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Sample records for achievement gain scores

  1. The Relationship between STAR Math Score Gains and Academic Achievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Don Wesley

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between STAR Math gains and TCAP composite scores. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant relationship between STAR Math pretest and posttest gains over the course of the 2005-2006 academic year through the use of the STAR Math software program and TCAP math composite scores at…

  2. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  3. Score Gains on "g"-Loaded Tests: No "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; van der Flier, Henk

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen [Jensen, A. R. (1998a). "The g factor: The…

  4. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which eighth-grade…

  5. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  6. Job Choice As a Function of SES and Achievement Scores For High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelms, Charlie; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated impact of socio-economic status (SES) and achievement scores on job choice for 128 participants in a Labor Market Orientation Training program. Neither SES nor the program measure ("World of Work") were significant, but "Wide Range Achievement Test" gain scores did significantly impact on job choice. (Author/BRR)

  7. Estimated Effect of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal of the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  8. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  9. Learning Predictive Interactions Using Information Gain and Bayesian Network Scoring

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xia; Jao, Jeremy; Neapolitan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background The problems of correlation and classification are long-standing in the fields of statistics and machine learning, and techniques have been developed to address these problems. We are now in the era of high-dimensional data, which is data that can concern billions of variables. These data present new challenges. In particular, it is difficult to discover predictive variables, when each variable has little marginal effect. An example concerns Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) datasets, which involve millions of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), where some of the SNPs interact epistatically to affect disease status. Towards determining these interacting SNPs, researchers developed techniques that addressed this specific problem. However, the problem is more general, and so these techniques are applicable to other problems concerning interactions. A difficulty with many of these techniques is that they do not distinguish whether a learned interaction is actually an interaction or whether it involves several variables with strong marginal effects. Methodology/Findings We address this problem using information gain and Bayesian network scoring. First, we identify candidate interactions by determining whether together variables provide more information than they do separately. Then we use Bayesian network scoring to see if a candidate interaction really is a likely model. Our strategy is called MBS-IGain. Using 100 simulated datasets and a real GWAS Alzheimer’s dataset, we investigated the performance of MBS-IGain. Conclusions/Significance When analyzing the simulated datasets, MBS-IGain substantially out-performed nine previous methods at locating interacting predictors, and at identifying interactions exactly. When analyzing the real Alzheimer’s dataset, we obtained new results and results that substantiated previous findings. We conclude that MBS-IGain is highly effective at finding interactions in high-dimensional datasets. This result is

  10. The Validity of Gains in Scores on the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel M.; Barron, Sheila I.

    Large gains in scores have been observed over the first years of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS) program. The extent to which these gains in scores indicate that student learning improved was evaluated. Previous studies have suggested that KIRIS score gains might be appreciably inflated, something that might result…

  11. Bender-Gestalt developmental scores: predicting reading and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Nielson, S; Sapp, G L

    1991-08-01

    This study examined the relative importance of perceptual-motor processes and intelligence in predicting reading and mathematics achievement of children of low birthweight. Subjects were two groups of 153 children, ages 6 to 12 years, of either low (3 lb. or below, n = 72) or normal birthweight (n = 81) who participated in a comparative study on sequelae of children of low birthweight. To examine the utility of the Bender-Gestalt test in predicting academic achievement, Bender developmental scores, WRAT reading and mathematics scores, and WISC-R Full Scale IQs from both groups were compared and then intercorrelated separately. The mean comparisons indicated that children of low birthweight scored significantly lower on both Bender scores and reading achievement and had lower IQs than those of normal birthweight. Bender scores also appeared to have more utility for predicting reading and mathematics achievement for children of low birthweight than for those of normal birthweight.

  12. No further gain can be achieved by calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 joints with high-sensitivity assay of C-reactive protein because of high intraindividual variability of C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Inger M.J.; Emamifar, Amir; Andreasen, Rikke A.; Antonsen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) is commonly used to evaluate disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is a guide to treatment decision. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lower reporting limit for C-reactive protein (CRP), with respect to intraindividual biological variability, on the calculation of DAS28 and subsequent patient classification. This study consists of 2 sections: a theoretical consideration discussing the performance of CRP in calculating DAS28 taking intraindividual biological variation and lower reporting limit for CRP into account and a cross-sectional study of RA patients applying our theoretical results. Therefore, we calculated DAS28 twice, with the actual CRP values and CRP = 9 mg/L, the latter to elucidate the positive effects of reducing the lower reporting limit of CRP from <10 to <3 mg/L. Lower-reporting limit of <10 mg/L leads to overestimate DAS28. However, reducing lower reporting limit for CRP to <3 mg/L results in optimizing DAS28 calculation. Further lowering of reporting limit for CRP to <3 mg/L does not increase the precision of DAS28 owing to the relatively large intraindividual biological variation. Five hundred twelve patients were included. There was a significant difference between recalculated and patients DAS28 (P < 0.001). One hundred nine patients had DAS28 deviation (compatible to remission to low: 66, low to moderate: 39. and moderate to high: 4). Owing to significant impact of intraindividual biologic variation on DAS28 and patient classification, special attention should be paid to calculate DAS28 when CRP values are within normal range. Furthermore, we conclude that results of different studies evaluating DAS28 and treatment response are not comparable if the reporting limits of CRP are unknown. PMID:28072726

  13. Achieving improved cycle efficiency via pressure gain combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmen, R.S.; Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Norton, T.S.; Rogers, W.A.

    1995-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation is being performed to evaluate ``pressure gain`` combustion systems for gas turbine applications. This paper presents experimental pressure gain and pollutant emission data from such combustion systems. Numerical predictions for certain combustor geometries are also presented. It is reported that for suitable aerovalved pulse combustor geometries studied experimentally, an overall combustor pressure gain of nearly 1 percent can be achieved. It is also shown that for one combustion system operating under typical gas turbine conditions, NO{sub x} and CO emmissions, are about 30 ppmv and 8 ppmv, respectively.

  14. Competence with fractions predicts gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Drew H; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara; Geary, David C

    2012-11-01

    Competence with fractions predicts later mathematics achievement, but the codevelopmental pattern between fractions knowledge and mathematics achievement is not well understood. We assessed this codevelopment through examination of the cross-lagged relation between a measure of conceptual knowledge of fractions and mathematics achievement in sixth and seventh grades (N=212). The cross-lagged effects indicated that performance on the sixth grade fractions concepts measure predicted 1-year gains in mathematics achievement (ß=.14, p<.01), controlling for the central executive component of working memory and intelligence, but sixth grade mathematics achievement did not predict gains on the fractions concepts measure (ß=.03, p>.50). In a follow-up assessment, we demonstrated that measures of fluency with computational fractions significantly predicted seventh grade mathematics achievement above and beyond the influence of fluency in computational whole number arithmetic, performance on number fluency and number line tasks, central executive span, and intelligence. Results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that competence with fractions underlies, in part, subsequent gains in mathematics achievement.

  15. Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…

  16. Dearborn 1981-82 Achievement Test Scores (Fifth Annual Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearborn Public Schools, MI.

    The purpose of the fifth annual Dearborn Achievement Test Score report is to summarize and to help interpret the test results so that Dearborn citizens and educators will have a better understanding of the educational achievements of Dearborn students. The District-wide Testing Program assesses reading readiness, scholastic aptitude, academic…

  17. Investigating College Learning Gain: Exploring a Propensity Score Weighting Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Liu, Huili; Roohr, Katrina Crotts; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Learning outcomes assessment has been widely used by higher education institutions both nationally and internationally. One of its popular uses is to document learning gains of students. Prior studies have recognized the potential imbalance between freshmen and seniors in terms of their background characteristics and their prior academic…

  18. Effort Analysis: Individual Score Validation of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student's achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student's test score accurately reflects what that student knows and can do. Such trust requires the assumption that a student's test event is not unduly influenced by construct-irrelevant factors…

  19. A Study of Teacher Effects Based on Students' Achievement Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acland, Henry

    This report tests the assumption that teachers have an impact on how much students learn. The results of this study indicate that teachers have an effect on average class achievement scores, and that this effect can be broken down into a stable component attributed to the teachers' consistency, and an unstable effect which varies from year to…

  20. The Longitudinal Link between Student Health and Math Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for…

  1. Explaining Mathematics Achievement Gains in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Arends, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test empirically whether and how classroom and school factors contribute to student mathematics learning gains in the border region of North West province, South Africa and Southeastern Botswana. Our results suggest that in both regions, improving teaching quality has an important impact on how much mathematics…

  2. Using IRT DIF Methods to Evaluate the Validity of Score Gains. CSE Technical Report 660

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel M.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2005-01-01

    Given current high-stakes uses of tests, one of the most pressing and difficult problems confronting the field of measurement is to develop better methods for distinguishing between meaningful gains in performance and score inflation. This study explores the potential usefulness of adapting differential item functioning (DIF) techniques for this…

  3. The Relationship of Motivational Values of Math and Reading Teachers to Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, David Allen

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory correlational study seeks to answer the question of whether a relationship exists between student average test score gains on state exams and teachers' rating of values on the Schwartz Values Survey. Eighty-seven randomly selected Kansas teachers of math and/or reading, grades four through eight, participated. Student test score…

  4. Supplemental Educational Services and Student Test Score Gains: Evidence from a Large, Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Pepper, Matthew J.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of supplemental education services (SES) on student test score gains and whether particular subgroups of students benefit more from NCLB tutoring services. Our sample includes information on students enrolled in third through eighth grades nested in 121 elementary and middle schools over a five-year period comprising…

  5. The Effect of School Principals' Leadership Styles on Elementary School Students' Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Principal leadership studies have indicated that leadership can play an important role in augmenting students' achievement scores. One significant influence that can affect achievement scores is the leadership style of the principal. This study focuses on fourth-grade achievement scores within urban elementary schools and explores the relationship…

  6. Focusing on Short-Term Achievement Gains Fails to Produce Long-Term Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term emphasis engendered by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has focused research predominantly on unraveling the complexities and uncertainties in assessing short-term results, rather than developing methods and assessing results over the longer term. In this paper we focus on estimating long-term gains and address questions important to…

  7. Evaluating Biology Achievement Scores in an ICT Integrated PBL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Kamisah; Kaur, Simranjeet Judge

    2014-01-01

    Students' achievement in Biology is often looked up as a benchmark to evaluate the mode of teaching and learning in higher education. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an approach that focuses on students' solving a problem through collaborative groups. There were eighty samples involved in this study. The samples were divided into three groups: ICT…

  8. Math Scores Add Up for Hispanic Students: States and School Districts Notable for Recent Gains by Hispanic Students in Mathematics. Publication#2014-59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pane, Natalia E.

    2014-01-01

    This report shows significant gains in math achievement by Hispanic fourth- and eighth-graders across the nation--the equivalent of one grade level in the last ten years (2003-3013). Using data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, Child Trends reviewed and compared fourth and eighth grade math scores in the nation, states, large…

  9. Impact of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains: Findings from an Independent Appraisal. Working Paper 2008-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2008-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal on the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly-effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  10. Grouping for Achievement Gains: For Whom Does Achievement Grouping Increase Kindergarten Reading Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelson, Jill L.; Carpenter, Brittany D.

    2011-01-01

    With ever-present budget cuts, teachers often use within-class achievement grouping to meet the needs of students of all ability levels but particularly high-ability students. Using a national database, this study examined the relationship between achievement grouping and the size of achievement groups on kindergarten reading growth. Additionally,…

  11. The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.

    This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…

  12. Improving participant selection in disease management programmes: insights gained from propensity score stratification.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L

    2008-10-01

    While the randomized controlled trial (RCT) remains the gold-standard study design for evaluating treatment effect, outcomes researchers turn to powerful quasi-experimental designs when only observational studies can be conducted. Within these designs, propensity score matching is one of the most popular to evaluate disease management (DM) programme effectiveness. Given that DM programmes generally have a much smaller number of participants than non-participants in the population, propensity score matching will typically result in all or nearly all participants finding successful matches, while most of the non-participants in the population remain unmatched and thereby excluded from the analysis. By excluding data from the unmatched population, the effect of non-treatment in the remaining population with the disease is not captured. In the present study, we examine changes in hospitalization rates stratified by propensity score quintiles across the entire population allowing us to gain insight as to how well the programme chose its participants, or if the programme could have been effective on those individuals not explicitly targeted for the intervention. These data indicate the presence of regression to the mean, and suggest that the DM programme may be overly limited to only the highest strata when there is evidence of a potential benefit for those in all the lower strata as well.

  13. Incremental Efficiency of WISC-III Factor Scores in Predicting Achievement: What Do They Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glutting, Joseph J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Ward, Thomas; Ward, Sandra; Hale, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    The incremental validity of factor scores from the Wechlser Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) in predicting scores on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) was studied in 283 nonreferred children and 636 referred for evaluation. The Full Scale IQ of the WISC-III was the best predictor of WIAT achievement. (SLD)

  14. Relationship of Achievement Test Scores and State Board Performance in a Diploma Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Gail

    The relationship between the National League for Nursing (NLN) achievement test scores and performance on the State Board Test Pool Examination (SBTPE) was studied with 166 graduates of a diploma degree school of nursing between 1976 and 1978. It was found that NLN achievement test scores had a highly significant correlation with SBTPE results.…

  15. Effects of Collaborative Group Composition and Inquiry Instruction on Reasoning Gains and Achievement in Undergraduate Biology

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie Lee; Lawson, Anton

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of collaborative group composition and instructional method on reasoning gains and achievement in college biology. Based on initial student reasoning ability (i.e., low, medium, or high), students were assigned to either homogeneous or heterogeneous collaborative groups within either inquiry or didactic instruction. Achievement and reasoning gains were assessed at the end of the semester. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, led to significantly greater gains in reasoning ability and achievement. Inquiry instruction also led to greater confidence and more positive attitudes toward collaboration. Low-reasoning students made significantly greater reasoning gains within inquiry instruction when grouped with other low reasoners than when grouped with either medium or high reasoners. Results are consistent with equilibration theory, supporting the idea that students benefit from the opportunity for self-regulation without the guidance or direction of a more capable peer. PMID:21364101

  16. The Use of Algebra II End-of-Course Scores to Predict Chemistry Course Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowd, Joshua Roy

    Students endure multiple high-stakes tests throughout their school years. While subject matter among multiple subjects is connected through course standards, the possible connections are explored in End-of-Course exam scores. Historically, evidence has supported the integration of subject matter, specifically mathematics and science. This study examined the relationship between Algebra II End-of-Course exam scores and Chemistry End-of-Course exam scores. The sample of this study consisted of 215 students that had taken Algebra II during the fall of 2014 and Chemistry during the spring of 2015 from three suburban Middle Tennessee high schools. The research questions explored were: (a) What is the relationship between Algebra II End-of-Course exam scores and Chemistry End-of-Course exam scores? (b) Controlling for gender and prior achievement, to what extent can Algebra II End-of-Course exam scores predict Chemistry End-of-Course exam scores? And (c) Controlling for prior achievement, is there a significant difference in chemistry achievement among students who have taken honors or standard Algebra II and honors or standard Chemistry? Prior achievement was based upon Algebra I End-of-Course exam scores. In exploring the questions, it was found that there was a strong, positive relationship between Algebra II End-of-Course exam scores and Chemistry End-of-Course exam scores. Algebra II End-of-Course exam scores did significantly predict Chemistry End-of-Course exams scores; however, gender did not significantly contribute to the difference. Finally, the study concluded students who had taken honors-level courses in both Algebra II and Chemistry performed better than students who had taken standard-level courses in both subjects. The findings of the study are discussed with reference to the use of existing exam results to guide instruction in the classroom.

  17. Weighted Genetic Risk Scores and Prediction of Weight Gain in Solid Organ Transplant Populations

    PubMed Central

    Saigi-Morgui, Núria; Quteineh, Lina; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Crettol, Severine; Kutalik, Zoltán; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka; Bibert, Stéphanie; Beckmann, Sonja; Mueller, Nicolas J; Binet, Isabelle; van Delden, Christian; Steiger, Jürg; Mohacsi, Paul; Stirnimann, Guido; Soccal, Paola M.; Pascual, Manuel; Eap, Chin B

    2016-01-01

    Background Polygenic obesity in Solid Organ Transplant (SOT) populations is considered a risk factor for the development of metabolic abnormalities and graft survival. Few studies to date have studied the genetics of weight gain in SOT recipients. We aimed to determine whether weighted genetic risk scores (w-GRS) integrating genetic polymorphisms from GWAS studies (SNP group#1 and SNP group#2) and from Candidate Gene studies (SNP group#3) influence BMI in SOT populations and if they predict ≥10% weight gain (WG) one year after transplantation. To do so, two samples (nA = 995, nB = 156) were obtained from naturalistic studies and three w-GRS were constructed and tested for association with BMI over time. Prediction of 10% WG at one year after transplantation was assessed with models containing genetic and clinical factors. Results w-GRS were associated with BMI in sample A and B combined (BMI increased by 0.14 and 0.11 units per additional risk allele in SNP group#1 and #2, respectively, p-values<0.008). w-GRS of SNP group#3 showed an effect of 0.01 kg/m2 per additional risk allele when combining sample A and B (p-value 0.04). Models with genetic factors performed better than models without in predicting 10% WG at one year after transplantation. Conclusions This is the first study in SOT evaluating extensively the association of w-GRS with BMI and the influence of clinical and genetic factors on 10% of WG one year after transplantation, showing the importance of integrating genetic factors in the final model. Genetics of obesity among SOT recipients remains an important issue and can contribute to treatment personalization and prediction of WG after transplantation. PMID:27788139

  18. Predicting Poor Achievement in Early Grade School Using Kindergarten Scores on Simple Cognitive Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marcia Strong; Delgado, Christine F.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, kindergarten children's scores on nine cognitive tasks were evaluated as potential predictors of poor achievement in first grade. A set of five tasks successfully identified 83% of children who were poor readers in first grade, while just three tasks identified 72% of children who were poor achievers in math in first grade. There…

  19. Quality of Teaching Mathematics and Learning Achievement Gains: Evidence from Primary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngware, Moses W.; Ciera, James; Musyoka, Peter K.; Oketch, Moses

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of quality mathematics teaching to student achievement gains. Quality of mathematics teaching is assessed through teacher demonstration of the five strands of mathematical proficiency, the level of cognitive task demands, and teacher mathematical knowledge. Data is based on 1907 grade 6 students who sat for the…

  20. The Value-Added Achievement Gains of NBPTS-Certified Teachers in Tennessee: A Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, J. E.

    This study investigated whether National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)-certified teachers in Tennessee were exceptionally effective in bringing about objectively measured student achievement gains. Tennessee has over 40 NBPTS-certified teachers, 16 of whom teach in grades 3-8 and have value-added teacher reports in the state…

  1. Modeling of longitudinal academic achievement scores after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Barnes, Marcia; Fletcher, Jack M; Levin, Harvey S; Swank, Paul R; Song, James

    2004-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study, academic achievement scores were obtained from youth 5 to 15 years of age who sustained mild-moderate (n = 34) or severe (n = 43) traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Achievement scores were collected from baseline to 5 years following TBI and were subjected to individual growth curve analysis. The models fitted age at injury, years since injury, duration of impaired consciousness, and interaction effects to Reading Decoding, Reading Comprehension, Spelling, and Arithmetic standard scores. Although scores improved significantly over the follow-up relative to normative data from the standardization sample of the tests, children with severe TBI showed persistent deficits on all achievement scores in comparison to children with mild-moderate TBI. Interactions of the slope and age parameters for the Arithmetic and Reading Decoding scores indicated greater increases over time in achievement scores of the children injured at an older age, but deceleration in growth curves for the younger children with both mild-moderate and severe TBI. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that early brain injuries disrupt the acquisition of some academic skills. Hierarchical regression models revealed that indexes of academic achievement obtained 2 years following TBI had weak relations with the duration of impaired consciousness and socioeconomic status. In contrast, concurrent cognitive variables such as phonological processing and verbal memory accounted for more variability in academic scores. Given the significant and persistent decrement in basic academic skills in youth with severe TBI, it is clear that head-injured youth require intensive, long-term remediation and intervention not only of the academic skills themselves, but also of those cognitive abilities that support the development and maintenance of reading and math.

  2. Preschool Interpersonal Relationships Predict Kindergarten Achievement: Mediated by Gains in Emotion Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Torres, Marcela M; Domitrovich, Celene E; Bierman, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, this study tested a model in which preschool interpersonal relationships promoted kindergarten achievement in a pathway mediated by growth in emotion knowledge. The sample included 164 children attending Head Start (14% Hispanic-American, 30% African-American, 56% Caucasian; 56% girls). Preschool interpersonal relationships were indexed by student-teacher relationship closeness and positive peer interactions. Two measures of emotion knowledge (identifying emotions in photographs, recognizing emotions in stories) were assessed at the start and end of the preschool year. Structural equation models revealed that positive interpersonal relationships (with teachers and peers) predicted gains in emotion knowledge (identification, recognition) during the preschool year. Positive interpersonal relationships in preschool also predicted kindergarten achievement (controlling for initial preschool achievement); however, this association was mediated by gains in emotion knowledge during the preschool year. Implications are discussed for school readiness programs serving economically-disadvantaged children.

  3. No further gain can be achieved by calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 joints with high-sensitivity assay of C-reactive protein because of high intraindividual variability of C-reactive protein: A cross-sectional study and theoretical consideration.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Inger M J; Emamifar, Amir; Andreasen, Rikke A; Antonsen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) is commonly used to evaluate disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is a guide to treatment decision.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lower reporting limit for C-reactive protein (CRP), with respect to intraindividual biological variability, on the calculation of DAS28 and subsequent patient classification.This study consists of 2 sections: a theoretical consideration discussing the performance of CRP in calculating DAS28 taking intraindividual biological variation and lower reporting limit for CRP into account and a cross-sectional study of RA patients applying our theoretical results. Therefore, we calculated DAS28 twice, with the actual CRP values and CRP = 9 mg/L, the latter to elucidate the positive effects of reducing the lower reporting limit of CRP from <10 to <3 mg/L.Lower-reporting limit of <10 mg/L leads to overestimate DAS28. However, reducing lower reporting limit for CRP to <3 mg/L results in optimizing DAS28 calculation. Further lowering of reporting limit for CRP to <3 mg/L does not increase the precision of DAS28 owing to the relatively large intraindividual biological variation.Five hundred twelve patients were included. There was a significant difference between recalculated and patients DAS28 (P < 0.001). One hundred nine patients had DAS28 deviation (compatible to remission to low: 66, low to moderate: 39. and moderate to high: 4).Owing to significant impact of intraindividual biologic variation on DAS28 and patient classification, special attention should be paid to calculate DAS28 when CRP values are within normal range. Furthermore, we conclude that results of different studies evaluating DAS28 and treatment response are not comparable if the reporting limits of CRP are unknown.

  4. Differences in Causal Estimates from Longitudinal Analyses of Residualized versus Simple Gain Scores: Contrasting Controls for Selection and Regression Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Ferrer, Emilio; Kuhn, Brett R.; Danelia, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the causal effects of six corrective actions for children's problem behaviors, comparing four types of longitudinal analyses that correct for pre-existing differences in a cohort of 1,464 4- and 5-year-olds from Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) data. Analyses of residualized gain scores found…

  5. Error Rates in Measuring Teacher and School Performance Based on Student Test Score Gains. NCEE 2010-4004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes based on hypothesis testing, we develop error rate formulas based on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…

  6. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This paper introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  7. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  8. Selected Demographic Variables, School Music Participation, and Achievement Test Scores of Urban Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Daryl W.

    2008-01-01

    Nontransient 6th- and 8th-grade urban middle school students' achievement test scores were examined before (4th grade) and during (6th or 8th grade) enrollment in a performing ensemble. Ensemble participation (band, choir, none) and subject variables of socioeconomic status (SES) and home environment were considered. Fourth- and 6th-grade…

  9. A Model for Incorporating Response-Time Data in Scoring Achievement Tests. Research Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi; Tatsuoka, Maurice

    The differences in types of information-processing skills developed by different instructional backgrounds affect, negatively or positively, the learning of further advanced instructional materials. If prior and subsequent instructional methods are different, a proactive inhibition effect produces low achievement scores on a post test. This poses…

  10. Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap between Urban and Suburban Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Jonathan; Duncan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that…

  11. The effects of the science writing heuristic (SWH) approach versus traditional instruction on yearly critical thinking gain scores in grade 5-8 classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ching-mei

    Critical Thinking has been identified in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as skills needed to prepare students for advanced education and the future workforce. In science education, argument-based inquiry (ABI) has been proposed as one way to improve critical thinking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, an immersion argument-based inquiry approach to learning science, on students' critical thinking skills. Guided by a question-claims-evidence structure, students who participated in SWH approach were required to negotiate meaning and construct arguments using writing as a tool throughout the scientific investigation process. Students in the control groups learned science in traditional classroom settings. Data from five data sets that included 4417 students were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Yearly critical thinking gain scores, as measured by Form X of Cornell Critical Thinking Test, were compared for students who experienced the SWH approach versus students who experienced traditional instruction in both elementary (5th grade) and secondary schools (6th-8th grades). Analyses of yearly gain scores for data sets that represented a single year of implementation yielded statistically significant differences favoring SWH over traditional instruction in all instances and statistically significant interactions between gender and grade level in most instances. The interactions revealed that females had higher gain scores than males at lower grade levels but the reverse was true at higher grade levels. Analyses from data sets that included two years of implementation revealed higher overall gains for SWH instruction than for traditional instruction but most of those gains were achieved during the first year of implementation. Implications of these results for teaching critical thinking skills in science classrooms are

  12. Teacher-child relationships and academic achievement: a multilevel propensity score model approach.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Meghan P; O'Connor, Erin E; Cappella, Elise; McClowry, Sandee G

    2013-10-01

    A robust body of research finds positive cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between teacher-child relationships and children's academic achievement in elementary school. Estimating the causal effect of teacher-child relationships on children's academic achievement, however, is challenged by selection bias at the individual and school level. To address these issues, we used two multilevel propensity score matching approaches to estimate the effect of high-quality teacher-child relationships in kindergarten on math and reading achievement during children's transition to first grade. Multi-informant data were collected on 324 low-income, Black and Hispanic students, and 112 kindergarten and first-grade teachers. Results revealed significant effects of high-quality teacher-child relationships in kindergarten on math achievement in first grade. No significant effects of teacher-child relationships were detected for reading achievement. Implications for intervention development and public policy are discussed.

  13. Executive function skills and academic achievement gains in prekindergarten: Contributions of learning-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-07-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-K) predict their learning-related behaviors in the classroom and whether these behaviors then mediate associations between children's executive function skills and their pre-K literacy, language, and mathematic gains. Learning-related behaviors were quantified in terms of (a) higher levels of involvement in learning opportunities; (b) greater frequency of participation in activities that require sequential steps; (c) more participation in social-learning interactions; and (d) less instances of being unoccupied, disruptive, or in time out. Results indicated that children's learning-related behaviors mediated associations between executive function skills and literacy and mathematics gains through children's level of involvement, sequential learning behaviors, and disengagement from the classroom. The implications of the findings for early childhood education are discussed.

  14. Relationships between Scores of Gifted Children on the Stanford-Binet IV and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Howard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Forty-five gifted children, ages 11-17, were tested with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement. Results indicated 18 of 20 correlations between the area and composite scores were significant. The Stanford-Binet Short-Term Memory standard age score mean was lower than other scores' means. (Author/JDD)

  15. The Visual Aural Digit Span Test and Bender Gestalt Test as Predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa C.; Smith, Billy L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS) and Bender-Gestalt (BG) scores as predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) scores among 115 elementary school students referred for low academic achievement. Divided children into three age groups. Results suggest BG and VADS Test can be effective screening devices for young children…

  16. Male, but not Female, Alcohol-Dependent African Americans Discount Delayed Gains More Steeply than Propensity-Score Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Grucza, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol dependence is known to be associated with steep discounting of delayed rewards, but its relation to the discounting of delayed losses and probabilistic rewards is unclear. Moreover, patterns of alcohol consumption vary considerably between communities, but previous research has not examined the relation between discounting and alcohol dependence in low-income African Americans. Objectives The goal of the present study was to determine whether low-income, alcohol-dependent African Americans differ from controls in the degree to which they discount delayed rewards, delayed losses, or probabilistic rewards. Methods African American participants, both cases and controls, were recruited from the same low-income neighborhoods, and propensity-score matching was used to further control for demographic differences. Participants performed three tasks that assessed their discounting of hypothetical monetary outcomes: delayed rewards, delayed losses, and probabilistic rewards. Results Alcohol-dependent cases discounted delayed gains, but not delayed losses or probabilistic gains, more steeply than their matched controls. The difference in discounting of delayed gains was localized to the male cases, whose discounting was steeper than either the male controls or the female cases; no gender difference was observed between male and female controls. Conclusions The present results extend findings regarding discounting by substance abusers to a previously unstudied group, low-income African Americans, and suggest that in this group at least, alcohol dependence, particularly in males, may be more a reflection of choosing immediate rewards than of ignoring their delayed negative consequences. PMID:26387518

  17. Some Important Factors Predicting Mathematics Achievement Gain (1977-1978), Grades One-Six. Evaluation System Mini-Report Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    This is one of a series of brief and non-technical mini-reports of the Evaluation System of the District of Columbia Public Schools. This report deals with the prediction of gain in Prescriptive Mathematics Test (PMT) scores. Twenty-two variables were involved in the analyses reported in the mini-report. The data were analyzed for all grade…

  18. An Analysis of the Relationship between Principal Employment Interview Scores and the Achievement Scores of Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostmeyer, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between five of ISSLC's 2008 leadership standards as measured by a standardized employment interview (ICIS Principal) and the achievement of students with specific learning disabilities in core areas of instruction. Findings did not support the rejection of the null hypothesis.…

  19. Relation of Instruction and Poverty to Mathematics Achievement Gains during Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georges, Annie

    2009-01-01

    Background: Policy discussion to change the nature of teaching practices overshadows how social and economic inequalities contribute to unequal education outcomes. Research on how teaching practices contribute to the variance in test scores on a broad scale or on whether the relation of instruction to test scores is moderated by social and…

  20. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  1. Language Learner Strategies and Linguistic Competence as Factors Affecting Achievement Test Scores in English for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkovic, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the effect of two factors on achievement test scores in English as a foreign language for specific purposes in higher education: preexisting linguistic competence and frequency of use of language learner strategies. The rationale for the analysis of language learner strategies as a factor affecting achievement test outcomes is…

  2. Relationships between Language Background, Secondary School Scores, Tutorial Group Processes, and Students' Academic Achievement in PBL: Testing a Causal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaram, Veena S.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of language background in problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial groups on group processes and students' academic achievement. This study investigated the relationship between language background, secondary school score, tutorial group processes, and students' academic achievement in PBL. A validated tutorial…

  3. The Groove of Growth: How Early Gains in Math Ability Influence Adolescent Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…

  4. Exploring Gains in Reading and Mathematics Achievement among Regular and Exceptional Students Using Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Tacksoo; Davison, Mark L.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Chan, Chi-Keung; Heistad, David

    2013-01-01

    Using four-wave longitudinal reading and mathematics data (4th to 7th grades) from a large urban school district, growth curve modeling was used as a tool for examining three research questions: Are achievement gaps closing in reading and mathematics? What are the associations between prior-achievement and growth across the reading and mathematics…

  5. IQ and Perceptual Motor Scores as Predictors of Achievement Among Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Thompson, J., Sr.; Amble, Bruce R.

    1970-01-01

    The Koppitz scoring of the Bender Gestalt Test for young children was used to predict educational attainment for 74 EMH students on reading, spelling, and arithmetic. Only on the arithmetic criterion did Bender scores increase prediction, beyond the factors of chronological age and IQ.

  6. The relationship between beginning college chemistry achievement and prior knowledge, number of college mathematics courses completed, GPA of college mathematics courses completed, levels of Piagetian intellectual development, mathematics ACT score, science ACT score, and composite ACT score

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Margaret Gorjanc

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between achievement in Chem 33 (a third semester general chemistry course) and the following predictor variables: prior knowledge (Chem 32 grade), level of Piagetian intellectual development, number of college mathematics courses previously completed, grades received in prior college mathematics courses, science ACT scores, mathematics ACT scores, and composite ACT scores. During the winter semester of the 1994--1995 school year, the students who were enrolled in two sections of Chem 33, taught by the same professor, were given the TOLT test. In addition, their student records were examined in order to determine the grade they received in Chem 32, the number of mathematics courses Completed in college, the GPA for the mathematics courses completed in college, the science ACT score, mathematics ACT score, and the composite ACT score. A Pearson Correlation was performed on these variables to determine to what extent they were able to predict the student's achievement, measured by the grade in Chem 33. What was found in respect to achievement in Chem 33 was: prior knowledge was r = 0.67, GPA of mathematics courses completed in college was r = 0.58, mathematics ACT was r = 0.50, composite ACT was r = 0.40, and TOLT was r = 0.33. A stepwise multiple regression was also performed to see what interactions could be found between the variables themselves. There was no single predictor variable that adequately serves as a dominant predictor variable for success in Chem 33. It can be concluded that the Chem 32 grade (prior knowledge) coupled with the GPA of the college mathematics courses completed in college as well as the mathematics ACT score are the best predictors for achievement in Chem 33.

  7. Development and Validation of a Risk Score Predicting Substantial Weight Gain over 5 Years in Middle-Aged European Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Annika; Sørensen, Thorkild I A.; Knüppel, Sven; Travier, Noemie; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Quirós, J. Ramón; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Teucher, Birgit; Li, Kuanrong; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van der A, Daphne; Mattiello, Amalia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Hedblad, Bo; Wallström, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dartois, Laureen; Crowe, Francesca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Middleton, Lefkos; May, Anne M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boeing, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population. Methods We used lifestyle and nutritional data from 53°758 individuals followed for a median of 5.4 years from six centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to develop a risk score to predict substantial weight gain (SWG) for the next 5 years (derivation sample). Assuming linear weight gain, SWG was defined as gaining ≥10% of baseline weight during follow-up. Proportional hazards models were used to identify significant predictors of SWG separately by EPIC center. Regression coefficients of predictors were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled coefficients were used to assign weights to each predictor. The risk score was calculated as a linear combination of the predictors. External validity of the score was evaluated in nine other centers of the EPIC study (validation sample). Results Our final model included age, sex, baseline weight, level of education, baseline smoking, sports activity, alcohol use, and intake of six food groups. The model's discriminatory ability measured by the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.63–0.65) in the derivation sample and 0.57 (95% CI  = 0.56–0.58) in the validation sample, with variation between centers. Positive and negative predictive values for the optimal cut-off value of ≥200 points were 9% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion The present risk score confidently excluded a large proportion of individuals from being at any appreciable risk to develop SWG within the next 5 years. Future studies, however, may attempt to further refine the positive prediction of the score. PMID:23874419

  8. Executive Function Skills and Academic Achievement Gains in Prekindergarten: Contributions of Learning-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten…

  9. Prekindergarten Children's Executive Functioning Skills and Achievement Gains: The Utility of Direct Assessments and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale Clark; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2015-01-01

    An accumulating body of evidence suggests that young children who exhibit greater executive functioning (EF) skills in early childhood also achieve more academically. The goal of the present study was to examine the unique contributions of direct assessments and teacher ratings of children's EF skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-k) to…

  10. Improvement in national test reading scores at Key Stage 1; grade inflation or better achievement?

    PubMed

    Meadows, Sara; Herrick, David; Feiler, Anthony

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the UK National Literacy Strategy is to raise standards in literacy. Strong evidence for its success has, however, been lacking: most of the available data comes from performance on tests administered in schools or from Office for Standards in Education reports and is vulnerable to suggestions of bias. An opportunistic analysis of data from a population cohort study extending over three school years compares school-based scores at school entry and at age 7-8 with independently administered scores on similar tests. The results show a small but statistically significant rise between 1998 and 1999 and between 1998 and 2000 in scores on both Key Stage 1 Reading Standard Assessment Tasks taken in schools and the reading component of the WORD test taken independently. This is clear evidence for a real rise in reading attainment over this period, which may be attributable to the children's experience of the National Literacy Strategy.

  11. Highly Qualified Status Type and Student Achievement Scores, Special Education, and General Education: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Nicole G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine, through statistical analyses, the impact that the 2 different types of highly qualified teachers have on student achievement reading and math scores among fourth- and fifth-grade special education and general education students for the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years. The evaluation…

  12. Magnitude of Interaction between Language of Instruction of Prior Education and Learning Traits on Academic Achievement Scores of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varughese, Varughese Kuzhumannil; Fehring, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the magnitude of difference of academic achievement scores by language of instruction of prior education and the magnitude of interaction between language of instruction of prior education and students' preferred learning trait on academic performance of a group of international students in two teaching and learning…

  13. Meta-Analyses of the Relationship of Creative Achievement to both IQ and Divergent Thinking Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hee

    2008-01-01

    There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted…

  14. Middle School Characteristics That Predict Student Achievement, as Measured by the School-Wide California API Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Josie Abaroa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through quantitative research, effective middle school characteristics that predict student achievement, as measured by the school-wide California API score. Characteristics were determined using an instrument developed by the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), which asked middle…

  15. Predictive Power of School Based Assessment Scores on Students' Achievement in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in English and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opara, Ijeoma M.; Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Njoku, Joyce U.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive power of school based assessment scores on students' achievement in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in English and Mathematics. Two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. A sample of 250 students were randomly drawn…

  16. Effects of Cooperative Learning Approach on Biology Mean Achievement Scores of Secondary School Students' in Machakos District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muraya, Daniel Ngaru; Kimamo, Githui

    2011-01-01

    Performance in Biology at secondary school level in Kenya remains poor and one reason is the teaching approach adopted by teachers with teacher-centered approaches being pre-dominant. This study sought to determine the effect of cooperative learning approach on mean achievement scores in Biology of secondary school students.…

  17. Contributions of Selected Perinatal Variables to Seven-Year Psychological and Achievement Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, N. B.; And Others

    Perinatal variables were used to predict 7-year outcome for 538 children, 32% Negro and 68% white. Mother's age, birthplace, education, occupation, marital status, neuropsychiatric status, family income, number supported, birth weight, one- and five-minute Apgar scores were regressed on 7-year Verbal, Performance and Full Scale IQ, Bender, Wide…

  18. End of Course Grades and Standardized Test Scores: Are Grades Predictive of Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which end-of-course grades are predictive of Virginia Standards of Learning test scores in nine high school content areas. It also analyzed the impact of the variables school cluster attended, gender, ethnicity, disability status, Limited English Proficiency status, and socioeconomic status on the relationship…

  19. Mathematics Achievement Test Scores of American Indian and Anglo Students: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Patrick B.

    1983-01-01

    Reports a preliminary study of possible differences in the performance in mathematics between American Indian Pueblo and Anglos. Sample evaluated consisted of 65 Pueblos and 59 Anglos that excluded highest and lowest scores on Form B of the College Qualification Tests from Fall 1977 to Spring 1981 at the University of New Mexico. (ERB)

  20. Acceleration in Elementary School: Using Propensity Score Matching to Estimate the Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmann, Julia; Vock, Miriam; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Using German data, we examined the effects of one specific type of acceleration--grade skipping--on academic performance. Prior research on the effects of acceleration has suffered from methodological restrictions, especially due to a lack of appropriate comparison groups and a priori measurements. For this reason, propensity score matching was…

  1. Selecting an appropriate caliper can be essential for achieving good balance with propensity score matching.

    PubMed

    Lunt, Mark

    2014-01-15

    Matching on the propensity score is widely used to estimate the effect of an exposure in observational studies. However, the quality of the matches can be affected by decisions made during the matching process, particularly the order in which subjects are selected for matching and the maximum permitted difference between matched subjects (the "caliper"). This study used simulations to explore the effects of these decisions on both the imbalance of covariates and the closeness of matching, while allowing the numbers of potential matches and strengths of association between the confounding variable and the exposure to vary. It was found that, without a caliper, substantial bias was possible, particularly with a relatively small reservoir of potential matches and strong confounder-exposure association. Use of the recommended caliper reduced the bias considerably, but bias remained if subjects were selected by increasing or decreasing propensity score. A tighter caliper led to greatly reduced bias and closer matches, although some subjects could not be matched. This study suggests that a narrow caliper can improve the performance of propensity score matching. In situations where it is impossible to find appropriate matches for all exposed subjects, it is better to select subjects in order of the best available matches, rather than increasing or decreasing the propensity score.

  2. Assessing Student Achievement in Large-Scale Educational Programs Using Hierarchical Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Angela L.; Lalonde, Trent L.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers assessing the efficacy of educational programs face challenges due to issues with non-randomization and the likelihood of dependence between nested subjects. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate a rigorous research methodology using a hierarchical propensity score matching method that can be utilized in contexts where…

  3. The Effect of Age at School Entry on Reading Achievement Scores among South Carolina Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Molly M.; Mandeville, Garrett K.

    1990-01-01

    Basic Skills Assessment Program reading scores for all South Carolina students in grades 1-3 and 6 were analyzed. Failure to meet state standards was higher among younger, male, Black, and lunch-subsidized students. Risk of failure was still higher for younger students after controls for race, gender and lunch-payment status. (Author/PB)

  4. Relationship of Oral Reading Fluency Probes on Students' Reading Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devena, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Current emphasis on adequate academic progress monitored by standardized assessments has increased focus on student acquisition of required skills. Reading ability can be assessed through student achievement on Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures. This study investigated the effectiveness of using ORF measures to predict achievement on high stakes…

  5. Effects of Computer-Based Programs on Mathematical Achievement Scores for Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenel, Jessica; Lambeth, Dawn T.; Spires, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research study was to identify the effects of computer-based programs on mathematical achievement, perceptions, and engagement of fourth-grade students. The 31 student participants were divided into two intervention groups, as a hands-on group and a computer-based group. Student achievement was measured by comparing the pretest…

  6. Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students' Math Performance: Achievement Test Scores and Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…

  7. The Impact of Fast ForWord on MCT Scores and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vinkle, Michael Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Educators today were concerned with how the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 dealt with the improvement of education throughout the United States. Schools should have put forth a greater effort and reduced the achievement gap between different groups of students based on race, gender, special education status, and if that student was economically…

  8. Psychometric Approaches to the Identification of LD: IQ and Achievement Scores Are Not Sufficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis,David J; Fletcher,Jack M.; Stuebing,Karla K.; Lyon,G. Reid; Shaywitz,Bennett A; Shaywitz,Sally E.

    2005-01-01

    Simulated data were used to demonstrate that groups formed by imposing cut-points based on either discrepancy or low-achievement definitions of learning disabilities (LD) are unstable over time. Similar problems were demonstrated in longitudinal data from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study, where 39% of the children designated as having LD in…

  9. Strategies for Success: Links to Increased Mathematics Achievement Scores of English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pray, Lisa; Ilieva, Vessela

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the link between mathematic teachers' use of English-language learner (ELL) strategies and the mathematics achievement of their students who are ELLs. Interviews and observations of mathematic teachers who taught ELLs were used to document instructional strategies use. The findings from the interviews and observations…

  10. Using Formative Reading Assessments and Data Utilization to Improve ELL Spanish Speaking Students' Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Maureen Dugan

    2013-01-01

    The demands and expectations placed on all schools in the United States to meet the needs of a growing and diverse population continue to raise the questions, what needs to be done in order for all students to achieve success, and how can this success be measured? This study, researched and reported in the form of a dissertation, was performed on…

  11. Major Field Achievement Test in Business: Guidelines for Improved Outcome Scores--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, J. Patrick; White, Jason T.

    2007-01-01

    Outcomes measurements have always been an important part of proving to outside constituencies how you "measure up" to other schools with your business programs. A common nationally-normed exam that is used is the Major Field Achievement Test in Business from Educational Testing Services. Our paper discusses some guidelines that we are…

  12. Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement and Retention Scores: A Case of Problem-Based Learning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajai, John T.; Imoko, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess gender differences in mathematics achievement and retention by using Problem-Based Learning (PBL). The design of the study was pre-posttest quasi-experimental. Four hundred and twenty eight senior secondary one (SS I) students using multistage sampling from ten grant-aided and government schools were involved in…

  13. The Effects of Inquiry Teaching on Student Science Achievement and Attitudes: Evidence from Propensity Score Analysis of PISA Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Feng; McComas, William F.

    2015-02-01

    Gauging the effectiveness of specific teaching strategies remains a major topic of interest in science education. Inquiry teaching among others has been supported by extensive research and recommended by the National Science Education Standards. However, most of the empirical evidence in support was collected in research settings rather than in normal school environments. Propensity score analysis was performed within the marginal mean weighting through stratification (MMW-S) approach to examine the effects of the level of openness of inquiry teaching on student science achievement and attitudes with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data. Weighting subjects on MMW-S weight successfully balanced all treatment groups on all selected covariates. Significant effects were identified on both cognitive and attitudinal outcomes. For student science achievement, the highest score was achieved at Level 2 inquiry teaching, that is, students conduct activities and draw conclusions from data. For student science attitudes, higher level of inquiry teaching resulted in higher scores. The said conclusions were generally held in most PISA 2006 participating countries when the analysis was performed in each country separately.

  14. Generational Gains on the Draw-a-Person IQ Scores: A Three-Decade Comparison from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagitcibasi, Cigdem; Biricik, Duygu

    2011-01-01

    In 1977 Draw-a-Person test was administered to fifth grade school children in a city and its surrounding rural villages in Turkey. In 2010, more than thirty years later, the test was administered again to a corresponding group of fifth grade children in the same locations. It is rare that we get scores from the "same" population over a…

  15. Gains in income during early childhood are associated with decreases in BMI z scores among children in the United States1234

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that changes in family income are an important determinant of children’s body mass index (BMI). However, few studies have leveraged longitudinal data to investigate the association of changes in family income on changes in BMI z score. Objective: This study aimed to assess whether gains in family income are associated with changes in BMI z score among children in the United States by using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Design: We used longitudinal data from the ECLS-B to assess whether gains in family income, assessed by using the poverty to income ratio (PIR), were associated with changes in BMI z score among children aged 2–6 y. Child anthropometric characteristics and family income were assessed at 2-y, 4-y, 5-y, and 6-y visits. Sex-stratified, individual fixed-effects linear regression models compared children with themselves over time to control for time-invariant measured and unmeasured confounding factors. Models also controlled for time-varying confounders, including number of siblings, household structure (2 parents, one parent, or unrelated guardian), age, and age squared. Results: Children (n = ∼9200) had a mean ± SE change in BMI z score of 0.12 ± 0.022, and family income increased by ∼$3361 ± $536 during the 4-y period of observation (2003–2007). The association between increased PIR and change in BMI z score varied by sex but not by race-ethnicity. Among girls, an increase in PIR was associated with a statistically significant decrease in BMI z score (βPIR = −0.022; 95% CI: −0.042, −0.0016). There was a statistically significant association between PIR and BMI z score among preterm boys (βPIR + β PIRXpreterm = −0.067; 95% CI: −0.12, −0.018), but the relation was not statistically significant among boys born at term (βPIR = −0.0049; 95% CI: −0.024, 0.014). Conclusions: By comparing children with themselves over time, we overcome

  16. Role of amplifiers gain on the achievable information rate of M-ary PSK and QAM constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nuno A.; Pinto, Armando N.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of optical amplification on the achievable information rate (AIR) is evaluated, considering continuous and discrete modulation formats. The theoretical model for the AIR considers the optical amplification noise, the nonlinear optical noise, and the coherent receiver shot and thermal noise sources. Two different scenarios for the AIR are analyzed. First, we admit that the gain of each optical amplifier under or over compensate the previous fiber span loss. After that, we consider the case where we remove optical amplifiers from the transmission link. Results show that for the first scenario, when we under or over compensate the span loss the AIR tends to decrease. Nevertheless, for low cardinality constellations the AIR is not primarily limited by the gain of the optical amplifiers. In the second scenario, results show that it is possible to remove amplification stages from the end to the beginning of the transmission link without decreasing the AIR. We observe that for a polarization multiplexing (PM) 4-PSK constellation the plateau of 4 bits/symbol is preserved even if we remove the last two amplifiers from the transmission link.

  17. The Effect of Improved School Climate over Time on Fifth-Grade Students' Achievement Assessment Scores and Teacher Administered Grade Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of improved school climate, as teachers' beliefs changed from negative to positive over time, on students' reading, math, and writing assessment scores and teacher administered grade scores in reading, math, and writing. Overall, findings indicate that lose, maintain, or improve…

  18. The Use of Group Activities in Introductory Biology Supports Learning Gains and Uniquely Benefits High-Achieving Students.

    PubMed

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly H; Saluja, Neeti; Carleton, Karen L; Haag, Eric S

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of small-group active engagement (GAE) exercises in an introductory biology course (BSCI207) taught in a large auditorium setting. BSCI207 (Principles of Biology III-Organismal Biology) is the third introductory core course for Biological Sciences majors. In fall 2014, the instructors redesigned one section to include GAE activities to supplement lecture content. One section (n = 198) employed three lectures per week. The other section (n = 136) replaced one lecture per week with a GAE class. We explored the benefits and challenges associated with implementing GAE exercises and their relative effectiveness for unique student groups (e.g., minority students, high- and low-grade point average [GPA] students). Our findings show that undergraduates in the GAE class exhibited greater improvement in learning outcomes than undergraduates in the traditional class. Findings also indicate that high-achieving students experienced the greatest benefit from GAE activities. Some at-risk student groups (e.g., two-year transfer students) showed comparably low learning gains in the course, despite the additional support that may have been afforded by active learning. Collectively, these findings provide valuable feedback that may assist other instructors who wish to revise their courses and recommendations for institutions regarding prerequisite coursework approval policies.

  19. The Use of Group Activities in Introductory Biology Supports Learning Gains and Uniquely Benefits High-Achieving Students†

    PubMed Central

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly H.; Saluja, Neeti; Carleton, Karen L.; Haag, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of small-group active engagement (GAE) exercises in an introductory biology course (BSCI207) taught in a large auditorium setting. BSCI207 (Principles of Biology III—Organismal Biology) is the third introductory core course for Biological Sciences majors. In fall 2014, the instructors redesigned one section to include GAE activities to supplement lecture content. One section (n = 198) employed three lectures per week. The other section (n = 136) replaced one lecture per week with a GAE class. We explored the benefits and challenges associated with implementing GAE exercises and their relative effectiveness for unique student groups (e.g., minority students, high- and low-grade point average [GPA] students). Our findings show that undergraduates in the GAE class exhibited greater improvement in learning outcomes than undergraduates in the traditional class. Findings also indicate that high-achieving students experienced the greatest benefit from GAE activities. Some at-risk student groups (e.g., two-year transfer students) showed comparably low learning gains in the course, despite the additional support that may have been afforded by active learning. Collectively, these findings provide valuable feedback that may assist other instructors who wish to revise their courses and recommendations for institutions regarding prerequisite coursework approval policies. PMID:28101262

  20. Relationship Between Locus of Control Scores and Reading Achievement of Black and White Second Grade Children from Two Socio-Economic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ralph L.; Uhl, Norman P.

    This study investigates the effect of socio-economic level (lower and upper-middle), race (black and white), and sex on locus of control of reinforcement scores, and the relationship between the latter scores and reading achievement in a sample of 211 second grade children. A stratified random sampling technique insured adequate levels of each…

  1. Norm-Referenced Cognitive and Achievement Scores as Predictors of State-Wide High-Stakes Test Scores with Students Referred for Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, James M., II

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recent federal education initiatives, such as No Child Left Behind (NCLB; 2001), have focused on school accountability for student achievement including achievement of traditionally at-risk populations, such as students in special education, students from low-income or high poverty areas, and students who speak English as a new second…

  2. Schooling Contexts and Achievement: Exploring Relationships between School Composition and North Carolina End of Grade Reading Test Scores of Hispanic Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Kendra Cornwell

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, Hispanic achievement lags behind non-Hispanic peers in reading proficiency scores. The gap in achievement persists through subsequent grade levels for Black, Hispanic, and poor students of all races. Current school environments present evidence of dissimilar levels of minority and poverty in schools. Identifiable differences in…

  3. Using estimated factor scores from a bifactor analysis to examine the unique effects of the latent variables measured by the WAIS-IV on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, John H; Benson, Nicholas; Floyd, Randy G

    2015-12-01

    This study used estimated factor scores from a bifactor analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) to examine the unique effects of its latent variables on academic achievement. In doing so, we addressed the potential limitation of multicollinearity in previous studies of the incremental validity of the WAIS-IV. First, factor scores representing psychometric g and 4 group factors representing the WAIS-IV index scales were computed from a bifactor model. Subtest and composite scores for the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-II) were then predicted from these estimated factor scores in simultaneous multiple regression. Results of this study only partially replicated the findings of previous research on the incremental validity of scores that can be derived from performance on the WAIS-IV. Although we found that psychometric g is the most important underlying construct measured by the WAIS-IV for the prediction of academic achievement in general, results indicated that the unique effect of Verbal Comprehension is also important for predicting achievement in reading, spelling, and oral communication skills. Based on these results, measures of both psychometric g and Verbal Comprehension could be cautiously interpreted when considering high school students' performance in these areas of achievement.

  4. How Much Professional Development Is Needed to Effect Positive Gains in K-6 Student Achievement on High Stakes Science Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James A.; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard A.; Yore, Larry D.; Everett, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study that examines the relationship between teacher participation in a multi-year, K-6 professional development effort and the "high stakes" science test scores of different student groups in 33 rural mid-west school districts in the USA. The professional development program involved 1,269 elementary school…

  5. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  6. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery) between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM) gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS), which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM—admission FIM)/(Maximum possible FIM—Admission FIM) x 100. The cut-off value (criterion) deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%). Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself. PMID:27780215

  7. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Marco; Massimiani, Maria Pia; Paravati, Stefano; Agosti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery) between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM) gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS), which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM)/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM) x 100. The cut-off value (criterion) deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%). Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.

  8. Heifer body weight gain and reproductive achievement in response to protein and energy supplementation while grazing dormant range forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifers grazing winter range require supplemental nutrients to compliment dormant forage to achieve optimal growth and performance. A study was conducted to evaluate nutritional environment and effect of different supplementation strategies for developing heifers grazing dormant winter range. Eigh...

  9. State Report Appendix: Arizona Student Achievement Program, Spring 1997. Individual Percentile Rank Scores by School, District, County, and State, Grades 3 through 12. Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This is the 17th year of statewide student testing under the Arizona Student Achievement Program. To fulfill the requirements of Arizona law, a nationally standardized, norm-referenced achievement test in the subjects of reading, language, and mathematics must be adopted and implemented for Arizona schools. For the 1996-97 school year, the State…

  10. [English as a foreign language (EFL) homework diaries: evaluating gains and constraints for self-regulated learning and achievement].

    PubMed

    Rosário, Pedro; Mourão, Rosa; Trigo, Luisa; Suárez, Natalia; Fernández, Estrella; Tuero-Herrero, Ellián

    2011-11-01

    Although homework completion is said to be rather important to achievement, nowadays there is a growing concern of educators about the increasing number of students who do not engage properly on doing the homework tasks and the subsequent impact on school failure rates. Focusing on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and using a sample of 591 Portuguese fifth and sixth graders, the present study analyses the role played by a number of homework variables on students' achievement (proximal and distal), and their mediating role on the use of self-regulated learning strategies and perceived self-efficacy in the domain. Data confirm the indirect effect of homework on school achievement, by means of the referred cognitive and motivational variables (use of self-regulated learning strategies and self-efficacy). These findings are further discussed in order to highlight the significant role homework completion can play on fighting school failure.

  11. Third Phase: Achievement Gains Associated with Implementation of the Assistant Teacher Program in the First Three Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Herbert M.

    The effectiveness of Mississippi's Assistant Teacher Program (ATP) was evaluated after its third year of operation, determining: (1) whether first graders who were exposed to teachers and assistant teachers who had been in ATP for three years continued to make progress in academic achievement; (2) the effectiveness of ATP in fostering achievement…

  12. Milwaukee Independent Charter Schools Study: Final Report on Four-Year Achievement Gains. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Carlson, Deven; Dean, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The general purpose of this five-year evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of Milwaukee's independent charter schools in promoting student achievement growth. Independent charter schools are authorized by nonschool-district entities and are considered "independent" because they are not a part of the Milwaukee Public School District…

  13. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Elementary Principals' Perceptions of Their Leadership Behaviors and the Impact on One Year of Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between principals' perceptions of their learning-centered leadership behaviors and one year of reading achievement scores. Perceptions of principals were gathered from 31 out of 42 elementary schools in a district located in Central Virginia. This study explored the relationship between…

  14. The Effects of Head Start on Children's Kindergarten Retention, Reading and Math Achievement in Fall Kindergarten--An Application of Propensity Score Method and Sensitivity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), this paper applied optimal propensity score matching method to evaluate the effects of Head Start on children's kindergarten retention, reading and math achievement in fall kindergarten comparing with center-based care. Both parametric and nonparametric…

  15. Analysis of Math and Reading Achievement Scores of Students Attending Year-Round Calendar Schools and Traditional Calendar Schools in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abakwue, Chimaeze Ikechi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there were a significant difference in math and reading academic achievement scores between eighth-grade students attending year-round calendar schools and eighth-grade students attending traditional calendar schools based on the TCAP. In addition, this study investigated math and reading achievement…

  16. What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

  17. Assessing the Incremental Value of KABC-II Luria Model Scores in Predicting Achievement: What Do They Tell Us beyond the MPI?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.; Spurgin, Angelia R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the incremental validity of the Luria interpretive scheme for the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) for predicting scores on the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition (KTEA-II). All participants were children and adolescents (N = 2,025) drawn from the nationally…

  18. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to…

  19. Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire across Gender and Age in a Sample of Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Castejon, Juan L.; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Delgado, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of scores on the Spanish version of the "Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire" (AGTQ) across gender and age groups in 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) in grades 7 through 10. The equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor…

  20. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire in a Sample of Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Castejon, Juan L.; Valle, Antonio; Delgado, Beatriz; Marzo, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ) using a sample of 2,022 (51.1% boys) Spanish students from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the correlated three-factor structure of the AGTQ in this sample: Learning…

  1. The Politics of Achievement Gaps: U.S. Public Opinion on Race-Based and Wealth-Based Differences in Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valant, Jon; Newark, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, researchers have documented large differences in average test scores between minority and White students and between poor and wealthy students. These gaps are a focal point of reformers' and policymakers' efforts to address educational inequities. However, the U.S. public's views on achievement gaps have received little attention from…

  2. Precision Gains from Publically Available School Proficiency Measures Compared to Study-Collected Test Scores in Education Cluster-Randomized Trials. NCEE 2010-4003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deke, John; Dragoset, Lisa; Moore, Ravaris

    2010-01-01

    In randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where the outcome is a student-level, study-collected test score, a particularly valuable piece of information is a study-collected baseline score from the same or similar test (a pre-test). Pre-test scores can be used to increase the precision of impact estimates, conduct subgroup analysis, and reduce bias…

  3. Propensity Score Methods as Alternatives to Value-Added Modeling for the Estimation of Teacher Contributions to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kimberlee Kaye Callister

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential for using propensity score-based matching methods to estimate teacher contributions to student learning. Value-added models are increasingly used in teacher accountability systems in the United States in spite of ongoing qualms about the validity of teacher quality estimates resulting from…

  4. Determining Minimum Cognitive Scores for the First-Time Academic Achievement Success on the Education Doctoral Comprehensive Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavil, Jafus Kenyatta

    2009-01-01

    This purpose of the present study was to estimate minimum admission requirements using cognitive measures that will maximize candidate success on the doctoral comprehensive examination. Moreover, the present study established minimum scores on the Graduate Record Examinations (verbal and quantitative components) that will maximize doctoral student…

  5. Mathematics Achievement: Changes in Achievement Scores for Grades Six and Eight After Instruction in Modern Mathematics Programs for Four Years or More, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norland, Charles R.

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of instruction using modern mathematics materials to instruction using traditional materials. Arithmetic achievement comparisons of sixth and eighth grade groups for the 1968-69 school year were made with their counterparts for the 1964-65 school year. Five schools were included. Subtests…

  6. An Investigation of Discrepancy Scores between Intelligence and WRAT-R Achievement in Mentally Retarded and Learning Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walthall, Joe; Smith, Terry

    This study investigated the relationship between measured intelligence and discrepancies existing between actual achievement levels and projected achievement levels in mildly handicapped resource room students in Arkansas. Twenty-seven students had been identified as learning disabled and 19 as mildly mentally retarded. Subjects each received…

  7. The Predictive Relation of a High School Mathematic GPA to High-Stakes Assessment Achievement Scores in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Course grades, which often include non-achievement factors such as effort and behavior and are subject to individual teacher grading philosophies, suffer from issues of unreliability. Yet, course grades continue to be utilized as a primary tool for reporting academic achievement to students and parents and are used by most colleges and…

  8. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  9. The Impact of Household Possessions on Youth's Academic Achievement in the Ghana YouthSave Experiment: A Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Gina A. N.; Masa, Rainier D.; Wretman, Christopher J.; Ansong, David

    2013-01-01

    Household assets as part of youth's family background have been found to have a significant impact on youth's academic achievement. In this study, the impact of household possessions on youth's academic achievement in the Ghana YouthSave experiment is investigated. Findings support the hypothesized positive direction of the impact of household…

  10. A comparative study of the Louisiana Graduation Exit Exam science scores and student achievement based on block, modified block, and traditional bell schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczala, Deanna Marie

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among bell schedules, GEE 21 science scores, and cumulative GPAs. Factors under consideration included teacher perspective, gender, ethnicity and students' at-risk status. The researcher collected data from the Louisiana Department of Education (LDE) targeting seven schools for three types of bell schedules---traditional, modified block, and block. From each school, the cumulative GPAs and GEF 21 science scores of up to 50 randomly selected students were analyzed. The effectiveness of different bells schedules on student achievement has resulted in conflicting data. Some educators feel that block scheduling will provide teachers with more time to engage students in higher-order thinking problems and to better engage them in the content material, thus improving student achievement overall (Gullatt, 2006). Some studies found that block scheduling provides students the opportunity to spend more time examining a subject with greater detail for a longer period of continuous time. Other studies have found that students on traditional schedules outperform block scheduled students on high stakes testing (Veal & Schreiber, 1999). Using a causal-comparative research design, the researcher examined the effect of three different bell schedules on student cumulative GPAS and GEE 21 science scores. The cumulative GPAs for the students were used to determine if there was a difference in the achievement level for students taught using different bell schedules. The GEE 21 science scores were also assessed for possible differences in learning science across various bell schedules.

  11. Analysis of WISC-III, Stanford-Binet:IV, and academic achievement test scores in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L

    2003-06-01

    Nonverbal IQs were greater than verbal IQs for young children (3-7 years of age) on the Stanford-Binet:IV (n = 53). However, WISC-III verbal and nonverbal IQs were similar for older children, 6-15 years of age (n = 63). Stanford-Binet:IV profiles were generally consistent for the low-IQ (< 80) and high-IQ (> or = 80) groups, with high scores on visual matching tests (Bead Memory and Quantitative Reasoning). The low- and high-WISC-III IQ groups both performed well relative to IQ on tests of lexical knowledge (Similarities, Information, and Vocabulary), but not on language comprehension and social reasoning (Comprehension). The low-IQ group did best on visuo-motor subtests (Object Assembly and Block Design), but the high-IQ group did not. The high-IQ group had significantly low scores on the Digit Span, Arithmetic, Coding, VMI, and WIAT Written Expression tests, suggesting attention and writing weaknesses.

  12. Analysis of WISC-III, Stanford-Binet: IV, and Academic Achievement Test Scores in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2003-01-01

    Nonverbal IQs were greater than verbal IQs for children (ages 3-7) on the Stanford-Binet: IV (n=53). However, WISC-III verbal and nonverbal IQs were similar for older children, 6-15 years of age (n=63). Stanford-Binet: IV profiles were generally consistent for the low-IQ and high-IQ groups with high scores on visual matching tests. (Contains…

  13. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  14. A Study of the Effects of Brain Gym Exercises on the Achievement Scores of Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study explored whether an intervention involving Brain Gym exercises designed to increase academic achievement in the areas of math and reading/language arts would be successful. Three groups were used in the study: an initial treatment group, a delayed treatment group, and a control group. Each of the three groups was comprised of 20…

  15. Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not out perform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation…

  16. Beyond Benchmarks and Scores: Reasserting the Role of Motivation and Interest in Children's Academic Achievement--An ACEI Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2007-01-01

    There is little question that the fundamental purpose of education--what the ancient Greeks referred to as the "telos"--is to promote student learning. For decades, both experts and the general public have agreed that any effort to improve the education system must focus squarely on optimizing student learning, motivating students to achieve, and…

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

  18. The Long-Term Differential Achievement Effects of School Socioeconomic Composition in Primary Education: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfi, Barbara; Haelermans, Carla; De Fraine, Bieke

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of school socio-economic composition on student achievement growth trajectories have been a hot topic of discussion among politicians around the world for many years. However, the bulk of research investigating school socio-economic composition effects has been limited in important ways. Aims: In an attempt to overcome the…

  19. Predicting High School Graduation for Latino Males Using Expectancy Value Theory of Motivation and Tenth Grade Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knape, Erin Oakley

    2010-01-01

    National education data indicate that young men of color and students living in poverty are not experiencing the same academic success as their female, White, or higher socioeconomic status peers, as evidenced by low reading achievement levels and high dropout rates. Of particular concern is the underachievement of Latino males, who currently have…

  20. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Quinn, Patrick D; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-05-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed.

  1. What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed. PMID:24072936

  2. Critical Combinations of Radiation Dose and Volume Predict Intelligence Quotient and Academic Achievement Scores After Craniospinal Irradiation in Children With Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Schreiber, Jane E.; Wu, Shengjie; Lukose, Renin; Xiong, Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To prospectively follow children treated with craniospinal irradiation to determine critical combinations of radiation dose and volume that would predict for cognitive effects. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2003, 58 patients (median age 8.14 years, range 3.99-20.11 years) with medulloblastoma received risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation followed by dose-intense chemotherapy and were followed longitudinally with multiple cognitive evaluations (through 5 years after treatment) that included intelligence quotient (estimated intelligence quotient, full-scale, verbal, and performance) and academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) tests. Craniospinal irradiation consisted of 23.4 Gy for average-risk patients (nonmetastatic) and 36-39.6 Gy for high-risk patients (metastatic or residual disease >1.5 cm{sup 2}). The primary site was treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy using a 2-cm clinical target volume margin. The effect of clinical variables and radiation dose to different brain volumes were modeled to estimate cognitive scores after treatment. Results: A decline with time for all test scores was observed for the entire cohort. Sex, race, and cerebrospinal fluid shunt status had a significant impact on baseline scores. Age and mean radiation dose to specific brain volumes, including the temporal lobes and hippocampi, had a significant impact on longitudinal scores. Dichotomized dose distributions at 25 Gy, 35 Gy, 45 Gy, and 55 Gy were modeled to show the impact of the high-dose volume on longitudinal test scores. The 50% risk of a below-normal cognitive test score was calculated according to mean dose and dose intervals between 25 Gy and 55 Gy at 10-Gy increments according to brain volume and age. Conclusions: The ability to predict cognitive outcomes in children with medulloblastoma using dose-effects models for different brain subvolumes will improve treatment planning, guide intervention, and help

  3. Achieving high-resolution soft-tissue imaging with cone-beam CT: a two-pronged approach for modulation of x-ray fluence and detector gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, S. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Moseley, D. J.; Keller, H.; Shkumat, N. A.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2005-04-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) presents a highly promising and challenging advanced application of flat-panel detectors (FPDs). The great advantage of this adaptable technology is in the potential for sub-mm 3D spatial resolution in combination with soft-tissue detectability. While the former is achieved naturally by CBCT systems incorporating modern FPD designs (e.g., 200 - 400 um pixel pitch), the latter presents a significant challenge due to limitations in FPD dynamic range, large field of view, and elevated levels of x-ray scatter in typical CBCT configurations. We are investigating a two-pronged strategy to maximizing soft-tissue detectability in CBCT: 1) front-end solutions, including novel beam modulation designs (viz., spatially varying compensators) that alleviate detector dynamic range requirements, reduce x-ray scatter, and better distribute imaging dose in a manner suited to soft-tissue visualization throughout the field of view; and 2) back-end solutions, including implementation of an advanced FPD design (Varian PaxScan 4030CB) that features dual-gain and dynamic gain switching that effectively extends detector dynamic range to 18 bits. These strategies are explored quantitatively on CBCT imaging platforms developed in our laboratory, including a dedicated CBCT bench and a mobile isocentric C-arm (Siemens PowerMobil). Pre-clinical evaluation of improved soft-tissue visibility was carried out in phantom and patient imaging with the C-arm device. Incorporation of these strategies begin to reveal the full potential of CBCT for soft-tissue visualization, an essential step in realizing broad utility of this adaptable technology for diagnostic and image-guided procedures.

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kentucky's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale…

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 1390 for non-Title I students and 1220 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 1420 for non-Title I students and 1270 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  7. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2003, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 598 for non-Title I students and 558 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 599 for non-Title I students and 556 for Title I students. Between 2003 and 2009, the mean scale…

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kansas' test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 80 for non-Title I students and 73 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 84 for non-Title I students and 78 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Rhode Island's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 435 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 440 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  10. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, 59% of non-Title I 4th graders and 29% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 64% of non-Title I 4th graders and 31% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2006 and 2009, the…

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Tennessee's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 501 for non-Title I students and 486 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 512 for non-Title I students and 495 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale…

  12. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, 82% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 90% of non-Title I 4th graders and 78% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2004 and 2009, the percentage…

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Missouri's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 661 for non-Title I students and 642 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 661 for non-Title I students and 648 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, there was no…

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maine's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Idaho's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 209 for non-Title I students and 205 for Title I students. In 2007, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 211 for non-Title I students and 208 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  16. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles New Hampshire's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 341 for non-Title I students and 315 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 379 for non-Title I students and 340 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2008, the mean scale…

  18. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 167 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. In 2009 the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 168 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Three years of comparable mean scale score data were not available from the state. In 2004, 77% of non-Title I 4th graders and 60% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 75% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th…

  20. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Delaware's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 474 for non-Title I students and 464 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 478 for non-Title I students and 467 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  1. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 2297 for non-Title I students and 2207 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 2334 for non-Title I students and 2235 for Title I students. Between 2005 and 2009, the mean scale…

  2. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 478 for non-Title I students and 445 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-title I students and 450 for title I students. Between 2005 and 2008, the mean scale…

  3. Investigating the Robustness of School-Performance Ratings to Three Factors Affecting the Underlying Student-Level Academic-Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Hui Leng

    2012-01-01

    Standardized-test scores are increasingly important indicators of school success. But how robust are school-performance ratings when they are based on measures derived from these scores? In my thesis, using data from Houston Independent School District (HISD) and New York State (NYS), I examined the robustness of school-performance ratings across…

  4. Elementary Principal Leadership Practices, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy about Teacher Evaluation in Title I Urban Schools Making Gains in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Karen Cohen

    2013-01-01

    Current school reform efforts aim to improve teaching and learning with emphasis on accountability for student achievement. The success of school reform depends on the motivation and capacities of school leaders. It is important to know what effective leadership practices look like to understand the direct impact to student achievement,…

  5. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices.

  6. New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles--Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment. Policy Brief 12-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, William; Coghlan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to relieve overcrowded schools operating on multiple tracks, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) has invested more than $19 billion to build 130 new facilities over the past decade. District leaders asked researchers at Berkeley to estimate the achievement effects of this massive initiative--benefits that may stem from entering…

  7. Block Scheduled High School Achievement: Part II. Comparison of End-of-Course Test Scores for Blocked and Nonblocked High Schools (1993 through 1996). Evaluation Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

    Block scheduling has grown rapidly in recent years. In North Carolina, 77 schools started block scheduling in 1995-96, bringing the total number of blocked schools in the state to 207. A previous evaluation compared 1995 End-of-Course (EOC) Test scores for block-scheduled (blocked) and nonblocked schools. This report presents results of the…

  8. Effects of Traditional versus Tactual/Kinesthetic versus Interactive-Whiteboard Instruction on Primary Students' Vocabulary Achievement- and Attitude-Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masera, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    This researcher examined the effects of Traditional versus Tactual/Kinesthetic versus Interactive Whiteboard instruction on short- and long-term word-recall and attitude-test scores of primary students. The sample included 87 children, 45 kindergarten and 42 first-grade students. Participants were 41 males and 46 females from a suburban elementary…

  9. A Comparative Study of the Louisiana Graduation Exit Exam Science Scores and Student Achievement Based on Block, Modified Block, and Traditional Bell Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buczala, Deanna Marie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among bell schedules, GEE 21 science scores, and cumulative GPAs. Factors under consideration included teacher perspective, gender, ethnicity and students' at-risk status. The researcher collected data from the Louisiana Department of Education (LDE) targeting seven schools for three…

  10. Disentangling the Role of High School Grades, "SAT"® Scores, and SES in Predicting College Achievement. Research Report. ETS RR-13-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on high school grade-point average (HSGPA) in college admissions may foster ethnic diversity and communicate the importance of high school performance. It has further been claimed that HSGPA is the best single predictor of college grades and that it is more equitable than test scores because of a smaller association with socioeconomic…

  11. Effect of Computer-Delivered Testing on Achievement in a Mastery Learning Course of Study with Partial Scoring and Variable Pacing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard M.; Surkan, Alvin J.

    The recent arrival of portable computer systems with high-level language interpreters now makes it practical to rapidly develop complex testing and scoring programs. These programs permit undergraduates access, at arbitrary times, to testing as an integral part of a mastery learning strategy. Effects of introducing the computer were studied by…

  12. Apgar Scores

    MedlinePlus

    ... because she is blue and not pink. Most newborn infants have Apgar scores greater than 7. Because their ... between 8 and 10. A small percentage of newborns have Apgar scores of less than ... low scores than infants with normal births. These scores may reflect difficulties ...

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; McMurrer, Jennifer; Silva, Malini R.

    2011-01-01

    Title I provides extra instructional services designed to raise achievement for low-performing students in schools with relatively high poverty rates, and for all students in many of the nation's highest-poverty schools. To learn more about how well Title I students are performing academically, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) compared…

  14. "Smart Students Get Perfect Scores in Tests without Studying Much": Why Is an Effortless Achiever Identity Attractive, and for Whom Is It Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carolyn; Nyström, Anne-Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Discourses about the value of effort and hard work are prevalent and powerful in many western societies and educational contexts. Yet, paradoxically, in these same contexts effortless achievement is often lauded, and in certain discourses is heralded as the pinnacle of success and a sign of genius. In this paper we interrogate discourses about…

  15. Test Scores Soar: A Comparision Study of 7th Grade Students with Disabilities Math Achievement in Full Inclusion and Self-Contained Special Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Donise

    2014-01-01

    Educational institutions are placing students with disabilities in inclusive programming to meet legislative requirements. School districts have been mandated to develop rigorous programs that can increase the academic achievement of students with disabilities, as well as their participation in general education classrooms. Many school districts,…

  16. An Investigation of Later Academic Achievement between Groups of Students Based on Their Category of DIAL-R Score When Entering Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Janice Williams

    2013-01-01

    The era of "high stakes" testing in older grades has contributed to higher achievement expectations in the preschool years. Early childhood is a significant period in the development of the whole child. The skills children build in kindergarten are fundamental to learning success. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in…

  17. Estimating Causal Effects of Teacher-Child Relationships on Reading and Math Achievement in a High-Risk Sample: A Multi-Level Propensity Score Matching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; O'Connor, Erin E.; Cappella, Elise; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2013-01-01

    A robust body of research has identified associations between positive teacher-child relationships--characterized by high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict--and children's academic achievement in elementary school (e.g. Roorda, 2012). Additional studies find that high-quality teacher-child relationships may promote academic resilience…

  18. Assessment of a model for achieving competency in administration and scoring of the WAIS-IV in post-graduate psychology students.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M; Davis, Melissa C

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an evidence-based approach to training professional psychologists in the administration and scoring of standardized tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) due to substantial evidence that these tasks are associated with numerous errors that have the potential to significantly impact clients' lives. Twenty three post-graduate psychology students underwent training in using the WAIS-IV according to a best-practice teaching model that involved didactic teaching, independent study of the test manual, and in-class practice with teacher supervision and feedback. Video recordings and test protocols from a role-played test administration were analyzed for errors according to a comprehensive checklist with self, peer, and faculty member reviews. 91.3% of students were rated as having demonstrated competency in administration and scoring. All students were found to make errors, with substantially more errors being detected by the faculty member than by self or peers. Across all subtests, the most frequent errors related to failure to deliver standardized instructions verbatim from the manual. The failure of peer and self-reviews to detect the majority of the errors suggests that novice feedback (self or peers) may be ineffective to eliminate errors and the use of more senior peers may be preferable. It is suggested that involving senior trainees, recent graduates and/or experienced practitioners in the training of post-graduate students may have benefits for both parties, promoting a peer-learning and continuous professional development approach to the development and maintenance of skills in psychological assessment.

  19. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  20. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  1. Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luellen, Jason K.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    Propensity score analysis is a relatively recent statistical innovation that is useful in the analysis of data from quasi-experiments. The goal of propensity score analysis is to balance two non-equivalent groups on observed covariates to get more accurate estimates of the effects of a treatment on which the two groups differ. This article…

  2. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  3. Scoring Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, Pinchas; Doran, Rodney L.

    1992-01-01

    Scoring guidelines are given for four forms of the practical skills tests of the Second International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Improvement Science Study conducted in the following countries in the 1980s: (1) Hungary; (2) Japan; (3) Korea; (4) Singapore; (5) Israel; and (6) the United States. (SLD)

  4. An Effective Way to Improve Mathematics Achievement in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taik

    2010-01-01

    The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in…

  5. Factors Affecting Auditory Training Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Roberta M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine which of nine variables were most related to success in auditory training, using as Ss 43 students at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. Findings showed that the single largest contributing factor to postcourse gain was the entering English score. (PHR)

  6. Consensus Scoring and Peer Planning: Meeting Literacy Accountability Demands One School at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Lapp, Diane; Flood, James

    2005-01-01

    To improve literacy achievement, the authors developed consensus scoring and peer planning as a process of professional development and school improvement. This process allows teachers to (1) gain an increased understanding of the content and performance standards that guide their instruction; (2) work together to assess student work; (3) work…

  7. Approaches to Learning and Hispanic Children's Math Scores: The Moderating Role of English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgarner, Erin; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that children's approaches to learning (ATL) at kindergarten entry predict their academic achievement years later. However, the gains associated with ATL may be diminished for Hispanic immigrant children, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). We tested whether ATL predicted math scores in a sample of…

  8. What Makes Good Teachers Good?: A Cross-Case Analysis of the Connection between Teacher Effectiveness and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Ward, Thomas J.; Grant, Leslie W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined classroom practices of effective versus less effective teachers (based on student achievement gain scores in reading and mathematics). In Phase I of the study, hierarchical linear modeling was used to assess the teacher effectiveness of 307 fifth-grade teachers in terms of student learning gains. In Phase II, 32 teachers (17…

  9. Weight gain attitudes among pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; Nakashima, I; Andrews, D

    1993-07-01

    Maternal weight gain is the most important, manageable determinant of infant birth weight among adolescents. Negative attitudes toward weight gain may adversely affect maternal weight gain. We hypothesized that (a) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain are more common among younger pregnant adolescents, and (b) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain adversely affect adolescent maternal weight gain. The study subjects, 99, radially diverse, pregnant 13 through 18 year olds, completed the 18-item, Likert-format, Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale. Responses to the questionnaire indicated that most (83.8%) of the adolescents we interviewed had a positive attitude toward pregnancy weight gain when they entered prenatal care. Univariate analyses revealed that attitudes toward weight gain were unrelated to the respondents' ages but inversely related to their prepregnant weights (-0.16; p = 0.06) and the severity of their symptoms of depression (r = -0.26; p = 0.004). Attitudes toward weight gain were also directly related to their family support (r = 0.17; p = 0.06). Weight gain was significantly related to 4 of the 18 scale items but not to the total attitude scale score. We conclude that (a) the developmental task of formulating a positive body image does not foster more negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain among younger adolescents; (b) negative weight gain attitudes are most common among heavier adolescents, depressed adolescents, and adolescents who do not perceive their families as supportive; and (c) negative weight gain attitudes could adversely affect pregnancy weight gain.

  10. Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2010-01-01

    The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered…

  11. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  12. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  13. Evaluation of Risk Factors in Selecting Children for Gifted Programs. Part 1: Gifted Children at Risk: Evidence of an Association between Low Test Scores and Risk Factors. Part 2: Intelligence, Aptitude, and Achievement in Gifted Children with and without Language Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nancy E.; And Others

    Intellectually gifted children from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds as well as varying levels of risk were evaluated to determine the effect of risk on gifted children when intelligence level has been controlled. Each of 7,323 children from six ethnic backgrounds had achieved a standardized intelligence test score (Wechsler Intelligence…

  14. IR gain monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2013-10-01

    The gain of the IR channel of WFC3 will be measured using a series of internal flat fields. Using knowledge gained from ground testing and previous cycles, we propose to collect flat field ramps which will be used to create photon transfer curves and give a measure of the gain. This continues the strategy of last cycle's gain monitor, in proposal 13080.

  15. A Study of Mathematics and Science Achievement Scores among African American Students and the Impact of Teacher-Oriented Variables on Them through the Educational Longitudinal Study, 2002 (ELS: 2002) Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Valentine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to utilize the ELS: 2002 longitudinal data to highlight the achievement of African American students relative to other racial sub-groups in mathematics and science and to highlight teacher oriented variables that might influence their achievement. Various statistical tools, including descriptive statistics,…

  16. The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…

  17. Aptitude Test Score Trends: 1959-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dianne C.

    The decline in standardized test scores during the 1960s and 1970s is well documented and is seen in both aptitude and achievement test scores. This paper describes and analyzes the test score trends over the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s for five aptitude tests: (1) the Scholastic Aptitude Test; (2) the American College Test; (3) the Preliminary…

  18. Test facilities for SCORE-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greuel, Dirk; Deeken, Jan; Suslov, Dmitry; Schäfer, Klaus; Schlechtriem, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The LOX/LH2 Staged Combustion Rocket Engine Demonstrator (SCORE-D) is part of ESA's Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP). SCORE-D serves as a technology demonstrator in perspective of the development of the High Thrust Engine (HTE), which is designated as a candidate for the main stage engine of the Next Generation Launcher (NGL). To develop and test the SCORE-D engine, ESA investigates configurations of the test benches P3.2 and P5 at DLR test site in Lampoldshausen. For the SCORE-D Hot Combustion Devices (HCD) development, i.e. Pre-burner (PB) and thrust chamber assembly (TCA), the P3.2 test facility has to be modified for further usage. Recently, the first steps in this endeavor have been made with the evaluation of the necessary modifications to the facility. To accommodate the SCORE-D engine, it is foreseen to modify the P5 test facility in the coming years. In the last year, DLR has started the design phase for these modifications. In preparatory test programs at the P8 test facility, Astrium has conducted sub-scale hot combustion devices tests. While Astrium designed and manufactured the sub-scale assembly of the pre-burner and the main combustion chamber (MCC) for SCORE-D, DLR operated the P8 test facility.

  19. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Can antidepressants cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Weight gain is a possible side effect of nearly all antidepressants. ...

  20. IR Gain Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2012-10-01

    The gain of the IR channel of WFC3 will be measured using a series of internal flat fields. Using knowledge gained from ground testing and previous cycles, we propose to collect flat field ramps which will be used to create photon transfer curves and give a measure of the gain.

  1. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  2. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Composite Scores Using IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Wang, Tianyou; Lee, Won-Chan

    2012-01-01

    Composite scores are often formed from test scores on educational achievement test batteries to provide a single index of achievement over two or more content areas or two or more item types on that test. Composite scores are subject to measurement error, and as with scores on individual tests, the amount of error variability typically depends on…

  3. Asperger Syndrome and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Deborah E.; Barnhill, Gena P.; Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagiwara, Taku; Simpson, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    A study focused on identifying the academic characteristics of 21 children and youth who have Asperger syndrome. Students had an extraordinary range of academic achievement scores, extending from significantly above average to far below grade level. Lowest achievement scores were shown for numerical operations, listening comprehension, and written…

  4. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  5. Predicting Second Grade Achievement Scores with the Slosson Intelligence Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, Developmental Test of Visual Motor and the Metropolitan Readiness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Timothy M.

    The predictive validity of the Slosson Intelligence Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, and the Metropolitan Readiness Test was evaluated for use with kindergarten children. The criterion measure was the California Achievement Tests administered when the children…

  6. The 2006 Brown Center Report on American Education: How Well Are American Students Learning? With Special Sections on the Nation's Achievement, the Happiness Factor in Learning, and Honesty in State Test Scores. Volume II, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This report launches the second volume of the Brown Center Report on American Education. The five issues of volume one were published from 2000 to 2004. Volume one included regular reports on data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and state assessments, analysis of student achievement in charter schools, a study of trends…

  7. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    PubMed

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that <1% of Americans meet the seven health metrics required for achieving ideal cardiovascular health, with the main challenge residing in meeting the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain.

  8. Gaining Cyber Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Gaining Cyber Dominance Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University NETCOM G3/5/7 TREX January 2015...JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gaining Cyber Dominance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...2014) 4 GCD Overview January 2015 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University FY15 Initiatives Gaining Cyber Dominance Program • Army topology development

  9. An interaction-based approach to enhancing secondary school instruction and student achievement.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph P; Pianta, Robert C; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee; Lun, Janetta

    2011-08-19

    Improving teaching quality is widely recognized as critical to addressing deficiencies in secondary school education, yet the field has struggled to identify rigorously evaluated teacher-development approaches that can produce reliable gains in student achievement. A randomized controlled trial of My Teaching Partner-Secondary--a Web-mediated approach focused on improving teacher-student interactions in the classroom--examined the efficacy of the approach in improving teacher quality and student achievement with 78 secondary school teachers and 2237 students. The intervention produced substantial gains in measured student achievement in the year following its completion, equivalent to moving the average student from the 50th to the 59th percentile in achievement test scores. Gains appeared to be mediated by changes in teacher-student interaction qualities targeted by the intervention.

  10. Beyond Standardized Test Scores: An Examination of Leadership and Climate as Leading Indicators of Future Success in the Transformation of Turnaround Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Judy Jackson; Sanders, Eugene T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Districts throughout the nation are engaged in comprehensive transformation to "turn around" low performing schools. Standardized test scores are used to gauge student achievement; however, academic gains may lag behind leading indicators such as improved school climate and effective leadership. This study examines 16 underperforming…

  11. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth ...

  12. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  13. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  14. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  15. Indoor acoustic gain design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha-Abarca, Justo Andres

    2002-11-01

    The design of sound reinforcement systems includes many variables and usually some of these variables are discussed. There are criteria to optimize the performance of the sound reinforcement systems under indoor conditions. The equivalent acoustic distance, the necessary acoustic gain, and the potential acoustic gain are parameters which must be adjusted with respect to the loudspeaker array, electric power and directionality of loudspeakers, the room acoustics conditions, the distance and distribution of the audience, and the type of the original sources. The design and installation of front of the house and monitoring systems have individual criteria. This article is about this criteria and it proposes general considerations for the indoor acoustic gain design.

  16. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  17. What Are Achievement Gains Worth--to Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, New York City schools commenced a school-level pay-for-performance program for teachers and staff in about 200 schools. The authors found that the program didn't improve schools or student outcomes. Why? Because the program failed to create conditions that theory suggests are necessary for performance-based incentive programs to change…

  18. The GOALS Program. Gaining Opportunities to Achieve Lifetime Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwich, Andy; Otto, Nonie

    Designed to support the development of well-rounded individuals, this resource guide integrates the World Cup and soccer into social studies, language arts, mathematics, science, and physical education. The objectives of the GOALS program are for students to: (1) recognize the importance of the World Cup and soccer throughout the world; (2)…

  19. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, David M.

    1996-01-01

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit.

  20. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, D.M.

    1996-11-05

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit. 5 figs.

  1. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page Additional resources An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Biological Pollutants Help Your Child Gain Control Over ... exhaust, smoke, road dust and factory emissions. Outdoor air quality is also affected by pollen from plants, crops ...

  2. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, some people become less physically ...

  3. The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  4. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  5. Should I Gain Weight?

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you're having trouble with your body image, talk about how you feel with someone you like and trust who's been through it — maybe a parent, doctor, counselor, coach, or teacher. continue It's the Growth, Not the Gain No ...

  6. Evaluating the Comparability of Scores from Achievement Test Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Phoebe C., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, a consortium of state departments of education, led by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction and the Council of Chief State School Officers, was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Education to investigate methods of determining comparability of variations of states' assessments used to meet the requirements of the…

  7. Test Scores and Learning Styles: Understanding Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Patricia A.; Schuh, Kathy L.

    2006-01-01

    This two-year study explored the academic lives of three boys in a combined fifth-sixth grade classroom. As these case studies illustrate, viewing students' academic worlds from multiple perspectives can lead to more accurate, comprehensive evaluations and efficacious adaptations of students' learning environments. Richard Snow's aptitude theory…

  8. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  9. Establishing Passing Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Joyce R.

    The problem of establishing appropriate passing scores is one of evaluation rather than estimation and not amenable to exact solution. It must therefore be approached by (1) identifying criteria for judging the acceptability of the passing score, (2) collecting the data appropriate to assessing each relevant criterion, and (3) judging how well the…

  10. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  11. Mortality scoring in ITU.

    PubMed

    Niewiński, Grzegorz; Kański, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Chronic shortage of ITU beds makes decisions on admission difficult and responsible. The use of computer-based mortality scoring should help in decision-making and for this purpose, a number of different scoring systems have been created; in principle, they should be easy to use, adaptable to all populations of patients and suitable for predicting the risk of mortality during both ITU and hospital stay. Most of existing scales and scoring systems were included in this review. They are frequently used in ITUs and become a necessary tool to describe ITU populations and to explain differences in mortality. As there are several pitfalls related to the interpretation of the numbers supplied by the systems, they should be used with the knowledge on the severity scoring science. Moreover, the cost and significant workload limit the use of scoring systems; in many cases an extra person has to be employed for collection and analysis of data only.

  12. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  13. Multidimensional Linking for Domain Scores and Overall Scores for Nonequivalent Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires state assessments to report not only overall scores but also domain scores. To see the information on students' overall achievement, progress, and detailed strengths and weaknesses, and thereby identify areas for improvement in educational quality, students' performances across years or across forms need to be…

  14. Opportunity to learn: Investigating possible predictors for pre-course Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryhill, Katie J.

    As astronomy education researchers become more interested in experimentally testing innovative teaching strategies to enhance learning in introductory astronomy survey courses ("ASTRO 101"), scholars are placing increased attention toward better understanding factors impacting student gain scores on the widely used Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Usually used in a pre-test and post-test research design, one might naturally assume that the pre-course differences observed between high- and low-scoring college students might be due in large part to their pre-existing motivation, interest, experience in science, and attitudes about astronomy. To explore this notion, 11 non-science majoring undergraduates taking ASTRO 101 at west coast community colleges were interviewed in the first few weeks of the course to better understand students' pre-existing affect toward learning astronomy with an eye toward predicting student success. In answering this question, we hope to contribute to our understanding of the incoming knowledge of students taking undergraduate introductory astronomy classes, but also gain insight into how faculty can best meet those students' needs and assist them in achieving success. Perhaps surprisingly, there was only weak correlation between students' motivation toward learning astronomy and their pre-test scores. Instead, the most fruitful predictor of TOAST pre-test scores was the quantity of pre-existing, informal, self-directed astronomy learning experiences.

  15. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  16. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  17. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  18. The Relationship between Summarizaton Skills and TOEFL Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Annita Marie; Xu, Libin

    Literature relating summarization skills to reading improvement and to test score gains is reviewed, and two new studies are reported. One study compared gain on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) of two groups of students, one (n=7 students) receiving instruction in summarizing skills and the other (n=14) receiving TOEFL…

  19. A Bayesian Approach to Learning Scoring Systems.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Şeyda; Rudin, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    We present a Bayesian method for building scoring systems, which are linear models with coefficients that have very few significant digits. Usually the construction of scoring systems involve manual effort-humans invent the full scoring system without using data, or they choose how logistic regression coefficients should be scaled and rounded to produce a scoring system. These kinds of heuristics lead to suboptimal solutions. Our approach is different in that humans need only specify the prior over what the coefficients should look like, and the scoring system is learned from data. For this approach, we provide a Metropolis-Hastings sampler that tends to pull the coefficient values toward their "natural scale." Empirically, the proposed method achieves a high degree of interpretability of the models while maintaining competitive generalization performances.

  20. Gain and energy storage in holmium YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E.; Deyst, John P.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated that Q-switched holmium lasers are capable of high-gain and high-energy operation at 300 K. Small-signal gain coefficients of 0.50 and 0.12/cm have been measured in YLF and YAG, respectively. Small-signal gains of 0.50/cm are comparable to those achievable in Nd:YAG and are not typical of low-gain materials. This large gain in the Ho:YLF material is made possible by operating the amplifier in the ground state depletion mode. The amplifier performance data and associated analysis presented demonstrate that efficient energy storage is possible with very high excited state ion densities of the Ho 5I7 upper laser level. This is an important result since upconversion can limit the 5I7 population. Although upconversion was still present in this experiment, it was possible to achieve efficient energy storage, demonstrating that the problem is manageable even at high excitation densities in YLF.

  1. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  2. Computer Health Score

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-03

    The algorithm develops a single health score for office computers, today just Windows, but we plan to extend this to Apple computers. The score is derived from various parameters, including: CPU Utilization Memory Utilization Various Error logs Disk Problems Disk write queue length It then uses a weighting scheme to balance these parameters and provide an overall health score. By using these parameters, we are not just assessing the theoretical performance of the components of the computer, rather we are using actual performance metrics that are selected to be a more realistic representation of the experience of the person using the computer. This includes compensating for the nature of their use. If there are two identical computers and the user of one places heavy demands on their computer compared with the user of the second computer, the former will have a lower health score. This allows us to provide a 'fit for purpose' score tailored to the assigned user. This is very helpful data to inform the mangers when individual computers need to be replaced. Additionally it provides specific information that can facilitate the fixing of the computer, to extend it's useful lifetime. This presents direct financial savings, time savings for users transferring from one computer to the next, and better environmental stewardship.

  3. Effects of collaboration and inquiry on reasoning and achievement in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jamie Lee

    The primary purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two collaborative grouping strategies and two instructional methods in terms of gains in reasoning ability and achievement in college biology. In order to do so, a quasi-experimental study was performed in which students were placed in one of four treatment conditions: heterogeneous grouping within inquiry instruction, homogeneous grouping within inquiry instruction, heterogeneous grouping within non-inquiry instruction, and homogeneous grouping within non-inquiry instruction. Students were placed in groups based on initial reasoning level. Reasoning levels and achievement gains were assessed at the end of the study. Results showed that within non-inquiry instruction, heterogeneous mean group scores were higher in both reasoning and achievement than homogeneous groups. In contrast, within inquiry instruction, homogeneous mean group scores were higher in both reasoning and achievement. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, significantly outperformed non-inquiry instruction in the development of reasoning ability. Within inquiry instruction, low-ability students had significantly greater reasoning gains when grouped homogeneously. These results support Piaget's developmental theory and contradict Vygotsky's developmental theory. These results also suggest that the success of one grouping strategy over another is highly dependent upon the nature of instruction, which may be a cause for such conflicting views on grouping strategies within the educational literature. In addition, inquiry instruction led to students having greater confidence in their reasoning ability as well as a more positive attitude toward collaboration. Instructional implications are discussed.

  4. A study of the relationship between the method of instruction in science and achievement in non-public elementary schools in Middle Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Betsy R.

    This study examined the relationship between two methods of teaching science and scale score gains on standardized achievement tests in non-public schools in Middle Tennessee. The population was comprised of third and fourth grade students from non-public schools in Middle Tennessee that were members of the Tennessee Association of Independent Schools. A random sample of 596 students participated in this study. An unpaired t-test was conducted to determine whether the gain scores of the two instructional groups were statistically different at the .05 level, as well as whether the type of instruction affected any particular ethnic group. An analysis of variance was conducted to test the intervening variables of gender and number of years of teacher experience. The results of the analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in scale score gains in science between students who were taught using an inquiry-based approach and those who were taught in a traditional setting. A statistically significant difference was found in scale score gains between the two instructional groups with regard to the number of years of teacher experience. There was inclusive evidence to show any significant difference in scale score gains between the two instructional groups with regard to gender or ethnicity. The overall findings made a case for inquiry-based science teaching in an environment that mirrored the scientific community with its questioning, problem solving, and construction of new knowledge.

  5. Early Weight Gain Predicts Outcome in Two Treatments for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Le Grange, Daniel; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Agras, Stewart; Bryson, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa, and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n=61) or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy (AFT) (n=60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up. Results Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (AUC = .670; p=.043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC=0.754, p=.014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square=3.692, df=1, p=.055). Conclusion Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. PMID:24190844

  6. Walk Score®

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028

  7. Scientific reasoning and FCI gains for a Community College population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diff, Karim; Tache, N.

    2007-05-01

    In a recent paper (AJP, 73:1172, (2005)), Coletta and Phillips have found positive correlations between pre-instruction scores and normalized gains on the FCI, as well as between scores on the Lawson classroom test of scientific reasoning and normalized FCI gains. This poster presents results from a similar study conducted with a community college population. Students from seven different physics classes taught by three different instructors were tested during the fall semester. Students were further grouped in three different levels of physics ( applied physics, algebra-based physics, calculus-based physics). In addition to analyzing the correlations between the FCI gains and the scores on the Lawson test, we discuss the interactive engagement techniques used by the instructors and the most significant differences between the performances of the three groups of students.

  8. Bipolar Medications and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar medications and weight gain Do all bipolar medications cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M. ... disorder can be treated with a number of medications. Some of these medications can increase your appetite ...

  9. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  10. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  11. Acting to gain information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  12. Syncopation and the Score

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323

  13. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  14. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  15. Using the Learning Together Strategy to Affect Student Achievement in Physical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Manda D.

    Despite efforts mandated by national legislation, the state of Georgia has made little progress in improving Grade 5 students' standardized test scores in science, spurring the need for social change. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in the student achievement in the conceptual understanding of science concepts in a classroom where the teacher applied the cooperative learning strategy, Learning Together, as compared to the classroom in which teacher-directed instruction was applied. The theories of positive social interdependence and social development, which posit that social interaction promotes cognitive gains, provided a framework for the study. A convenience sample of 38 students in Grade 5 participated in the 6-week study. Nineteen students received the cooperative learning strategy treatment, while 19 students did not. Pre- and post-tests were administered to students in both groups, and an analysis of variance was performed to examine differences between the 2 sample means. Results indicated that the group receiving the cooperative learning strategy scored significantly higher than did the control group receiving direct instruction. The experimental group also scored higher in vocabulary acquisition. Using the cooperative learning strategy of Learning Together could guide teachers' efforts to help students achieve excellent state-mandated test scores. Learning Together may be employed as a powerful teaching tool across grade levels and content areas, thus promoting positive gains in other state-mandated testing areas such as math, language arts, and social studies.

