81-99%) compared to ELISA on frozen samples. Evaluation of the prototype in a prospective clinical cohort (72 patients) on fresh pleural fluid samples, in comparison to a composite reference standard (including histopathological and microbiologic test results), showed that the prototype had 65% sensitivity (95% CI: 44-83) and 89% specificity (95% CI: 74-97). Discordant results were observed in 15% of samples if testing was repeated after one freezing and thawing step. Inter-rater variability was limited (3%; 1 out of 32). In conclusion, despite an iterative development and optimization process, the performance of the IFNg ICT remained lower than what could be expected from the published literature on IFNg as a biomarker in pleural fluid. Further improvements in the limit of detection of an ICT for IFNg, and possibly combination of IFNg with other biomarkers such as adenosine deaminase, are necessary for such a test to be of value in the evaluation of pleural tuberculosis. PMID:24376880

  16. The Effect of Achievement Test Selection on Identification of Learning Disabilities within a Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Framework

    PubMed Central

    Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, Pat; Denton, Carolyn A.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few empirical investigations have evaluated learning disabilities (LD) identification methods based on a pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses (PSW). This study investigated the reliability of LD classification decisions of the concordance/discordance method (C/DM) across different psychoeducational assessment batteries. Methods C/DM criteria were applied to assessment data from 177 second grade students based on two psychoeducational assessment batteries. The achievement tests were different, but were highly correlated and measured the same latent construct. Resulting LD identifications were then evaluated for agreement across batteries on LD status and the academic domain of eligibility. Results The two batteries identified a similar number of participants as having LD (80 and 74). However, indices of agreement for classification decisions were low (kappa = .29), especially for percent positive agreement (62%). The two batteries demonstrated agreement on the academic domain of eligibility for only 25 participants. Conclusions Cognitive discrepancy frameworks for LD identification are inherently unstable because of imperfect reliability and validity at the observed level. Methods premised on identifying a PSW profile may never achieve high reliability because of these underlying psychometric factors. An alternative is to directly assess academic skills to identify students in need of intervention. PMID:25243467

  17. From computational modelling of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway to a systems-based analysis of chemotherapy resistance: achievements, perspectives and challenges in systems medicine.

    PubMed

    Würstle, M L; Zink, E; Prehn, J H M; Rehm, M

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the mitochondrial or intrinsic apoptosis pathway and its role in chemotherapy resistance has increased significantly in recent years by a combination of experimental studies and mathematical modelling. This combined approach enhanced the quantitative and kinetic understanding of apoptosis signal transduction, but also provided new insights that systems-emanating functions (i.e., functions that cannot be attributed to individual network components but that are instead established by multi-component interplay) are crucial determinants of cell fate decisions. Among these features are molecular thresholds, cooperative protein functions, feedback loops and functional redundancies that provide systems robustness, and signalling topologies that allow ultrasensitivity or switch-like responses. The successful development of kinetic systems models that recapitulate biological signal transduction observed in living cells have now led to the first translational studies, which have exploited and validated such models in a clinical context. Bottom-up strategies that use pathway models in combination with higher-level modelling at the tissue, organ and whole body-level therefore carry great potential to eventually deliver a new generation of systems-based diagnostic tools that may contribute to the development of personalised and predictive medicine approaches. Here we review major achievements in the systems biology of intrinsic apoptosis signalling, discuss challenges for further model development, perspectives for higher-level integration of apoptosis models and finally discuss requirements for the development of systems medical solutions in the coming years.

  18. Bacterial challenge of NISSHO ultrafilter ETF 609: results of in vitro testing.

    PubMed

    Krautzig, S; Lonnemann, G; Shaldon, S; Koch, K M

    1996-07-01

    In hemodialysis, a certain degree of bacterial contamination on the dialysate side is a regular finding. Concern has been growing that this contamination may lead to a chronic inflammatory response in the patient. Ultrafiltration of dialysate can be used to reduce bacterial content and levels of cytokine-inducing substances upstream of the patient's dialyzer. The aim of this study was to test in vitro the rejection capacity of a polysulfone hollow-fiber ultrafilter (ETF 609, NISSHO Co., Osaka, Japan) challenged with bacterial filtrates derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA103. Results showed a reduction of interleukin-1 beta-inducing activity (measured on peripheral blood mononuclear cells) from 5,035 +/- 394 pg/ml prefilter to nondetectable levels postfilter and endotoxin levels (limulus amebocyte lysate assay) of 4,167 +/- 1,079 versus 12 +/- 2 pg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, ultrafiltration of dialysate with the polysulfone ultrafilter ETF 609 leads to a potent reduction of cytokine-inducing activity.

  19. A Study of Gender-Based and Ethnic-Based Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in the Spring 2003 Idaho Standards Achievement Tests Applying the Simultaneous Bias Test (SIBTEST) and the Mantel-Haenszel Chi Square Test: Idaho Standards Achievement Tests; Reading, Language Usage, and Mathematics, Grades 4, 8, and 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2004-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when the responses of students with approximately equal ability differ systematically based on their group membership. Idaho contracted with the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) to provide the Idaho Standards Achievement Tests of reading, language arts and mathematics at grades 4, 8 and 10. The…

  20. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading subtest.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S; Dean, Andy C; Thames, April D

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature.