Science.gov

Sample records for achievement gain scores

  1. The Relationship between STAR Math Score Gains and Academic Achievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Don Wesley

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between STAR Math gains and TCAP composite scores. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant relationship between STAR Math pretest and posttest gains over the course of the 2005-2006 academic year through the use of the STAR Math software program and TCAP math composite scores at…

  2. Reliability of Raw Gain, Residual Gain, and Estimated True Gain Scores: A Simulation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachor, Robert E.; Cizek, Gregory J.

    The gain, or difference, score is defined as the difference between the posttest score and the pretest score for an individual. Gain scores appear to be a natural measure of growth for education and the social sciences, but they contain two sources of measurement error, error in either the pretest or posttest scores, and cannot be considered…

  3. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning. PMID:23936154

  4. Interpreting Force Concept Inventory Scores: Normalized Gain and SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292), and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively).…

  5. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

  6. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-06-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292) , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively). These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  7. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

  8. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  9. Estimated Effect of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal of the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  10. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  11. Learning Predictive Interactions Using Information Gain and Bayesian Network Scoring

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xia; Jao, Jeremy; Neapolitan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background The problems of correlation and classification are long-standing in the fields of statistics and machine learning, and techniques have been developed to address these problems. We are now in the era of high-dimensional data, which is data that can concern billions of variables. These data present new challenges. In particular, it is difficult to discover predictive variables, when each variable has little marginal effect. An example concerns Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) datasets, which involve millions of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), where some of the SNPs interact epistatically to affect disease status. Towards determining these interacting SNPs, researchers developed techniques that addressed this specific problem. However, the problem is more general, and so these techniques are applicable to other problems concerning interactions. A difficulty with many of these techniques is that they do not distinguish whether a learned interaction is actually an interaction or whether it involves several variables with strong marginal effects. Methodology/Findings We address this problem using information gain and Bayesian network scoring. First, we identify candidate interactions by determining whether together variables provide more information than they do separately. Then we use Bayesian network scoring to see if a candidate interaction really is a likely model. Our strategy is called MBS-IGain. Using 100 simulated datasets and a real GWAS Alzheimer’s dataset, we investigated the performance of MBS-IGain. Conclusions/Significance When analyzing the simulated datasets, MBS-IGain substantially out-performed nine previous methods at locating interacting predictors, and at identifying interactions exactly. When analyzing the real Alzheimer’s dataset, we obtained new results and results that substantiated previous findings. We conclude that MBS-IGain is highly effective at finding interactions in high-dimensional datasets. This result is

  12. The Effects of Write Score Formative Assessment on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    In an "ex post facto" causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of a formative writing assessment program, Write Score, on increasing student writing achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) reading language arts and writing scores from 2012 were utilized for this study. The…

  13. Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…

  14. Achieving improved cycle efficiency via pressure gain combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmen, R.S.; Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Norton, T.S.; Rogers, W.A.

    1995-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation is being performed to evaluate ``pressure gain`` combustion systems for gas turbine applications. This paper presents experimental pressure gain and pollutant emission data from such combustion systems. Numerical predictions for certain combustor geometries are also presented. It is reported that for suitable aerovalved pulse combustor geometries studied experimentally, an overall combustor pressure gain of nearly 1 percent can be achieved. It is also shown that for one combustion system operating under typical gas turbine conditions, NO{sub x} and CO emmissions, are about 30 ppmv and 8 ppmv, respectively.

  15. Competence with fractions predicts gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Drew H; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara; Geary, David C

    2012-11-01

    Competence with fractions predicts later mathematics achievement, but the codevelopmental pattern between fractions knowledge and mathematics achievement is not well understood. We assessed this codevelopment through examination of the cross-lagged relation between a measure of conceptual knowledge of fractions and mathematics achievement in sixth and seventh grades (N=212). The cross-lagged effects indicated that performance on the sixth grade fractions concepts measure predicted 1-year gains in mathematics achievement (ß=.14, p<.01), controlling for the central executive component of working memory and intelligence, but sixth grade mathematics achievement did not predict gains on the fractions concepts measure (ß=.03, p>.50). In a follow-up assessment, we demonstrated that measures of fluency with computational fractions significantly predicted seventh grade mathematics achievement above and beyond the influence of fluency in computational whole number arithmetic, performance on number fluency and number line tasks, central executive span, and intelligence. Results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that competence with fractions underlies, in part, subsequent gains in mathematics achievement. PMID:22832199

  16. The Longitudinal Link between Student Health and Math Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for…

  17. Effort Analysis: Individual Score Validation of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student's achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student's test score accurately reflects what that student knows and can do. Such trust requires the assumption that a student's test event is not unduly influenced by construct-irrelevant factors…

  18. Concept maps about chemical equilibrium and students' achievement scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jan

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between structural characteristics of students' concept maps about chemical equilibrium and independent measures of their achievement in chemistry. Fifty students in 1991 and seventy students in 1992 completed a concept-mapping task using twenty-four specified concepts. Using similarities in concept map structure, based on the presence or absence of linked pairs of concepts, non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used to plot the location of the concept maps in coordinate space. The distribution of maps was based on differences in their structure, but also reflected levels of student achievement on independent tests. The relationship between the coordinate location of each student's maps and his or her test scores on independent chemistry achievement tests was sought by canonical correlation analysis of the 1991 data set. This revealed significant relationships between the MDS coordinates and test scores of recall of knowledge and its application. Multiple regression analysis of sixty-one students' maps from the 1992 data set against their percentile rank scores on a national chemistry quiz revealed significant relationships. The results are interpreted as revealing structural differences in conceptual organisation about chemical equilibrium among students with different levels of achievement and thus relative expertise in the domain. The significant relationship between map structure and cognitive process scores in chemistry also supports the view that the organisation of declarative knowledge influences its accessibility in cognitive tasks.

  19. Concept Maps about Chemical Equilibrium and Students' Achievement Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Examines relationships between structural characteristics of students' concept maps about chemical equilibrium and independent measures of their achievement in chemistry. Results indicate significant relationships between multidimensional scaling coordinates and test scores of recall of knowledge and its application and also reveal structural…

  20. Best Practices for Achieving High, Rapid Reading Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The percentage of students who read at the proficient level on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has not improved, and is appallingly low. In order for students to achieve high reading gains and become life-long readers, reading comprehension and reading enjoyment must be the top two goals. This article presents several…

  1. The Influence of an NCLB Accountability Plan on the Distribution of Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on the effect of accountability programs on the distribution of student test score gains is decidedly mixed. This study examines the issue by estimating an educational production function in which test score gains are a function of the incentives schools have to focus instruction on below-proficient students. NCLB's threat of…

  2. Progress on achieving the ICF conditions needed for high gain

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, J.D.

    1988-12-23

    Progress during the past two years has moved us much closer to demonstrating the scientific and technological requirements for high gain ICF in the laboratory. This progress has been made possible by operating at the third harmonic of 1..mu..m light which dramatically reduces concern about hot electrons and by advances in diagnostics such as 100 ps x-ray framing cameras which greatly increase the data available from each experiment. Making use of many of these new capabilities, major improvements in confinement conditions have been achieved for ICF implosions. In particular, in an optimized hohlraum on Nova, radiation driven implosions with convergence ratio in excess of 30 (volume compression /approximately/3 /times/ 10/sup 4/) have performed essentially as predicted by spherical implosion calculations. This paper presents these results as well as examples of advances in several other areas and discusses the implications for the future of ICF with lasers and heavy ion beam drivers. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Estimates of genetic parameters for visual scores and daily weight gain in Brangus animals.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, S A; Oliveira, J A; Costa, G Z; Fries, L A

    2011-05-01

    (Co)variance components were estimated for visual scores of conformation (CY), early finishing (PY) and muscling (MY) at 550 days of age (yearling), average daily gain from weaning to yearling (GWY), conformation (CW), early finishing (PW) and muscling (MW) scores at weaning, and average daily gain from birth to weaning (GBW) in animals forming the Brazilian Brangus breed born between 1986 and 2002 from the livestock files of GenSys Consultants Associados S/C Ltda. The data set contained 53 683; 45 136; 52 937; 56 471; 24 531; 21 166; 24 006 and 25 419 records for CW, PW, MW, GBW, CY, PY, MY and GWY, respectively. Data were analyzed by the restricted maximum likelihood method using single- and two-trait animal models. Direct heritability estimates obtained by single-trait analysis were 0.12, 0.14, 0.13 and 0.14 for CY, PY and MY scores and GWY, respectively. A positive association was observed between the same visual scores at weaning and yearling, with correlations ranging from 0.64 to 0.94. Estimated correlations between GBW and weaning and yearling scores ranged from 0.60 to 0.77. The genetic correlation between GBW and GWY was low (0.10), whereas correlations of 0.55, 0.37 and 0.47 were observed between GWY and CY, PY and MY, respectively. Moreover, GWY showed a weak correlation with CW (0.10), PW (-0.08) and MW (-0.03) scores. These results indicate that selection of the traits that was studied would result in a small response. In addition, selection based on average daily gain may have an indirect effect on visual scores as the correlations between GWY and visual scores were generally strong. PMID:22440022

  4. IRT Item Parameters and the Reliability and Validity of Pretest, Posttest, and Gain Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kim; Jackson, Tameika S.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of different combinations of item response theory (IRT) item parameters (item difficulty, item discrimination, and the guessing probability) on the reliability and construct validity (correlation with the latent trait being measured) of pretest, posttest, and gain scores was analytically examined using the 3-parameter logistic (3PL)…

  5. The Relationship of Motivational Values of Math and Reading Teachers to Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, David Allen

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory correlational study seeks to answer the question of whether a relationship exists between student average test score gains on state exams and teachers' rating of values on the Schwartz Values Survey. Eighty-seven randomly selected Kansas teachers of math and/or reading, grades four through eight, participated. Student test…

  6. Gain Score in Item Response Theory as an Effect Size Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Chyi-In, Wu

    2004-01-01

    Because of the requirement of reporting effect sizes and in the interest of measurement of change within the item response theory framework, their combination becomes a new issue. In the present study, repeated measures are decomposed as an initial ability and one or more modifiabilities (gain score) using a multidimensional Rasch model. The…

  7. Supplemental Educational Services and Student Test Score Gains: Evidence from a Large, Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Pepper, Matthew J.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of supplemental education services (SES) on student test score gains and whether particular subgroups of students benefit more from NCLB tutoring services. Our sample includes information on students enrolled in third through eighth grades nested in 121 elementary and middle schools over a five-year period comprising…

  8. Using IRT DIF Methods to Evaluate the Validity of Score Gains. CSE Technical Report 660

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel M.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2005-01-01

    Given current high-stakes uses of tests, one of the most pressing and difficult problems confronting the field of measurement is to develop better methods for distinguishing between meaningful gains in performance and score inflation. This study explores the potential usefulness of adapting differential item functioning (DIF) techniques for this…

  9. Effects of Movement Instruction on Children's Singing Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Mary Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of movement instruction on children's singing achievement scores. When controlling for age, four overarching questions and nine sub-questions were asked. First, when controlling for age, how do pitch achievement scores at the outset compare to pitch achievement scores after movement…

  10. The Effect of School Principals' Leadership Styles on Elementary School Students' Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Principal leadership studies have indicated that leadership can play an important role in augmenting students' achievement scores. One significant influence that can affect achievement scores is the leadership style of the principal. This study focuses on fourth-grade achievement scores within urban elementary schools and explores the relationship…

  11. "Does Charter School Attendance Improve Test Scores?" Comments and Reactions on the Arizona Achievement Study. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Christopher; Hollenbeck, Kevin

    In a recent report, Lewis Solmon, Kern Paark, and David Garcia (2001) seek to identify the impact of attending charter schools on student achievement using data from Arizona. Based on a sophisticated statistical analysis, these authors report that charter school attendance increases test score gains of students. This note raises some questions…

  12. Competence with Fractions Predicts Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Drew H.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara; Geary, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Competence with fractions predicts later mathematics achievement, but the codevelopmental pattern between fractions knowledge and mathematics achievement is not well understood. We assessed this codevelopment through examination of the cross-lagged relation between a measure of conceptual knowledge of fractions and mathematics achievement in sixth…

  13. Explaining Mathematics Achievement Gains in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Arends, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test empirically whether and how classroom and school factors contribute to student mathematics learning gains in the border region of North West province, South Africa and Southeastern Botswana. Our results suggest that in both regions, improving teaching quality has an important impact on how much mathematics…

  14. Relationships between Gender and Alberta Achievement Test Scores during a Four-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Gregory A.; Wentzel, Carolyn; Braden, Brigitta; Anderson, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate statistical relationships between gender and Alberta Achievement Testing Program scores. Achievement test scores from grades 3, 6, and 9 in all subject areas were investigated during a four-year period. Results showed statistically significant positive correlations between gender and scores in most…

  15. Assessment of Children Referred for Evaluation of School Difficulties Who Have Adequate Academic Achievement Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Allison E.; Singer-Harris, Naomi; Bernstein, Jane H.; Waber, Deborah P.

    2000-01-01

    Forty children (ages 7-11) referred for evaluation of learning problems, who had normal scores on measures of academic achievement, were compared to 81 similarly referred children who had scored low. Children with normal achievement scores had higher IQs and better decoding skills, however, the two groups showed similar neuropsychological…

  16. Some Correlates of Net Gain Resultant from Answer Changing on Objective Achievement Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Daniel J.; Schwedel, Allan

    1975-01-01

    Determines the relationship of sex, answer-changing incidence, and total score to net changes in total score resulting from changing answers, by examining the answer-changing behavior of graduate students responding to achievement test items. (Author/RC)

  17. Instructional Conditions in Charter Schools and Students' Mathematics Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark; Goldring, Ellen; Stein, Marc; Cravens, Xiu

    2010-01-01

    Since charter school research on student achievement is mixed, many researchers and policy makers advocate looking inside the "black box" of schools to better understand the conditions under which schools of choice may be effective. We begin to address this issue with data from charter schools and a comparison group of traditional public schools.…

  18. Focusing on Short-Term Achievement Gains Fails to Produce Long-Term Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term emphasis engendered by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has focused research predominantly on unraveling the complexities and uncertainties in assessing short-term results, rather than developing methods and assessing results over the longer term. In this paper we focus on estimating long-term gains and address questions important to…

  19. Math Scores Add Up for Hispanic Students: States and School Districts Notable for Recent Gains by Hispanic Students in Mathematics. Publication#2014-59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pane, Natalia E.

    2014-01-01

    This report shows significant gains in math achievement by Hispanic fourth- and eighth-graders across the nation--the equivalent of one grade level in the last ten years (2003-3013). Using data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, Child Trends reviewed and compared fourth and eighth grade math scores in the nation, states, large…

  20. Evaluating Biology Achievement Scores in an ICT Integrated PBL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Kamisah; Kaur, Simranjeet Judge

    2014-01-01

    Students' achievement in Biology is often looked up as a benchmark to evaluate the mode of teaching and learning in higher education. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an approach that focuses on students' solving a problem through collaborative groups. There were eighty samples involved in this study. The samples were divided into three…

  1. The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.

    This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…

  2. Relationship of Achievement Test Scores and State Board Performance in a Diploma Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Gail

    The relationship between the National League for Nursing (NLN) achievement test scores and performance on the State Board Test Pool Examination (SBTPE) was studied with 166 graduates of a diploma degree school of nursing between 1976 and 1978. It was found that NLN achievement test scores had a highly significant correlation with SBTPE results.…

  3. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 3: Are Achievement Gaps Closing and Is Achievement Rising for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    A main goal of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is to close gaps in test scores between different groups of students while raising achievement for all groups. Of particular concern are the persistent achievement gaps between African American, Latino, and Native American students and their white and Asian counterparts, and between students from…

  4. An International Comparison Study of Pharmacy Students’ Achievement Goals and their Relationship to Assessment Type and Scores

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Claire; Coulman, Sion A.; John, Dai N.; Tordoff, June; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify pharmacy students’ preferred achievement goals in a multi-national undergraduate population, to investigate achievement goal preferences across comparable degree programs, and to identify relationships between achievement goals, academic performance, and assessment type. Methods: The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to second year students in 4 universities in Australia, New Zealand, England, and Wales. Academic performance was measured using total scores, multiple-choice questions, and written answers (short essay). Results: Four hundred eighty-six second year students participated. Students showed an overall preference for the mastery-approach goal orientation across all sites. The predicted relationships between goal orientation and multiple-choice questions, and written answers scores, were significant. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind to examine pharmacy students’ achievement goals at a multi-national level and to differentiate between assessment type and measures of achievement motivation. Students adopting a mastery-approach goal are more likely to gain high scores in assessments that measure understanding and depth of knowledge. PMID:25995510

  5. Robotics as Means to Increase Achievement Scores in an Informal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bradley S.; Ansorge, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study that examined the use of a science and technology curriculum based on robotics to increase the achievement scores of youth ages 9-11 in an after school program. The study examined and compared the pretest and posttest scores of youth in the robotics intervention with youth in a control group. The results…

  6. Creating a System of Accountability: The Impact of Instructional Assessment on Elementary Children's Achievement Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Xue, Yange; Bickel, Donna DiPrima; Son, Seung-Hee; Nicholson, Julie

    2003-01-01

    Examined the trajectory of change in scores on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills of low-income, urban third and fourth graders enrolled in classrooms in which the Work Sampling System (WSS) had been used at least 3 years. Results for 2,564 students show academic gains associated with the WSS. (SLD)

  7. Effects of Collaborative Group Composition and Inquiry Instruction on Reasoning Gains and Achievement in Undergraduate Biology

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie Lee; Lawson, Anton

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of collaborative group composition and instructional method on reasoning gains and achievement in college biology. Based on initial student reasoning ability (i.e., low, medium, or high), students were assigned to either homogeneous or heterogeneous collaborative groups within either inquiry or didactic instruction. Achievement and reasoning gains were assessed at the end of the semester. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, led to significantly greater gains in reasoning ability and achievement. Inquiry instruction also led to greater confidence and more positive attitudes toward collaboration. Low-reasoning students made significantly greater reasoning gains within inquiry instruction when grouped with other low reasoners than when grouped with either medium or high reasoners. Results are consistent with equilibration theory, supporting the idea that students benefit from the opportunity for self-regulation without the guidance or direction of a more capable peer. PMID:21364101

  8. Effects of Fidelity of Implementation on Science Achievement Gains among English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Penfield, Randall; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of fidelity of implementation (FOI) on the science achievement gains of third grade students broadly and students with limited literacy in English specifically. The study was conducted in the context of a professional development intervention with elementary school teachers to promote science achievement of ELL…

  9. Gaining Retention and Achievement for Students Program (GRASP): A Faculty Development Program To Increase Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShannon, Judith

    This study investigated the effects of a faculty development program offered to increase positive interactions between students and faculty and the effects of these interactions on student achievement and retention. The Gaining Retention and Achievement for Students (GRASP) program supports the accreditation process of the Accreditation Board of…

  10. Differences in Causal Estimates from Longitudinal Analyses of Residualized versus Simple Gain Scores: Contrasting Controls for Selection and Regression Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Ferrer, Emilio; Kuhn, Brett R.; Danelia, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the causal effects of six corrective actions for children's problem behaviors, comparing four types of longitudinal analyses that correct for pre-existing differences in a cohort of 1,464 4- and 5-year-olds from Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) data. Analyses of residualized gain scores found…

  11. Error Rates in Measuring Teacher and School Performance Based on Student Test Score Gains. NCEE 2010-4004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes based on hypothesis testing, we develop error rate formulas based on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…

  12. The Relationship between Mathematics Preparation and Conceptual Learning Gains in Physics: A Possible "Hidden Variable" in Diagnostic Pretest Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of an investigation into factors associated with variations in students' ability to achieve conceptual learning gains in a physics course that employs interactive-engagement methods. Explores the correlation between students' normalized learning gains and their initial level of physics concept knowledge, pre-instruction…

  13. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  14. Effects of School Characteristics upon Achievement Test Scores in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr.

    The effects of school characteristics upon achievement test scores in New York State were studied. Data, composed of the 1975-76 Consolidated Data Base and Finance Tapes for all 705 school districts in the state, were supplied by the New York State Department of Education. Among the 24 variables of interest were: state pupil evaluation tests of…

  15. Traditional Teaching Strategies versus Cooperative Teaching Strategies: Which Can Improve Achievement Scores in Chinese Middle Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messier, William P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines two teaching styles in Chinese middle schools, traditional lecture-based and cooperative learning. The study uses simple descriptive statistics to analyze economic status and achievement scores for both strategies in four Chinese middle schools. There were 145 randomly selected middle school students involved in the study. The…

  16. Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap between Urban and Suburban Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Jonathan; Duncan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that…

  17. A Model for Incorporating Response-Time Data in Scoring Achievement Tests. Research Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi; Tatsuoka, Maurice

    The differences in types of information-processing skills developed by different instructional backgrounds affect, negatively or positively, the learning of further advanced instructional materials. If prior and subsequent instructional methods are different, a proactive inhibition effect produces low achievement scores on a post test. This poses…

  18. Demands on Users for Interpretation of Achievement Test Scores: Implications for the Evaluation Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Piana, Gabriel Mario; Gardner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Professional standards for validity of achievement tests have long reflected a consensus that validity is the degree to which evidence and theory support interpretations of test scores entailed by the intended uses of tests. Yet there are convincing lines of evidence that the standards are not adequately followed in practice, that…

  19. Selected Demographic Variables, School Music Participation, and Achievement Test Scores of Urban Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Daryl W.

    2008-01-01

    Nontransient 6th- and 8th-grade urban middle school students' achievement test scores were examined before (4th grade) and during (6th or 8th grade) enrollment in a performing ensemble. Ensemble participation (band, choir, none) and subject variables of socioeconomic status (SES) and home environment were considered. Fourth- and 6th-grade…

  20. CLASS SIZE AND ACHIEVEMENT GAINS IN SEVENTH- AND EIGHTH-GRADE ENGLISH AND MATHEMATICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, MAURITZ; SCRIVEN, ELDON

    USING DATA OBTAINED BY THE QUALITY MEASUREMENT PROJECT ON SOME 70,000 PUPILS, THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO PRODUCE EVIDENCE REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF CLASS SIZE AND CLASS HOMOGENEITY ON ACHIEVEMENT GAINS IN GRADES 7 AND 8. A TOTAL OF 130 ENGLISH AND 135 MATHEMATICS CLASSES CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE AND HOMOGENEITY WERE EXAMINED. THE READING…

  1. Quality of Teaching Mathematics and Learning Achievement Gains: Evidence from Primary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngware, Moses W.; Ciera, James; Musyoka, Peter K.; Oketch, Moses

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of quality mathematics teaching to student achievement gains. Quality of mathematics teaching is assessed through teacher demonstration of the five strands of mathematical proficiency, the level of cognitive task demands, and teacher mathematical knowledge. Data is based on 1907 grade 6 students who sat for the…

  2. Mental health matters in elementary school: first-grade screening predicts fourth grade achievement test scores.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Maria Paz; Jellinek, Michael; George, Myriam; Hartley, Marcela; Squicciarini, Ana Maria; Canenguez, Katia M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Yucel, Recai; White, Gwyne W; Guzman, Javier; Murphy, J Michael

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether mental health problems identified through screens administered in first grade are related to poorer academic achievement test scores in the fourth grade. The government of Chile uses brief teacher- and parent-completed measures [Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (TOCA-RR) and Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-Cl)] to screen for mental health problems in about one-fifth of the country's elementary schools. In fourth grade, students take the national achievement tests (SIMCE) of language, mathematics and science. This study examined whether mental health problems identified through either or both screens predicted achievement test scores after controlling for student and family risk factors. A total of 17,252 students had complete first grade teacher forms and these were matched with fourth grade SIMCE data for 11,185 students, 7,903 of whom also had complete parent form data from the first grade. Students at risk on either the TOCA-RR or the PSC-Cl or both performed significantly worse on all SIMCE subtests. Even after controlling for covariates and adjusting for missing data, students with mental health problems on one screen in first grade had fourth grade achievement scores that were 14-18 points (~1/3 SD) lower than students screened as not at risk. Students at risk on both screens had scores that were on average 33 points lower than students at risk on either screen. Mental health problems in first grade were one of the strongest predictors of lower achievement test scores 3 years later, supporting the premise that for children mental health matters in the real world. PMID:21647553

  3. Preschool Interpersonal Relationships Predict Kindergarten Achievement: Mediated by Gains in Emotion Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Marcela M.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, this study tested a model in which preschool interpersonal relationships promoted kindergarten achievement in a pathway mediated by growth in emotion knowledge. The sample included 164 children attending Head Start (14% Hispanic-American, 30% African-American, 56% Caucasian; 56% girls). Preschool interpersonal relationships were indexed by student-teacher relationship closeness and positive peer interactions. Two measures of emotion knowledge (identifying emotions in photographs, recognizing emotions in stories) were assessed at the start and end of the preschool year. Structural equation models revealed that positive interpersonal relationships (with teachers and peers) predicted gains in emotion knowledge (identification, recognition) during the preschool year. Positive interpersonal relationships in preschool also predicted kindergarten achievement (controlling for initial preschool achievement); however, this association was mediated by gains in emotion knowledge during the preschool year. Implications are discussed for school readiness programs serving economically-disadvantaged children.

  4. The effects of the science writing heuristic (SWH) approach versus traditional instruction on yearly critical thinking gain scores in grade 5-8 classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ching-mei

    Critical Thinking has been identified in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as skills needed to prepare students for advanced education and the future workforce. In science education, argument-based inquiry (ABI) has been proposed as one way to improve critical thinking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, an immersion argument-based inquiry approach to learning science, on students' critical thinking skills. Guided by a question-claims-evidence structure, students who participated in SWH approach were required to negotiate meaning and construct arguments using writing as a tool throughout the scientific investigation process. Students in the control groups learned science in traditional classroom settings. Data from five data sets that included 4417 students were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Yearly critical thinking gain scores, as measured by Form X of Cornell Critical Thinking Test, were compared for students who experienced the SWH approach versus students who experienced traditional instruction in both elementary (5th grade) and secondary schools (6th-8th grades). Analyses of yearly gain scores for data sets that represented a single year of implementation yielded statistically significant differences favoring SWH over traditional instruction in all instances and statistically significant interactions between gender and grade level in most instances. The interactions revealed that females had higher gain scores than males at lower grade levels but the reverse was true at higher grade levels. Analyses from data sets that included two years of implementation revealed higher overall gains for SWH instruction than for traditional instruction but most of those gains were achieved during the first year of implementation. Implications of these results for teaching critical thinking skills in science classrooms are

  5. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  6. The Valid Use of NAEP Achievement Level Scores to Confirm State Test Results in the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2007-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act sanctions the use of NAEP scores to confirm state testing results. The U.S. Department of Education, as test developer, is responsible to set forth how NAEP scores are to be interpreted and used. Thus far, the Department has not published a clear set of guidelines for using NAEP achievement level scores to conduct a…

  7. The Black-White Scoring Gap on SAT II Achievement Tests: Some of the News Is Cheering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Academically accomplished applicants to the nation's top colleges usually take SAT II Achievement Tests. While scoring gaps between college-bound Blacks and Whites on these tests tend to be smaller than gaps on the basic SAT, a racial scoring gap persists. However, black students appear to be making progress in closing the racial scoring gap on…

  8. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  9. Undergraduates Achieve Learning Gains in Plant Genetics through Peer Teaching of Secondary Students

    PubMed Central

    Chrispeels, H. E.; Klosterman, M. L.; Martin, J. B.; Lundy, S. R.; Watkins, J. M.; Gibson, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that undergraduates who peer teach genetics will have greater understanding of genetic and molecular biology concepts as a result of their teaching experiences. Undergraduates enrolled in a non–majors biology course participated in a service-learning program in which they led middle school (MS) or high school (HS) students through a case study curriculum to discover the cause of a green tomato variant. The curriculum explored plant reproduction and genetic principles, highlighting variation in heirloom tomato fruits to reinforce the concept of the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. HS students were taught additional activities related to mole­cular biology techniques not included in the MS curriculum. We measured undergraduates’ learning outcomes using pre/postteaching content assessments and the course final exam. Undergraduates showed significant gains in understanding of topics related to the curriculum they taught, compared with other course content, on both types of assessments. Undergraduates who taught HS students scored higher on questions specific to the HS curriculum compared with undergraduates who taught MS students, despite identical lecture content, on both types of assessments. These results indicate the positive effect of service-learning peer-teaching experiences on undergraduates’ content knowledge, even for non–science major students. PMID:25452487

  10. Executive function skills and academic achievement gains in prekindergarten: Contributions of learning-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-07-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-K) predict their learning-related behaviors in the classroom and whether these behaviors then mediate associations between children's executive function skills and their pre-K literacy, language, and mathematic gains. Learning-related behaviors were quantified in terms of (a) higher levels of involvement in learning opportunities; (b) greater frequency of participation in activities that require sequential steps; (c) more participation in social-learning interactions; and (d) less instances of being unoccupied, disruptive, or in time out. Results indicated that children's learning-related behaviors mediated associations between executive function skills and literacy and mathematics gains through children's level of involvement, sequential learning behaviors, and disengagement from the classroom. The implications of the findings for early childhood education are discussed. PMID:26010383

  11. An Examination of the Relationship Between School Scores Derived From Commercial Achievement Tests and Those From Statewide Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blust, Ross S.; Kohr, Richard L.

    An apparent discrepancy between building level scores in basic skills produced by Pennsylvania's state assessment program (EQA) and building summary scores, generally a grade equivalent, provided by commercial standardized achievement tests is investigated. The impetus for the study came from occasional reports by school administrators that their…

  12. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  13. Relationships between Language Background, Secondary School Scores, Tutorial Group Processes, and Students' Academic Achievement in PBL: Testing a Causal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaram, Veena S.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of language background in problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial groups on group processes and students' academic achievement. This study investigated the relationship between language background, secondary school score, tutorial group processes, and students' academic achievement in PBL. A validated tutorial…

  14. Language Learner Strategies and Linguistic Competence as Factors Affecting Achievement Test Scores in English for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkovic, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the effect of two factors on achievement test scores in English as a foreign language for specific purposes in higher education: preexisting linguistic competence and frequency of use of language learner strategies. The rationale for the analysis of language learner strategies as a factor affecting achievement test outcomes is…

  15. Relation of Instruction and Poverty to Mathematics Achievement Gains during Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georges, Annie

    2009-01-01

    Background: Policy discussion to change the nature of teaching practices overshadows how social and economic inequalities contribute to unequal education outcomes. Research on how teaching practices contribute to the variance in test scores on a broad scale or on whether the relation of instruction to test scores is moderated by social and…

  16. IQ and Perceptual Motor Scores as Predictors of Achievement Among Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Thompson, J., Sr.; Amble, Bruce R.

    1970-01-01

    The Koppitz scoring of the Bender Gestalt Test for young children was used to predict educational attainment for 74 EMH students on reading, spelling, and arithmetic. Only on the arithmetic criterion did Bender scores increase prediction, beyond the factors of chronological age and IQ.

  17. The Effects of Sex, Race, IQ and SES on the Reading Scores of Sixth Graders for Both Levels and Gains in Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Richard K.

    1974-01-01

    This study examines the effects of sex, race, socioeconomic status, and intelligence upon the reading achievement test scores of sixth-grade pupils in one school district. Differential effects were found. (Author)

  18. Development and Validation of a Risk Score Predicting Substantial Weight Gain over 5 Years in Middle-Aged European Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Annika; Sørensen, Thorkild I A.; Knüppel, Sven; Travier, Noemie; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Quirós, J. Ramón; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Teucher, Birgit; Li, Kuanrong; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van der A, Daphne; Mattiello, Amalia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Hedblad, Bo; Wallström, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dartois, Laureen; Crowe, Francesca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Middleton, Lefkos; May, Anne M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boeing, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population. Methods We used lifestyle and nutritional data from 53°758 individuals followed for a median of 5.4 years from six centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to develop a risk score to predict substantial weight gain (SWG) for the next 5 years (derivation sample). Assuming linear weight gain, SWG was defined as gaining ≥10% of baseline weight during follow-up. Proportional hazards models were used to identify significant predictors of SWG separately by EPIC center. Regression coefficients of predictors were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled coefficients were used to assign weights to each predictor. The risk score was calculated as a linear combination of the predictors. External validity of the score was evaluated in nine other centers of the EPIC study (validation sample). Results Our final model included age, sex, baseline weight, level of education, baseline smoking, sports activity, alcohol use, and intake of six food groups. The model's discriminatory ability measured by the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.63–0.65) in the derivation sample and 0.57 (95% CI  = 0.56–0.58) in the validation sample, with variation between centers. Positive and negative predictive values for the optimal cut-off value of ≥200 points were 9% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion The present risk score confidently excluded a large proportion of individuals from being at any appreciable risk to develop SWG within the next 5 years. Future studies, however, may attempt to further refine the positive prediction of the score. PMID:23874419

  19. Magnitude of Interaction between Language of Instruction of Prior Education and Learning Traits on Academic Achievement Scores of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varughese, Varughese Kuzhumannil; Fehring, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the magnitude of difference of academic achievement scores by language of instruction of prior education and the magnitude of interaction between language of instruction of prior education and students' preferred learning trait on academic performance of a group of international students in two teaching and learning…

  20. Meta-Analyses of the Relationship of Creative Achievement to both IQ and Divergent Thinking Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hee

    2008-01-01

    There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted…

  1. The Impact of Year-Round Education on Fifth Grade African American Reading Achievement Scores in an Urban Illinois School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Carolyn Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to determine the impact of the year-round education school calendar on the standardized test performance of fifth grade African American students, as measured by the Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) in reading. The ISAT reading scores from two year-round education (YRE)…

  2. Effects of Cooperative Learning Approach on Biology Mean Achievement Scores of Secondary School Students' in Machakos District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muraya, Daniel Ngaru; Kimamo, Githui

    2011-01-01

    Performance in Biology at secondary school level in Kenya remains poor and one reason is the teaching approach adopted by teachers with teacher-centered approaches being pre-dominant. This study sought to determine the effect of cooperative learning approach on mean achievement scores in Biology of secondary school students.…

  3. Predictive Power of School Based Assessment Scores on Students' Achievement in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in English and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opara, Ijeoma M.; Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Njoku, Joyce U.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive power of school based assessment scores on students' achievement in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in English and Mathematics. Two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. A sample of 250 students were randomly drawn…

  4. Middle School Characteristics That Predict Student Achievement, as Measured by the School-Wide California API Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Josie Abaroa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through quantitative research, effective middle school characteristics that predict student achievement, as measured by the school-wide California API score. Characteristics were determined using an instrument developed by the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), which asked middle…

  5. WISC-III Predictors of Academic Achievement for Children with Learning Disabilities: Are Global and Factor Scores Comparable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, James B.; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Kavanagh, Jack A.; Hoeppner, Jo-Ann B.; Gaither, Rebecca A.

    2001-01-01

    This study of 174 children meeting criteria for learning disabilities revealed that the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) factors accounted for a large portion of the achievement variance during hierarchical regression analyses. Proposes that the practitioner should refrain from focusing on global scores and…

  6. Highly Qualified Status Type and Student Achievement Scores, Special Education, and General Education: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Nicole G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine, through statistical analyses, the impact that the 2 different types of highly qualified teachers have on student achievement reading and math scores among fourth- and fifth-grade special education and general education students for the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years. The evaluation…

  7. Expecting and Achieving Gains in Student Performance: EVAAS Value-Added Report 2002-2004 for the Archdiocese of Indianapolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Ronald W.; Shuey, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The Archdiocese of Indianapolis has been using the Sander's value-added model to determine if they have had gains in student achievement in language arts, mathematics and reading. The article summarizes the method to make this determination and the results from three years of testing using the CTB McGraw-Hill Terre Nova test. The archdiocese has…

  8. The Relationship between Teacher-Licensure Level and Gains in the Student Academic Achievement in New Mexico Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Roxann Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose, scope, and method of study: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher-licensure level in the New Mexico Three Tiered Licensure (NM 3-TL) System and gains in student academic achievement in reading and mathematics in grades four and five. A secondary purpose was to determine whether student…

  9. Contributions of Selected Perinatal Variables to Seven-Year Psychological and Achievement Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, N. B.; And Others

    Perinatal variables were used to predict 7-year outcome for 538 children, 32% Negro and 68% white. Mother's age, birthplace, education, occupation, marital status, neuropsychiatric status, family income, number supported, birth weight, one- and five-minute Apgar scores were regressed on 7-year Verbal, Performance and Full Scale IQ, Bender, Wide…

  10. Acceleration in Elementary School: Using Propensity Score Matching to Estimate the Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmann, Julia; Vock, Miriam; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Using German data, we examined the effects of one specific type of acceleration--grade skipping--on academic performance. Prior research on the effects of acceleration has suffered from methodological restrictions, especially due to a lack of appropriate comparison groups and a priori measurements. For this reason, propensity score matching was…

  11. What Counts Is How the Game Is Scored: One Way to Increase Achievement in Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Layman E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Studies the extent to which the effectiveness of instructional gaming in learning specific mathematical ideas can be increased by incorporating devices that channel learners' attention upon those ideas. In particular, the effect of channeling attention by changing the method of scoring is explored. (Author/CMV)

  12. Assessing Student Achievement in Large-Scale Educational Programs Using Hierarchical Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Angela L.; Lalonde, Trent L.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers assessing the efficacy of educational programs face challenges due to issues with non-randomization and the likelihood of dependence between nested subjects. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate a rigorous research methodology using a hierarchical propensity score matching method that can be utilized in contexts where…

  13. End of Course Grades and Standardized Test Scores: Are Grades Predictive of Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which end-of-course grades are predictive of Virginia Standards of Learning test scores in nine high school content areas. It also analyzed the impact of the variables school cluster attended, gender, ethnicity, disability status, Limited English Proficiency status, and socioeconomic status on the relationship…

  14. Exploring Gains in Reading and Mathematics Achievement among Regular and Exceptional Students Using Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Tacksoo; Davison, Mark L.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Chan, Chi-Keung; Heistad, David

    2013-01-01

    Using four-wave longitudinal reading and mathematics data (4th to 7th grades) from a large urban school district, growth curve modeling was used as a tool for examining three research questions: Are achievement gaps closing in reading and mathematics? What are the associations between prior-achievement and growth across the reading and mathematics…

  15. The Groove of Growth: How Early Gains in Math Ability Influence Adolescent Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…

  16. Relationship of Oral Reading Fluency Probes on Students' Reading Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devena, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Current emphasis on adequate academic progress monitored by standardized assessments has increased focus on student acquisition of required skills. Reading ability can be assessed through student achievement on Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures. This study investigated the effectiveness of using ORF measures to predict achievement on high stakes…

  17. Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students' Math Performance: Achievement Test Scores and Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…

  18. The Effects of Inquiry Teaching on Student Science Achievement and Attitudes: Evidence from Propensity Score Analysis of PISA Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Feng; McComas, William F.

    2015-02-01

    Gauging the effectiveness of specific teaching strategies remains a major topic of interest in science education. Inquiry teaching among others has been supported by extensive research and recommended by the National Science Education Standards. However, most of the empirical evidence in support was collected in research settings rather than in normal school environments. Propensity score analysis was performed within the marginal mean weighting through stratification (MMW-S) approach to examine the effects of the level of openness of inquiry teaching on student science achievement and attitudes with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data. Weighting subjects on MMW-S weight successfully balanced all treatment groups on all selected covariates. Significant effects were identified on both cognitive and attitudinal outcomes. For student science achievement, the highest score was achieved at Level 2 inquiry teaching, that is, students conduct activities and draw conclusions from data. For student science attitudes, higher level of inquiry teaching resulted in higher scores. The said conclusions were generally held in most PISA 2006 participating countries when the analysis was performed in each country separately.

  19. Pedagogical Content Beliefs about Reading Instruction and Their Relation to Gains in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrmann, Lars; Souvignier, Elmar

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' pedagogical content beliefs about reading instruction are likely to predict progress in student achievement. Thus, in this study, 15 pre-service teachers gave reading promotion to low-performing sixth- and seventh-graders over a time period of 6 months. The pre-service teachers' pedagogical content beliefs were then related to…

  20. Writing Project Professional Development Continues to Yield Gains in Student Writing Achievement. Research Brief No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Writing Project (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Writing Project (NWP) has expanded its national portfolio of research projects conducted at local Writing Project sites to 16 studies that examine professional development, teacher practices, and student writing achievement. NWP sites emphasize common principles of high-quality instruction and the professional development necessary to…

  1. Prekindergarten Children's Executive Functioning Skills and Achievement Gains: The Utility of Direct Assessments and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale Clark; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2015-01-01

    An accumulating body of evidence suggests that young children who exhibit greater executive functioning (EF) skills in early childhood also achieve more academically. The goal of the present study was to examine the unique contributions of direct assessments and teacher ratings of children's EF skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-k) to…

  2. Achievement Gains and Staff Perception of School Climate. Research Brief. Volume 0707

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Don

    2008-01-01

    The importance of the beliefs and attitudes of teachers and building-level administrators in achieving school reform has come to be widely acknowledged. As University of Wisconsin professor Kent Peterson put it: "You can implement a good-quality improvement plan and knowledgeable, data-driven decision making, but if the [staff] doesn't believe…

  3. Becoming a Great Teacher of Reading: Achieving High Rapid Reading Gains with Powerful, Differentiated Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Literacy expert Marie Carbo pairs identifying each learner's unique reading style with a wide range of differentiated strategies to help all learners experience greater reading success. Using these research-based methods, both novice and experienced teachers can increase reading achievement with all learners, including those who are at-risk,…

  4. Affective-Motivational Characteristics of Students at Educational Risk and Their Relationship to Achievement Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Laurent, Lise; Hebert, Martine; Royer, Egide; Desbiens, Nadia

    1997-01-01

    Analyzed the interrelation between achievement and personal-motivational variables in students at risk of school failure and students not at risk. Results from 606 third graders show that students with and without academic problems are different with respect to certain motivational-affective variables. Prediction of academic success from affective…

  5. An Empirical Study of the Zajonc-Markus Hypothesis for Achievement Test Score Declines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melican, Gerald J.; Feldt, Leonard S.

    1980-01-01

    Zajonc has proposed that the decline in high school achievement since 1965 can be explained by the trend from 1947 to 1962 toward larger, closer-spaced families. This study tested this theory with data on students in Iowa high schools. Overall, the results raise doubt about this hypothesis. (Author/CTM)

  6. The Impact of Fast ForWord on MCT Scores and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vinkle, Michael Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Educators today were concerned with how the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 dealt with the improvement of education throughout the United States. Schools should have put forth a greater effort and reduced the achievement gap between different groups of students based on race, gender, special education status, and if that student was economically…

  7. Psychometric Approaches to the Identification of LD: IQ and Achievement Scores Are Not Sufficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis,David J; Fletcher,Jack M.; Stuebing,Karla K.; Lyon,G. Reid; Shaywitz,Bennett A; Shaywitz,Sally E.

    2005-01-01

    Simulated data were used to demonstrate that groups formed by imposing cut-points based on either discrepancy or low-achievement definitions of learning disabilities (LD) are unstable over time. Similar problems were demonstrated in longitudinal data from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study, where 39% of the children designated as having LD in…

  8. Major Field Achievement Test in Business: Guidelines for Improved Outcome Scores--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, J. Patrick; White, Jason T.

    2007-01-01

    Outcomes measurements have always been an important part of proving to outside constituencies how you "measure up" to other schools with your business programs. A common nationally-normed exam that is used is the Major Field Achievement Test in Business from Educational Testing Services. Our paper discusses some guidelines that we are "pilot…

  9. Influences of School Environment on the Academic Achievement Scores of Adopted and Nonadopted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Hilary; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Data from the Colorado Adoption Project for 493 first-grade adopted and nonadopted children are used to separate parental intelligence quotient (IQ) from the effects of school environment. Several of the variables show direct environmental associations with reading and mathematics achievement independent of effects of parental IQ. (SLD)

  10. Strategies for Success: Links to Increased Mathematics Achievement Scores of English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pray, Lisa; Ilieva, Vessela

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the link between mathematic teachers' use of English-language learner (ELL) strategies and the mathematics achievement of their students who are ELLs. Interviews and observations of mathematic teachers who taught ELLs were used to document instructional strategies use. The findings from the interviews and observations…

  11. Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement and Retention Scores: A Case of Problem-Based Learning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajai, John T.; Imoko, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess gender differences in mathematics achievement and retention by using Problem-Based Learning (PBL). The design of the study was pre-posttest quasi-experimental. Four hundred and twenty eight senior secondary one (SS I) students using multistage sampling from ten grant-aided and government schools were involved in…

  12. Critical Combinations of Radiation Dose and Volume Predict IQ and Academic Achievement Scores after Craniospinal Irradiation in Children with Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Schreiber, Jane E.; Wu, Shengjie; Lukose, Renin; Xiong, Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively follow children treated with craniospinal irradiation to determine critical combinations of radiation dose and volume that would predict for cognitive effects. Methods and Materials Between 1996 and 2003, 58 patients (median age 8.14 years, range 3.99–20.11 years) with medulloblastoma received risk-adapted CSI followed by dose-intense chemotherapy and were followed longitudinally with multiple cognitive evaluations (through 5 years post-treatment) that included IQ (estimated-EIQ, full-scale, verbal and performance) and academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) tests. CSI consisted of 23.4Gy for average-risk patients (non-metastatic) and 36–39.6Gy for high-risk patients (metastatic or residual disease > 1.5cm2). The primary site was treated using conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy using a 2cm clinical target volume margin. The effect of clinical variables and radiation dose to different brain volumes were modeled to estimate cognitive scores after treatment. Results A decline with time for all test scores was observed for the entire cohort. Sex, race and CSF shunt status had a significant impact on baseline scores. Age and mean radiation dose to specific brain volumes, including the temporal lobes and hippocampi, had a significant impact on longitudinal scores. Dichotomized dose distributions at 25Gy, 35Gy, 45Gy and 55Gy were modeled to show the impact of the high-dose volume on longitudinal test scores. The 50% risk of a below-normal cognitive test score was calculated according to mean dose and dose intervals between 25Gy and 55Gy at 10Gy increments according to brain volume and age. Conclusions The ability to predict cognitive outcomes in children with medulloblastoma using dose-effects models for different brain sub-volumes will improve treatment planning, guide intervention, and help estimate the value of newer methods of irradiation. PMID:25160611

  13. Everyone Gains: Extracurricular Activities in High School and Higher SAT® Scores. Research Report No. 2005-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Howard T.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents evidence that links participation in extracurricular activities (ECAs) in high school with higher SAT Reasoning Test™ (SAT®) scores. Using structural equation models (SEMs) with latent means, we analyzed data from a national sample of college-bound high school students. A series of structural equation models--isolating the…

  14. SIU-based modification in Kelley's measure of skewness to achieve gains in efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibullah, Saleha Naghmi; Shan-E-Fatima, Syeda

    2015-02-01

    The importance of accurate modeling of life-lengths of components and systems cannot be over-emphasized. Some well-known distributions such as the Birnbaum Saunders distribution extensively used in Reliability Theory are known to fulfill the self-inversion property, the term `Self-Inverse at Unity' (`SIU') implying that, for a random variable X, the distribution of 1/ X is identical to the distribution of X. Very recently, it has been demonstrated the advantage that can be drawn from the SIU property by proposing a modification to the well-known formula of the empirical cumulative distribution function to obtain an estimator of the cumulative distribution function that is more efficient than the empirical cumulative distribution function in situations where the parent population can be assumed to be SIU. Subsequently, a number of papers have appeared proposing SIU-based modifications to the formulae of well-known estimators of central tendency, dispersion and kurtosis that are likely to yield gains in efficiency on account of an approach very similar to the one adopted for the modification of the formula of the empirical cumulative distribution function. In this paper, we propose SIU-based modification to Kelley's Measure of Skewness and, through a simulation study, demonstrate the potential of the proposed formula in improving the efficiency of the estimation process which, obviously, has important implications for accurate modeling of life-data encountered in various branches of engineering.

  15. Experienced and inexperienced observers achieved relatively high within-observer agreement on video mobility scoring of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; König, K; Allesen-Holm, B H; Klaas, I C; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Enevoldsen, C

    2015-07-01

    (based on uneven gait) had the highest agreement, respectively, 69 or 68%. The training session seemed insufficient to improve agreement. Nonetheless, even novice observers were able to achieve perfect agreement up to 60% of the 22 scorings with merely the experience obtained during the study (introduction and training session). The relatively small differences between groups, together with a high agreement, demonstrate that the new system is easy to follow compared with previously described scoring systems. The mobility score achieves sufficiently high within-observer repeatability to allow between-observer agreement estimates, which are reliable compared with other more-complex scoring systems. Consequently, the new scoring scale seems feasible for on-farm applications as a tool to monitor mobility within and between cows, for communication between farmers and veterinarians with diverse educational background, and for lamenessbenchmarking of herds. PMID:25935241

  16. What Counts in How the Game is Played: Increasing Achievement in Learning Mathematics by Changing the Scoring in an Instructional Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Layman E.; And Others

    In this study, two experiments indicate that modification of the method of scoring in the EQUATIONS game enhances achievement in learning specific mathematical ideas. The experimental scoring method (4+ scoring) which allows learners to obtain bonus points for constructing more complex solutions was introduced into year-long instructional gaming…

  17. Gains in income during early childhood are associated with decreases in BMI z scores among children in the United States1234

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that changes in family income are an important determinant of children’s body mass index (BMI). However, few studies have leveraged longitudinal data to investigate the association of changes in family income on changes in BMI z score. Objective: This study aimed to assess whether gains in family income are associated with changes in BMI z score among children in the United States by using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Design: We used longitudinal data from the ECLS-B to assess whether gains in family income, assessed by using the poverty to income ratio (PIR), were associated with changes in BMI z score among children aged 2–6 y. Child anthropometric characteristics and family income were assessed at 2-y, 4-y, 5-y, and 6-y visits. Sex-stratified, individual fixed-effects linear regression models compared children with themselves over time to control for time-invariant measured and unmeasured confounding factors. Models also controlled for time-varying confounders, including number of siblings, household structure (2 parents, one parent, or unrelated guardian), age, and age squared. Results: Children (n = ∼9200) had a mean ± SE change in BMI z score of 0.12 ± 0.022, and family income increased by ∼$3361 ± $536 during the 4-y period of observation (2003–2007). The association between increased PIR and change in BMI z score varied by sex but not by race-ethnicity. Among girls, an increase in PIR was associated with a statistically significant decrease in BMI z score (βPIR = −0.022; 95% CI: −0.042, −0.0016). There was a statistically significant association between PIR and BMI z score among preterm boys (βPIR + β PIRXpreterm = −0.067; 95% CI: −0.12, −0.018), but the relation was not statistically significant among boys born at term (βPIR = −0.0049; 95% CI: −0.024, 0.014). Conclusions: By comparing children with themselves over time, we overcome

  18. Genetic response to selection for weaning weight or yearling weight or yearling weight and muscle score in Hereford cattle: efficiency of gain, growth, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Koch, R M; Cundiff, L V; Gregory, K E; Van Vleck, L D

    2004-03-01

    An experiment involving crosses among selection and control lines was conducted to partition direct and maternal additive genetic response to 20 yr of selection for 1) weaning weight, 2) yearling weight, and 3) index of yearling weight and muscle score. Selection response was evaluated for efficiency of gain, growth from birth through market weight, and carcass characteristics. Heritability and genetic correlations among traits were estimated using animal model analyses. Over a time-constant interval, selected lines were heavier, gained more weight, consumed more ME, and had more gain/ME than the control. Over a weight-constant interval, selected lines required fewer days, consumed less ME, had more efficient gains, and required less energy for maintenance than control. Direct and maternal responses were estimated from reciprocal crosses among unselected sires and dams of control and selection lines. Most of the genetic response to selection in all three lines was associated with direct genetic effects, and the highest proportion was from postweaning gain. Indirect responses of carcass characteristics to selection over the 20 yr were increased weight of carcasses that had more lean meat, produced with less feed per unit of gain. At a constant carcass weight, selected lines had 1.32 to 1.85% more retail product and 1.62 to 2.24% less fat trim and 10/100 to 25/100 degrees less marbling than control. At a constant age, heritability of direct and maternal effects and correlations between them were as follows: market weight, 0.36, 0.14, and 0.10; carcass weight, 0.26, 0.15, and 0.03; longissimus muscle area, 0.33, 0.00, and 0.00; marbling, 0.36, 0.07, and -0.35; fat thickness, 0.41, 0.05, and -0.18; percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, 0.12, 0.08, and -0.76; percentage of retail product, 0.46, 0.05, and -0.29; retail product weight, 0.44, 0.08, -0.14; and muscle score, 0.37, 0.14, and -0.54. Selection criteria in all lines improved efficiency of postweaning gain

  19. The Effect of Improved School Climate over Time on Fifth-Grade Students' Achievement Assessment Scores and Teacher Administered Grade Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of improved school climate, as teachers' beliefs changed from negative to positive over time, on students' reading, math, and writing assessment scores and teacher administered grade scores in reading, math, and writing. Overall, findings indicate that lose, maintain, or improve…

  20. Norm-Referenced Cognitive and Achievement Scores as Predictors of State-Wide High-Stakes Test Scores with Students Referred for Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, James M., II

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recent federal education initiatives, such as No Child Left Behind (NCLB; 2001), have focused on school accountability for student achievement including achievement of traditionally at-risk populations, such as students in special education, students from low-income or high poverty areas, and students who speak English as a new second…

  1. If I Read Better, Will I Score Higher ?: The Relationship between Oral Reading Fluency Instruction and Standardized Reading Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Chad H.

    2008-01-01

    The research study examined whether a difference existed between the reading achievement scores of an experimental group and a control group in standardized reading achievement. This difference measured the effect of systematic oral reading fluency instruction with repeated readings. Data from the 4Sight Pennsylvania Benchmark Reading Assessments…

  2. Schooling Contexts and Achievement: Exploring Relationships between School Composition and North Carolina End of Grade Reading Test Scores of Hispanic Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Kendra Cornwell

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, Hispanic achievement lags behind non-Hispanic peers in reading proficiency scores. The gap in achievement persists through subsequent grade levels for Black, Hispanic, and poor students of all races. Current school environments present evidence of dissimilar levels of minority and poverty in schools. Identifiable differences in…

  3. Education Watch: Achievement Gap Summary Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    These summary tables focus on the state-by-state academic achievement of African American, Hispanic American, American Indian, Asian American, and white students. Data are presented on achievement gains by state (4th grade reading scale scores, 1992-1998; 8th grade science and scale scores, 1996-2000; 4th grade math scale scores, 1992-2000; and…

  4. Using estimated factor scores from a bifactor analysis to examine the unique effects of the latent variables measured by the WAIS-IV on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, John H; Benson, Nicholas; Floyd, Randy G

    2015-12-01

    This study used estimated factor scores from a bifactor analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) to examine the unique effects of its latent variables on academic achievement. In doing so, we addressed the potential limitation of multicollinearity in previous studies of the incremental validity of the WAIS-IV. First, factor scores representing psychometric g and 4 group factors representing the WAIS-IV index scales were computed from a bifactor model. Subtest and composite scores for the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-II) were then predicted from these estimated factor scores in simultaneous multiple regression. Results of this study only partially replicated the findings of previous research on the incremental validity of scores that can be derived from performance on the WAIS-IV. Although we found that psychometric g is the most important underlying construct measured by the WAIS-IV for the prediction of academic achievement in general, results indicated that the unique effect of Verbal Comprehension is also important for predicting achievement in reading, spelling, and oral communication skills. Based on these results, measures of both psychometric g and Verbal Comprehension could be cautiously interpreted when considering high school students' performance in these areas of achievement. PMID:25844532

  5. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  6. What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

  7. Effects of Prekindergarten Attendance on Boys' and Girls' Standardized Reading Achievement Scores in Third and Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugra, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the effect of prekindergarten attendance on boys' and girls' standardized reading achievement scores in third and fifth grade. The thrust for more emphasis on increased information regarding the impact that prekindergarten has on standardized test results, both short-term and…

  8. Analysis of Math and Reading Achievement Scores of Students Attending Year-Round Calendar Schools and Traditional Calendar Schools in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abakwue, Chimaeze Ikechi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there were a significant difference in math and reading academic achievement scores between eighth-grade students attending year-round calendar schools and eighth-grade students attending traditional calendar schools based on the TCAP. In addition, this study investigated math and reading achievement…

  9. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire in a Sample of Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Castejon, Juan L.; Valle, Antonio; Delgado, Beatriz; Marzo, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ) using a sample of 2,022 (51.1% boys) Spanish students from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the correlated three-factor structure of the AGTQ in this sample: Learning…

  10. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to…

  11. The Effects of Head Start on Children's Kindergarten Retention, Reading and Math Achievement in Fall Kindergarten--An Application of Propensity Score Method and Sensitivity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), this paper applied optimal propensity score matching method to evaluate the effects of Head Start on children's kindergarten retention, reading and math achievement in fall kindergarten comparing with center-based care. Both parametric and nonparametric…

  12. Assessing the Incremental Value of KABC-II Luria Model Scores in Predicting Achievement: What Do They Tell Us beyond the MPI?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.; Spurgin, Angelia R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the incremental validity of the Luria interpretive scheme for the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) for predicting scores on the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition (KTEA-II). All participants were children and adolescents (N = 2,025) drawn from the nationally…

  13. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Elementary Principals' Perceptions of Their Leadership Behaviors and the Impact on One Year of Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between principals' perceptions of their learning-centered leadership behaviors and one year of reading achievement scores. Perceptions of principals were gathered from 31 out of 42 elementary schools in a district located in Central Virginia. This study explored the relationship between…

  14. Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire across Gender and Age in a Sample of Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Castejon, Juan L.; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Delgado, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of scores on the Spanish version of the "Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire" (AGTQ) across gender and age groups in 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) in grades 7 through 10. The equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses.…

  15. Table of SAT and Achievement Test Scores for Samples of Candidates Taking Achievement Tests 1966-67 to 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, June

    This table provides the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Achievement Test means and standard deviations for samples of candidates taking each of the 15 achievement tests offered in the Admissions Testing Program battery during the period 1966-67 to 1975-76. The samples, drawn annually through 1971-72 and biennially thereafter, provide…

  16. How Much Professional Development Is Needed to Effect Positive Gains in K-6 Student Achievement on High Stakes Science Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James A.; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard A.; Yore, Larry D.; Everett, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study that examines the relationship between teacher participation in a multi-year, K-6 professional development effort and the "high stakes" science test scores of different student groups in 33 rural mid-west school districts in the USA. The professional development program involved 1,269 elementary school teachers…

  17. The Black-White-Other Test Score Gap: Academic Achievement among Mixed Race Adolescents. Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Melissa R.

    This paper describes the achievement patterns of a sample of 1,492 multiracial high school students and examines how their achievement fits into existing theoretical models that explain monoracial differences in achievement. These theoretical models include status attainment, parenting style, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes. The…

  18. A Study of the Effects of Different Levels of Initial Diagnosis on Gains in Reading Achievement for Adults in a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Catherine Lucille

    This study sought to determine whether varying the levels of initial diagnosis was related to gains in reading achievement after a maximum period of ten weeks of instruction. The subjects were students enrolled part- or full-time at Parkland College, a public community college located in Champaign, Illinois. Students were assigned to one of three…

  19. Increasing the Reliability of Ability-Achievement Difference Scores: An Example Using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, John C.; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2002-01-01

    As an alternative to equally weighted difference scores, examined an orthogonal reliable component analysis (RCA) solution and an oblique principal components analysis (PCA) solution for the standardization sample of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC; A. Kaufman and N. Kaufman, 1983). Discusses the practical implications of the…

  20. The Effect of Administrative Pay and Local Property Taxes on Student Achievement Scores: Evidence from New Jersey Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Yaw M.; Schoderbek, Michael P.; Sahay, Savita P.

    2013-01-01

    We theorized that student test score performance will be positively related to the percentage of school district revenues raised from local taxes and with salary levels of school district administrators. Using both fixed and random effects panel analyses, we examine data for 217 Kindergarten-to-Grade 12 school districts in New Jersey for the years…

  1. Measuring Academic Achievement of Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities: Building Understanding of Alternate Assessment Scoring Criteria. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Thompson, Sandra; Thurlow, Martha

    This report compares the assumptions and values embedded in scoring criteria used in five states (Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Oregon, and Vermont) for alternate assessments of students with significant cognitive disabilities. The five states use different alternate assessment approaches, including portfolio assessment, performance assessment,…

  2. Determining Minimum Cognitive Scores for the First-Time Academic Achievement Success on the Education Doctoral Comprehensive Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavil, Jafus Kenyatta

    2009-01-01

    This purpose of the present study was to estimate minimum admission requirements using cognitive measures that will maximize candidate success on the doctoral comprehensive examination. Moreover, the present study established minimum scores on the Graduate Record Examinations (verbal and quantitative components) that will maximize doctoral student…

  3. Propensity Score Methods as Alternatives to Value-Added Modeling for the Estimation of Teacher Contributions to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kimberlee Kaye Callister

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential for using propensity score-based matching methods to estimate teacher contributions to student learning. Value-added models are increasingly used in teacher accountability systems in the United States in spite of ongoing qualms about the validity of teacher quality estimates resulting from…

  4. A comparative study of the Louisiana Graduation Exit Exam science scores and student achievement based on block, modified block, and traditional bell schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczala, Deanna Marie

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among bell schedules, GEE 21 science scores, and cumulative GPAs. Factors under consideration included teacher perspective, gender, ethnicity and students' at-risk status. The researcher collected data from the Louisiana Department of Education (LDE) targeting seven schools for three types of bell schedules---traditional, modified block, and block. From each school, the cumulative GPAs and GEF 21 science scores of up to 50 randomly selected students were analyzed. The effectiveness of different bells schedules on student achievement has resulted in conflicting data. Some educators feel that block scheduling will provide teachers with more time to engage students in higher-order thinking problems and to better engage them in the content material, thus improving student achievement overall (Gullatt, 2006). Some studies found that block scheduling provides students the opportunity to spend more time examining a subject with greater detail for a longer period of continuous time. Other studies have found that students on traditional schedules outperform block scheduled students on high stakes testing (Veal & Schreiber, 1999). Using a causal-comparative research design, the researcher examined the effect of three different bell schedules on student cumulative GPAS and GEE 21 science scores. The cumulative GPAs for the students were used to determine if there was a difference in the achievement level for students taught using different bell schedules. The GEE 21 science scores were also assessed for possible differences in learning science across various bell schedules.

  5. Primary TKA Patients with Quantifiably Balanced Soft-Tissue Achieve Significant Clinical Gains Sooner than Unbalanced Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gustke, Kenneth A.; Golladay, Gregory J.; Roche, Martin W.; Elson, Leah C.; Anderson, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Although total knee arthroplasty has a high success rate, poor outcomes and early revision are associated with ligament imbalance. This multicenter evaluation was performed in order to provide 1-year followup of a previously reported group of patients who had sensor-assisted TKA, comparing the clinical outcomes of quantitatively balanced versus unbalanced patients. At 1 year, the balanced cohort scored 179.3 and 10.4 in KSS and WOMAC, respectively; the unbalanced cohort scored 156.1 and 17.9 in KSS and WOMAC (P < 0.001; P = 0.085). The average activity level scores of quantitatively balanced patients were 68.6 (corresponding to tennis, light jogging, and heavy yard work), while the average activity level of unbalanced patients was 46.7 (corresponding to light housework, and limited walking distances) (P = 0.015). Out of all confounding variables, a balanced articulation was the most significant contributing factor to improved postoperative outcomes (P < 0.001). PMID:25210632

  6. Investing in Our Teachers: What Focus of Professional Development Leads to the Highest Student Gains in Mathematics Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to better understand the relationship between the substantive-content focus of professional development for inservice teachers of mathematics and their students' achievement. That professional development for teachers enhances student achievement has been well established by recent studies; however, those…

  7. An Examination of the Validity of English-Language Achievement Test Scores in an English Language Learner Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abella, Rodolfo; Urrutia, Joanne; Shneyderman, Aleksandr

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 1,700 English language learners (ELLs) and former ELL students, in Grades 4 and 10, were tested using both an English-language (Stanford Achievement Test, 9th ed.) and a Spanish-language (Aprenda, 2nd ed.) achievement test. Their performances on the two tests were contrasted. The results showed that ELL students, for the most part,…

  8. Do Inequalities in Parents' Education Play an Important Role in PISA Students' Mathematics Achievement Test Score Disparities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Lurdes; Veiga, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This paper measures and decomposes socioeconomic-related inequality in mathematics achievement in 15 European Union member states. Data is taken from the 2003 wave of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). There is socioeconomic-related inequality in mathematics achievement, favoring the higher socioeconomic groups in each…

  9. Intervention That Adds Up: The Impact of Merit Software on Standardized Achievement Test Scores of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Securro, Samuel; Jones, Jerry D.; Cantrell, Danny; Blackwell, James

    2006-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind" Act mandated the need for research-based interventions to increase and to improve learning and achievement for all youngsters. Research in computer-based instruction and intervention for learning basic skills and related achievements in content area subjects has documented the need for controlled investigations…

  10. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  11. The Predictive Relation of a High School Mathematic GPA to High-Stakes Assessment Achievement Scores in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Course grades, which often include non-achievement factors such as effort and behavior and are subject to individual teacher grading philosophies, suffer from issues of unreliability. Yet, course grades continue to be utilized as a primary tool for reporting academic achievement to students and parents and are used by most colleges and…

  12. The Impact of Household Possessions on Youth's Academic Achievement in the Ghana YouthSave Experiment: A Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Gina A. N.; Masa, Rainier D.; Wretman, Christopher J.; Ansong, David

    2013-01-01

    Household assets as part of youth's family background have been found to have a significant impact on youth's academic achievement. In this study, the impact of household possessions on youth's academic achievement in the Ghana YouthSave experiment is investigated. Findings support the hypothesized positive direction of the impact of household…

  13. The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding the…

  14. An Examination of Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course and Achievement Scores in Performance Assignments with Regard to Different Variables: A Boarding School Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Günaydin, Esra; Okur, Alperen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the academic achievement and performance tasks of students studying in a regional primary boarding school in science course with regard to different variables. The study was carried out via survey method and total 96 students, 57 of them boarding students and 39 of them non-boarding students studying in the 5th,…

  15. Test Scores, School Performance and Parenting Issues: Assuring Academic Achievement. The Connection between Family Life and School Achievement: Given a Supportive Family, Black Children Can Succeed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wanda A.

    Two things in particular could change the status of students of color in our elementary and secondary education system and make improved academic achievement possible. One is providing role models that students can relate to in the classrooms, and the other is getting families involved in their children's education. A study on family life and…

  16. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  17. The relationships between integration strategies and student achievement scores in science among the non-college bound in Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, John Curtis

    1997-09-01

    To assume that students, or anyone for that matter, can recall bits of information when they have never been shown any practical application for that information is ludicrous. This study focuses on a variety of integration strategies that exist between vocational and academic subjects in Pennsylvania through an initiative called High Schools That Work. The data utilized was collected by the Educational Testing Service in 1994 and included information from 385 graduating seniors. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the perceived level of integration between science and vocational subject areas and scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The study utilized frequency distributions, descriptive statistics, correlation techniques, and regression analysis. Differences in the type of vocational program that students were enrolled in were examined as well as their gender. It is evident from this study that the use of vocational methodologies, particularly those involving student assignments on workplace problems in their classrooms, helps students consistently score higher on the NAEP. Findings also indicated that females performed better in areas which required higher level thinking skills when these methods were utilized. The usefulness of this study is broad and it has implications for those teaching, those designing curricula, those determining policy, as well as those in higher education.

  18. Milwaukee Independent Charter Schools Study: Report on Two- and Three-Year Achievement Gains. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation. Report # 25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Dean, Alicia; Carlson, Deven

    2011-01-01

    The general purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Milwaukee's independent charter schools in promoting student achievement growth. Independent charter schools are authorized by non-school district entities and are considered "independent" because they are not a part of the Milwaukee Public School District (MPS). Specifically, the…

  19. Third Phase: Achievement Gains Associated with Implementation of the Assistant Teacher Program in the First Three Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Herbert M.

    The effectiveness of Mississippi's Assistant Teacher Program (ATP) was evaluated after its third year of operation, determining: (1) whether first graders who were exposed to teachers and assistant teachers who had been in ATP for three years continued to make progress in academic achievement; (2) the effectiveness of ATP in fostering achievement…

  20. Charter School Effects in an Urban School District: An Analysis of Student Achievement Gains in Indianapolis. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicotera, Anna; Mendiburo, Maria; Berends, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to reach a deeper understanding of the effects of charter schools by examining student achievement in one unique setting--Indianapolis. Although the charter school initiative in Indianapolis has received national recognition for its innovations, entrepreneurial leaders, and capacity to build local support (Skinner, 2007),…

  1. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

  2. Predicting High School Graduation for Latino Males Using Expectancy Value Theory of Motivation and Tenth Grade Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knape, Erin Oakley

    2010-01-01

    National education data indicate that young men of color and students living in poverty are not experiencing the same academic success as their female, White, or higher socioeconomic status peers, as evidenced by low reading achievement levels and high dropout rates. Of particular concern is the underachievement of Latino males, who currently have…

  3. Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not out perform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation…

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 5: Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; Kober, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). In most states, these tests are first administered in grade…

  5. Beyond Benchmarks and Scores: Reasserting the Role of Motivation and Interest in Children's Academic Achievement--An ACEI Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2007-01-01

    There is little question that the fundamental purpose of education--what the ancient Greeks referred to as the "telos"--is to promote student learning. For decades, both experts and the general public have agreed that any effort to improve the education system must focus squarely on optimizing student learning, motivating students to achieve, and…

  6. A Study of the Effects of Brain Gym Exercises on the Achievement Scores of Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study explored whether an intervention involving Brain Gym exercises designed to increase academic achievement in the areas of math and reading/language arts would be successful. Three groups were used in the study: an initial treatment group, a delayed treatment group, and a control group. Each of the three groups was comprised of 20…

  7. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  8. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Quinn, Patrick D; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-05-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  9. The change in differing leukocyte populations during vaccination to bovine respiratory disease and their correlations with lung scores, health records, and average daily gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is the most economically important disease in U.S. feedlots. Infection can result in morbidity, mortality, and reduced average daily gain. Cheap and reliable genetic methods of prediction and (or) protection from BRD would be highly advantageous to the industry. T...

  10. Assessing the Impact of School Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    PubMed Central

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between School-Based Health Center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in non-randomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English Language Learners, was conducted for each outcome including: proportion of students participating in three College Board Exams, graduation rates, and meeting University graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes, but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts. PMID:27009589

  11. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California.

    PubMed

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in nonrandomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English-language learners, were conducted for each outcome including proportion of students participating in three College Board exams, graduation rates, and meeting university graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts. PMID:27009589

  12. Critical Combinations of Radiation Dose and Volume Predict Intelligence Quotient and Academic Achievement Scores After Craniospinal Irradiation in Children With Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Schreiber, Jane E.; Wu, Shengjie; Lukose, Renin; Xiong, Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To prospectively follow children treated with craniospinal irradiation to determine critical combinations of radiation dose and volume that would predict for cognitive effects. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2003, 58 patients (median age 8.14 years, range 3.99-20.11 years) with medulloblastoma received risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation followed by dose-intense chemotherapy and were followed longitudinally with multiple cognitive evaluations (through 5 years after treatment) that included intelligence quotient (estimated intelligence quotient, full-scale, verbal, and performance) and academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) tests. Craniospinal irradiation consisted of 23.4 Gy for average-risk patients (nonmetastatic) and 36-39.6 Gy for high-risk patients (metastatic or residual disease >1.5 cm{sup 2}). The primary site was treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy using a 2-cm clinical target volume margin. The effect of clinical variables and radiation dose to different brain volumes were modeled to estimate cognitive scores after treatment. Results: A decline with time for all test scores was observed for the entire cohort. Sex, race, and cerebrospinal fluid shunt status had a significant impact on baseline scores. Age and mean radiation dose to specific brain volumes, including the temporal lobes and hippocampi, had a significant impact on longitudinal scores. Dichotomized dose distributions at 25 Gy, 35 Gy, 45 Gy, and 55 Gy were modeled to show the impact of the high-dose volume on longitudinal test scores. The 50% risk of a below-normal cognitive test score was calculated according to mean dose and dose intervals between 25 Gy and 55 Gy at 10-Gy increments according to brain volume and age. Conclusions: The ability to predict cognitive outcomes in children with medulloblastoma using dose-effects models for different brain subvolumes will improve treatment planning, guide intervention, and help

  13. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over course of the preschool period

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Caron A. C.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Garza, John; Sheffield, Tiffany D.; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Early executive control (EC) predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and (2) determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households) completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively decoupled from

  14. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Readiness Test Scores for Kindergarten Children and Achievement Scores Obtained at the End of Grades One and Two. S.S.T.A. Research Centre Report No. 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warkentin, Lena

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) scores in kindergarten (MRTK) and grade one (MRT1) with the reading scores of the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) at the end of grades one (CTBSR1) and two (CTBSR2). A secondary purpose of the study was to determine whether the…

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 1390 for non-Title I students and 1220 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 1420 for non-Title I students and 1270 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  16. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Tennessee's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 501 for non-Title I students and 486 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 512 for non-Title I students and 495 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale…

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kentucky's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale…

  18. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, 82% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 90% of non-Title I 4th graders and 78% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2004 and 2009, the percentage…

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Idaho's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 209 for non-Title I students and 205 for Title I students. In 2007, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 211 for non-Title I students and 208 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  20. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 341 for non-Title I students and 315 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 379 for non-Title I students and 340 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2008, the mean scale…

  1. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Delaware's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 474 for non-Title I students and 464 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 478 for non-Title I students and 467 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  2. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 167 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. In 2009 the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 168 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  3. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Three years of comparable mean scale score data were not available from the state. In 2004, 77% of non-Title I 4th graders and 60% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 75% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th…

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, 59% of non-Title I 4th graders and 29% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 64% of non-Title I 4th graders and 31% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2006 and 2009, the…

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Missouri's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 661 for non-Title I students and 642 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 661 for non-Title I students and 648 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, there was no…

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles New Hampshire's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  7. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 478 for non-Title I students and 445 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-title I students and 450 for title I students. Between 2005 and 2008, the mean scale…

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Rhode Island's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 435 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 440 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  10. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kansas' test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 80 for non-Title I students and 73 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 84 for non-Title I students and 78 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maine's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  12. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 2297 for non-Title I students and 2207 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 2334 for non-Title I students and 2235 for Title I students. Between 2005 and 2009, the mean scale…

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2003, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 598 for non-Title I students and 558 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 599 for non-Title I students and 556 for Title I students. Between 2003 and 2009, the mean scale…

  14. A moderate fat, low-energy dry expanded diet reduces gain in body condition score when fed as part of a post neutering weight-control regimen in growing pet cats.

    PubMed

    Spofford, Nathaniel; Mougeot, Isabelle; Elliott, Denise A; Addleman, Ashlee; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Wang, Mansen; Yang, Mingyin; Feugier, Alexandre; Biourge, Vincent; Lund, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Neutering of cats has been associated with significant weight gain in the weeks following surgery. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a moderate fat, low-energy dry expanded diet in reducing weight gain in growing pet cats when fed as part of a weight-control regimen over the 6 months post-neutering. Cats in participating primary care veterinary hospitals were enrolled at neutering and assigned to receive one of the two dietary treatments based on the hospital of origin. Owners of cats in the treatment group were instructed to feed the trial diet at maintenance (324·7 kJ/kg BW(0·711) per d). Instructions for the control group were to feed the cat's regular diet according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Body weight and condition were evaluated by veterinarians at enrolment, 2-weeks, and 1-4 and 6 months after surgery. Body condition score (five-point scale) was compared between enrolment and each subsequent visit, controlling for enrolment age and sex. Percentage change in body weight was evaluated via multivariate mixed modelling to account for repeated measures. A total of 187 cats (eighty-seven females and 100 males) with a mean age of 5·2 (sd 0·8) months and mean weight of 2·8 (sd 0·6) kg from fifty-one hospitals completed the trial. The odds of being scored as overweight were 4·1 times as great for cats in the control v. treatment groups (95 % CI 2·1, 8·2). Percentage change in body weight differed significantly with enrolment age (P = 0·007) and approached significance between diet groups (P = 0·08). Cats fed the trial diet had a significantly reduced incidence of overweight in the 6 months following neutering. PMID:26101609

  15. Investigating the Robustness of School-Performance Ratings to Three Factors Affecting the Underlying Student-Level Academic-Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Hui Leng

    2012-01-01

    Standardized-test scores are increasingly important indicators of school success. But how robust are school-performance ratings when they are based on measures derived from these scores? In my thesis, using data from Houston Independent School District (HISD) and New York State (NYS), I examined the robustness of school-performance ratings across…

  16. Cognitive skills, student achievement tests, and schools.

    PubMed

    Finn, Amy S; Kraft, Matthew A; West, Martin R; Leonard, Julia A; Bish, Crystal E; Martin, Rebecca E; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, Christopher F O; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after we controlled for fourth-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to oversubscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement-test scores do so primarily through channels other than improving cognitive skills. PMID:24434238

  17. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices. PMID:19685178

  18. Effect of Computer-Delivered Testing on Achievement in a Mastery Learning Course of Study with Partial Scoring and Variable Pacing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard M.; Surkan, Alvin J.

    The recent arrival of portable computer systems with high-level language interpreters now makes it practical to rapidly develop complex testing and scoring programs. These programs permit undergraduates access, at arbitrary times, to testing as an integral part of a mastery learning strategy. Effects of introducing the computer were studied by…

  19. A Comparative Study of the Louisiana Graduation Exit Exam Science Scores and Student Achievement Based on Block, Modified Block, and Traditional Bell Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buczala, Deanna Marie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among bell schedules, GEE 21 science scores, and cumulative GPAs. Factors under consideration included teacher perspective, gender, ethnicity and students' at-risk status. The researcher collected data from the Louisiana Department of Education (LDE) targeting seven schools for three…

  20. Effects of Traditional versus Tactual/Kinesthetic versus Interactive-Whiteboard Instruction on Primary Students' Vocabulary Achievement- and Attitude-Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masera, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    This researcher examined the effects of Traditional versus Tactual/Kinesthetic versus Interactive Whiteboard instruction on short- and long-term word-recall and attitude-test scores of primary students. The sample included 87 children, 45 kindergarten and 42 first-grade students. Participants were 41 males and 46 females from a suburban elementary…

  1. The Use of Congruence between the Items in a Norm-referenced Test and the Content in Compensatory Education Curricula in the Evaluation of Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, Arlene Bonnie; Miller, Christine A.

    In the evaluation of Project Information Packages (PIPs), a content analysis was performed to detect congruence between items in a norm-referenced test and the content in six exemplary compensatory education program curricula. Gains on congruent items were used to assess the effectiveness of the programs. Preliminary results show that the amount…

  2. Initial dosing regimen of vancomycin to achieve early therapeutic plasma concentration in critically ill patients with MRSA infection based on APACHE II score.

    PubMed

    Imaura, Masaharu; Yokoyama, Haruko; Kohata, Yuji; Kanai, Riichiro; Kohyama, Tomoki; Idemitsu, Wataru; Maki, Yuichi; Igarashi, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kanno, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2016-06-01

    It is essential to assure the efficacy of antimicrobials at the initial phase of therapy. However, increasing the volume of distribution (Vd) of hydrophilic antimicrobials in critically ill patients leads to reduced antimicrobial concentration in plasma and tissue, which may adversely affect the efficacy of that therapy. The aim of the present study was to establish a theoretical methodology for setting an appropriate level for initial vancomycin therapy in individual patients based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. We obtained data from patients who received intravenous vancomycin for a suspected or definitively diagnosed Gram-positive bacterial infection within 72 h after admission to the intensive care unit. The Vd and elimination half-life (t 1/2) of vancomycin values were calculated using the Bayesian method, and we investigated the relationship between them and APACHE II score. There were significant correlations between APACHE II scores and Vd/actual body weight (ABW), as well as t 1/2 (r = 0.58, p < 0.05 and r = 0.74, p < 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that the Vd and t 1/2 of vancomycin could be estimated using the following regression equations using APACHE II score.[Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]We found that APACHE II score was a useful index for predicting the Vd and t 1/2 of vancomycin, and used that to establish an initial vancomycin dosing regimen comprised of initial dose and administration interval for individual patients. PMID:25502612

  3. Elementary Principal Leadership Practices, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy about Teacher Evaluation in Title I Urban Schools Making Gains in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Karen Cohen

    2013-01-01

    Current school reform efforts aim to improve teaching and learning with emphasis on accountability for student achievement. The success of school reform depends on the motivation and capacities of school leaders. It is important to know what effective leadership practices look like to understand the direct impact to student achievement,…

  4. A Preliminary Study of the Relevance of a Standardized Test for Measuring Achievement Gains in Innovative Arithmetic Programs. Project LONGSTEP Final Report. Volume II. Appendix Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Bruce E.

    The general emphasis of Project LONGSTEP was on the identification of changes in student achievement that occur as a result of exposure to intensive educational innovation. During the course of the project, questions were raised concerning (1) the relevance of the standardized achievement test utilized in the project to the stated objectives of…

  5. Theoretical investigation of the more suitable rare earth to achieve high gain in waveguide based on silica containing silicon nanograins doped with either Nd³+ or Er³+ ions.

    PubMed

    Fafin, Alexandre; Cardin, Julien; Dufour, Christian; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

    2014-05-19

    We present a comparative study of the gain achievement in a waveguide whose active layer is constituted by a silica matrix containing silicon nanograins acting as sensitizer of either neodymium ions (Nd3+) or erbium ions (Er3+). By means of an auxiliary differential equation and finite difference time domain (ADE-FDTD) approach that we developed, we investigate the steady states regime of both rare earths ions and silicon nanograins levels populations as well as the electromagnetic field for different pumping powers ranging from 1 to 104 mW/mm2. Moreover, the achievable gain has been estimated in this pumping range. The Nd3+ doped waveguide shows a higher gross gain per unit length at 1064 nm (up to 30 dB/cm) than the one with Er3+ doped active layer at 1532 nm (up to 2 dB/cm). Taking into account the experimental background losses we demonstrate that a significant positive net gain can only be achieved with the Nd3+ doped waveguide. PMID:24921348

  6. Evaluating Summer School Programs and the Effect on Student Achievement: The Correlation between Stanford-10 Standardized Test Scores and Two Different Summer Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Alicia Kaye

    2010-01-01

    Educators have been looking for a solution to increasing yearly student achievement while at the same time ensuring that the achievement gap between students of high and low socioeconomic status does not continue to widen each year. Many studies examined show that students experience summer learning loss if not in school during the months of June…

  7. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  8. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  9. The Effects of Explicit Teaching of Metastrategic Knowledge on Low- And High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Peled, Bracha

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of explicit teaching of metastrategic knowledge (MSK) on gains of low-achieving (LA) and high-achieving (HA) 5th grade students (N=41). Gains in reasoning scores of students from the Experimental group (compared to students from the control group) were obtained on the strategic and on the metastrategic level. Gains…

  10. New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles--Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment. Policy Brief 12-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, William; Coghlan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to relieve overcrowded schools operating on multiple tracks, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) has invested more than $19 billion to build 130 new facilities over the past decade. District leaders asked researchers at Berkeley to estimate the achievement effects of this massive initiative--benefits that may stem from entering…

  11. Assessment of a model for achieving competency in administration and scoring of the WAIS-IV in post-graduate psychology students

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rachel M.; Davis, Melissa C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an evidence-based approach to training professional psychologists in the administration and scoring of standardized tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) due to substantial evidence that these tasks are associated with numerous errors that have the potential to significantly impact clients’ lives. Twenty three post-graduate psychology students underwent training in using the WAIS-IV according to a best-practice teaching model that involved didactic teaching, independent study of the test manual, and in-class practice with teacher supervision and feedback. Video recordings and test protocols from a role-played test administration were analyzed for errors according to a comprehensive checklist with self, peer, and faculty member reviews. 91.3% of students were rated as having demonstrated competency in administration and scoring. All students were found to make errors, with substantially more errors being detected by the faculty member than by self or peers. Across all subtests, the most frequent errors related to failure to deliver standardized instructions verbatim from the manual. The failure of peer and self-reviews to detect the majority of the errors suggests that novice feedback (self or peers) may be ineffective to eliminate errors and the use of more senior peers may be preferable. It is suggested that involving senior trainees, recent graduates and/or experienced practitioners in the training of post-graduate students may have benefits for both parties, promoting a peer-learning and continuous professional development approach to the development and maintenance of skills in psychological assessment. PMID:26042071

  12. Assessment of a model for achieving competency in administration and scoring of the WAIS-IV in post-graduate psychology students.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M; Davis, Melissa C

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an evidence-based approach to training professional psychologists in the administration and scoring of standardized tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) due to substantial evidence that these tasks are associated with numerous errors that have the potential to significantly impact clients' lives. Twenty three post-graduate psychology students underwent training in using the WAIS-IV according to a best-practice teaching model that involved didactic teaching, independent study of the test manual, and in-class practice with teacher supervision and feedback. Video recordings and test protocols from a role-played test administration were analyzed for errors according to a comprehensive checklist with self, peer, and faculty member reviews. 91.3% of students were rated as having demonstrated competency in administration and scoring. All students were found to make errors, with substantially more errors being detected by the faculty member than by self or peers. Across all subtests, the most frequent errors related to failure to deliver standardized instructions verbatim from the manual. The failure of peer and self-reviews to detect the majority of the errors suggests that novice feedback (self or peers) may be ineffective to eliminate errors and the use of more senior peers may be preferable. It is suggested that involving senior trainees, recent graduates and/or experienced practitioners in the training of post-graduate students may have benefits for both parties, promoting a peer-learning and continuous professional development approach to the development and maintenance of skills in psychological assessment. PMID:26042071

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; McMurrer, Jennifer; Silva, Malini R.

    2011-01-01

    Title I provides extra instructional services designed to raise achievement for low-performing students in schools with relatively high poverty rates, and for all students in many of the nation's highest-poverty schools. To learn more about how well Title I students are performing academically, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) compared…

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 6: Has Progress Been Made in Raising Achievement for English Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines progress in raising achievement for English language learners. It also describes the factors that make it difficult to accurately assess what ELLs know and can do. The data for this analysis were collected by CEP with technical support from the…

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 4: Has Progress Been Made in Raising Achievement for Students with Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) holds schools, districts, and states accountable for improving the academic achievement of all students, including the nearly 14% of public school students who receive special education services because they have an identified disability. By 2014, 100% of students with disabilities are expected to…

  16. "Smart Students Get Perfect Scores in Tests without Studying Much": Why Is an Effortless Achiever Identity Attractive, and for Whom Is It Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carolyn; Nyström, Anne-Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Discourses about the value of effort and hard work are prevalent and powerful in many western societies and educational contexts. Yet, paradoxically, in these same contexts effortless achievement is often lauded, and in certain discourses is heralded as the pinnacle of success and a sign of genius. In this paper we interrogate discourses about…

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08. Part 1: Is the Emphasis on "Proficiency" Shortchanging Higher- and Lower-Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of reports describing results from the Center on Education Policy's (CEP's) third annual analysis of state testing data. The report provides an update on student performance at the proficient level of achievement, and for the first time, includes data about student performance at the advanced and basic levels.…

  18. An Investigation of Later Academic Achievement between Groups of Students Based on Their Category of DIAL-R Score When Entering Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Janice Williams

    2013-01-01

    The era of "high stakes" testing in older grades has contributed to higher achievement expectations in the preschool years. Early childhood is a significant period in the development of the whole child. The skills children build in kindergarten are fundamental to learning success. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in…

  19. An Analysis of the Entropy Index Diversity Scores of Selected North Carolina Urban High Schools and the Impact on Teacher Quality, Student Achievement, and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert Pernell

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the differences in teacher quality, student achievement, and graduation rates among select North Carolina urban high schools based on their racial segregation when measured by the entropy index. The entropy index is a measure of evenness among racial groups used to determine the level of segregation…

  20. Estimating Causal Effects of Teacher-Child Relationships on Reading and Math Achievement in a High-Risk Sample: A Multi-Level Propensity Score Matching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; O'Connor, Erin E.; Cappella, Elise; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2013-01-01

    A robust body of research has identified associations between positive teacher-child relationships--characterized by high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict--and children's academic achievement in elementary school (e.g. Roorda, 2012). Additional studies find that high-quality teacher-child relationships may promote academic resilience…

  1. Scored Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

  2. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  3. Gaining Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Leslie A.; Rollison, Margaret L.

    2011-01-01

    In the 2006-07 school year, North Brunswick High School--a rural, racially and economically diverse high school in Leland, North Carolina--was identified as a priority school by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Overall student proficiency was at 48.6%, indicating that less than one-half of all students earned a score of…

  4. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  5. How Much Does Creative Teaching Enhance Elementary School Students' Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacter, John; Thum, Yeow Meng; Zifkin, David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between creative teaching and elementary students' achievement gains. Forty-eight upper elementary school teachers' classroom instruction was observed and evaluated over the course of 8 different lessons throughout the year. For each teacher, during each lesson, both a creative teaching frequency score and a…

  6. An Effective Way to Improve Mathematics Achievement in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taik

    2010-01-01

    The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in…

  7. Consensus Scoring and Peer Planning: Meeting Literacy Accountability Demands One School at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Lapp, Diane; Flood, James

    2005-01-01

    To improve literacy achievement, the authors developed consensus scoring and peer planning as a process of professional development and school improvement. This process allows teachers to (1) gain an increased understanding of the content and performance standards that guide their instruction; (2) work together to assess student work; (3) work…

  8. An Examination of Teachers' Effects on High, Middle, and Low Aptitude Students' Performance on a Standardized Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Thomas L.; Beckerman, Terrill M.

    1978-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness was defined by students' mathematics score on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills while achievement was measured by the Cognitive Abilities Test. Relatively effective teachers generally produced achievement gains from all aptitude levels. Similarly, relatively ineffective teachers did not disproportionately depress achievement for…

  9. The Gains from Vertical Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations…

  10. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  11. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  12. Texas Gains on NAEP: Points of Light?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    Places the 1992-1996 gain in mathematics scores from Texas on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) from fourth to eighth grades, asserting that the so-called miracle in Texas looks much like the median elsewhere. Texas ranks 17th among the 35 states and 2 districts with NAEP scores for the period, but Texas is no worse than most…

  13. Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2010-01-01

    The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered after…

  14. WWC Quick Review of the Report "The Effect of Performance-Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This review examined a study designed to evaluate whether the Achievement Challenge Pilot Project, a performance-pay program for teachers, improved the academic achievement of elementary school students. Study authors reported higher student test score gains for students in schools that implemented the performance- pay program than for students in…

  15. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  16. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  17. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Composite Scores Using IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Wang, Tianyou; Lee, Won-Chan

    2012-01-01

    Composite scores are often formed from test scores on educational achievement test batteries to provide a single index of achievement over two or more content areas or two or more item types on that test. Composite scores are subject to measurement error, and as with scores on individual tests, the amount of error variability typically depends on…

  18. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  19. Affiliation Motivation and Hawaiian-American Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Ronald

    1974-01-01

    Fantasy "n" affiliation (nAff) was correlated with reading achievement test scores, but not math achievement test scores, for a sample of 67 Hawaiian-American high school students. There was no relationship between "n" Ach and achievement test scores. The process linking "n" Aff and Hawaiian American achievement was suggested to involve…

  20. Drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-01-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16341287

  1. Drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-08-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16234878

  2. A study of mathematics and science achievement scores among African American students and the impact of teacher-oriented variables on them through the Educational Longitudinal Study, 2002 (ELS: 2002) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Valentine

    The purpose of this dissertation was to utilize the ELS: 2002 longitudinal data to highlight the achievement of African American students relative to other racial sub-groups in mathematics and science and to highlight teacher oriented variables that might influence their achievement. Various statistical tools, including descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Multiple Regression were used to analyze data that was derived from the students', teachers' and administrations' questionnaires compiled in the base year of the study (2002) as well as the first follow-up transcript study (2006). The major findings are as follows: African American students performed lower than all other major racial subgroups in mathematics and science; Parental variables including SES and parental education were strong correlates of achievement in mathematics and science: The amount and type of mathematics and science courses students took were strong predictors of achievement in mathematics and science; Teachers' race, experience, certification status, graduate courses completed and professional development influenced African American students' achievement in mathematics and science; Aspects of classroom climate including teacher-pupil relationship, classroom management, students' perception of quality instructions, praise and rewards system might influence African American students' achievement in mathematics and science; Teachers' beliefs pertaining to students' background and intellectual ability might influence their educational expectation of African American students and subsequently student achievement in mathematics and science; Teaching strategies such as reviewing, lecturing and using graphing calculators had a positive influence on mathematics achievement while using computers, discussion and using other books than mathematics textbooks had negative influences on mathematics achievement; Computer use in science had positive influence on science achievement while homework had a positive

  3. The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…

  4. A Study of Mathematics and Science Achievement Scores among African American Students and the Impact of Teacher-Oriented Variables on Them through the Educational Longitudinal Study, 2002 (ELS: 2002) Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Valentine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to utilize the ELS: 2002 longitudinal data to highlight the achievement of African American students relative to other racial sub-groups in mathematics and science and to highlight teacher oriented variables that might influence their achievement. Various statistical tools, including descriptive statistics,…

  5. In early returns scoring scores big.

    PubMed

    Butman, Samuel M

    2016-07-01

    A scoring or cutting balloon is always useful in preventing slippage during therapy of in-stent restenosis. A drug-coated scoring balloon for in-stent restenosis may be an alternative to a drug-coated balloon Definitive comparison trials are needed and likely to help define their exact role in patients with in-stent restenosis. PMID:27400636

  6. Beyond Standardized Test Scores: An Examination of Leadership and Climate as Leading Indicators of Future Success in the Transformation of Turnaround Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Judy Jackson; Sanders, Eugene T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Districts throughout the nation are engaged in comprehensive transformation to "turn around" low performing schools. Standardized test scores are used to gauge student achievement; however, academic gains may lag behind leading indicators such as improved school climate and effective leadership. This study examines 16 underperforming…

  7. The 2006 Brown Center Report on American Education: How Well Are American Students Learning? With Special Sections on the Nation's Achievement, the Happiness Factor in Learning, and Honesty in State Test Scores. Volume II, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This report launches the second volume of the Brown Center Report on American Education. The five issues of volume one were published from 2000 to 2004. Volume one included regular reports on data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and state assessments, analysis of student achievement in charter schools, a study of trends…

  8. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  9. What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Hamilton, Laura S.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Stecher, Brian M.

    2000-01-01

    Compared results on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills to Texas (TAAS) score changes on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Texas fourth graders did improve significantly more on the NAEP mathematics test than their counterparts nationally, but this gain was smaller than their TAAS gains, and a similar gain was not seen…

  10. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  11. The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions. PMID:26416932

  12. Learning Gains in Introductory Astronomy: Online Can Be as Good as Face-to-Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margoniner, Vera

    2014-05-01

    Universities and even high schools are moving more and more to online instruction as a cost-effective way to reach more students with fewer resources. This naturally raises the question: Can online learning be effective? (The question is not "Is online learning effective?" because just like face-to-face instruction, online instruction includes a diverse array of techniques.) In this paper I compare online and flipped face-to-face versions of an introductory astronomy course. Both versions were designed around student-centered learning principles, but the specific implementation of these principles varied according to the strengths of each type of instruction. Normalized Hake gains on the Star Properties Concept Inventory (SPCI) were quite similar for both classes: 56% and 58% for the online and flipped face-to-face versions, respectively. The gains obtained by students with low pre-test scores were as good as the ones achieved by students with high pre-test scores.

  13. Dietary restraint and gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a history of preconceptional dieting and restrained eating was related to higher weight gains in pregnancy. Design Dieting practices were assessed among a prospective cohort of pregnant women using the Revised Restraint Scale. Women were classified on three separate subscales as restrained eaters, dieters, and weight cyclers. Subjects Participants included 1,223 women in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study. Main outcome measures Total gestational weight gain and adequacy of weight gain (ratio of observed/expected weight gain based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations). Statistical analyses performed Multiple linear regression was used to model the two weight gain outcomes, while controlling for potential confounders including physical activity and weight gain attitudes. Results There was a positive association between each subscale and total weight gain, as well as adequacy of weight gain. Women classified as cyclers gained an average of 2 kg more than non-cyclers, and showed higher observed/expected ratios by 0.2 units. Among restrained eaters and dieters, there was a differential effect by BMI. With the exception of underweight women, all other weight status women with a history of dieting or restrained eating gained more weight during pregnancy and had higher adequacy of weight gain ratios. In contrast, underweight women with a history of restrained eating behaviors gained less weight compared to underweight women without those behaviors. Conclusions Restrained eating behaviors were associated with weight gains above the IOM recommendations for normal, overweight, and obese women, and weight gains below the recommendations for underweight women. Excessive gestational weight gain is of concern given its association with postpartum weight retention. The dietary restraint tool is useful for identifying women who would benefit from nutritional counseling prior to or during pregnancy in regards to achieving targeted

  14. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  15. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  16. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  17. Predicting FCI gain with a nonverbal intelligence test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semak, M. R.; Dietz, R. D.; Pearson, R. H.; Willis, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    We have administered both a commercial, nonverbal intelligence test (the GAMA) and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning to students in two introductory physics classes to determine if either test can successfully predict normalized gains on the Force Concept Inventory. Since gain on the FCI is known to be related to gender, we adopted a linear model with gain on the FCI as the dependent variable and gender and a test score as the independent variables. We found that the GAMA score did not predict a significant amount of variation beyond gender. Lawson's test, however, did predict a small but significant variation beyond gender. When simple linear regressions were run separately for males and females with the Lawson score as a predictor, we found that the Lawson score did not significantly predict gains for females but was a marginally significant predictor for males.

  18. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  19. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth control ...

  20. Health gain versus equity.

    PubMed

    Scott-Samuel, A

    1992-05-01

    A new organisation, the Association for Public Health, has just been formed 'to help deliver real health gain for the population'. Alex Scott-Samuel suggests that the concept of 'health gain' is counter to health equality and needs wider debate. PMID:1624317

  1. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  2. Reporting Valid and Reliable Overall Scores and Domain Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    In educational assessment, overall scores obtained by simply averaging a number of domain scores are sometimes reported. However, simply averaging the domain scores ignores the fact that different domains have different score points, that scores from those domains are related, and that at different score points the relationship between overall…

  3. Sparse conditional mixture model: late fusion with missing scores for multimedia event detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallapati, Ramesh; Yeh, Eric; Myers, Gregory

    2013-03-01

    The problem of event detection in multimedia clips is typically handled by modeling each of the component modalities independently, then combining their detection scores in a late fusion approach. One of the problems of a late fusion model in the multimedia setting is that the detection scores may be missing from one or more components for a given clip; e.g., when there is no speech in the clip; or when there is no overlay text. Standard fusion techniques typically address this problem by assuming a default backoff score for a component when its detection score is missing for a clip. This may potentially bias the fusion model, especially if there are many missing detections from a given component. In this work, we present the Sparse Conditional Mixture Model (SCMM) which models only the observed detection scores for each example, thereby avoiding making any assumptions about the distributions of the scores that are made by backoff models. Our experiments in multi-media event detection using the TRECVID-2011 corpus demonstrates that SCMM achieves statistically significant performance gains over standard late fusion techniques. The SCMM model is very general and is applicable to fusion problems with missing data in any domain.

  4. Multidimensional Linking for Domain Scores and Overall Scores for Nonequivalent Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires state assessments to report not only overall scores but also domain scores. To see the information on students' overall achievement, progress, and detailed strengths and weaknesses, and thereby identify areas for improvement in educational quality, students' performances across years or across forms need to be…

  5. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, David M.

    1996-01-01

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit.

  6. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, D.M.

    1996-11-05

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit. 5 figs.

  7. The quantile score and its decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Friederichs, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Forecast verification for probabilistic weather and climate predictions gain more and more importance due to the increasing number of ensemble prediction systems. The predictive performance of probabilistic forecasts is generally assessed using proper score functions, which are applied to a set of forecast-observation pairs. The propriety of a score guarantees honesty and prevents hedging. A variety of proper scores exist for different types of probabilistic forecasts. Moreover, proper scoring functions can be decomposed into the three parts reliability, resolution, and uncertainty, which describe main characteristics of a forecasting scheme. This decomposition is well known for the Brier score and the continuous ranked probability score. This study expands the pool of verification methods for probabilistic forecasts by a decomposition of the quantile score (QS). Quantiles are suitable probabilistic measures especially for extreme forecast events, since they do not depend on an apriori defined threshold. The QS is a weighted absolute error between quantile forecasts and observations. We derive a decomposition of the QS in reliability, resolution, and uncertainty, and give a brief description of potential biases. A quantile reliability plot is presented. The quantile verification within this framework is illustrated on precipitation forecasts derived from the mesoscale ensemble prediction system COSMO-DE-EPS of the German Meteorological Service.

  8. The Youth Throwing Score

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Christopher S.; Padaki, Ajay S.; Noticewala, Manish Suresh; Makhni, Eric Chugh; Popkin, Charles Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epidemic levels of shoulder and elbow injuries have been reported in youth and adolescent baseball players. Despite the concerning frequency of these injuries, no instrument has been validated to assess upper extremity injury in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity assessment tool specifically designed for youth baseball players. We hypothesize this tool will be reliable, responsive and valid. Methods: The Youth Throwing Score (YTS) was constructed by a multidisciplinary healthcare provider team in addition to baseball coaches as a tool to assess upper extremity injury in 10 to 18 year old baseball players. The instrument was comprised of a demographics section and a 14 item assessment of pain, fatigue and psychosocial health. The 14 items were scored from 1 to 5 and weighted equally, with higher scores reflecting fewer symptoms and less functional disability. The psychometric properties, including the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and responsiveness were calculated. Additionally, the Pearson correlation coefficient to 4 validated outcomes was determined. Results: A pilot form of the instrument was administered to 25 players to assess comprehension and mean item importance. Pilot analysis resulted in none of the 14 items receiving less than a 3 out of 5 mean athlete importance rating and the final instrument read at a Flesch-Kincaid level of 4.1, appropriate for patients age 9 and older. A total of 223 players completed the Youth Throwing Score, with an average player age of 14.3 ± 2.7 years old. The players self-assigned injury status, resulting in an average survey score of 59.7 ± 8.4 for the 148 players ‘playing without pain,’ 42.0 ± 11.5 for the 60 players ‘playing with pain,’ and 40.4 ± 10.5 for the 15 players ‘not playing due to pain.’ Players playing without pain scored significantly higher than those playing with pain (p < .001). The scoring tiers of the Youth

  9. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  10. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  11. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  12. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  13. What Are Achievement Gains Worth--to Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, New York City schools commenced a school-level pay-for-performance program for teachers and staff in about 200 schools. The authors found that the program didn't improve schools or student outcomes. Why? Because the program failed to create conditions that theory suggests are necessary for performance-based incentive programs to change…

  14. The GOALS Program. Gaining Opportunities to Achieve Lifetime Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwich, Andy; Otto, Nonie

    Designed to support the development of well-rounded individuals, this resource guide integrates the World Cup and soccer into social studies, language arts, mathematics, science, and physical education. The objectives of the GOALS program are for students to: (1) recognize the importance of the World Cup and soccer throughout the world; (2)…

  15. A Bayesian Approach to Learning Scoring Systems.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Şeyda; Rudin, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    We present a Bayesian method for building scoring systems, which are linear models with coefficients that have very few significant digits. Usually the construction of scoring systems involve manual effort-humans invent the full scoring system without using data, or they choose how logistic regression coefficients should be scaled and rounded to produce a scoring system. These kinds of heuristics lead to suboptimal solutions. Our approach is different in that humans need only specify the prior over what the coefficients should look like, and the scoring system is learned from data. For this approach, we provide a Metropolis-Hastings sampler that tends to pull the coefficient values toward their "natural scale." Empirically, the proposed method achieves a high degree of interpretability of the models while maintaining competitive generalization performances. PMID:27441407

  16. Test Scores and Learning Styles: Understanding Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Patricia A.; Schuh, Kathy L.

    2006-01-01

    This two-year study explored the academic lives of three boys in a combined fifth-sixth grade classroom. As these case studies illustrate, viewing students' academic worlds from multiple perspectives can lead to more accurate, comprehensive evaluations and efficacious adaptations of students' learning environments. Richard Snow's aptitude theory…

  17. 49 CFR 383.135 - Minimum passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... score on such knowledge test. (b) To achieve a passing score on the skills test, the driver applicant must demonstrate that he/she can successfully perform all of the skills listed in § 383.113. (c) If the... automatically fail the test. (d) The scoring of the basic knowledge and skills tests shall be adjusted...

  18. Test-Based Accountability and Student Achievement: An Investigation of Differential Performance on NAEP and State Assessments. NBER Working Paper No. 12817

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon referred to as test score inflation, which occurs when achievement gains on "high-stakes" exams outpace improvements on "low-stakes" tests. The first part of the paper documents the extent to which student performance trends on state assessments differ from those on the National Assessment of Educational Progress…

  19. Beating the Odds II: A City-By-City Analysis of Student Performance and Achievement Gaps on State Assessments, Spring 2001 Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    This report presents district-by-district achievement data on 57 major city school systems in reading and mathematics. State assessment results were collected from state Web sites, reports, and databases. Data were analyzed by race/ethnicity when reported. Overall, the Great City Schools have made meaningful gains in math scores on state…

  20. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  1. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-03-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  2. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  3. Walk Score®

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028

  4. Pharmacophore-Based Similarity Scoring for DOCK

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacophore modeling incorporates geometric and chemical features of known inhibitors and/or targeted binding sites to rationally identify and design new drug leads. In this study, we have encoded a three-dimensional pharmacophore matching similarity (FMS) scoring function into the structure-based design program DOCK. Validation and characterization of the method are presented through pose reproduction, crossdocking, and enrichment studies. When used alone, FMS scoring dramatically improves pose reproduction success to 93.5% (∼20% increase) and reduces sampling failures to 3.7% (∼6% drop) compared to the standard energy score (SGE) across 1043 protein–ligand complexes. The combined FMS+SGE function further improves success to 98.3%. Crossdocking experiments using FMS and FMS+SGE scoring, for six diverse protein families, similarly showed improvements in success, provided proper pharmacophore references are employed. For enrichment, incorporating pharmacophores during sampling and scoring, in most cases, also yield improved outcomes when docking and rank-ordering libraries of known actives and decoys to 15 systems. Retrospective analyses of virtual screenings to three clinical drug targets (EGFR, IGF-1R, and HIVgp41) using X-ray structures of known inhibitors as pharmacophore references are also reported, including a customized FMS scoring protocol to bias on selected regions in the reference. Overall, the results and fundamental insights gained from this study should benefit the docking community in general, particularly researchers using the new FMS method to guide computational drug discovery with DOCK. PMID:25229837

  5. Cut Scores: Results May Vary. NBETPP Monographs, Volume 1, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Catherine; Ramos, Miguel; Blumer, Irwin; Madaus, George

    This paper discusses how cut scores are set and used and how accurately they reflect student achievement. Regardless of the method used, the cut-score setting process is subjective. The cut score is the point on a score scale that separates one performance standard from another. Cut scores may also be used to set performance levels for…

  6. Scoring from Contests

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Elizabeth Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new model for scoring alternatives from “contest” outcomes. The model is a generalization of the method of paired comparison to accommodate comparisons between arbitrarily sized sets of alternatives in which outcomes are any division of a fixed prize. Our approach is also applicable to contests between varying quantities of alternatives. We prove that under a reasonable condition on the comparability of alternatives, there exists a unique collection of scores that produces accurate estimates of the overall performance of each alternative and satisfies a well-known axiom regarding choice probabilities. We apply the method to several problems in which varying choice sets and continuous outcomes may create problems for standard scoring methods. These problems include measuring centrality in network data and the scoring of political candidates via a “feeling thermometer.” In the latter case, we also use the method to uncover and solve a potential difficulty with common methods of rescaling thermometer data to account for issues of interpersonal comparability. PMID:24748759

  7. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  8. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  9. Syncopation and the Score

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323

  10. What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us? Issue Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Hamilton, Laura S.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Stecher, Brian M.

    Texas students have made extraordinarily large gains on statewide achievement tests, the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS), gains so dramatic that they have been dubbed the "Texas miracle." There is general agreement that these gains are attributable to the high stakes accountability system in Texas, but there is some question about what…

  11. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  12. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  13. High gain Raman amplifier with inherent gain flattening and dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakkar, Charu; Thyagarajan, K.

    2005-06-01

    We report here an inherently gain-flattened, high-gain discrete Raman fiber amplifier design with 21 dB net gain (±1.4 dB gain ripple) over 25 nm bandwidth. The amplifier design is based on a W-shape highly nonlinear fiber, in which, optimized spectral variation of leakage loss has been used to achieve inherent gain flattening of Raman gain. The proposed fiber has an additional advantage of having a high negative dispersion coefficient (∼-84 ps/km nm) over the operating range of wavelength and thus the designed discrete amplifier module, based on this fiber, is also capable of compensating dispersion accumulated in one span (70 km) of transmission through G.652 fiber. Hence, the designed module is proposed as a composite amplifier and dispersion-compensating unit for 25 nm bandwidth, which is capable of handling both attenuation and dispersion of one span of G. 652 transmission.

  14. Primary Process Integration on the Rorschach and Achievement in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Sandra W.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between primary process integration (PPI) and achievement was investigated. Fifty-one second graders received the Rorschach, which was scored by Holt's Primary Process Scoring System. Achievement criteria were academic grade average and reading test scores. The hypothesis that PPI is positively related to achievement was…

  15. Gaining on the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    About three-quarters of the 2009 graduates of the highly diverse Arlington, Virginia, Public Schools completed one or more Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate courses during their high school careers. That figure serves as one indicator of a decade-long initiative to eliminate achievement gaps while raising achievement for all…

  16. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  17. A study of the relationship between the method of instruction in science and achievement in non-public elementary schools in Middle Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Betsy R.

    This study examined the relationship between two methods of teaching science and scale score gains on standardized achievement tests in non-public schools in Middle Tennessee. The population was comprised of third and fourth grade students from non-public schools in Middle Tennessee that were members of the Tennessee Association of Independent Schools. A random sample of 596 students participated in this study. An unpaired t-test was conducted to determine whether the gain scores of the two instructional groups were statistically different at the .05 level, as well as whether the type of instruction affected any particular ethnic group. An analysis of variance was conducted to test the intervening variables of gender and number of years of teacher experience. The results of the analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in scale score gains in science between students who were taught using an inquiry-based approach and those who were taught in a traditional setting. A statistically significant difference was found in scale score gains between the two instructional groups with regard to the number of years of teacher experience. There was inclusive evidence to show any significant difference in scale score gains between the two instructional groups with regard to gender or ethnicity. The overall findings made a case for inquiry-based science teaching in an environment that mirrored the scientific community with its questioning, problem solving, and construction of new knowledge.

  18. Amoco technique gains support

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Amoco Corp.`s low-cost horizontal drilling technique and equipment are gaining acceptance in the oilpatch after five years of design and fine-tuning work. The system is purely mechanical, and it`s designed to operate with a workover rig instead of a drilling rig. It`s engineered to drill short-radius horizontal wells with lateral sup to 1,000 feet, so far.

  19. A Tutorial on Interpreting Bifactor Model Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial addresses possible sources of confusion in interpreting trait scores from the bifactor model. The bifactor model may be used when subscores are desired, either for formative feedback on an achievement test or for theoretically different constructs on a psychological test. The bifactor model is often chosen because it requires fewer…

  20. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  1. Gambling scores for earthquake predictions and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiancang

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new method, namely the gambling score, for scoring the performance earthquake forecasts or predictions. Unlike most other scoring procedures that require a regular scheme of forecast and treat each earthquake equally, regardless their magnitude, this new scoring method compensates the risk that the forecaster has taken. Starting with a certain number of reputation points, once a forecaster makes a prediction or forecast, he is assumed to have betted some points of his reputation. The reference model, which plays the role of the house, determines how many reputation points the forecaster can gain if he succeeds, according to a fair rule, and also takes away the reputation points betted by the forecaster if he loses. This method is also extended to the continuous case of point process models, where the reputation points betted by the forecaster become a continuous mass on the space-time-magnitude range of interest. We also calculate the upper bound of the gambling score when the true model is a renewal process, the stress release model or the ETAS model and when the reference model is the Poisson model.

  2. Microwave gain medium with negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dexin; Chang, Kihun; Ran, Lixin; Xin, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Artificial effective media are attractive because of the fantastic applications they may enable, such as super lensing and electromagnetic invisibility. However, the inevitable loss due to their strongly dispersive nature is one of the fundamental challenges preventing such applications from becoming a reality. In this study, we demonstrate an effective gain medium based on negative resistance, to overcompensate the loss of a conventional passive metamaterial, meanwhile keeping its original negative-index property. Energy conservation-based theory, full-wave simulation and experimental measurement show that a fabricated sample consisting of conventional sub-wavelength building blocks with embedded microwave tunnel diodes exhibits a band-limited Lorentzian dispersion simultaneously with a negative refractive index and a net gain. Our work provides experimental evidence to the assertion that a stable net gain in negative-index gain medium is achievable, proposing a potential solution for the critical challenge current metamateiral technology faces in practical applications.

  3. Effects of collaboration and inquiry on reasoning and achievement in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jamie Lee

    The primary purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two collaborative grouping strategies and two instructional methods in terms of gains in reasoning ability and achievement in college biology. In order to do so, a quasi-experimental study was performed in which students were placed in one of four treatment conditions: heterogeneous grouping within inquiry instruction, homogeneous grouping within inquiry instruction, heterogeneous grouping within non-inquiry instruction, and homogeneous grouping within non-inquiry instruction. Students were placed in groups based on initial reasoning level. Reasoning levels and achievement gains were assessed at the end of the study. Results showed that within non-inquiry instruction, heterogeneous mean group scores were higher in both reasoning and achievement than homogeneous groups. In contrast, within inquiry instruction, homogeneous mean group scores were higher in both reasoning and achievement. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, significantly outperformed non-inquiry instruction in the development of reasoning ability. Within inquiry instruction, low-ability students had significantly greater reasoning gains when grouped homogeneously. These results support Piaget's developmental theory and contradict Vygotsky's developmental theory. These results also suggest that the success of one grouping strategy over another is highly dependent upon the nature of instruction, which may be a cause for such conflicting views on grouping strategies within the educational literature. In addition, inquiry instruction led to students having greater confidence in their reasoning ability as well as a more positive attitude toward collaboration. Instructional implications are discussed.

  4. Collapsible high gain antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cribb, H. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A lightweight small high gain antenna which is capable of being packaged in a collapsed form and automatically expanded when in use is described. The antenna includes a cylindrical housing having a rod with a piston adjacent to one end extending through it. Attached to the outer end of the rod in a normally collapsed state is a helical wire coil. When the gas producing means is activated the piston and rod are shifted outwardly to expand the wire coil. A latch is provided for holding the helical coil in the expanded position.

  5. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  6. Book Probes Scoring Gaps Tied to Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A recent book assembles a collection of studies on one of the great mysteries of contemporary American education: Why did national progress in narrowing the achievement gap separating African-American and white students stall from the late 1980s until 2004? "Steady Gains and Stalled Progress," published by the Russell Sage Foundation of New York…

  7. Early Weight Gain Predicts Outcome in Two Treatments for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Le Grange, Daniel; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Agras, Stewart; Bryson, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa, and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n=61) or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy (AFT) (n=60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up. Results Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (AUC = .670; p=.043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC=0.754, p=.014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square=3.692, df=1, p=.055). Conclusion Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. PMID:24190844

  8. The effects of tiered lessons on learning gain in a secondary freshmen earth science course, as measured by assessment performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Mary-Anne R. E.

    The purpose of this study was to examine one method of curriculum differentiation, tiered instruction, for effectiveness in improvement of academic achievement in a secondary science course. Generating the research question Q1: did the use of tiered instruction effect the degree of academic achievement of learners in a mixed ability classroom? The study was designed with seven classrooms of mid-range instruction as the control group and seven classrooms with the treatment, tiered instruction, with a total of 293 ninth grade students. The use of grouping of students for a unit of study based on their prior skills and subject background knowledge for instruction was most academically useful for the lower skill and background knowledge learners. The learners in the treatment group of those with lower background knowledge as a group achieved as well as the learners in the treatment group mid-range learners and better than the control group mid-range learners. The control group's lower background learners (C1) scores remained in the same score range on the post-instruction assessment. The higher background learners in both groups overall made equal gains. The higher background learners in the treatment group exhibited time management deficiencies as their curriculum demanded more independence than they were use to. This research demonstrates that significant achievement gains can occur when curriculum is differentiated according to the readiness level of the learners.

  9. Using the Learning Together Strategy to Affect Student Achievement in Physical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Manda D.

    Despite efforts mandated by national legislation, the state of Georgia has made little progress in improving Grade 5 students' standardized test scores in science, spurring the need for social change. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in the student achievement in the conceptual understanding of science concepts in a classroom where the teacher applied the cooperative learning strategy, Learning Together, as compared to the classroom in which teacher-directed instruction was applied. The theories of positive social interdependence and social development, which posit that social interaction promotes cognitive gains, provided a framework for the study. A convenience sample of 38 students in Grade 5 participated in the 6-week study. Nineteen students received the cooperative learning strategy treatment, while 19 students did not. Pre- and post-tests were administered to students in both groups, and an analysis of variance was performed to examine differences between the 2 sample means. Results indicated that the group receiving the cooperative learning strategy scored significantly higher than did the control group receiving direct instruction. The experimental group also scored higher in vocabulary acquisition. Using the cooperative learning strategy of Learning Together could guide teachers' efforts to help students achieve excellent state-mandated test scores. Learning Together may be employed as a powerful teaching tool across grade levels and content areas, thus promoting positive gains in other state-mandated testing areas such as math, language arts, and social studies.

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Arizona students showed mostly gains in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math, there were gains at all three achievement levels in grade 8 for these subgroups.…

  11. Gain and energy storage in holmium YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E.; Deyst, John P.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated that Q-switched holmium lasers are capable of high-gain and high-energy operation at 300 K. Small-signal gain coefficients of 0.50 and 0.12/cm have been measured in YLF and YAG, respectively. Small-signal gains of 0.50/cm are comparable to those achievable in Nd:YAG and are not typical of low-gain materials. This large gain in the Ho:YLF material is made possible by operating the amplifier in the ground state depletion mode. The amplifier performance data and associated analysis presented demonstrate that efficient energy storage is possible with very high excited state ion densities of the Ho 5I7 upper laser level. This is an important result since upconversion can limit the 5I7 population. Although upconversion was still present in this experiment, it was possible to achieve efficient energy storage, demonstrating that the problem is manageable even at high excitation densities in YLF.

  12. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2007-01-01

    The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by human…

  13. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  14. Automated sleep scoring and sleep apnea detection in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraglia, David P.; Berryman, Matthew J.; Coussens, Scott W.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kennedy, Declan; Martin, A. James; Abbott, Derek

    2005-12-01

    This paper investigates the automated detection of a patient's breathing rate and heart rate from their skin conductivity as well as sleep stage scoring and breathing event detection from their EEG. The software developed for these tasks is tested on data sets obtained from the sleep disorders unit at the Adelaide Women's and Children's Hospital. The sleep scoring and breathing event detection tasks used neural networks to achieve signal classification. The Fourier transform and the Higuchi fractal dimension were used to extract features for input to the neural network. The filtered skin conductivity appeared visually to bear a similarity to the breathing and heart rate signal, but a more detailed evaluation showed the relation was not consistent. Sleep stage classification was achieved with and accuracy of around 65% with some stages being accurately scored and others poorly scored. The two breathing events hypopnea and apnea were scored with varying degrees of accuracy with the highest scores being around 75% and 30%.

  15. Success For Kansas: Success For All Schools In Kansas Gain On KRA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Success for All Foundation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Kansas schools implementing the Success for All reading program once again made significant gains on the Kansas Reading Assessment. From 2001 to 2004, fifth graders in Success for All schools gained 19.9 percentage points in students scoring proficient or better on KRA. Other Kansas schools gained 7.8 percentage points.

  16. Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    The changing complexity of maxillofacial fractures in recent years has created a situation where classical systems of classification of maxillofacial injuries fall short of defining trauma particularly that observed with high-velocity collisions where more than one region of the maxillofacial skeleton is affected. Trauma scoring systems designed specifically for the maxillofacial region are aimed to provide a more accurate assessment of the injury, its prognosis, the possible treatment outcomes, economics, length of hospital stay, and triage. The evolution and logic of such systems along with their merits and demerits are discussed. The author also proposes a new system to aid users in quickly and methodically choosing the system best suited to their needs without having to study a plethora of literature available in order to isolate their choice. PMID:26971084

  17. Fingerprinting of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  18. Olympic Scoring of English Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; Panther, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)

  19. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  20. Evidence-Based Decision about Test Scoring Rules in Clinical Anatomy Multiple-Choice Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severo, Milton; Gaio, A. Rita; Povo, Ana; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2015-01-01

    In theory the formula scoring methods increase the reliability of multiple-choice tests in comparison with number-right scoring. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the formula scoring method in clinical anatomy multiple-choice examinations, and to compare it with that from the number-right scoring method, hoping to achieve an…

  1. Factors Affecting School District Performance Scores in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between District Performance Scores (DPS) in Louisiana and (a) socio-economic status of students, (b) academic achievement using average ACT scores, (c) percentage of certified teachers, (d) district class size, (e) per pupil expenditure, and (f) percentage of minority students in…

  2. Cochlear gain control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel

    2005-03-01

    The nonlinear auditory phenomena of compression, suppression, and distortion are known to have a cochlear-mechanical origin. An instantaneous nonlinear transfer function is often assumed to underlie these phenomena, but there are experimental indications that auditory nonlinearity is sluggish rather than instantaneous. This study analyzes the consequences of such sluggishness, using automatic gain control (AGC) as a model noninstantaneous nonlinearity. The distinctive characteristic of AGC, its delayed action, is shown to produce a number of observable and measurable effects that distinguish AGC from instantaneous nonlinearities. A major class of such AGC-specific effects concerns the phase of aural distortion products. For example, the phase of the cancellation tone in the classical psychoacoustic cancellation paradigm is linearly related to the frequency spacing of the primary tones in an AGC, as opposed to the square-law relationship produced by an instantaneous nonlinearity. These and other predictions are confronted with experimental data from the literature. The impact of putative AGC-related delays on the interpretation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) is discussed. Detailed suggestions are made for experiments specifically aimed at determining whether cochlear nonlinearity is instantaneous or delayed. .

  3. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy. PMID:10121318

  4. Acting to gain information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  5. On Comparing Transition Rate Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    This report is about the problem of making transition or enrollment rate gains comparable. It is shown that measures based on the proportions themselves, i.e. the difference between proportions, the proportion ratio and the residual gain ratio do not make the gains comparable. Instead a non-linear transformation has to be done. Two such…

  6. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  7. Airflow models gaining clout

    SciTech Connect

    Post, N.M.

    1994-10-10

    Move over, mock-ups. So long, smoke bombs. Take a walk, wind tunnels. Computational fluid dynamics, a spaceage simulation technique, is gaining velocity in the building community. And the design of inner spaces may never be the same. CFD is an equation-intensive computer modeling method that can simulate transient and steady-state airflow patterns and temperature gradients, indoors or out. CFD is used to downsize heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, locate air outlets, and in general, create spaces that offer creature comfort, provide quality air and use less energy. The method is good for new construction, retrofits and forensic work, for example to investigate a building fire or a contaminant. In a room, CFD helps engineers consider, over a period of time, the combined impacts of ventilation, size, shape, contents, weather, even fenestration. For its first decade or two, CFD stayed the near-exclusive domain of aerospace, defense and electronics. With few exceptions, the building community could not afford the supercomputers that were needed to run the tens of thousands of equations involved. However, in the past few years, thanks to the increasing power and decreasing cost of computers, CFD simulation became practical. Curtain wall designers are even using it, though not without some controversy. Indoor air quality specialists, smoke and fire-spread researchers, laboratory designers, energy engineers, code writers, architects, and plant and building engineers are uncharacteristically upbeat about the tool. {open_quotes}CFD modeling is so many light years ahead of design tools that exist,{close_quotes} says Mariano Rodriguez, director of research and development for architect The Hillier Group, Princeton, N.J. {open_quotes}It`s the next step up from a wind tunnel test, and you don`t need a $300,000 wind tunnel.{close_quotes}

  8. [Scoring systems in intensive care medicine : principles, models, application and limits].

    PubMed

    Fleig, V; Brenck, F; Wolff, M; Weigand, M A

    2011-10-01

    Scoring systems are used in all diagnostic areas of medicine. Several parameters are evaluated and rated with points according to their value in order to simplify a complex clinical situation with a score. The application ranges from the classification of disease severity through determining the number of staff for the intensive care unit (ICU) to the evaluation of new therapies under study conditions. Since the introduction of scoring systems in the 1980's a variety of different score models has been developed. The scoring systems that are employed in intensive care and are discussed in this article can be categorized into prognostic scores, expenses scores and disease-specific scores. Since the introduction of compulsory recording of two scoring systems for accounting in the German diagnosis-related groups (DRG) system, these tools have gained more importance for all intensive care physicians. Problems remain in the valid calculation of scores and interpretation of the results. PMID:21997474

  9. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  10. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  11. Is the California Special Education Achievement Gap Really Closing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn, Emilene Johnson

    2012-01-01

    The achievement gains of California students with disabilities (SWDs) on the California Standards Test (CST)-English Language Arts have surpassed the achievement gains of students with no reported disabilities in recent years, and so the special education achievement gap seemed to be closing. However, the reported achievement for SWDs has not…

  12. Resonator modes in high gain free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming ); Deacon, D.A.G. ); Madey, J.M.J. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-10-01

    When the gain in a free electron laser is high enough to produce optical guiding, the resonator mode distorts and loses its forward-backward symmetry. We show that the resonator mode in a high gain FEL can be easily constructed using the mode expansion technique taken separately in the interaction and the free-space regions. We propose design strategies to achieve maximal gain and optimal mode quality, and discuss the stability of the optimized mode. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Reducing Measurement Error in Student Achievement Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero; Gori, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The achievement level is a variable measured with error, that can be estimated by means of the Rasch model. Teacher grades also measure the achievement level but they are expressed on a different scale. This paper proposes a method for combining these two scores to obtain a synthetic measure of the achievement level based on the theory developed…

  14. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  15. A Topic-Independent Method for Scoring Student Essay Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Ryo; Kakegawa, Jun-Ichi; Yabuta, Yukiko

    This paper proposes a topic-independent method for automatically scoring essay content. Unlike conventional topic-dependent methods, it predicts the human-assigned score of a given essay without training essays written to the same topic as the target essay. To achieve this, this paper introduces a new measure called MIDF that measures how important and relevant a word is in a given essay. The proposed method predicts the score relying on the distribution of MIDF. Surprisingly, experiments show that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 0.848 and performs as well as or even better than conventional topic-dependent methods.

  16. emGain: Determination of EM gain of CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the EM gain of the CCD is best done by fitting the histogram of many low-light frames. Typically, the dark+CIC noise of a 30ms frame itself is a sufficient amount of signal to determine accurately the EM gain with about 200 512x512 frames. The IDL code emGain takes as an input a cube of frames and fit the histogram of all the pixels with the EM stage output probability function. The function returns the EM gain of the frames as well as the read-out noise and the mean signal level of the frames.

  17. Rigor and academic achievement: Career academies versus traditional class structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyees, Linda L.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students who attended high school Career Academy classes, as part of Career and Technical Education, showed greater academic achievement than students who attended traditional high school classes. While all participants attended schools in the same school district, and were seeking the same goal of graduation with a standard diploma, the Career Academy students had the benefit of all classes being directed by a team of teachers who helped them connect their learning to their desired career through collaborative learning projects and assignments. The traditional high school classes taught each subject independent of other subjects and did not have specific connections to desired career goals of the students. The study used a causal-comparative research design and the participants included 1,142 students from 11th and 12th grades who attended 9 high schools in a diversely populated area of central Florida with 571 enrolled in the Career Academies and 571 enrolled in traditional classes. The 10th-grade FCAT scores served as the dependent variable. All students attended similar classes with similar content, making the primary variable the difference in academic gains between students participating in the Career Academy design and the traditional design classes. Using the Man-Whitney U Test resulted in the Career Academy group achieving the higher scores overall. This resulted in rejection of the first null-hypothesis. Further examination determined that the 10th-grade FCAT scores were greater for the average students group, which comprised the largest portion of the participant group, also resulted in rejection of the second null-hypothesis. The gifted and at-risk student group scores resulted in failure to reject the third and fourth null-hypotheses.

  18. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the effects of field dependence/independence and the level of operational development on the mathematics achievement of 450 students in grades 6-8. Field-independent students scored significantly higher on total mathematics, concepts, and problem-solving tests. High-operational students scored significantly higher on all tests.…

  19. Relationships between attitude and achievement among college biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Harold E.; Simpson, Ronald D.

    The purposes of this study were to (1) study changes in attitude toward science, school, and academic self among college biology students, and (2) to examine relationships between attitudes and achievement in an introductory college course in biology. The three attitude variables were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. Each of the three constructs was measured by the semantic differential and one additional instrument. One cognitive measure, biology achievement, was taken at the beginning and end of the study. This was accomplished by using the Nelson Biology Test. Another cognitive measure, grade in the course, as given by the instructor, was recorded at the end of the course. Normative data and correlation coefficients among pre- and postadministrations were calculated for each institution and the composite sample as well. An analysis of variance showed that while gains in scores on the Nelson Biology Test were significant beyond the 0.01 level of probability, changes in attitude scores were not. Correlations were calculated between the attitude and cognitive variables in this study. Relationships between academic self-concept and achievement in biology were the strongest. Data from this study show that while student cognitive behavior was changed during an introductory college biology course, selected attitudes either stayed the same or became slightly more negative. Affective as well as cognitive gains would appear to be desirable goals in college courses. As we learn more about relationships that exist between cognition and affect, science educators at all levels will become better equipped to improve learning in science.

  20. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  1. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  2. Five Standards and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, R. William; Hilberg, R. Soleste; Pinal, America; Tharp, Roland G.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examine the influence of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy on student achievement gains. Participants were 15 teachers and 266 students (grades 3 to 5) in a public elementary school serving predominantly low-income Latino English Language Learners (ELLs). Implications for teaching practice and research are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  3. Detecting Sudden Gains during Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: Cautions from a Monte Carlo Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden gains are relatively large, quick, stable drops in symptom scores during treatment of depression that may (or may not) signal important therapeutic events. We review what is known and unknown currently about the prevalence, causes, and outcomes of sudden gains. We argue that valid identification of sudden gains (vs. random fluctuations in symptoms and gradual gains) is prerequisite to their understanding. In Monte Carlo simulations, three popular criterion sets showed inadequate power to detect sudden gains and many false positives due to (a) testing multiple intervals for sudden gains, (b) finite retest reliability of symptom measures, and (c) failure to account for gradual gains. Sudden gains in published clinical datasets appear similar in form and frequency to false positives in the simulations. We discuss the need to develop psychometrically sound methods to detect sudden gains and to differentiate sudden from random and gradual gains. PMID:26478724

  4. Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the behaviors sampled, test administration, scoring, norms, reliability, and validity of the Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS), an individually administered test that measures skill development in reading, mathematics, spelling, and writing. (BL)

  5. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between automated essay scoring (AES) and human scoring in order to determine the validity and usefulness of AES for large-scale placement tests. Specifically, a correlational research design was used to examine the correlations between AES performance and human raters' performance.…

  6. Using SAT scores to identify students at risk in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, J.

    2006-12-01

    Our previous research has shown a strong correlation between individual students’ pre-instruction scores on Lawson’s Test of Reasoning Ability and their normalized gains on the FCI. These results have been replicated by researchers at Edward Little High School in Maine, at the University of Colorado, and at the University of Central Florida. We now find that SAT scores also provide a strong correlation with FCI gains. The advantage of using SAT scores is that one does not have to administer another test; these scores are usually readily available through the registrar’s office.

  7. Gain-assisted transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Han, Tiancheng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hao, Jiaming; Tang, Xiaohong; Zouhdi, Said

    2011-04-25

    Loss severely degrades the cloaking effect of the device designed by traditional transformation. In this letter, we propose gain-assisted transformation optics to overcome the loss problem by introducing gain media into a spherical cloak. The gain media, which can amplify the electromagnetic fields, is controlled precisely to compensate the inherent loss in experimental realization of cloaks. We discuss the significance of controlling embedded gain materials in the context of the inverse design mechanism, which allows us to wisely select realizable materials with constant gain and loss along the radius. For practical realizations, isotropic spherical gain-assisted cloak is designed. Full-wave simulations validate the proposed design concept, which can be utilized to alleviate the inevitable loss problem in transformational optical devices. PMID:21643112

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased at grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than…

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test…

  10. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 8 reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than on NAEP in…

  11. A novel score predicting PEG placement in ICH – the GRAVo score

    PubMed Central

    Faigle, Roland; Marsh, Elisabeth B.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Urrutia, Victor C.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dysphagia after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) contributes significantly to morbidity, often necessitating placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. This study describes a novel risk prediction score for PEG placement after ICH. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 234 ICH patients presenting during a 4-year period. One hundred and eighty nine patients met inclusion criteria. The sample was randomly divided into a development and a validation cohort. Logistic regression was used to develop a risk score by weighting predictors of PEG placement based on strength of association. Results Age (OR 1.64 per 10 years increase in age, 95% CI 1.02–2.65), African American race (OR 3.26, 95% CI 0.96–11.05), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.62–1.03), and ICH volume (OR 1.38 per 10 cc increase in ICH volume) were independent predictors of PEG placement. The final model for score development achieved an AUC of 0.7911 (95% CI 0.6931–0.8892) in the validation group. The score was named the GRAVo score: GCS ≤12 (2 points), Race (1 point for African-American), Age >50 years (2 points), and ICH Volume >30 cc (1 point). A score >4 was associated with nearly 12 times higher odds of PEG placement compared to a score ≤4 (OR 11.81, 95% CI 5.04–27.66), predicting PEG placement with 46.55% sensitivity and 93.13% specificity. Conclusion The GRAVo score, combining information about GCS, race, age, and ICH volume, may be a useful predictor of PEG placement in ICH patients. PMID:25468881

  12. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  13. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  14. Improving Test Scores. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    What strategies can improve test scores? According to research done by Amrein and Berliner, who studied 18 states with high stakes testing, their conclusion was that students did not necessarily score higher and often remained at the same level prior to the introduction of the high stakes testing. In other research done by Carnoy and Loeb, their…

  15. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227, which…

  16. Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

  17. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions. PMID:25647463

  18. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  19. High Scores but Low Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

  20. Do We Really Become Smarter When Our Fluid-Intelligence Test Scores Improve?

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Taylor R.; Petrov, Alexander A.; Sederberg, Per B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports of training-induced gains on fluid intelligence tests have fueled an explosion of interest in cognitive training—now a billion-dollar industry. The interpretation of these results is questionable because score gains can be dominated by factors that play marginal roles in the scores themselves, and because intelligence gain is not the only possible explanation for the observed control-adjusted far transfer across tasks. Here we present novel evidence that the test score gains used to measure the efficacy of cognitive training may reflect strategy refinement instead of intelligence gains. A novel scanpath analysis of eye movement data from 35 participants solving Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices on two separate sessions indicated that one-third of the variance of score gains could be attributed to test-taking strategy alone, as revealed by characteristic changes in eye-fixation patterns. When the strategic contaminant was partialled out, the residual score gains were no longer significant. These results are compatible with established theories of skill acquisition suggesting that procedural knowledge tacitly acquired during training can later be utilized at posttest. Our novel method and result both underline a reason to be wary of purported intelligence gains, but also provide a way forward for testing for them in the future. PMID:25395695

  1. Transiency, Test Scores, and the Public: One School District's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Research documents that transient students who change schools frequently oftensuffer from low academic achievement. This article investigates standardized group measures by disentangling elementary achievement scores. Located in a highly transient area outside of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Main Street School had their fifth grade Pennsylvania…

  2. Computer algorithm for coding gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

  3. Optical gain by a simple photoisomerization process.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Gómez, Francisco; del Monte, Francisco; Meerholz, Klaus

    2008-06-01

    Organic holographic materials are pursued as versatile and cheap data-storage materials. It is generally assumed that under steady-state conditions, only photorefractive holographic media exhibit a non-local response to a light-intensity pattern, which results in an asymmetric two-beam coupling or 'gain', where intensity is transferred from one beam to the other as a measure of writing efficiency. Here, we demonstrate non-local holographic recording in a non-photorefractive material. We demonstrate that reversible photoisomerization gratings recorded in a non-photorefractive azo-based material exhibit large optical gain coefficients beyond 1,000 cm(-1), even for polarization gratings. The grating characteristics differ markedly from classical photorefractive features, but can be modelled by considering the influence of the Poynting vector on the photoisomerization. The external control of the Poynting vector enables manipulation of the gain coefficient, including its sign (the direction of energy exchange), a novel phenomenon we refer to as 'gain steering'. A very high sensitivity of about 100 cm(2) J(-1) was achieved. This high sensitivity, combined with a high spatial resolution, suggests a great technical advantage for applications in image processing and phase conjugation. PMID:18454152

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Arkansas showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. The gains were quite large in most instances, especially at the…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Connecticut students showed gains across the board in math--at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In reading, there were gains at the basic and proficient levels, but a slight…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Colorado students showed gains in reading at the proficient level for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were slight declines or flat trends for almost all subgroups at the advanced level in reading. In math, gains were…

  7. Gain beyond cosmesis: Demonstration of psychosocial and functional gains following successful strabismus surgery using the adult strabismus questionnaire adult strabismus 20

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Danish; Khan, Adeeb Alam; Bani, Sadat AO; Sharma, Richa; Amitava, Abadan K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Strabismus adversely affects psychosocial and functional aspects; while its correction impacts positively. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the gains in scores: Overall scores (OASs), psychosocial subscale scores (PSSs) and functional subscale scores (FSSs) following successful surgical alignment. Settings and Design: We evaluated changed scores in the adult strabismus 20 (AS-20) questionnaire, administered before and after successful surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty adults horizontal strabismics, were administered the AS-20, at baseline, and at 6-week and 3-month. Group-wise analysis was carried out based on gender, strabismus type (esotropia [ET] or exotropia [XT]), back-ground and amblyopia. Statistical Analysis: We used Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences within the groups, except that those with amblyopia significantly scored less than nonamblyopes in OAS (median scores: 53.8 vs. 71.3; P = 0.009) and FSS (56.3 vs. 85.3; P = 0.009). OAS, PSS and FSS showed significant gains at 6-week and 3-month (all Wilcoxon P < 0.001). Compared with males, females showed significantly more gain at 3-month (OAS: 37.9 vs. 28.7; P = 0.02), on account of PSS gain (49.6 vs. 37.5; P = 0.01). The ET performed better than XT only on the FSS at 6-week (28.7 vs. 15.0; P = 0.02). Vis-à-vis the nonamblyopes, the amblyopes showed significantly more benefit at 6-week alone (OAS: 18.7 vs. 28.7; P = 0.04), largely due to gains in PSS. Conclusions: Successful strabismus surgery has demonstrated significant gains in psychosocial, functional and overall functions. There is some evidence that gains may be more in females; with a trend to better outcomes in ET and amblyopes up to 6-week. PMID:25116774

  8. Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALGains): An Online Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gayle; Atwong, Catherine; Fuller, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALGains) is a Web-based instrument for measuring student perception of their learning in a variety of courses. The authors adapted this instrument to measure students' achieved proficiency in analyzing cases in an advanced business communication class. The instrument showed that students did achieve a high…

  9. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly. PMID:26189011

  10. Hybrid optical antenna with high directivity gain.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Mohseni, Hooman

    2013-08-01

    Coupling of a far-field optical mode to electronic states of a quantum absorber or emitter is a crucial process in many applications, including infrared sensors, single molecule spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. In particular, achieving high quantum efficiency for a system with a deep subwavelength quantum absorber/emitter has remained desirable. In this Letter, a hybrid optical antenna based on coupling of a photonic nanojet to a metallo-dielectric antenna is proposed, which allows such efficient coupling. A quantum efficiency of about 50% is predicted for a semiconductor with volume of ~λ³/170. Despite the weak optical absorption coefficient of 2000 cm(-1) in the long infrared wavelength of ~8 μm, very strong far-field coupling has been achieved, as evidenced by an axial directivity gain of 16 dB, which is only 3 dB below of theoretical limit. Unlike the common phased array antenna, this structure does not require coherent sources to achieve a high directivity. The quantum efficiency and directivity gain are more than an order of magnitude higher than existing metallic, dielectric, or metallo-dielectric optical antenna. PMID:23903124

  11. Reading Ages and Standardized Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookbinder, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of and objections to testing children's reading ages and recommends that test results be given for both reading age and percentile levels (rather than standardized scores). (JM)

  12. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  13. Image scoring and cooperation in a cleaner fish mutualism.

    PubMed

    Bshary, Redouan; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2006-06-22

    Humans are highly social animals and often help unrelated individuals that may never reciprocate the altruist's favour. This apparent evolutionary puzzle may be explained by the altruist's gain in social image: image-scoring bystanders, also known as eavesdroppers, notice the altruistic act and therefore are more likely to help the altruist in the future. Such complex indirect reciprocity based on altruistic acts may evolve only after simple indirect reciprocity has been established, which requires two steps. First, image scoring evolves when bystanders gain personal benefits from information gathered, for example, by finding cooperative partners. Second, altruistic behaviour in the presence of such bystanders may evolve if altruists benefit from access to the bystanders. Here, we provide experimental evidence for both of the requirements in a cleaning mutualism involving the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. These cleaners may cooperate and remove ectoparasites from clients or they may cheat by feeding on client mucus. As mucus may be preferred over typical client ectoparasites, clients must make cleaners feed against their preference to obtain a cooperative service. We found that eavesdropping clients spent more time next to 'cooperative' than 'unknown cooperative level' cleaners, which shows that clients engage in image-scoring behaviour. Furthermore, trained cleaners learned to feed more cooperatively when in an 'image-scoring' than in a 'non-image-scoring' situation. PMID:16791194

  14. Associations of maternal weight gain in pregnancy with offspring cognition in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Gage, Suzanne H; Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail

    2013-03-01

    An association of gestational weight gain (GWG) with offspring cognition has been postulated. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a United Kingdom prospective cohort (1990 through the present) with a median of 10 maternal weight measurements in pregnancy. These were used to allocate participants to 2009 Institute of Medicine weight-gain categories and in random effect linear spline models. Outcomes were School Entry Assessment score (age, 4 years; n = 5,832), standardized intelligence quotient assessed by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (age, 8 years; n = 5,191), and school final-examination results (age, 16 years; n = 7,339). Offspring of women who gained less weight than recommended had a 0.075 standard deviation lower mean School Entry Assessment score (95% confidence interval: -0.127, -0.023) and were less likely to achieve adequate final-examination results (odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.99) compared with offspring of women who gained as recommended. GWG in early pregnancy (defined as 0-18 weeks on the basis of a knot point at 18 weeks) and midpregnancy (defined as 18-28 weeks on the basis of knot points at 18 and 28 weeks) was positively associated with School Entry Assessment score and intelligence quotient. GWG in late pregnancy (defined as 28 weeks onward on the basis of a knot point at 28 weeks) was positively associated with offspring intelligence quotient and with increased odds of offspring achieving adequate final-examination results in mothers who were overweight prepregnancy. Findings support small positive associations between GWG and offspring cognitive development, which may have lasting effects on educational attainment up to age 16 years. PMID:23388581

  15. Gaining approval for clinical research.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Vanessa; Srinivasan, Neil; Lambiase, Pier

    2016-07-01

    Set-up and delivery of a clinical research project can be complicated and difficult. This article introduces the regulatory processes involved in gaining approval for clinical research and discusses the obstacles that may be encountered. PMID:27388381

  16. Modal Analysis and Gain Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Interactive program yields eigenvectors, eigenvalues, and gains for feedback-control systems. Interactive Modal Analysis and Gain Estimation System (IMAGES) provides eigensystem synthesis capability to control-system engineer. IMAGES modular and flexible. Capable of both modal and spectral synthesis of multi-input control systems. IMAGES user-oriented, interactive program that frees engineer to concentrate on eigensystem synthesis. Engineer provided with scratch-pad capability that speeds control-system design.

  17. Intracavity gain shaping in millijoule-level, high gain Ho:YLF regenerative amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Murari, Krishna; Cankaya, Huseyin; Kroetz, Peter; Cirmi, Giovanni; Li, Peng; Ruehl, Axel; Hartl, Ingmar; Kärtner, Franz X

    2016-03-15

    We demonstrate intracavity gain shaping inside a 2 μm Ho:YLF regenerative amplifier with a spectral bandwidth of 2.9 nm broadened to 5.4 nm, corresponding to Fourier-limited pulses of 1 ps duration. The intracavity gain shaping is achieved by using a simple etalon, which acts as a frequency-selective filter. The output of the regenerative amplifier is amplified by a single-pass amplifier, and we achieve total energy of 2.2 mJ and pulse duration of 2.4 ps at 1 kHz with pulse fluctuations <1%. The amplifier chain is seeded by a home-built mode-locked holmium-doped fiber oscillator. PMID:26977647

  18. Depressive Symptoms in 3rd Grade Teachers: Relations to Classroom Quality and Student Achievement

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Leigh; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated associations among third grade teachers’ (n = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students’ (n = 523, mean age 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. Teachers’ depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students’ spring mathematics achievement. This depended on students’ fall mathematics scores; students who began the year with weaker math skills and were in classrooms where teachers reported more depressive symptoms achieved smaller gains than did peers whose teachers reported fewer symptoms. Teachers’ depressive symptoms were negatively associated with quality of CLE, and quality of CLE mediated the association between depressive symptoms and student achievement. Findings point to the importance of teachers’ mental health, with implications for policy and practice. PMID:25676719

  19. Depressive symptoms in third-grade teachers: relations to classroom quality and student achievement.

    PubMed

    McLean, Leigh; McDonald Connor, Carol

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated associations among third-grade teachers' (N = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students' (N = 523, Mage  = 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. teachers' depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students' spring mathematics achievement. This depended on students' fall mathematics scores; students who began the year with weaker math skills and were in classrooms where teachers reported more depressive symptoms achieved smaller gains than did peers whose teachers reported fewer symptoms. teachers' depressive symptoms were negatively associated with quality of CLE, and quality of CLE mediated the association between depressive symptoms and student achievement. The findings point to the importance of teachers' mental health, with implications for policy and practice. PMID:25676719

  20. Releasing resources for reinvestment in health gain.

    PubMed

    Riley, C D; Warner, M M; Simpson, D; Felvus, J

    1992-01-01

    The National Health Services in Wales has adopted a strategic approach based on health gain. Five approaches to meeting this problem are considered (i) eliminating basic inefficiencies; (ii) eliminating unnecessary clinical activity; (iii) doing what is done now but differently; (iv) investing now to save later and (v) withdrawing from a particular area of activity, because it is less important than other competing claims. Each of these is briefly considered with particular reference to the Welsh situation. Three particular lines of advance are identified to achieve the above: creating new sources of information; working more effectively across organisational boundaries; and making the cultural changes to make it all possible. PMID:10166349

  1. Many Endowments Score Gains as States Weigh a Settlement with Tobacco Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Joye

    1997-01-01

    Settlement of tobacco company lawsuits, currently in litigation in 22 states, would benefit college and universities holding tobacco company stock in their endowments. A number of institutions are considering divesting such stock for ethical reasons, but at most institutions the political immediacy of the issue is not great. (MSE)

  2. Estimates of the gain in power utilizing transformations of DMFS scores.

    PubMed

    Smith, M R; Rule, J T

    1983-09-01

    More than 100,000 clinical caries trials were simulated utilizing the negative binomial distribution on a UNIVAC 1100 computer. In each trial, the raw data and logarithmic transformed data were analyzed using a standard t test analysis. The results were summarized as estimates of the power functions for each case. In almost all cases, the transformed data gave greater power than did the untransformed data. In several common situations, the differences were dramatic. PMID:6576006

  3. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1984-01-01

    This developmental study was designed to examine the effects of field dependence-independence and level of operational development on the reading achievement of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Field dependence-independence had no significant effect on reading achievement, but high-operational students scored significantly higher than…

  4. Professional Learning Communities Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jan L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the Professional Learning Community model on student achievement in the state of California. Specifically, the study compared student achievement between two school types: Professional Learning Community schools and Non Professional Learning schools. The research utilized existing API scores for California schools…

  5. Maryland's Achievements in Public Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents Maryland's achievements in public education for 2011. Maryland's achievements include: (1) Maryland's public schools again ranked #1 in the nation in Education Week's 2011 Quality Counts annual report; (2) Maryland ranked 1st nationwide for a 3rd year in a row in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on…

  6. Differential Gains in Oral Proficiency during Study Abroad: The Role of Language Learning Aptitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sheri Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This inquiry analyzed the relationships between individual differences and gains made in oral proficiency of adult, second language learners of Spanish during one semester studying abroad. Oral proficiency was measured using a pre/post-SA Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument (COPI, CAL, 2009). Gain scores were correlated with two cognitive…

  7. Success For Mississippi: Success for All Schools in Mississippi Gain on MCT-Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Success for All Foundation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Mississippi elementary schools using the Success for All reading program have once again made outstanding gains on the Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT) reading scale. Students in grades 2-5 in Success for All schools gained 7.8 percentage points in students scoring at proficient or advanced from 2002 to 2004. Mississippi students as a whole…

  8. An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control with high gain step accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaofeng, He; Taishan, Mo; Chengyan, Ma; Tianchun, Ye

    2012-02-01

    An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control (AGC) with high gain step accuracy for the GNSS receiver is presented. The amplitude of an AGC is configurable in order to cooperate with baseband chips to achieve interference suppression and be compatible with different full range ADCs. And what's more, the gain-boosting technology is introduced and the circuit is improved to increase the step accuracy. A zero, which is composed by the source feedback resistance and the source capacity, is introduced to compensate for the pole. The AGC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The AGC shows a 62 dB gain control range by 1 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.2 dB. The AGC provides 3 dB bandwidth larger than 80 MHz and the overall power consumption is less than 1.8 mA, and the die area is 800 × 300 μm2.