  16. Book Probes Scoring Gaps Tied to Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A recent book assembles a collection of studies on one of the great mysteries of contemporary American education: Why did national progress in narrowing the achievement gap separating African-American and white students stall from the late 1980s until 2004? "Steady Gains and Stalled Progress," published by the Russell Sage Foundation of New York…

  17. A Tutorial on Interpreting Bifactor Model Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial addresses possible sources of confusion in interpreting trait scores from the bifactor model. The bifactor model may be used when subscores are desired, either for formative feedback on an achievement test or for theoretically different constructs on a psychological test. The bifactor model is often chosen because it requires fewer…

  18. Is the California Special Education Achievement Gap Really Closing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn, Emilene Johnson

    2012-01-01

    The achievement gains of California students with disabilities (SWDs) on the California Standards Test (CST)-English Language Arts have surpassed the achievement gains of students with no reported disabilities in recent years, and so the special education achievement gap seemed to be closing. However, the reported achievement for SWDs has not…

  19. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  20. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  1. What grades and achievement tests measure

    PubMed Central

    Borghans, Lex; Golsteyn, Bart H. H.; Heckman, James J.; Humphries, John Eric

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence quotient (IQ), grades, and scores on achievement tests are widely used as measures of cognition, but the correlations among them are far from perfect. This paper uses a variety of datasets to show that personality and IQ predict grades and scores on achievement tests. Personality is relatively more important in predicting grades than scores on achievement tests. IQ is relatively more important in predicting scores on achievement tests. Personality is generally more predictive than IQ on a variety of important life outcomes. Both grades and achievement tests are substantially better predictors of important life outcomes than IQ. The reason is that both capture personality traits that have independent predictive power beyond that of IQ. PMID:27830648

  2. Sudden gains in two psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    König, Julia; Karl, Regina; Rosner, Rita; Butollo, Willi

    2014-09-01

    We examined sudden, large, and stable shifts in symptoms from one therapy session to the next in two treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Shifts in a positive direction (sudden gains) have so far been more frequently analyzed than those in a negative direction (sudden losses). We analyzed data from 102 outpatients suffering from PTSD who received either a cognitive-behavioral or a Gestalt-based intervention. Sudden gains, at 22.5%, were more frequent than sudden losses (3.9% of patients). Participants who had experienced sudden gains had lower PTSD scores at posttreatment, but not at the 6-month follow-up. As sudden losses were so rare, they were not analyzed statistically. Sudden gains accounted for 52% of overall treatment gains or 26% of overall change in a positive direction. Among very successful patients, those with sudden gains were overrepresented, but in absolute terms, there were as many patients without sudden gains in this group. There was no connection between sudden gains and type of intervention or depressive symptoms. Sudden gains and sudden losses occurred in our sample of PTSD patients, but in the light of current results, their clinical importance seems to be limited.

  3. Amantadine for weight gain associated with olanzapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Deberdt, Walter; Winokur, Andrew; Cavazzoni, Patrizia A; Trzaskoma, Quynh N; Carlson, Christopher D; Bymaster, Frank P; Wiener, Karen; Floris, Michel; Breier, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (Sch), schizoaffective, schizophreniform, or bipolar (BP) I disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)]; not manic or acutely psychotic [Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) total score < or =45]; treated with olanzapine for 1-24 months; and who had gained > or =5% of their initial body weight were examined to determine whether amantadine could attenuate weight gain or promote weight loss. Olanzapine (Olz; 5-20 mg/day) was co-administered with double-blind treatment of 100-300 mg/day amantadine (Olz+Amt, n=60) or placebo (Olz+Plc, n=65). Visit-wise analysis of weight showed that weight change from baseline [last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF)] in the Olz+Amt group was significantly different from the Olz+Plc group at weeks 8 (P=0.042), 12 (P=0.029), and 16 (primary endpoint, mean+/-S.D.: -0.19+/-4.58 versus 1.28+/-4.26 kg, P=0.045). Mean BPRS total score, positive subscale, and anxiety-depression scores improved comparably in both groups, and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score improved in the Olz+Amt group. Overall, amantadine was safe, was well tolerated, and attenuated weight gain or promoted weight loss in some patients who had gained weight during olanzapine therapy.

  4. [Scoring--criteria for operability].

    PubMed

    Oestern, H J

    1997-01-01

    For therapeutic recommendations three different kinds of scores are essential: 1. The severity scores for trauma; 2. Severity scores for mangled extremities; 3. Intensive care scores. The severity of polytrauma patients is measurable by the AIS, ISS, RTS, PTS and TRISS which is a combination of RTS, ISS, age, and mechanism of injury. For mangled extremities there are also different scores available: MESI (Mangled Extremity Syndrome Index) and MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score). The aim of these scores is to assist in the indication with regard to amputate or to save the extremity. These scoring indices can be used to evaluate the severity of a systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome with respect to multiple organ failure. All scores are dynamic values which are variable with improvement of therapy.

  5. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  6. Racial Differences in Mathematics Test Scores for Advanced Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Elizabeth Covay

    2016-01-01

    Research on achievement gaps has found that achievement gaps are larger for students who take advanced mathematics courses compared to students who do not. Focusing on the advanced mathematics student achievement gap, this study found that African American advanced mathematics students have significantly lower test scores and are less likely to be…

  7. Relationships between attitude and achievement among college biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Harold E.; Simpson, Ronald D.

    The purposes of this study were to (1) study changes in attitude toward science, school, and academic self among college biology students, and (2) to examine relationships between attitudes and achievement in an introductory college course in biology. The three attitude variables were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. Each of the three constructs was measured by the semantic differential and one additional instrument. One cognitive measure, biology achievement, was taken at the beginning and end of the study. This was accomplished by using the Nelson Biology Test. Another cognitive measure, grade in the course, as given by the instructor, was recorded at the end of the course. Normative data and correlation coefficients among pre- and postadministrations were calculated for each institution and the composite sample as well. An analysis of variance showed that while gains in scores on the Nelson Biology Test were significant beyond the 0.01 level of probability, changes in attitude scores were not. Correlations were calculated between the attitude and cognitive variables in this study. Relationships between academic self-concept and achievement in biology were the strongest. Data from this study show that while student cognitive behavior was changed during an introductory college biology course, selected attitudes either stayed the same or became slightly more negative. Affective as well as cognitive gains would appear to be desirable goals in college courses. As we learn more about relationships that exist between cognition and affect, science educators at all levels will become better equipped to improve learning in science.

  8. Fingerprinting of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  9. Gain of a single gas electron multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a gaseous detector used in particle detection and is known for its high rate capability. Ever since its invention in 1997, GEM was applied in many areas and recently has been proposed to be installed in the CMS high η regions for upgrade at LHC, CERN. A complete understanding of the working and gain behaviour does not exist. GEM gain is influenced by charging up and this has been variedly interpreted in literature lacking consensus. I have attempted in this work through simulations and measurements to achieve a better understanding of single GEM gain and how it is affected by various factors. Specific experimental methods which evolved with subsequent measurements were employed to systematically study the charging up effect. Information from simulations was applied to characterize measurements thereby enabling the development of a model for charging up. Conductivity mechanism of the dielectric used in GEM was analyzed and the resistivity measured. Gain free of charging up effects was measured and this is appropriate for comparison with simulations.

  10. Optical gain by a simple photoisomerization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Gómez, Francisco; Del Monte, Francisco; Meerholz, Klaus

    2008-06-01

    Organic holographic materials are pursued as versatile and cheap data-storage materials. It is generally assumed that under steady-state conditions, only photorefractive holographic media exhibit a non-local response to a light-intensity pattern, which results in an asymmetric two-beam coupling or `gain', where intensity is transferred from one beam to the other as a measure of writing efficiency. Here, we demonstrate non-local holographic recording in a non-photorefractive material. We demonstrate that reversible photoisomerization gratings recorded in a non-photorefractive azo-based material exhibit large optical gain coefficients beyond 1,000cm-1, even for polarization gratings. The grating characteristics differ markedly from classical photorefractive features, but can be modelled by considering the influence of the Poynting vector on the photoisomerization. The external control of the Poynting vector enables manipulation of the gain coefficient, including its sign (the direction of energy exchange), a novel phenomenon we refer to as `gain steering'. A very high sensitivity of about 100cm2J-1 was achieved. This high sensitivity, combined with a high spatial resolution, suggests a great technical advantage for applications in image processing and phase conjugation.

  11. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2007-01-01

    The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by…

  12. Definition of True Score Appropriate for Estimated True Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.

    1970-01-01

    It is shown that all obtained scores must meet the requirements for classical test-score theory with respect to definitions of true scores and errors of measurement if that frame of reference is to yield valid variance errors of measurement. (DG)

  13. Relationship of Apgar Scores and Bayley Mental and Motor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serunian, Sally A.; Broman, Sarah H.

    1975-01-01

    Examined the relationship of newborns' 1-minute Apgar scores to their 8-month Bayley mental and motor scores and to 8-month classifications of their development as normal, suspect, or abnormal. Also investigated relationships between Apgar scores and race, longevity, and birth weight. (JMB)

  14. Automated sleep scoring and sleep apnea detection in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraglia, David P.; Berryman, Matthew J.; Coussens, Scott W.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kennedy, Declan; Martin, A. James; Abbott, Derek

    2005-12-01

    This paper investigates the automated detection of a patient's breathing rate and heart rate from their skin conductivity as well as sleep stage scoring and breathing event detection from their EEG. The software developed for these tasks is tested on data sets obtained from the sleep disorders unit at the Adelaide Women's and Children's Hospital. The sleep scoring and breathing event detection tasks used neural networks to achieve signal classification. The Fourier transform and the Higuchi fractal dimension were used to extract features for input to the neural network. The filtered skin conductivity appeared visually to bear a similarity to the breathing and heart rate signal, but a more detailed evaluation showed the relation was not consistent. Sleep stage classification was achieved with and accuracy of around 65% with some stages being accurately scored and others poorly scored. The two breathing events hypopnea and apnea were scored with varying degrees of accuracy with the highest scores being around 75% and 30%.

  15. Stability of WISC-IV process scores.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Umfleet, Laura Glass; Kane, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    Forty-three students were administered on two occasions approximately 11 months apart the complete Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, including the seven process components of Block Design No Time Bonus, Digit Span Forward (DSF), Digit Span Backward (DSB), Cancellation Random (CAR), Cancellation Structured (CAS), Longest Digit Span Forward (LDSF), and Longest Digit Span Backward (LDSB). Mean ages at first and second testing were 7.77 years (SD = 1.91) and 8.74 years (SD = 1.93), respectively. Mean Full-Scale IQ at initial testing was 111.63 (SD = 10.71). Process score stability coefficients ranged from .75 on DSF to .32 on CAS. Discrepancy score stabilities ranged from .45 on DSF minus DSB to .05 on CAS minus CAR. Approximately 21% of participants increased their LDSF on retest, and 16.3% showed a gain on LDSB. Caution must be exercised when interpreting process scores, and interpretation of discrepancy scores should probably be avoided.

  16. Olympic Scoring of English Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; Panther, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)

  17. On The Factor Score Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bert F. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A summary and interpretation of the recent literature on the indeterminancy of factor scores is given in simple terms. A good index of factor score determinancy is the squared multiple correlation of the factor with the observed variables. (Author)

  18. The myelodysplastic syndromes flow cytometric score: a three-parameter prognostic flow cytometric scoring system.

    PubMed

    Alhan, C; Westers, T M; Cremers, E M P; Cali, C; Witte, B I; Ossenkoppele, G J; van de Loosdrecht, A A

    2016-03-01

    The prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is currently estimated by using the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Several studies have shown that further refinement of prognostication for MDS can be achieved by adding flow cytometric parameters. However, widespread implementation of flow cytometry for the prognosis of MDS is hampered by complexity of the analysis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to construct a robust and practical flow cytometric score that could be implemented as a routine procedure. To achieve this, bone marrow aspirates of 109 MDS patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. A second cohort consisting of 103 MDS patients was used to validate the MDS flow cytometric score (MFS). The parameters forming the MFS were sideward light scatter and CD117 expression of myeloid progenitor cells and CD13 expression on monocytes. Three MFS risk categories were formed. Patients with MDS and intermediate MFS scores had significantly better overall survival (OS) compared with the patients with high MFS scores. The MFS further refined prognostication within the IPSS-R low-risk category, by identifying patients with worse OS in case of high MFS. In conclusion, a practical three parameter flow cytometric prognostic score was constructed enabling further refinement of prognostication of MDS.

  19. The Impact of a Transition Plan on Reading Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farver, Christy

    2011-01-01

    The National Assessment of Title I, Final Report reported discrepancies in sustaining gains in the reading achievement of 4th grade students who have received Title I intervention services and sustaining those gains when students return to general education classroom. This study was based on a differentiated theory that includes instructional…

  20. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…

  1. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  2. 49 CFR 383.135 - Minimum passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum passing scores. 383.135 Section 383.135... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.135 Minimum passing scores. (a) The driver applicant must correctly answer at least 80 percent of the questions on each knowledge test in order to achieve a...

  3. Factors Affecting School District Performance Scores in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between District Performance Scores (DPS) in Louisiana and (a) socio-economic status of students, (b) academic achievement using average ACT scores, (c) percentage of certified teachers, (d) district class size, (e) per pupil expenditure, and (f) percentage of minority students in…

  4. 24 CFR 902.67 - Score and designation status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indicators, PHAS Indicators #1, #2, or #3, shall be considered a substandard physical, substandard financial... Indicators (addressed in subparts B through E of this part) and achieves an overall PHAS score of 90 percent... shall not be designated a high performer if it scores below the threshold established for any...

  5. Hybrid optical antenna with high directivity gain.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Mohseni, Hooman

    2013-08-01

    Coupling of a far-field optical mode to electronic states of a quantum absorber or emitter is a crucial process in many applications, including infrared sensors, single molecule spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. In particular, achieving high quantum efficiency for a system with a deep subwavelength quantum absorber/emitter has remained desirable. In this Letter, a hybrid optical antenna based on coupling of a photonic nanojet to a metallo-dielectric antenna is proposed, which allows such efficient coupling. A quantum efficiency of about 50% is predicted for a semiconductor with volume of ~λ³/170. Despite the weak optical absorption coefficient of 2000 cm(-1) in the long infrared wavelength of ~8 μm, very strong far-field coupling has been achieved, as evidenced by an axial directivity gain of 16 dB, which is only 3 dB below of theoretical limit. Unlike the common phased array antenna, this structure does not require coherent sources to achieve a high directivity. The quantum efficiency and directivity gain are more than an order of magnitude higher than existing metallic, dielectric, or metallo-dielectric optical antenna.

  6. Evidence-Based Decision about Test Scoring Rules in Clinical Anatomy Multiple-Choice Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severo, Milton; Gaio, A. Rita; Povo, Ana; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2015-01-01

    In theory the formula scoring methods increase the reliability of multiple-choice tests in comparison with number-right scoring. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the formula scoring method in clinical anatomy multiple-choice examinations, and to compare it with that from the number-right scoring method, hoping to achieve an…

  7. Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L...Distribution A An antenna for mounting on a ground plane includes a dielectric substrate for mounting on the ground plane. A conductive patch...GAIN MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the

  8. Adaptive allocation of attentional gain.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T

    2009-09-23

    Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g., for a surgeon or air-traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g., color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counterintuitively suggest that, in many cases, attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these "ideal observer" models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not to enhance the representation of target features per se, but instead to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities.

  9. Increasing Score Reliability with Item-Pattern Scoring: An Empirical Study in Several Score Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Wendy M.; Candell, Gregory L.

    Reliabilities are compared for two types of test score data: number correct, and item response patterns. Item-pattern scoring using three-parameter item response theory takes into account how many and which items a student answers correctly. This procedure theoretically results in greater reliability than does number-correct scoring. Empirical…

  10. [Scoring systems in intensive care medicine : principles, models, application and limits].

    PubMed

    Fleig, V; Brenck, F; Wolff, M; Weigand, M A

    2011-10-01

    Scoring systems are used in all diagnostic areas of medicine. Several parameters are evaluated and rated with points according to their value in order to simplify a complex clinical situation with a score. The application ranges from the classification of disease severity through determining the number of staff for the intensive care unit (ICU) to the evaluation of new therapies under study conditions. Since the introduction of scoring systems in the 1980's a variety of different score models has been developed. The scoring systems that are employed in intensive care and are discussed in this article can be categorized into prognostic scores, expenses scores and disease-specific scores. Since the introduction of compulsory recording of two scoring systems for accounting in the German diagnosis-related groups (DRG) system, these tools have gained more importance for all intensive care physicians. Problems remain in the valid calculation of scores and interpretation of the results.

  11. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  12. A Topic-Independent Method for Scoring Student Essay Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Ryo; Kakegawa, Jun-Ichi; Yabuta, Yukiko

    This paper proposes a topic-independent method for automatically scoring essay content. Unlike conventional topic-dependent methods, it predicts the human-assigned score of a given essay without training essays written to the same topic as the target essay. To achieve this, this paper introduces a new measure called MIDF that measures how important and relevant a word is in a given essay. The proposed method predicts the score relying on the distribution of MIDF. Surprisingly, experiments show that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 0.848 and performs as well as or even better than conventional topic-dependent methods.

  13. Aircraft nonlinear optimal control using fuzzy gain scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusyirwan, I. F.; Kung, Z. Y.

    2016-10-01

    Fuzzy gain scheduling is a common solution for nonlinear flight control. The highly nonlinear region of flight dynamics is determined throughout the examination of eigenvalues and the irregular pattern of root locus plots that show the nonlinear characteristic. By using the optimal control for command tracking, the pitch rate stability augmented system is constructed and the longitudinal flight control system is established. The outputs of optimal control for 21 linear systems are fed into the fuzzy gain scheduler. This research explores the capability in using both optimal control and fuzzy gain scheduling to improve the efficiency in finding the optimal control gains and to achieve Level 1 flying qualities. The numerical simulation work is carried out to determine the effectiveness and performance of the entire flight control system. The simulation results show that the fuzzy gain scheduling technique is able to perform in real time to find near optimal control law in various flying conditions.

  14. High current gain transistor laser

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge. PMID:27282466

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  17. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  18. Student Achievement and Accountability. Annual Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Legislation passed during the 2001 Iowa legislative session established the Student Achievement and Teacher Quality Program, Iowa Code Section 284.12(1). This legislation requires the Iowa Department of Education (DE) to annually report the statewide progress on the following: (1) Student achievement scores in mathematics and reading at the fourth…

  19. Professional Learning Communities Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jan L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the Professional Learning Community model on student achievement in the state of California. Specifically, the study compared student achievement between two school types: Professional Learning Community schools and Non Professional Learning schools. The research utilized existing API scores for California schools…

  20. Maryland's Achievements in Public Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents Maryland's achievements in public education for 2011. Maryland's achievements include: (1) Maryland's public schools again ranked #1 in the nation in Education Week's 2011 Quality Counts annual report; (2) Maryland ranked 1st nationwide for a 3rd year in a row in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on…

  1. Longitudinal associations between reading and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    The association between early reading skills and changes in mathematics was examined in a large, low-income sample to determine whether students who have a greater level of reading skills in early elementary school exhibit more rapid gains in tests of mathematics. The longitudinal associations between third grade reading comprehension and changes in three components of mathematics achievement (Problem Solving and Data Interpretation, Mathematical Concepts and Estimation, Mathematical Computation) from third through eighth grade were examined. Latent growth models were fit to the repeated assessments of each mathematics component and the students' third grade reading and global mathematics scores were included as predictors of the intercept and slope. Gender, poverty status, and ethnicity were included in the models as control variables. The results showed males and African-American students tended to have shallower rates of change than females and non-African-American/non-Hispanic students. In terms of the effect of reading on changes in mathematics, third grade reading comprehension was found to be a positive significant predictor of change for each component of mathematics, suggesting students with a greater level of reading achievement in early elementary school change more rapidly in mathematics skills controlling for prior mathematics skills and student characteristics. The largest effects were shown for the Problem Solving and Data Interpretation test, a test focused on the applications of mathematics knowledge, and the Mathematical Concepts and Estimation test. Negligible effects were found for changes in Mathematical Computation. Thus, early reading comprehension was shown to be related to a conceptual understanding of mathematics and the application of mathematics knowledge. These findings lend support for the notion that early reading skills are important for success in mathematics.

  2. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

  3. LPV Controller Interpolation for Improved Gain-Scheduling Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new gain-scheduling control design approach is proposed by combining LPV (linear parameter-varying) control theory with interpolation techniques. The improvement of gain-scheduled controllers can be achieved from local synthesis of Lyapunov functions and continuous construction of a global Lyapunov function by interpolation. It has been shown that this combined LPV control design scheme is capable of improving closed-loop performance derived from local performance improvement. The gain of the LPV controller will also change continuously across parameter space. The advantages of the newly proposed LPV control is demonstrated through a detailed AMB controller design example.

  4. The effect of constructivist teaching strategies on science test scores of middle school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaca, James L., Jr.