  9. Comparing Propensity Score Methods in Balancing Covariates and Recovering Impact in Small Sample Educational Program Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Clement A.; Tang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score applications are often used to evaluate educational program impact. However, various options are available to estimate both propensity scores and construct comparison groups. This study used a student achievement dataset with commonly available covariates to compare different propensity scoring estimation methods (logistic…

  10. Abstract: An International Comparison of Private and Public Schools Using Multilevel Propensity Score Methods and Graphics.

    PubMed

    Bryer, Jason M; Pruzek, Robert M

    2011-11-30

    As can be seen from the recent Special Issue of MBR on propensity score analysis (PSA) methods, the use of PSA has gained increasing popularity for estimating causal effects in observational studies. However, PSA use with multilevel or clustered data has been limited, and to date there seems to have been no development of specialized graphics for such data. This paper introduces the multilevelPSA ( http://multilevelPSA.r-forge.r-project.org ) package for R that provides cluster-based functions for estimating propensity scores as well as graphics to exhibit results for multilevel data. This work extends to the multilevel case the framework for visualizing propensity score analysis introduced by Helmreich and Pruzek (2009). International data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2009) are comprehensively examined to compare private with public schools on reading, mathematics, and science outcomes after adjusting for covariate differences in the multilevel context. Particularly for analyses of large data sets, focusing on statistical significance is limiting. As can readily be seen, overall results favor "private" over "public" schools, at least for end of secondary school math achievement. But the graphics provide a more nuanced understanding of the nature and magnitude of adjusted differences for countries. Furthermore, the graphics are readily interpreted by a nontechnical audience. Broadly speaking, it is seen that modern graphics can enhance and extend conventional numerical summaries by focusing on details of what data have to say for multilevel comparisons of many countries based on propensity score methods. PMID:26736126

  11. The impact of three instructional styles of teaching physics on students' achievement and attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Arfaj, Maher Mohammed

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of three instructional styles (traditional teaching, problem-based instruction, and teaching by demonstration) of teaching physics on students' attitudes and achievement. The sample consisted of 106 Saudi students in three physics classes in the second semester of the academic year 1998--1999. Three instruments were used in collecting the data for both quantitative and qualitative parts of the study. For the quantitative part, the researcher developed and pilot tested a 35-item questionnaire with versions to measure students' attitudes before the start of the experiment and then to measure students' attitudes toward the method of teaching. In addition, the researcher developed a 12-item achievement test to measure students gain scores which was administered at the beginning and the end of the treatment. For the qualitative part, the researcher constructed an interview guide consisting of five-open ended questions. The questions were geared to discover students' attitudes toward the implemented instructional style, and if this instructional style assisted them to acquire a good understanding of the studied unit. In the quantitative part, the results showed a significant correlation between students' attitudes toward the method of teaching and their achievement on the posttests. Furthermore, the findings from the one-way ANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference among the three groups in terms of achievement. The mean of achievement gain scores was highest for the problem-based group, followed by the group that was taught by demonstration, and then the traditional teaching group. The findings from the ANOVA indicated that there was also no significant difference between the three groups in terms of attitudes. In the qualitative part, the answers of the five questions revealed four themes: attitudes toward the method of teaching, reasons for liking or disliking the method of teaching, methods of

  12. Diverse women's beliefs about weight gain in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Groth, Susan W; Kearney, Margaret H

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to describe ethnically diverse new mothers' perceptions of gestational weight gain. Forty-nine low-income women of diverse racial and ethnic origins who birthed an infant within the past year completed a semistructured interview in a pediatric clinic waiting room. The interviews were designed to elicit views on gestational weight gain, including expectations and perceived consequences. Data were analyzed using content analysis techniques. Women believed that others like themselves were concerned about pregnancy weight gain. Many focused on the effects of insufficient pregnancy weight gain on the infant but were not aware of the infant risks of excessive gain. Several had inaccurate knowledge of appropriate gestational weight gain, and many suggested an amount below the current recommendations. One-third of the women believed women will weigh more following pregnancy, yet others assumed that even with excessive weight gain there would be a return to prepregnant weight following pregnancy. Pregnancy-related weight gain is disturbing to women. Health care providers have the opportunity to intervene by acknowledging these concerns and providing information and support to help women make positive choices and achieve appropriate weight gain. PMID:19879517

  13. Can Score Databanks Help Teaching?

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alessandro; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2011-01-01

    Background Basic courses in most medical schools assess students' performance by conferring scores. The objective of this work is to use a large score databank for the early identification of students with low performance and to identify course trends based on the mean of students' grades. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied scores from 2,398 medical students registered in courses over a period of 10 years. Students in the first semester were grouped into those whose ratings remained in the lower quartile in two or more courses (low-performance) and students who had up to one course in the lower quartile (high-performance). ROC curves were built, aimed at the identification of a cut-off average score in the first semesters that would be able to predict low performances in future semesters. Moreover, to follow the long-term pattern of each course, the mean of all scores conferred in a semester was compared to the overall course mean obtained by averaging 10 years of data. Individuals in the low-performance group had a higher risk of being in the lower quartile of at least one course in the second semester (relative risk 3.907; 95% CI: 3.378–4.519) and in the eighth semester (relative risk 2.873; 95% CI: 2.495–3.308). The prediction analysis revealed that an average score of 7.188 in the first semester could identify students that presented scores below the lower quartiles in both the second and eighth semesters (p<0.0001 for both AUC). When scores conferred by single courses were compared over time, three time-trend patterns emerged: low variation, upward trend and erratic pattern. Conclusion/Significance An early identification of students with low performance may be useful in promoting pedagogical strategies for these individuals. Evaluation of the time trend of scores conferred by courses may help departments monitoring changes in personnel and methodology that may affect a student's performance. PMID:21246033

  14. [Trauma scores: reproducibility and reliability].

    PubMed

    Waydhas, C; Nast-Kolb, D; Trupka, A; Kerim-Sade, C; Kanz, G; Zoller, J; Schweiberer, L

    1992-02-01

    The inter-rater reliability of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Polytraumaschlüssel (PTS) [multiple trauma code] was studied using diagnosis sheets filled in for 107 multiple injured patients. The scoring was performed by eight physicians with different levels of qualification. The scores for individual patients varied widely depending on the scorer, with extremes differing from the mean by about 80% and 70% for the ISS and PTS, respectively. The mean ISS and PTS for the whole study population also varied significantly between the scorers (P less than 0.0001, one-way analysis of variance). Raters with experience in trauma scoring calculated significantly higher scores (P less than 0.01, t-test) Neither the ISS nor the PTS seem reliable enough to describe injury severity in an individual patient. Treatment decisions must not be based on such grounds. Even for larger groups, caution must be exercised in comparison of different populations of multiple traumatized patients. PMID:1570531

  15. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  16. Physics First: Impact on SAT Math Scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Craig E.

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a national priority and the call to modernize secondary science has been heard. A Physics First (PF) program with the curriculum sequence of physics, chemistry, and biology (PCB) driven by inquiry- and project-based learning offers a viable alternative to the traditional curricular sequence (BCP) and methods of teaching, but requires more empirical evidence. This study determined impact of a PF program (PF-PCB) on math achievement (SAT math scores) after the first two cohorts of students completed the PF-PCB program at Matteo Ricci High School (MRHS) and provided more quantitative data to inform the PF debate and advance secondary science education. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) determined the influence of covariates and revealed that PF-PCB program had a significant (p < .05) impact on SAT math scores in the second cohort at MRHS. Statistically adjusted, the SAT math means for PF students were 21.4 points higher than their non-PF counterparts when controlling for prior math achievement (HSTP math), socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity/race.

  17. Gain lever characterization in monolithically integrated diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocha, Michael; Bond, Tiziana; Welty, Rebecca; Vernon, Stephen; Kallman, Jeffrey; Behymer, Elaine

    2005-04-01

    Gain Lever, an effect for enhancing amplitude modulation (AM) efficiency in multisection laser diodes1, has been characterized in InGaAs DQW edge emitting lasers that are integrated with passive waveguides. Specifically designed structures which give a range of split ratios from 1:1 to 9:1 have been fabricated and measured to fully characterize the parameter space for operation in the gain lever mode. Additionally the experimental results are compared to a hybrid 3-D simulation involving effective index method (EIM) reduction to 2-D. Gains greater than 6 dB in the AM efficiency can be achieved within the appropriate operating range, but this gain drops rapidly as the parameter range is exceeded. High speed RF modulation with significant gain is, in principle, possible if proper biasing and modulation conditions are used. This phenomenon can also be useful for high-speed digital information transmission.

  18. The Effects of White Boards on Student Achievement in Fourth Grade Mathematics as Measures on the Palmetto Achievement Test (PACT) at Selected Schools in North Central South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Tanya Lighty

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of interactive Whiteboard technology in mathematics class could improve student achievement as measured by scores achieved on the South Carolina State Palmetto Achievement Test (PACT). The study examined fourth grade mathematics achievement test scores for students whose teachers used…

  19. Gender Differences, Especially on Fifty College Board Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.; Stumpf, Heinrich

    In a follow-up to findings published by H. Stumpf and J. Stanley (1996), the gender-related differences in enrollment in and scores on the College Board Achievement (SAT II) and Advanced Placement (AP) tests were studied. Differences in scores turned out to be rather stable from 1982 (for the Achievement tests) and 1984 (for the AP tests) through…

  20. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  1. High current gain transistor laser.

    PubMed

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge. PMID:27282466

  2. High current gain transistor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge.

  3. High current gain transistor laser

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge. PMID:27282466

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), California students made gains across the board in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math, there were some declines at the basic achievement level. In terms of…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Michigan showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Massachusetts, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Massachusetts for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Massachusetts showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low…

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Florida students showed gains almost across the board in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Progress has been made in narrowing achievement gaps in both…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kentucky, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kentucky for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kentucky showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls.…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New Mexico showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups and low-income students. Progress in narrowing achievement gaps at grades 4, 8,…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Missouri showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Pennsylvania showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and boys and girls. Achievement gaps generally narrowed at grades 4 and 8 but…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Alabama students showed gains across the board in reading and math--at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Progress was made in narrowing achievement gaps between racial/ethnic…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Texas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Texas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Texas showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Illinois students showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There was mixed progress made in narrowing achievement gaps in reading and math…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Rhode Island showed gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for most racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and boys and girls. Achievement gaps between students narrowed in most cases at grades 4 and 8.…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New York showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major subgroups with just a few exceptions. Achievement gaps in reading and math also narrowed at grades 4 and 8 for most…

  20. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  1. A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…

  2. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  3. Electronic Scoring of Essays: Does Topic Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    The scoring of student essays by computer has generated much debate and subsequent research. The majority of the research thus far has focused on validating the automated scoring tools by comparing the electronic scores to human scores of writing or other measures of writing skills, and exploring the predictive validity of the automated scores.…

  4. Optimal Gain Filter Design for Perceptual Acoustic Echo Suppressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kihyeon; Ko, Hanseok

    This Letter proposes an optimal gain filter for the perceptual acoustic echo suppressor. We designed an optimally-modified log-spectral amplitude estimation algorithm for the gain filter in order to achieve robust suppression of echo and noise. A new parameter including information about interferences (echo and noise) of single-talk duration is statistically analyzed, and then the speech absence probability and the a posteriori SNR are judiciously estimated to determine the optimal solution. The experiments show that the proposed gain filter attains a significantly improved reduction of echo and noise with less speech distortion.

  5. LPV Controller Interpolation for Improved Gain-Scheduling Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new gain-scheduling control design approach is proposed by combining LPV (linear parameter-varying) control theory with interpolation techniques. The improvement of gain-scheduled controllers can be achieved from local synthesis of Lyapunov functions and continuous construction of a global Lyapunov function by interpolation. It has been shown that this combined LPV control design scheme is capable of improving closed-loop performance derived from local performance improvement. The gain of the LPV controller will also change continuously across parameter space. The advantages of the newly proposed LPV control is demonstrated through a detailed AMB controller design example.

  6. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

  7. Examining alternative scoring rubrics on a statewide test: The impact of different scoring methods on science and social studies performance assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creighton, Susan Dabney

    There is no consensus regarding the most reliable and valid scoring methods for the assessment of higher order thinking skills. Most of the research on alternative formats has focused on the scoring of writing ability. This study examined the value of different types of performance assessment scoring guides on state mandated science and social studies tests. A proportional stratified sample of raters were randomly assigned to one of four scoring groups: checklist, analytic rubric, holistic rubric, and generic rubrics. A fifth method, the weighted analytic rubric, was included by applying an algorithmic formula to the scores assigned by raters using the analytic rubric. A comparison of the mean scores for the five scoring groups suggests that there may be a difference in the way raters applied the rubric for each group. Although the literature suggests that it is possible to achieve high levels of inter-rater reliability, across forms of scoring, phi coefficients of moderate strength were obtained for three of the four constructed-response items. Results for each scoring group were compared indicating that item complexity may impact the level of inter-rate, reliability and the selection of the most reliable rubric for each discipline. Analytic rubrics appear to achieve more reliable results with less complex items. A multitrait-multimethod approach was utilized to investigate the external validity of the social studies and science tasks. As expected, there tended to be a stronger association between the PACT science constructed-response scores with scores based on science multiple-choice scores than between the science constructed-response scores and the writing ability subtest scores. A similar pattern was seen with social studies items. These results provide some evidence for the validity of the performance assessments. A post study survey completed by raters provided qualitative information regarding their thought processes and their primary focus during the

  8. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  9. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  10. Excessive weight gain among obese women and pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Flick, Amy A; Brookfield, Kathleen F; de la Torre, Lesley; Tudela, Carmen Maria; Duthely, Lunthita; González-Quintero, Víctor Hugo

    2010-04-01

    We evaluated pregnancy outcomes in obese women with excessive weight gain during pregnancy. A retrospective study was performed on all obese women. Outcomes included rates of preeclampsia (PEC), gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery (CD), preterm delivery, low birth weight, very low birth weight, macrosomia, 5-minute Apgar score of <7, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and were stratified by body mass index (BMI) groups class I (BMI 30 to 35.9 kg/m(2)), class II (36 to 39.9 kg/m(2)), and class III (>or=40 kg/m(2)). Gestational weight change was abstracted from the mother's medical chart and was divided into four categories: weight loss, weight gain of up to 14.9 pounds, weight gain of 15 to 24.9 pounds, and weight gain of more than 25 pounds. A total 20,823 obese women were eligible for the study. Univariate analysis revealed higher rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, Cesarean deliveries, preterm deliveries, low birth weight, macrosomia, and NICU admission in class II and class III obese women when compared with class I women. When different patterns of weight gain were used as in the logistic regression model, rates of PEC and CD were increased. Excessive weight gain among obese women is associated with adverse outcomes with a higher risk as BMI increases. PMID:20013581

  11. Teacher- versus peer-mediated instruction: an ecobehavioral analysis of achievement outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, C R; Dinwiddie, G; Terry, B; Wade, L; Stanley, S O; Thibadeau, S; Delquadri, J C

    1984-01-01

    In three experiments, we compared the effects of instructional arrangements that varied in: teacher versus peer mediators, methods used, levels of student academic responding generated, and content taught and tested. Instructional arrangements (i.e., tasks, structure, teacher position, teacher behavior) and students' levels of academic responding were measured by an observation system which served as an index of the independent variables. Students' accuracy on weekly spelling, arithmetic, and vocabulary tests and pre- and post-standardized achievement tests (Experiments 2 and 3 only) were the dependent variables. Results indicated that the classwide peer tutoring, compared to the teacher's procedure, produced more student academic responding and higher weekly test scores, regardless of treatment order or subject matter content (Experiment 1). The four lowest performing students in each class, in particular, benefited from peer tutoring, often performing as well as the other students. These findings were replicated in Experiments 2 and 3 wherein content taught/tested was also manipulated. Standardized test score gains were higher in those areas in which peer tutoring was used longest. Issues related to the functional analysis of instruction and achievement gain are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:6526770

  12. LSAT Scores of Economics Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Argues that economics education provides many benefits to students, including preparation for law school. Examines the ranking of economics majors on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Finds that among the 14 majors having more than 2,000 students take the LSAT, economics students received the highest average score. (DSK)

  13. Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, Vicki

    Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

  14. Yield gains in leafy vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield of all crops have increased during the past century through improved cultural practices and plant breeding. We reviewed gains in yield of lettuce and spinach in the U.S., principally California and Arizona. We proposed several genetic models for yield of lettuce based on the market type: whole...

  15. Mutual Gains Means Everyone Wins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bernard L.

    1997-01-01

    Mutual gains negotiation is an innovative system that emphasizes interests instead of positions and problem solving instead of preconceived solutions. The process can reverse social disintegration, reverse worker alienation, and address a shifting educational environment. It can resolve difficult labor-management problems such as contracting out,…

  16. Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue offers a collection of articles focusing on support groups for parents of infants and toddlers, including the following: (1) "Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups" (Nick Carter and Cathie Harvey) which reviews the purposes, history, and essential ingredients of such groups; (2) "The MELD Experience with Parent Groups" (Joyce…

  17. Hands-on equals minds-on? A test of linkage between laboratory experience and measured achievement in an introductory college biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racich, Leo Peter 3rd

    This study investigated the specific contribution of laboratory experience to student performance on achievement tests in an introductory college biology course. This required pre-medical student course (900 students) was separated by the biology department into a lecture course and a laboratory course, creating the study groups. The topics selected for treatment were in the field of molecular biology, including restriction enzyme manipulation and plasmid mapping of DNA sequences. Random samples (30 per group) of students enrolled in the lecture course and laboratory course, lecture course only, or laboratory course only were post-tested and second post-tested for objective test achievement in the topical field after laboratory participation. Student self-reported essays on topical concept gains from laboratory experience were categorized and analyzed in relation to achievement outcomes. A significant difference (F = 5.47, df = 2,87, alpha = .05) was present within the group by test achievement scores. Analysis showed no significant difference in test scores over time for the laboratory and lecture and laboratory only groups. There was a significant decline in test scores for the lecture only group over time. Analysis of 509 student self-reported essays showed approximately 18.5% reporting no abstract comprehension gain from the specific laboratory experience they chose to report. Approximately 8.3% of the essays reported increased confusion of topical concepts after participating in the laboratory exercise. The balance of the students (73.3%) reported increased topical concept understanding after laboratory exercise participation. The results suggest the importance of laboratory participation for long-term concept retention and the benefit of post-laboratory experience reflection time before objective testing. Direct instruction without laboratory experience appears to yield gains which are short term in nature. Student self-reports suggested cognitive gains from

  18. Free Energy Score Spaces: Using Generative Information in Discriminative Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Perina, Alessandro; Cristani, Marco; Castellani, Umberto; Murino, Vittorio; Jojic, Nebojsa

    2012-07-01

    A score function induced by a generative model of the data can provide a feature vector of a fixed dimension for each data sample. Data samples themselves may be of differing lengths (e.g., speech segments or other sequential data), but as a score function is based on the properties of the data generation process, it produces a fixed-length vector in a highly informative space, typically referred to as "score space." Discriminative classifiers have been shown to achieve higher performances in appropriately chosen score spaces with respect to what is achievable by either the corresponding generative likelihood-based classifiers or the discriminative classifiers using standard feature extractors. In this paper, we present a novel score space that exploits the free energy associated with a generative model. The resulting free energy score space (FESS) takes into account the latent structure of the data at various levels and can be shown to lead to classification performance that at least matches the performance of the free energy classifier based on the same generative model and the same factorization of the posterior. We also show that in several typical computer vision and computational biology applications the classifiers optimized in FESS outperform the corresponding pure generative approaches, as well as a number of previous approaches combining discriminating and generative models. PMID:22156097

  19. An investigation into high-achiever and low-achiever knowledge organisation and knowledge processing in concept mapping: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew Lian, Mary Wong

    1998-09-01

    This study used concept map content analysis and interviews to gain insights into the knowledge organisation and knowledge processing of pre-service teachers. Forty-eight preservice teachers of elementary science from a teachers’ training college in Sarawak, Malaysia, participated in this study. Correlations between achievement and five concept map characteristics showed that there were significant positive correlations ( p<.01) between achievement and: the number of appropriate links; the average number of appropriate concepts per cluster; and, the hierarchy score of subjects’ concept maps, and significant negative correlations ( p<.01) between achievement and: the number of inappropriate links; and, the average number of inappropriate concepts per cluster. Interviews with high-achievers and lowachievers revealed that there were differences in the way they processed knowledge during concept mapping. The high-achievers were more thorough than were the low-achievers in cognitive processing of knowledge, taking time to make sense of concepts, sort and group concepts, form relevant links between concepts, and organise concepts hierarchically. Active cognitive processing of knowledge seems to be related to more complex, well-integrated cognitive structures for the material learned.

  20. Cognitive and Academic Gains as a Result of Cognitive Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckey, Alicia J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test Feuersetein's Structural Cognitive Modifiability model by evaluating changes in cognitive skills and reading scores after participation in one of two cognitive skills training programs. The Woodcock Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement, 3 rd editions were used as evaluation tools.…

  1. Accurately control and flatten gain spectrum of L-band erbium doped fiber amplifier based on suitable gain-clamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiuru; Meng, Xiangyu; Liu, Chunyu

    2016-04-01

    The increasing traffic with dynamic nature requires the applications of gain-clamped L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). However, the weak or over clamping may lead the unexpected gain-compression and flatness-worsening. In this article, to enhance practicality, we modify the partly gain-clamping configuration and utilize a pair of C-band fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to non-uniformly compress the gain spectrum of L-band. Through a comprehensive test and comparison, the suitable gain-clamping region for the amplified signals is found, and the gain in L-band is accurately controlled and flattened under the matched central wavelength of FBGs. The experimental results show that, our designed L-band EDFA achieves a trade-off among the output gain, flatness and stability. The ±0.44 dB flatness and 20.2 dB average gain are together obtained in the range of 1570-1610 nm, with the ±0.1 dB stability of signals in over 30 dBm dynamic range.

  2. Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, Angela L; York, Robbie Lynn; Livesay, Jake

    2012-03-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity

  3. Finishing the Job: Improving the Achievement of Vocational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Presson, Alice

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)-State Vocational Education Consortium's commitment to higher standards for and greater achievement of vocational students has brought substantial gains in student performance. SREB's High Schools That Work (HSTW), a school improvement initiative, documents achievement gains by vocational students. Data…

  4. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  5. Room temperature broadband terahertz gains in graphene heterostructures based on inter-layer radiative transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Linlong; Du, Jinglei; Shi, Haofei Wei, Dongshan; Du, Chunlei

    2014-10-15

    We exploit inter-layer radiative transitions to provide gains to amplify terahertz waves in graphene heterostructures. This is achieved by properly doping graphene sheets and aligning their energy bands so that the processes of stimulated emissions can overwhelm absorptions. We derive an expression for the gain estimation and show the gain is insensitive to temperature variation. Moreover, the gain is broadband and can be strong enough to compensate the free carrier loss, indicating graphene based room temperature terahertz lasers are feasible.

  6. What We Lose in Winning the Test Score Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    To achieve perpetually better test results each year as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), teachers in successful schools such as Leroy Anderson Elementary in San Jose, California, will "try anything" to raise scores, as the school's principal stated in an interview with "The San Jose Mercury News." In schools across California for…

  7. Student Laptop Use and Scores on Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kposowa, Augustine J.; Valdez, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between ubiquitous laptop use and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that students with ubiquitous laptops would score on average higher on standardized tests than those without such computers. Methods: Data were obtained from two sources. First, demographic…

  8. Influence of Cognitive Variables on MMPI-2 Scale Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossman, Leslie L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Scales L, K, and Mf with Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQs from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised; achievement scores in reading, spelling, and arithmetic; and total years of education as self-reported by the study research participants. (RJM)

  9. Housing Costs, Zoning, and Access to High-Scoring Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The first section of this paper surveys academic research on educational achievement with an emphasis on the relative effects of schools and families in shaping educational outcomes. A methodology section provides a summary of data sources and defines the main variables measured. The paper then examines differences in school test score performance…

  10. 24 CFR 901.115 - PHA score and status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statutes (e.g., Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity statutes); regulations (e.g., 24 CFR § 85); or the... indicator #2, modernization, shall be designated mod-high performers. (c) PHAs that achieve a total weighted... as mod-troubled. (f) Each PHA shall post a notice of its final PHMAP score and status in...

  11. Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

  12. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  13. Gain functionalization of silica microresonators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lan; Vahala, K J

    2003-04-15

    Erbium-doped solgel films are applied to the surface of silica microspheres to create low-threshold microactivity lasers. This gain functionalization can be applied by use of a number of different dopants, thereby extending the wavelength range of this class of device. Also, by varying the doping concentration and thickness of the applied solgel layer, one can vary the laser dynamics so that both continuous-wave and pulsating modes of operation are possible. PMID:12703910

  14. Role of Resilient Personality on Lower Achieving First Grade Students' Current and Future Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Oi-man; Hughes, Jan N.; Luo, Wen

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated a measurement model of personality resilience and the contribution of personality resilience to lower achieving first grade students' academic achievement. Participants were 445 ethnically diverse children who at entrance to first grade scored below their school district median on a test of literacy. Participants were…

  15. Individual and group sensitivity to remedial reading program design: Examining reading gains across three middle school reading projects

    PubMed Central

    Calhoon, Mary Beth; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine group- and individual-level responses by struggling adolescents readers (6th – 8th grades; N = 155) to three different modalities of the same reading program, Reading Achievement Multi-Component Program (RAMP-UP). The three modalities differ in the combination of reading components (phonological decoding, spelling, fluency, comprehension) that are taught and their organization. Latent change scores were used to examine changes in phonological decoding, fluency, and comprehension for each modality at the group level. In addition, individual students were classified as gainers versus non-gainers (a reading level increase of a year or more vs. less than one year) so that characteristics of gainers and differential sensitivity to instructional modality could be investigated. Findings from both group and individual analyses indicated that reading outcomes were related to modalities of reading instruction. Furthermore, differences in reading gains were seen between students who began treatment with higher reading scores than those with lower reading scores; dependent on modality of treatment. Results, examining group and individual analyses similarities and differences, and the effect the different modalities have on reading outcomes for older struggling readers will be discussed. PMID:25657503

  16. Investigating kindergarteners' number sense and self-regulation scores in relation to their mathematics and Turkish scores in middle school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İvrendi, Asiye

    2016-07-01

    Number sense and self-regulation are considered foundational skills for later school learning. This study aimed to investigate the predictive power of kindergarten children's number sense and self-regulation scores on their mathematics and Turkish language examination scores in the 5th and 6th grades. The participants in this study were 5th grade (n = 46) and 6th grade (n = 28) students, whose number sense and self-regulation skills were measured when they were in kindergarten in 2009 and 2010. Data were analyzed through multiple regression. The results showed positive and mid-level correlations. The children's kindergarten number sense and self-regulation scores significantly predicted their 5th and 6th grade mathematics and Turkish language examination scores. Self-regulation was the stronger predictor of mathematics scores, whereas number sense scores were the better predictor of Turkish language examination scores. The findings from this study provide further evidence as to the critical role of children's early skills in middle school mathematics and language achievement.

  17. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  18. Approximate reversibility in the context of entropy gain, information gain, and complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscemi, Francesco; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.

    2016-06-01

    There are several inequalities in physics which limit how well we can process physical systems to achieve some intended goal, including the second law of thermodynamics, entropy bounds in quantum information theory, and the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. Recent results provide physically meaningful enhancements of these limiting statements, determining how well one can attempt to reverse an irreversible process. In this paper, we apply and extend these results to give strong enhancements to several entropy inequalities, having to do with entropy gain, information gain, entropic disturbance, and complete positivity of open quantum systems dynamics. Our first result is a remainder term for the entropy gain of a quantum channel. This result implies that a small increase in entropy under the action of a subunital channel is a witness to the fact that the channel's adjoint can be used as a recovery map to undo the action of the original channel. We apply this result to pure-loss, quantum-limited amplifier, and phase-insensitive quantum Gaussian channels, showing how a quantum-limited amplifier can serve as a recovery from a pure-loss channel and vice versa. Our second result regards the information gain of a quantum measurement, both without and with quantum side information. We find here that a small information gain implies that it is possible to undo the action of the original measurement if it is efficient. The result also has operational ramifications for the information-theoretic tasks known as measurement compression without and with quantum side information. Our third result shows that the loss of Holevo information caused by the action of a noisy channel on an input ensemble of quantum states is small if and only if the noise can be approximately corrected on average. We finally establish that the reduced dynamics of a system-environment interaction are approximately completely positive and trace preserving if and only if the data processing

  19. An Optimizing Weight For Wrong Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    This study empirically determined the optimizing weight to be applied to the Wrongs Total Score in scoring rubrics of the general form = R - kW, where S is the Score, R the Rights Total, k the weight and W the Wrongs Total, if reliability is to be maximized. As is well known, the traditional formula score rests on a theoretical framework which is…

  20. Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

  1. An international study to increase concordance in Ki67 scoring.

    PubMed

    Polley, Mei-Yin C; Leung, Samuel C Y; Gao, Dongxia; Mastropasqua, Mauro G; Zabaglo, Lila A; Bartlett, John M S; McShane, Lisa M; Enos, Rebecca A; Badve, Sunil S; Bane, Anita L; Borgquist, Signe; Fineberg, Susan; Lin, Ming-Gang; Gown, Allen M; Grabau, Dorthe; Gutierrez, Carolina; Hugh, Judith C; Moriya, Takuya; Ohi, Yasuyo; Osborne, C Kent; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique M; Piper, Tammy; Porter, Peggy L; Sakatani, Takashi; Salgado, Roberto; Starczynski, Jane; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Viale, Giuseppe; Dowsett, Mitch; Hayes, Daniel F; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2015-06-01

    Although an important biomarker in breast cancer, Ki67 lacks scoring standardization, which has limited its clinical use. Our previous study found variability when laboratories used their own scoring methods on centrally stained tissue microarray slides. In this current study, 16 laboratories from eight countries calibrated to a specific Ki67 scoring method and then scored 50 centrally MIB-1 stained tissue microarray cases. Simple instructions prescribed scoring pattern and staining thresholds for determination of the percentage of stained tumor cells. To calibrate, laboratories scored 18 'training' and 'test' web-based images. Software tracked object selection and scoring. Success for the calibration was prespecified as Root Mean Square Error of scores compared with reference <0.6 and Maximum Absolute Deviation from reference <1.0 (log2-transformed data). Prespecified success criteria for tissue microarray scoring required intraclass correlation significantly >0.70 but aiming for observed intraclass correlation ≥0.90. Laboratory performance showed non-significant but promising trends of improvement through the calibration exercise (mean Root Mean Square Error decreased from 0.6 to 0.4, Maximum Absolute Deviation from 1.6 to 0.9; paired t-test: P=0.07 for Root Mean Square Error, 0.06 for Maximum Absolute Deviation). For tissue microarray scoring, the intraclass correlation estimate was 0.94 (95% credible interval: 0.90-0.97), markedly and significantly >0.70, the prespecified minimum target for success. Some discrepancies persisted, including around clinically relevant cutoffs. After calibrating to a common scoring method via a web-based tool, laboratories can achieve high inter-laboratory reproducibility in Ki67 scoring on centrally stained tissue microarray slides. Although these data are potentially encouraging, suggesting that it may be possible to standardize scoring of Ki67 among pathology laboratories, clinically important discrepancies persist. Before

  2. Fun and Gains with Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.

    1979-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted with fourteen learning-disabled elementary students to determine the growth of achievement and conservation abilities after using the "Sink or Float" unit of the Elementary Science Study. (MK)

  3. Gain-adaptive vector quantization for medium-rate speech coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-H.; Gersho, A.

    1985-01-01

    A class of adaptive vector quantizers (VQs) that can dynamically adjust the 'gain' of codevectors according to the input signal level is introduced. The encoder uses a gain estimator to determine a suitable normalization of each input vector prior to VQ coding. The normalized vectors have reduced dynamic range and can then be more efficiently coded. At the receiver, the VQ decoder output is multiplied by the estimated gain. Both forward and backward adaptation are considered and several different gain estimators are compared and evaluated. An approach to optimizing the design of gain estimators is introduced. Some of the more obvious techniques for achieving gain adaptation are substantially less effective than the use of optimized gain estimators. A novel design technique that is needed to generate the appropriate gain-normalized codebook for the vector quantizer is introduced. Experimental results show that a significant gain in segmental SNR can be obtained over nonadaptive VQ with a negligible increase in complexity.

  4. The impact of a Classroom Performance System on learning gains in a biology course for science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Nilo Eric

    This study was conducted to determine if the use of the technology known as Classroom Performance System (CPS), specifically referred to as "Clickers", improves the learning gains of students enrolled in a biology course for science majors. CPS is one of a group of developing technologies adapted for providing feedback in the classroom using a learner-centered approach. It supports and facilitates discussion among students and between them and teachers, and provides for participation by passive students. Advocates, influenced by constructivist theories, claim increased academic achievement. In science teaching, the results have been mixed, but there is some evidence of improvements in conceptual understanding. The study employed a pretest-posttest, non-equivalent groups experimental design. The sample consisted of 226 participants in six sections of a college biology course at a large community college in South Florida with two instructors trained in the use of clickers. Each instructor randomly selected their sections into CPS (treatment) and non-CPS (control) groups. All participants filled out a survey that included demographic data at the beginning of the semester. The treatment group used clicker questions throughout, with discussions as necessary, whereas the control groups answered the same questions as quizzes, similarly engaging in discussion where necessary. The learning gains were assessed on a pre/post-test basis. The average learning gains, defined as the actual gain divided by the possible gain, were slightly better in the treatment group than in the control group, but the difference was statistically non-significant. An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) statistic with pretest scores as the covariate was conducted to test for significant differences between the treatment and control groups on the posttest. A second ANCOVA was used to determine the significance of differences between the treatment and control groups on the posttest scores, after

  5. An Assessment of Potential Efficiency Gains through Online Content Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creaser, Claire; Hamblin, Yvonne; Davies, J. Eric

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Online content has largely replaced traditional print-based resources as the primary tool for literature searching throughout much of the academic and research community. This paper presents the results of a small-scale study, commissioned by the JISC in 2004, to assess the potential efficiency gains that may be achieved through the use…

  6. Breastfeeding Duration and Weight Gain Trajectory in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Demment, Margaret M.; Kjolhede, Chris L.; Olson, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Short breastfeeding duration may exacerbate accelerated early growth, which is linked to higher obesity risk in later life. This study tested the hypothesis that infants at higher risk for obesity were more likely to be members of a rising weight-for-length (WFL) z score trajectory if breastfed for shorter durations. METHODS: This prospective, observational study recruited women from an obstetric patient population in rural central New York. Medical records of children born to women in the cohort were audited for weight and length measurements (n = 595). We identified weight gain trajectories for infants’ WFL z scores from 0 to 24 months by using maximum likelihood latent class models. Individual risk factors associated with weight gain trajectories (P ≤ .05) were included in an obesity risk index. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether the association between breastfeeding duration (<2 months, 2–4 months, >4 months) and weight gain trajectory varied across obesity risk groups. RESULTS: Rising and stable weight gain trajectories emerged. The obesity risk index included maternal BMI, education, and smoking during pregnancy. High-risk infants breastfed for <2 months were more likely to belong to a rising rather than stable weight gain trajectory (odds ratio, 2.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.14–5.72; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Infants at the highest risk for rising weight patterns appear to benefit the most from longer breastfeeding duration. Targeting mothers of high-risk infants for breastfeeding promotion and support may be protective against overweight and obesity during a critical window of development. PMID:25554813

  7. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  8. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  9. [Fast food promotes weight gain].

    PubMed

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne V

    2007-05-01

    The total amounts of fat in a fast food menu consisting of French fries and fried Chicken Nuggets from McDonald's and KFC, respectively, bought in 35 different countries vary from 41 to 71 gram. In most countries the menu contained unacceptably high amounts of industrially-produced trans fat which contributes to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes. The quality of the ingredients in fast food ought to be better and the size of the portions smaller and less energy-dense so that frequent fast food meals do not increase the risk of obesity and diseases among customers. PMID:17537359

  10. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  11. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score

    PubMed Central

    Kepler, Christopher K.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Koerner, John D.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F. Cumhur

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  12. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Schroeder, Gregory D; Koerner, John D; Vialle, Luiz R; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J; Dvorak, Marcel F; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F Cumhur

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  13. Cognitive predictors of reading and math achievement among gifted referrals.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Ellen W; Miller, Cristin; Ebenstein, Lauren A; Thompson, Dawna F

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the predictive power of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), the General Ability Index (GAI), and the WISC-IV index score composites on subsequent reading and math standardized test scores among high-achieving students. The sample consisted of 84 elementary-age students who received an individual cognitive assessment with the WISC-IV in the previous year as part of the application process for gifted and talented programming through their schools. Although there were no significant differences among the mean WISC-IV index scores, 77% of the individual students evidenced statistically significant WISC-IV index score variability. Thus, intraindividual test score variability appears to be the norm among high-achieving students. In spite of this variability, regression analyses indicated that the FSIQ predicted reading comprehension and mathematics achievement better than, or as well as, the GAI or individual scores for verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning. None of the cognitive variables correlated significantly with achievement scores for Word Reading or Pseudoword Decoding scores, but the FSIQ, GAI, Verbal Comprehension, and Perceptual Reasoning scores predicted reading comprehension. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22963069

  14. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  15. The Effect of Thinking Maps on Fifth Grade Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Darlene

    Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.

  16. Comparison of student achievement among two science laboratory types: traditional and virtual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Mary Celeste

    Technology has changed almost every aspect of our daily lives. It is not surprising then that technology has made its way into the classroom. More and more educators are utilizing technological resources in creative ways with the intent to enhance learning, including using virtual laboratories in the sciences in place of the "traditional" science laboratories. This has generated much discussion as to the influence on student achievement when online learning replaces the face-to-face contact between instructor and student. The purpose of this study was to discern differences in achievement of two laboratory instruction types: virtual laboratory and a traditional laboratory. Results of this study indicate statistical significant differences in student achievement defined by averages on quiz scores in virtual labs compared with traditional face-to-face laboratories and traditional laboratories result in greater student learning gains than virtual labs. Lecture exam averages were also greater for students enrolled in the traditional laboratories compared to students enrolled in the virtual laboratories. To account for possible differences in ability among students, a potential extraneous variable, GPA and ACT scores were used as covariates.

  17. Proficiency-Referencing a Reading Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bormuth, John R.

    A procedure is demonstrated for constructing tables showing, for each score on a commercial reading achievement test, the percentage of real-world materials that the testee is likely to comprehend with at least a criterion level of proficiency, the percentages of students in a local or national sample who can competently comprehend a given…

  18. Do Charter Schools Improve Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Melissa A.; Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Silverberg, Marsha K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a lottery-based study of the impacts of a broad set of 33 charter middle schools across 13 states on student achievement. To estimate charter school impacts, we compare test score outcomes of students admitted to these schools through the randomized admissions lotteries with outcomes of applicants who were not…

  19. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  20. Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…

  1. Superintendent Length of Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study, utilizing the backward method of multiple regression, examined the relationship between the length of tenure of a superintendent and academic achievement as defined by the percentage of students who scored "Proficient" or better on the 2008 Third Grade Kansas Reading Assessment. To put this relationship into…

  2. Is achievement in Australian chemistry gender based?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, John; Fogliani, Charles; Owens, Chris; Wilson, Audrey

    1993-12-01

    This paper compares the performances of female and male secondary students in the 1991 and 1992 Australian National Chemistry Quizzes. Male students consistently achieved a higher mean score in all Year groups (7 to 12), even though the numbers of female and male entrants were approximately equal. Implications for class tests and assessment tasks are addressed.

  3. Eye Movement Models of Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ronna F.

    Current pscyhometric assessments, which are based on test score predictors providing information only on products of performance, fail to account for satisfactory amounts of variance in academic achievement or other criterion measures of interest. To corroborate and extend previous work on information processing measures, by examining the…

  4. The Achiever. Volume 4, Number 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "The Achiever" is monthly publication for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) "Nation's Report Card Results Show Progress"; (2) "'Choosing the Best Apple': New Mexico School Turns around Lagging Scores with…

  5. Catholic High Schools and Rural Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    1997-01-01

    A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…

  6. Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

  7. Gestational weight gain and offspring longitudinal growth in early life

    PubMed Central

    Diesel, Jill C.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Day, Nancy L.; Brooks, Maria M.; Arslanian, Silva A.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) increases the risk of childhood obesity, but little is known about its association with infant growth patterns. Aim To examine the GWG-infant growth association. Methods Pregnant women (n=743) self-reported GWG at delivery, which we classified as inadequate, adequate, or excessive based on current guidelines. Offspring weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), length-for-age z-scores (LAZ (with height-for-age (HAZ) in place of length at 36 months)), and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) were calculated at birth, 8, 18, and 36 months using the 2006 WHO growth standards. Linear mixed models estimated the change in z-scores from birth to 36 months by GWG. Results The mean (SD) WAZ was −0.22 (1.20) at birth. Overall, WAZ and BMIZ increased from birth to approximately 24 months and decreased from 24 to 36 months, while LAZ/HAZ decreased from birth through 36 months. Excessive GWG was associated with higher offspring WAZ and BMIZ at birth, 8, and 36 months, and higher HAZ at 36 months, compared with adequate GWG. Compared with the same referent, inadequate GWG was associated with smaller WAZ and BMIZ at birth and 8 months. Conclusion Excessive GWG may predispose infants to obesogenic growth patterns while inadequate GWG may not have a lasting impact on infant growth. PMID:26279171

  8. Guide to the 2004 Prairie State Achievement Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Prairie State Achievement Examination (PSAE) measures student achievement relative to the Illinois Learning Standards. It recognizes the excellent achievement of individual students whose scores qualify them for honors, and it measures the progress that schools have made in helping their students meet the Illinois Learning Standards. The PSAE…

  9. Black-White Differences in Achievement: The Importance of Wealth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Amy J.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that wealth can affect academic achievement, as well as help to explain the gap in black-white test scores and the racial achievement gap. Reveals that wealth affects achievement through its effect on the amount of cultural capital to which a child is exposed. Implications of the findings are discussed. (CAJ)

  10. Information gains from cosmological probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandis, S.; Seehars, S.; Refregier, A.; Amara, A.; Nicola, A.

    2016-05-01

    In light of the growing number of cosmological observations, it is important to develop versatile tools to quantify the constraining power and consistency of cosmological probes. Originally motivated from information theory, we use the relative entropy to compute the information gained by Bayesian updates in units of bits. This measure quantifies both the improvement in precision and the `surprise', i.e. the tension arising from shifts in central values. Our starting point is a WMAP9 prior which we update with observations of the distance ladder, supernovae (SNe), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and weak lensing as well as the 2015 Planck release. We consider the parameters of the flat ΛCDM concordance model and some of its extensions which include curvature and Dark Energy equation of state parameter w. We find that, relative to WMAP9 and within these model spaces, the probes that have provided the greatest gains are Planck (10 bits), followed by BAO surveys (5.1 bits) and SNe experiments (3.1 bits). The other cosmological probes, including weak lensing (1.7 bits) and {H0} measures (1.7 bits), have contributed information but at a lower level. Furthermore, we do not find any significant surprise when updating the constraints of WMAP9 with any of the other experiments, meaning that they are consistent with WMAP9. However, when we choose Planck15 as the prior, we find that, accounting for the full multi-dimensionality of the parameter space, the weak lensing measurements of CFHTLenS produce a large surprise of 4.4 bits which is statistically significant at the 8 σ level. We discuss how the relative entropy provides a versatile and robust framework to compare cosmological probes in the context of current and future surveys.

  11. Gain saturation in InGaN superluminescent diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafar, Anna; Stanczyk, Szymon; Targowski, Grzegorz; Suski, Tadek; Perlin, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    The gain saturation is a crucial factor limiting achievable output power of superluminescent diodes (SLD), as it exponentially depends on optical gain value. Contrary to laser diodes, in SLDs gain is increasing with the increasing current even much above the transparency conditions. Therefore, SLDs provide us with an unique possibility to examine gain under high current densities (high carrier injection). In our work we examined SLDs fabricated in a "j-shape" ridge-waveguide geometry having chips of the length of 700 μm and 1000 μm, emitting in the blue-violet region. By comparing the amplified spontaneous emission measured along the device waveguide with true spontaneous emission measured in perpendicular direction, we are able to extract optical gain as a function of injected current. We show, that in our devices spontaneous emission exhibits a square-root-like dependence on current which is commonly associated with the presence of "droop" in case of nitride light emitting diodes. However, along the waveguide axis, fast processes of stimulated recombination dominate which eliminates the efficiency reduction. Calculated optical gain shows a substantial saturation for current densities above 8 kA/cm2.

  12. Bispectral index score and observer's assessment of awareness/sedation score may manifest divergence during onset of sedation: Study with midazolam and propofol

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Dipanjan; Mandal, Mohan Chandra; Das, Sabyasachi; Basu, Sekhar Ranjan; Sarkar, Susanta; Das, Jyotirmoy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Correlation between the clinical and electroencephalogram-based monitoring has been documented sporadically during the onset of sedation. Propofol and midazolam have been studied individually using the observer's assessment of awareness/sedation (OAA/S) score and Bispectral index score (BIS). The present study was designed to compare the time to onset of sedation for propofol and midazolam using both BIS and OAA/S scores, and to find out any correlation. Methods: A total of 46 patients (18-60 years, either sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I/II) posted for infraumbilical surgeries under spinal anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either injection propofol 1 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion 3 mg/kg/h (Group P, n=23) or injection midazolam 0.05 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion 0.06 mg/kg/h (Group M, n=23). Spinal anaesthesia was given with 2.5 ml to 3.0 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy. When sensory block reached T6 level, sedation was initiated. The time to reach BIS score 70 and time to achieve OAA/S score 3 from the start of study drug were noted. OAA/S score at BIS score 70 was noted. Data from 43 patients were analyzed using SPSS 12 for Windows. Results: Time to reach BIS score 70 using propofol was significantly lower than using the midazolam (P<0.05). Time to achieve OAA/S score 3 using propofol was comparable with midazolam (P=0.358). Conclusion: A divergence exists between the time to reach BIS score 70 and time to achieve OAA/S score 3 using midazolam, compared with propofol, during the onset of sedation. PMID:24163448

  13. BgN-Score and BsN-Score: Bagging and boosting based ensemble neural networks scoring functions for accurate binding affinity prediction of protein-ligand complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurately predicting the binding affinities of large sets of protein-ligand complexes is a key challenge in computational biomolecular science, with applications in drug discovery, chemical biology, and structural biology. Since a scoring function (SF) is used to score, rank, and identify drug leads, the fidelity with which it predicts the affinity of a ligand candidate for a protein's binding site has a significant bearing on the accuracy of virtual screening. Despite intense efforts in developing conventional SFs, which are either force-field based, knowledge-based, or empirical, their limited predictive power has been a major roadblock toward cost-effective drug discovery. Therefore, in this work, we present novel SFs employing a large ensemble of neural networks (NN) in conjunction with a diverse set of physicochemical and geometrical features characterizing protein-ligand complexes to predict binding affinity. Results We assess the scoring accuracies of two new ensemble NN SFs based on bagging (BgN-Score) and boosting (BsN-Score), as well as those of conventional SFs in the context of the 2007 PDBbind benchmark that encompasses a diverse set of high-quality protein families. We find that BgN-Score and BsN-Score have more than 25% better Pearson's correlation coefficient (0.804 and 0.816 vs. 0.644) between predicted and measured binding affinities compared to that achieved by a state-of-the-art conventional SF. In addition, these ensemble NN SFs are also at least 19% more accurate (0.804 and 0.816 vs. 0.675) than SFs based on a single neural network that has been traditionally used in drug discovery applications. We further find that ensemble models based on NNs surpass SFs based on the decision-tree ensemble technique Random Forests. Conclusions Ensemble neural networks SFs, BgN-Score and BsN-Score, are the most accurate in predicting binding affinity of protein-ligand complexes among the considered SFs. Moreover, their accuracies are even higher

  14. Improving ACT and SAT Scores: Making Progress, Facing Challenges. A Focus Report in the "Challenge to Lead" Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jenny; Lord, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board's (SREB) "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education call for more students to take college admission tests, to score higher on those tests and for SREB states to reduce gaps in test scores among all groups of students. For states, achieving higher statewide scores is one sign that more students can go on to…

  15. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  16. The Effect of Instructional Approach on Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Karen S.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of covariance of pre- and posttest scores on mathematics anxiety and arithmetic achievement tests of (n=123) college students taught arithmetic using two different instructional approaches (rule oriented versus concept oriented) found a significant difference between the posttest anxiety scores of the two groups. (22 references)…

  17. Teaching Effectiveness and Student Achievement: Examining the Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Sherman, Helene

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between teacher effectiveness and students' achievement as measured by test scores. A strong belief among policymakers and public as well as private funding agencies is that test scores are directly related to the quality of teaching effectiveness. This relationship implies that there could be a direct…

  18. Practical Issues in Estimating Achievement Gaps from Coarsened Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Ho, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we presented methods for estimating achievement gaps when test scores are coarsened into a small number of ordered categories, preventing fine-grained distinctions between individual scores. We demonstrated that gaps can nonetheless be estimated with minimal bias across a broad range of simulated and real coarsened data…

  19. Cognitive Predictors of Reading and Math Achievement among Gifted Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Miller, Cristin; Ebenstein, Lauren A.; Thompson, Dawna F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive power of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), the General Ability Index (GAI), and the WISC-IV index score composites on subsequent reading and math standardized test scores among high-achieving students. The sample consisted of 84 elementary-age students…

  20. A Validity Investigation of the Achievement Anxiety Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The concurrent and predictive validity of the Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT) were investigated. The evidence gives cause to be concerned about the quality of a difference score because of the nonindependence of the two scores. Further, the underlying structure of the instrument appears to be more complex than originally hypothesized. (Author/GK)