    International studies show that the United States is lagging behind other industrialized countries in science proficiency. The studies revealed how American students showed little significant gain on standardized tests in science between 1995 and 2005. Little information is available regarding how reform in American teaching strategies in science could improve student performance on standardized testing. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study using a pretest/posttest control group design was to examine how the use of a hands-on, constructivist teaching approach with low achieving eighth grade science students affected student achievement on the 2007 Ohio Eighth Grade Science Achievement Test posttest (N = 76). The research question asked how using constructivist teaching strategies in the science classroom affected student performance on standardized tests. Two independent samples of 38 students each consisting of low achieving science students as identified by seventh grade science scores and scores on the Ohio Eighth Grade Science Half-Length Practice Test pretest were used. Four comparisons were made between the control group receiving traditional classroom instruction and the experimental group receiving constructivist instruction including: (a) pretest/posttest standard comparison, (b) comparison of the number of students who passed the posttest, (c) comparison of the six standards covered on the posttest, (d) posttest's sample means comparison. A Mann-Whitney U Test revealed that there was no significant difference between the independent sample distributions for the control group and the experimental group. These findings contribute to positive social change by investigating science teaching strategies that could be used in eighth grade science classes to improve student achievement in science.

  5. Teachers' Responses to High-Stakes Testing and the Validity of Gains: A Pilot Study. CSE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel M.; Hamilton, Laura S.

    Previous studies of the validity of gains on high-stakes tests have compared trends in scores on a high-stakes test to trends on a lower-stakes test, such as NAEP. However, generalizability of gains is likely to be incomplete even when gains are meaningful because of differences in the inferences the two tests are designed to support. Therefore,…

  6. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  7. Differential Gains in Oral Proficiency during Study Abroad: The Role of Language Learning Aptitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sheri Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This inquiry analyzed the relationships between individual differences and gains made in oral proficiency of adult, second language learners of Spanish during one semester studying abroad. Oral proficiency was measured using a pre/post-SA Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument (COPI, CAL, 2009). Gain scores were correlated with two cognitive…

  8. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  9. High-Quality After-School Programs Tied to Test-Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Disadvantaged students who regularly attend top-notch after-school programs end up, after two years, academically far ahead of peers who spend more out-of-school time in unsupervised activities, according to findings from an eight-state study of those programs. Known as the Promising Afterschool Programs study, the new research examined 35…

  10. Do We Really Become Smarter When Our Fluid-Intelligence Test Scores Improve?

    PubMed

    Hayes, Taylor R; Petrov, Alexander A; Sederberg, Per B

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports of training-induced gains on fluid intelligence tests have fueled an explosion of interest in cognitive training-now a billion-dollar industry. The interpretation of these results is questionable because score gains can be dominated by factors that play marginal roles in the scores themselves, and because intelligence gain is not the only possible explanation for the observed control-adjusted far transfer across tasks. Here we present novel evidence that the test score gains used to measure the efficacy of cognitive training may reflect strategy refinement instead of intelligence gains. A novel scanpath analysis of eye movement data from 35 participants solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices on two separate sessions indicated that one-third of the variance of score gains could be attributed to test-taking strategy alone, as revealed by characteristic changes in eye-fixation patterns. When the strategic contaminant was partialled out, the residual score gains were no longer significant. These results are compatible with established theories of skill acquisition suggesting that procedural knowledge tacitly acquired during training can later be utilized at posttest. Our novel method and result both underline a reason to be wary of purported intelligence gains, but also provide a way forward for testing for them in the future.

  11. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  12. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227,…

  13. What is propensity score modelling?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Propensity score methodology is being increasingly used to try and make inferences about treatments when randomised trials are either impossible or not conducted and the only data are from observational studies. This paper reviews the basis of propensity scores and the current state of knowledge about them. It uses and critiques a current paper in the Emergency Medicine Journal to illustrate the methodology.

  14. Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

  15. Hedonism or Higher Test Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Donald C.

    2004-01-01

    In the 20 years since the federal report on education "A Nation at Risk" appeared, much has been written on test scores of students in the United States versus their counterparts elsewhere. One of the issues is whether their scores are in fact inferior, or merely a statistical difference due to their universal schooling philosophy. Since…

  16. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  17. Guidelines for Improving SAT Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Scott; DeLeonibus, Nancy

    The National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) identified 34 high schools whose students maintained or improved their SAT scores from 1973 to 1976 or whose mean scores in 1973 were approximately the same as in 1965. In an open-ended questionnaire, the principals of these schools were asked to identify success factors. Their…

  18. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.

  19. Photonic band-edge micro lasers with quantum dot gain.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Tandaechanurat, Aniwat; Ota, Yasutomo; Kumagai, Naoto; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2009-01-19

    We demonstrate optically pumped continuous-wave photonic band-edge microlasers on a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab. Lasing was observed at a photonic band-edge, where the group velocity was significantly small near the K point of the band structure having a triangular lattice. Lasing was achieved by using a quantum dot gain material, which resulted in a significant decrease in the laser threshold, compared with photonic band-edge lasers using quantum well gain material. Extremely low laser thresholds of approximately 80 nW at 6 K was achieved. Lasing was observed in a defect-free photonic crystal as small as approximately 7 microm square.

  20. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    PubMed

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost.

  1. Rehabilitation outcome of hip fracture patients: the importance of a positive albumin gain.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, E H; Fleissig, Y; Arad, M; Blumstein, T; Adunsky, A

    2008-01-01

    Low serum albumin level is associated with poor functional outcome and predicting a greater functional decline in the elderly. The aim of this study is to determine the interrelation between change of serum albumin level during rehabilitation period and functional outcome in hip fracture patients. We studied 433 consecutive elderly hip fracture patients admitted for rehabilitation. Functional outcome was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at admission and discharge of patients with no albumin gain (<0 g/dl) or with positive albumin gain (>or=0 g/dl). Data were analyzed by t-test, Pearson correlation, chi(2)-test and linear regression. Of patients 66.7% showed no albumin gain. These patients had a higher prevalence of previous stroke (p=0.04), lower Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores (p=0.05) and were less likely to have hyperlipidemia (p=0.008) compared with patients with albumin gains. Admission and discharge FIM parameters and total and motor FIM gain/day were statistically significantly lower among patients with no albumin gain. In a linear regression analysis total FIM at discharge was inversely associated with pre-fracture function (beta=-0.148; p<0.001), Albumin gain (beta=0.047; p=0.005), high MMSE score (beta=0.143; p<0.001), and higher admission total FIM score (beta=0.69; p<0.001) emerged as significant predictors of higher total FIM scores upon discharge. The results suggest that patients with albumin gain have better admission and discharge FIM scores. Albumin gain emerged as a significant predictor for higher discharge FIM scores. We conclude that greater attention and efforts should be made regarding the dietary intervention and protein supplementation, in order to improve the rehabilitation outcome.

  2. Relationship between Burnout Syndrome Symptoms and Self-Actualization Scores in Critical-Care Nurses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    opportunities, satisfactory supervision, and self-actualization. One study indicated that nursing education promotes self-actualization at least to... nursing education achieved in burnout syndrome symptoms? 8. Is there a difference by level of nursing education achieved in self-actualization...level of nursing education achieved in the burnout scores or the self-actualization scores. The exception was that the associate degree nurses scored

  3. Intestinal Microbiota and Weight-Gain in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Solís, Gonzalo; Suárez, Marta; Fernández, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of the gut microbiota on weight-gain and its relationship with childhood undernutrition and growth has been reported. Thus, the gut microbiota constitutes a potential therapeutic target for preventing growth impairment. However, our knowledge in this area is limited. In this study we aimed at evaluating the relationship among early microbiota, growth, and development in preterm infants. To this end we assessed the levels of specific microorganisms by qPCR, and those of short chain fatty acids by mean of gas-chromatography, in feces from 63 preterm newborns and determined their weight-gain during the first months. The statistical analyses performed indicate an influence of the intestinal microbiota in weight-gain, with the levels of some microorganisms showing a significant association with the weight-gain of the infant. The levels of specific microbial groups during the first days of life were found to affect weight gain by the age of 1 month. Moreover, clustering of the infants on the basis of the microbiota composition at 1 month of age rendered groups which showed differences in weight z-scores. Our results suggest an association between the gut microbiota composition and weight-gain in preterm infants at early life and point out potential microbial targets for favoring growth and maturation in these infants. PMID:28228752

  4. Intestinal Microbiota and Weight-Gain in Preterm Neonates.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Silvia; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Solís, Gonzalo; Suárez, Marta; Fernández, Nuria; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of the gut microbiota on weight-gain and its relationship with childhood undernutrition and growth has been reported. Thus, the gut microbiota constitutes a potential therapeutic target for preventing growth impairment. However, our knowledge in this area is limited. In this study we aimed at evaluating the relationship among early microbiota, growth, and development in preterm infants. To this end we assessed the levels of specific microorganisms by qPCR, and those of short chain fatty acids by mean of gas-chromatography, in feces from 63 preterm newborns and determined their weight-gain during the first months. The statistical analyses performed indicate an influence of the intestinal microbiota in weight-gain, with the levels of some microorganisms showing a significant association with the weight-gain of the infant. The levels of specific microbial groups during the first days of life were found to affect weight gain by the age of 1 month. Moreover, clustering of the infants on the basis of the microbiota composition at 1 month of age rendered groups which showed differences in weight z-scores. Our results suggest an association between the gut microbiota composition and weight-gain in preterm infants at early life and point out potential microbial targets for favoring growth and maturation in these infants.

  5. Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Guy; Cohn, Tony; Remington, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Background Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for health and well being. Objectives To determine the effects of both pharmacological (excluding medication switching) and non pharmacological strategies for reducing or preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia. Search methods We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s trials register (April 2006), reference sections within relevant papers, hand searched key journals, and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. Selection criteria We included all clinical randomised controlled trials comparing any pharmacological or non pharmacological intervention for weight gain (diet and exercise counselling) with standard care or other treatments for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from studies. As weight is a continuous outcome measurement, weighted mean differences (WMD) of the change from baseline were calculated. The primary outcome measure was weight loss. Main results Twenty-three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five trials assessed a cognitive/behavioural intervention and eighteen assessed a pharmacological adjunct. In terms of prevention, two cognitive/behavioural trials showed significant treatment effect (mean weight change) at end of treatment (n=104, 2 RCTs, WMD −3.38 kg CI −4.2 to −2.0). Pharmacological adjunct treatments were significant with a modest prevention of weight gain (n=274, 6 RCTs, WMD − 1.16 kg CI −1.9 to −0.4). In terms of treatments for weight loss, we found significantly greater weight reduction in the cognitive behavioural intervention group (n=129, 3 RCTs, WMD −1.69 kg CI −2.8 to −0.6) compared with standard care. Authors’ conclusions Modest weight loss can be achieved with selective

  6. Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, Angela L; York, Robbie Lynn; Livesay, Jake

    2012-03-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity

  7. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  8. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  9. Prognostic Scores for Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Morillo, Raquel; Moores, Lisa; Jiménez, David

    2017-02-06

    Rapid and accurate risk stratification is critical in determining the optimal treatment strategy for patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Early identification of patients with normal blood pressure and a favorable prognosis (low-risk PE) might select a subset of patients for outpatient treatment, which is associated with reduced cost and improved patient satisfaction, and has been shown to be effective and safe. Alternatively, identification of normotensive patients deemed as having a high risk for PE-related adverse clinical events (intermediate-high-risk PE) might select a subset of patients for close observation and consideration of escalation of therapy. Clinical prognostic scores have been gaining importance in the classification of patients into these categories. They should be derived and validated following strict methodological standards, and their use in clinical practice should be encouraged.

  10. How Achievement Error Patterns of Students with Mild Intellectual Disability Differ from Low IQ and Low Achievement Students without Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Melissa M.; Marchis, Lavinia; White, Erica; Courville, Troy; Choi, Dowon; Bray, Melissa A.; Pan, Xingyu; Wayte, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in error factor scores on the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition between individuals with mild intellectual disabilities (Mild IDs), those with low achievement scores but average intelligence, and those with low intelligence but without a Mild ID diagnosis. The two control groups were…

  11. Statistical Significance of Threading Scores

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz Movaghar, Afshin; Launay, Guillaume; Schbath, Sophie; Gibrat, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present a general method for assessing threading score significance. The threading score of a protein sequence, thread onto a given structure, should be compared with the threading score distribution of a random amino-acid sequence, of the same length, thread on the same structure; small p-values point significantly high scores. We claim that, due to general protein contact map properties, this reference distribution is a Weibull extreme value distribution whose parameters depend on the threading method, the structure, the length of the query and the random sequence simulation model used. These parameters can be estimated off-line with simulated sequence samples, for different sequence lengths. They can further be interpolated at the exact length of a query, enabling the quick computation of the p-value. PMID:22149633

  12. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  13. Fun and Gains with Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.

    1979-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted with fourteen learning-disabled elementary students to determine the growth of achievement and conservation abilities after using the "Sink or Float" unit of the Elementary Science Study. (MK)

  14. Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, Vicki

    Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

  15. Customizing scoring functions for docking.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuan A; Jain, Ajay N

    2008-05-01

    Empirical scoring functions used in protein-ligand docking calculations are typically trained on a dataset of complexes with known affinities with the aim of generalizing across different docking applications. We report a novel method of scoring-function optimization that supports the use of additional information to constrain scoring function parameters, which can be used to focus a scoring function's training towards a particular application, such as screening enrichment. The approach combines multiple instance learning, positive data in the form of ligands of protein binding sites of known and unknown affinity and binding geometry, and negative (decoy) data of ligands thought not to bind particular protein binding sites or known not to bind in particular geometries. Performance of the method for the Surflex-Dock scoring function is shown in cross-validation studies and in eight blind test cases. Tuned functions optimized with a sufficient amount of data exhibited either improved or undiminished screening performance relative to the original function across all eight complexes. Analysis of the changes to the scoring function suggest that modifications can be learned that are related to protein-specific features such as active-site mobility.

  16. Customizing scoring functions for docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan A.; Jain, Ajay N.

    2008-05-01

    Empirical scoring functions used in protein-ligand docking calculations are typically trained on a dataset of complexes with known affinities with the aim of generalizing across different docking applications. We report a novel method of scoring-function optimization that supports the use of additional information to constrain scoring function parameters, which can be used to focus a scoring function's training towards a particular application, such as screening enrichment. The approach combines multiple instance learning, positive data in the form of ligands of protein binding sites of known and unknown affinity and binding geometry, and negative (decoy) data of ligands thought not to bind particular protein binding sites or known not to bind in particular geometries. Performance of the method for the Surflex-Dock scoring function is shown in cross-validation studies and in eight blind test cases. Tuned functions optimized with a sufficient amount of data exhibited either improved or undiminished screening performance relative to the original function across all eight complexes. Analysis of the changes to the scoring function suggest that modifications can be learned that are related to protein-specific features such as active-site mobility.

  17. Predicting educational achievement from DNA

    PubMed Central

    Selzam, S; Krapohl, E; von Stumm, S; O'Reilly, P F; Rimfeld, K; Kovas, Y; Dale, P S; Lee, J J; Plomin, R

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide polygenic score (GPS), derived from a 2013 genome-wide association study (N=127,000), explained 2% of the variance in total years of education (EduYears). In a follow-up study (N=329,000), a new EduYears GPS explains up to 4%. Here, we tested the association between this latest EduYears GPS and educational achievement scores at ages 7, 12 and 16 in an independent sample of 5825 UK individuals. We found that EduYears GPS explained greater amounts of variance in educational achievement over time, up to 9% at age 16, accounting for 15% of the heritable variance. This is the strongest GPS prediction to date for quantitative behavioral traits. Individuals in the highest and lowest GPS septiles differed by a whole school grade at age 16. Furthermore, EduYears GPS was associated with general cognitive ability (~3.5%) and family socioeconomic status (~7%). There was no evidence of an interaction between EduYears GPS and family socioeconomic status on educational achievement or on general cognitive ability. These results are a harbinger of future widespread use of GPS to predict genetic risk and resilience in the social and behavioral sciences. PMID:27431296

  18. High-Stakes Testing Hasn't Brought Education Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianis, Judith Browne; Jackson, John H.; Noguera, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The only thing that more testing will tell us is what we already know: The schools that disadvantaged children attend are not being given the supports necessary to produce achievement gains. Students cannot be tested out of poverty, and while NCLB did take us a step forward by requiring schools to produce evidence that students were learning, it…

  19. An Assessment of Potential Efficiency Gains through Online Content Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creaser, Claire; Hamblin, Yvonne; Davies, J. Eric

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Online content has largely replaced traditional print-based resources as the primary tool for literature searching throughout much of the academic and research community. This paper presents the results of a small-scale study, commissioned by the JISC in 2004, to assess the potential efficiency gains that may be achieved through the use…

  20. Cognitive and Academic Gains as a Result of Cognitive Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckey, Alicia J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test Feuersetein's Structural Cognitive Modifiability model by evaluating changes in cognitive skills and reading scores after participation in one of two cognitive skills training programs. The Woodcock Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement, 3 rd editions were used as evaluation tools.…

  1. Stochastic Gain in Population Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Schuster, Heinz Georg

    2004-07-01

    We introduce an extension of the usual replicator dynamics to adaptive learning rates. We show that a population with a dynamic learning rate can gain an increased average payoff in transient phases and can also exploit external noise, leading the system away from the Nash equilibrium, in a resonancelike fashion. The payoff versus noise curve resembles the signal to noise ratio curve in stochastic resonance. Seen in this broad context, we introduce another mechanism that exploits fluctuations in order to improve properties of the system. Such a mechanism could be of particular interest in economic systems.

  2. Scalar gain interpretation of large order filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Paul A. C.; Mook, D. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    A technique is developed which demonstrates how to interpret a large fully-populated filter gain matrix as a set of scalar gains. The inverse problem is also solved, namely, how to develop a large-order filter gain matrix from a specified set of scalar gains. Examples are given to illustrate the method.

  3. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  4. The Wide Range Achievement Test and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, William R.; Williams, Fern

    A comparison of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) indicates that the two should be used interchangeably only with caution and understanding of the differences. While there is a moderate to high correlation between the test scores, nevertheless, the two have distinctly different strengths and…

  5. The Wide Range Achievement Test and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, William R.; Williams, Fern

    1978-01-01

    The article presents a statistical and descriptive comparison, with emphasis on math subtests, of the Wide Range Achievement Test and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, based on scores obtained from clients (in grades 1-12) at a university-affiliated learning disabilities center. (SBH)

  6. Role of Resilient Personality on Lower Achieving First Grade Students' Current and Future Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Oi-man; Hughes, Jan N.; Luo, Wen

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated a measurement model of personality resilience and the contribution of personality resilience to lower achieving first grade students' academic achievement. Participants were 445 ethnically diverse children who at entrance to first grade scored below their school district median on a test of literacy. Participants were…

  7. Comparing Propensity Score Methods in Balancing Covariates and Recovering Impact in Small Sample Educational Program Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Clement A.; Tang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score applications are often used to evaluate educational program impact. However, various options are available to estimate both propensity scores and construct comparison groups. This study used a student achievement dataset with commonly available covariates to compare different propensity scoring estimation methods (logistic…

  8. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  9. Optimally combining propensity score subclasses.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Kara E; Colson, K Ellicott; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ahern, Jennifer

    2016-11-30

    Propensity score methods, such as subclassification, are a common approach to control for confounding when estimating causal effects in non-randomized studies. Propensity score subclassification groups individuals into subclasses based on their propensity score values. Effect estimates are obtained within each subclass and then combined by weighting by the proportion of observations in each subclass. Combining subclass-specific estimates by weighting by the inverse variance is a promising alternative approach; a similar strategy is used in meta-analysis for its efficiency. We use simulation to compare performance of each of the two methods while varying (i) the number of subclasses, (ii) extent of propensity score overlap between the treatment and control groups (i.e., positivity), (iii) incorporation of survey weighting, and (iv) presence of heterogeneous treatment effects across subclasses. Both methods perform well in the absence of positivity violations and with a constant treatment effect with weighting by the inverse variance performing slightly better. Weighting by the proportion in subclass performs better in the presence of heterogeneous treatment effects across subclasses. We apply these methods to an illustrative example estimating the effect of living in a disadvantaged neighborhood on risk of past-year anxiety and depressive disorders among U.S. urban adolescents. This example entails practical positivity violations but no evidence of treatment effect heterogeneity. In this case, weighting by the inverse variance when combining across propensity score subclasses results in more efficient estimates that ultimately change inference. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M

    2011-06-27

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects, and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions, and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well-known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms.

  11. The impact of a Classroom Performance System on learning gains in a biology course for science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Nilo Eric

    This study was conducted to determine if the use of the technology known as Classroom Performance System (CPS), specifically referred to as "Clickers", improves the learning gains of students enrolled in a biology course for science majors. CPS is one of a group of developing technologies adapted for providing feedback in the classroom using a learner-centered approach. It supports and facilitates discussion among students and between them and teachers, and provides for participation by passive students. Advocates, influenced by constructivist theories, claim increased academic achievement. In science teaching, the results have been mixed, but there is some evidence of improvements in conceptual understanding. The study employed a pretest-posttest, non-equivalent groups experimental design. The sample consisted of 226 participants in six sections of a college biology course at a large community college in South Florida with two instructors trained in the use of clickers. Each instructor randomly selected their sections into CPS (treatment) and non-CPS (control) groups. All participants filled out a survey that included demographic data at the beginning of the semester. The treatment group used clicker questions throughout, with discussions as necessary, whereas the control groups answered the same questions as quizzes, similarly engaging in discussion where necessary. The learning gains were assessed on a pre/post-test basis. The average learning gains, defined as the actual gain divided by the possible gain, were slightly better in the treatment group than in the control group, but the difference was statistically non-significant. An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) statistic with pretest scores as the covariate was conducted to test for significant differences between the treatment and control groups on the posttest. A second ANCOVA was used to determine the significance of differences between the treatment and control groups on the posttest scores, after

  12. Finding Nearly Optimal GDT Scores

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuai Cheng; Bu, Dongbo; Xu, Jinbo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Global Distance Test (GDT) is one of the commonly accepted measures to assess the quality of predicted protein structures. Given a set of distance thresholds, GDT maximizes the percentage of superimposed (or matched) residue pairs under each threshold, and reports the average of these percentages as the final score. The computation of GDT score was conjectured to be NP-hard. All available methods are heuristic and do not guarantee the optimality of scores. These heuristic strategies usually result in underestimated GDT scores. Contrary to the conjecture, the problem can be solved exactly in polynomial time, albeit the method would be too slow for practical usage. In this paper we propose an efficient tool called OptGDT to obtain GDT scores with theoretically guaranteed accuracies. Denote ℓ as the number of matched residue pairs found by OptGDT for a given threshold d. Let ℓ′ be the optimal number of matched residues pairs for threshold d/(1 + ε), where ε is a parameter in our computation. OptGDT guarantees that ℓ ≥ ℓ′. We applied our tool to CASP8 (The eighth Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction Techniques) data. For 87.3% of the predicted models, better GDT scores are obtained when OptGDT is used. In some cases, the number of matched residue pairs were improved by at least 10%. The tool runs in time O(n3 log n/ε5) for a given threshold d and parameter ε. In the case of globular proteins, the tool can be improved to a randomized algorithm of O(n log2 n) runtime with probability at least 1 − O(1/n). Released under the GPL license and downloadable from http://bioinformatics.uwaterloo.ca/∼scli/OptGDT/. PMID:21554017

  13. Individual and group sensitivity to remedial reading program design: Examining reading gains across three middle school reading projects

    PubMed Central

    Calhoon, Mary Beth; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine group- and individual-level responses by struggling adolescents readers (6th – 8th grades; N = 155) to three different modalities of the same reading program, Reading Achievement Multi-Component Program (RAMP-UP). The three modalities differ in the combination of reading components (phonological decoding, spelling, fluency, comprehension) that are taught and their organization. Latent change scores were used to examine changes in phonological decoding, fluency, and comprehension for each modality at the group level. In addition, individual students were classified as gainers versus non-gainers (a reading level increase of a year or more vs. less than one year) so that characteristics of gainers and differential sensitivity to instructional modality could be investigated. Findings from both group and individual analyses indicated that reading outcomes were related to modalities of reading instruction. Furthermore, differences in reading gains were seen between students who began treatment with higher reading scores than those with lower reading scores; dependent on modality of treatment. Results, examining group and individual analyses similarities and differences, and the effect the different modalities have on reading outcomes for older struggling readers will be discussed. PMID:25657503

  14. Information gains from cosmological probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandis, S.; Seehars, S.; Refregier, A.; Amara, A.; Nicola, A.

    2016-05-01

    In light of the growing number of cosmological observations, it is important to develop versatile tools to quantify the constraining power and consistency of cosmological probes. Originally motivated from information theory, we use the relative entropy to compute the information gained by Bayesian updates in units of bits. This measure quantifies both the improvement in precision and the `surprise', i.e. the tension arising from shifts in central values. Our starting point is a WMAP9 prior which we update with observations of the distance ladder, supernovae (SNe), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and weak lensing as well as the 2015 Planck release. We consider the parameters of the flat ΛCDM concordance model and some of its extensions which include curvature and Dark Energy equation of state parameter w. We find that, relative to WMAP9 and within these model spaces, the probes that have provided the greatest gains are Planck (10 bits), followed by BAO surveys (5.1 bits) and SNe experiments (3.1 bits). The other cosmological probes, including weak lensing (1.7 bits) and {H0} measures (1.7 bits), have contributed information but at a lower level. Furthermore, we do not find any significant surprise when updating the constraints of WMAP9 with any of the other experiments, meaning that they are consistent with WMAP9. However, when we choose Planck15 as the prior, we find that, accounting for the full multi-dimensionality of the parameter space, the weak lensing measurements of CFHTLenS produce a large surprise of 4.4 bits which is statistically significant at the 8 σ level. We discuss how the relative entropy provides a versatile and robust framework to compare cosmological probes in the context of current and future surveys.

  15. Further Validation of the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compares the Qualitative Scoring System and the Developmental Scoring Systems, both Bender-Gestalt tests, in predicting achievement on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). In this study, first through fourth graders (n=409) from regular elementary schools were subjected to both tests; both systems correlated significantly with school…

  16. The Effect of Thinking Maps on Fifth Grade Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Darlene

    Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.

  17. A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…

  18. 24 CFR 902.63 - PHAS scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... four PHAS indicators in this part will be scored individually, and then will be used to determine an overall score for the PHA. Components within each of the four PHAS indicators will be scored individually... indicators. (b) Adjustments to the PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's...

  19. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  20. Manual of Gain Correction Data for Standard Gain Horn Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    20 5-0 5 C-GC ~017 A- 12. 5(CM) FREQUENCY- 10.00 GHZ B- 12.65(CM) : TDH = 12-2CMLE- 22.60(CM) TON. 12.2CMLH- 24.84 (CM) n M U3 F-I 1100 150 200 250 300...reliably measure the coupling data with a 0.1 dB accuracy. I, This requires that good linearity be achieved over the dynamic range of power levels of the...following recommendations: 1. Periodically calibrate the system (with the waveguides . ’- attached) over the usable dynamic range and at the

  1. Turning Merit Scores into Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a single formula for merit-raise salary schemes based on either a fixed cash amount, a percentage of base salary, or any combination of the two. Explains that the formula makes explicit how merit scores, together with prior salaries and the money available for raises, determine individual salaries. (CMK)

  2. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  3. Weighting Regressions by Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David A.; Berk, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Asian and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Gains in math tended to be larger than in reading. Trends in closing achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were available from 2007 through 2009. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  5. Examining alternative scoring rubrics on a statewide test: The impact of different scoring methods on science and social studies performance assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creighton, Susan Dabney

    There is no consensus regarding the most reliable and valid scoring methods for the assessment of higher order thinking skills. Most of the research on alternative formats has focused on the scoring of writing ability. This study examined the value of different types of performance assessment scoring guides on state mandated science and social studies tests. A proportional stratified sample of raters were randomly assigned to one of four scoring groups: checklist, analytic rubric, holistic rubric, and generic rubrics. A fifth method, the weighted analytic rubric, was included by applying an algorithmic formula to the scores assigned by raters using the analytic rubric. A comparison of the mean scores for the five scoring groups suggests that there may be a difference in the way raters applied the rubric for each group. Although the literature suggests that it is possible to achieve high levels of inter-rater reliability, across forms of scoring, phi coefficients of moderate strength were obtained for three of the four constructed-response items. Results for each scoring group were compared indicating that item complexity may impact the level of inter-rate, reliability and the selection of the most reliable rubric for each discipline. Analytic rubrics appear to achieve more reliable results with less complex items. A multitrait-multimethod approach was utilized to investigate the external validity of the social studies and science tasks. As expected, there tended to be a stronger association between the PACT science constructed-response scores with scores based on science multiple-choice scores than between the science constructed-response scores and the writing ability subtest scores. A similar pattern was seen with social studies items. These results provide some evidence for the validity of the performance assessments. A post study survey completed by raters provided qualitative information regarding their thought processes and their primary focus during the

  6. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  7. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  8. Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…

  9. Do Charter Schools Improve Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Melissa A.; Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Silverberg, Marsha K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a lottery-based study of the impacts of a broad set of 33 charter middle schools across 13 states on student achievement. To estimate charter school impacts, we compare test score outcomes of students admitted to these schools through the randomized admissions lotteries with outcomes of applicants who were not…

  10. The effects of collaborative concept mapping on the achievement, science self-efficacy and attitude toward science of female eighth-grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledger, Antoinette Frances

    This study sought to examine whether collaborative concept mapping would affect the achievement, science self-efficacy and attitude toward science of female eighth grade science students. The research questions are: (1) Will the use of collaborative concept mapping affect the achievement of female students in science? (2) Will the use of collaborative concept mapping affect the science self-efficacy of female students? (3) Will the use of collaborative concept mapping affect the attitudes of females toward science? The study was quasi-experimental and utilized a pretest-posttest design for both experimental and control groups. Eighth grade female and male students from three schools in a large northeastern school district participated in this study. The achievement test consisted of 10 multiple choice and two open-response questions and used questions from state-wide and national assessments as well as teacher-constructed items. A 29 item Likert type instrument (McMillan, 1992) was administered to measure science self-efficacy and attitude toward science. The study was of 12 weeks duration. During the study, experimental group students were asked to perform collaborative concept map construction in single sex dyads using specific terms designated by the classroom teacher and the researcher. During classroom visitations, student perceptions of collaborative concept mapping were collected and were used to provide insight into the results of the quantitative data analysis. Data from the pre and posttest instruments were analyzed for both experimental and control groups using t-tests. Additionally, the three teachers were interviewed and their perceptions of the study were also used to gain insight into the results of the study. The analysis of data showed that experimental group females showed significantly higher gains in achievement than control group females. An additional analysis of data showed experimental group males showed significantly greater gains in

  11. Calibration of unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores to Movement Disorder Society-unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Tilley, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop formulas to convert the UPDRS to Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-UPDRS scores. The MDS-UPDRS is a revision of the UPDRS with sound clinimetric properties. Reliable formulas to recalculate UPDRS scores into MDS-UPDRS equivalents are pivotal to the practical transition and definitive adoption of the MDS-UPDRS. UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS scores were collected on 875 PD patients. A developmental sample was used to regress UPDRS scores on corresponding MDS-UPDRS scores based on three H & Y groupings (I/II, III, and IV/V). Regression weighting factors and intercept terms provided formulas for UPDRS conversions to be tested in a validation sample. Concordance between the true MDS-UPDRS Part scores and those derived from the formulas was compared using Bland-Altman's plots and Lin's concordance coefficient (LCC). Significant concordance between UPDRS-estimated MDS-UPDRS scores was achieved for Parts II (Motor Experiences of Daily Living) (LCC = 0.93) and III (Motor Examination) (LCC = 0.97). The formulas resulted in mean differences between the true MDS-UPDRS and estimated MDS-UPDRS scores of less than 1 point for both Parts II and III. Concordance was not achieved for Parts I and IV (Non-motor Experiences of Daily Living and Complications of Therapy). Formulas allow archival UPDRS Parts II and III individual patient data to be accurately transferred to MDS-UPDRS scores. Because Part I collects data on much more extensive information than the UPDRS, and because Part IV is structured differently in the two versions, old ratings for these parts cannot be converted. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Comparison of student achievement among two science laboratory types: traditional and virtual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Mary Celeste

    Technology has changed almost every aspect of our daily lives. It is not surprising then that technology has made its way into the classroom. More and more educators are utilizing technological resources in creative ways with the intent to enhance learning, including using virtual laboratories in the sciences in place of the "traditional" science laboratories. This has generated much discussion as to the influence on student achievement when online learning replaces the face-to-face contact between instructor and student. The purpose of this study was to discern differences in achievement of two laboratory instruction types: virtual laboratory and a traditional laboratory. Results of this study indicate statistical significant differences in student achievement defined by averages on quiz scores in virtual labs compared with traditional face-to-face laboratories and traditional laboratories result in greater student learning gains than virtual labs. Lecture exam averages were also greater for students enrolled in the traditional laboratories compared to students enrolled in the virtual laboratories. To account for possible differences in ability among students, a potential extraneous variable, GPA and ACT scores were used as covariates.

  13. Cognitive predictors of reading and math achievement among gifted referrals.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Ellen W; Miller, Cristin; Ebenstein, Lauren A; Thompson, Dawna F

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the predictive power of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), the General Ability Index (GAI), and the WISC-IV index score composites on subsequent reading and math standardized test scores among high-achieving students. The sample consisted of 84 elementary-age students who received an individual cognitive assessment with the WISC-IV in the previous year as part of the application process for gifted and talented programming through their schools. Although there were no significant differences among the mean WISC-IV index scores, 77% of the individual students evidenced statistically significant WISC-IV index score variability. Thus, intraindividual test score variability appears to be the norm among high-achieving students. In spite of this variability, regression analyses indicated that the FSIQ predicted reading comprehension and mathematics achievement better than, or as well as, the GAI or individual scores for verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning. None of the cognitive variables correlated significantly with achievement scores for Word Reading or Pseudoword Decoding scores, but the FSIQ, GAI, Verbal Comprehension, and Perceptual Reasoning scores predicted reading comprehension. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Review of High Gain FELs

    SciTech Connect

    Shintake, Tsumoru

    2007-01-19

    For understanding on basic radiation mechanism of the high-gain FEL based on SASE, the author presents electron-crystal interpretation of FEL radiation. In the electron-crystal, electrons are localized at regularly spaced multi-layers, which represents micro-bunching, whose spacing is equal to the radiation wavelength, and the multi-layers are perpendicular to beam axis, thus, diffracted wave creates Bragg's spots in forward and backward directions. Due to the Doppler's effect, frequency of the back-scattered wave is up-converted, generates forwardly focused X-ray. The Bragg's effect contributes focusing the X-ray beam into a spot, thus peak power becomes extremely higher by factor of typically 107. This is the FEL radiation. As well known, the total numbers of scattered photons in Bragg's spots is equal to the total elastic scattering photons from the atoms contained in the crystal. Therefore, total power in the FEL laser is same as the spontaneous radiation power from the undulator for the same beam parameter. The FEL radiation phenomenon is simple interference effect. In today's presentations, we use the laser pointer, and we frequently experience difficulty in pointing precisely or steadily in one place on the screen, since the laser spot is very small and does not spread. Exactly same to this, X-ray FEL is a highly focused beam, and pointing stability dominates productivity of experiment, thus we need special care on beam stability from linear accelerator.

  15. Comparison of the Relationship between Two Measures of Visual-Motor Coordination and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dan; DeMers, Stephen T.

    1982-01-01

    Scores from a scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt and Beery's Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration for a group of 86 elementary students were correlated with Wide Range Achievement Test scores, controlling for WISC-R IQ. Results suggested that visual-motor ability may not contribute to the prediction of achievement. (Author)

  16. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  17. Are Increasing Test Scores in Texas Really a Myth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toenjes, Lawrence A.; Dworkin, A. Gary

    2002-01-01

    Used the same methodology and data used by W. Haney in his study of achievement gains on the Texas high school exit examination to demonstrate that his conclusion about the increased pass rate was not correct. None of the 20% improvement in the exit test pass rate was explained by combined increases in dropout rates or special education…

  18. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  19. Nicotine Replacement: Effects on Postcessation Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined nicotine replacement effects on postcessation weight gain in smoking cessation volunteers. Randomly assigned abstinent subjects to active nicotine or placebo gum conditions for 10 weeks. Analyses revealed strong evidence for gum effect on weight gain, with active gum users gaining mean total of 3.8 pounds compared with 7.8 pounds for…

  20. Is Weight Gain after Smoking Cessation Inevitable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talcott, Gerald W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied weight gain after smoking cessation in a naturalistic setting where all smokers quit and risk factors for postcessation weight gain were modified. Results showed no significant weight changes for smokers who quit. Suggests that an intensive program featuring dietary guidelines and increased physical activity can attenuate weight gain. (RJM)

  1. Electrical and Optical Gain Lever Effects in InGaAs Double Quantum Well Diode Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M D; Goddard, L L; Bond, T C; Nikolic, R J; Vernon, S P; Kallman, J S; Behymer, E M

    2007-01-03

    In multisection laser diodes, the amplitude or frequency modulation (AM or FM) efficiency can be improved using the gain lever effect. To study gain lever, InGaAs double quantum well (DQW) edge emitting lasers have been fabricated with integrated passive waveguides and dual sections providing a range of split ratios from 1:1 to 9:1. Both the electrical and the optical gain lever have been examined. An electrical gain lever with greater than 7 dB enhancement of AM efficiency was achieved within the range of appropriate DC biasing currents, but this gain dropped rapidly outside this range. We observed a 4 dB gain in the optical AM efficiency under non-ideal biasing conditions. This value agreed with the measured gain for the electrical AM efficiency under similar conditions. We also examined the gain lever effect under large signal modulation for digital logic switching applications. To get a useful gain lever for optical gain quenched logic, a long control section is needed to preserve the gain lever strength and a long interaction length between the input optical signal and the lasing field of the diode must be provided. The gain lever parameter space has been fully characterized and validated against numerical simulations of a semi-3D hybrid beam propagation method (BPM) model for the coupled electron-photon rate equation. We find that the optical gain lever can be treated using the electrical injection model, once the absorption in the sample is known.

  2. Gestational weight gain and offspring longitudinal growth in early life

    PubMed Central

    Diesel, Jill C.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Day, Nancy L.; Brooks, Maria M.; Arslanian, Silva A.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) increases the risk of childhood obesity, but little is known about its association with infant growth patterns. Aim To examine the GWG-infant growth association. Methods Pregnant women (n=743) self-reported GWG at delivery, which we classified as inadequate, adequate, or excessive based on current guidelines. Offspring weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), length-for-age z-scores (LAZ (with height-for-age (HAZ) in place of length at 36 months)), and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) were calculated at birth, 8, 18, and 36 months using the 2006 WHO growth standards. Linear mixed models estimated the change in z-scores from birth to 36 months by GWG. Results The mean (SD) WAZ was −0.22 (1.20) at birth. Overall, WAZ and BMIZ increased from birth to approximately 24 months and decreased from 24 to 36 months, while LAZ/HAZ decreased from birth through 36 months. Excessive GWG was associated with higher offspring WAZ and BMIZ at birth, 8, and 36 months, and higher HAZ at 36 months, compared with adequate GWG. Compared with the same referent, inadequate GWG was associated with smaller WAZ and BMIZ at birth and 8 months. Conclusion Excessive GWG may predispose infants to obesogenic growth patterns while inadequate GWG may not have a lasting impact on infant growth. PMID:26279171

  3. Grades and Test Scores: Accounting for Observed Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Warren W.; Pollack, Judith M.; Lewis, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Proposed a framework of possible differences between grades and test scores and tested the framework with data on 8,454 high school seniors from the National Education Longitudinal Study. Identified differences and correlations among achievement factors. Differences between grades and tests give these measures complementary strengths in…

  4. Perceived Competitiveness, Skill, and Scores on the Sports Attitudes Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Joe D.; Layne, Benjamin H.

    It was hypothesized that motivation (power, achievement, or fear of failure) scores would be important variables in predicting coaches' and students' ratings of competitiveness and skill. Female high school students in basketball, tennis, and track and field used a self-peer measurement technique to rate competitiveness and skill. Coaches' ratings…

  5. Housing Costs, Zoning, and Access to High-Scoring Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The first section of this paper surveys academic research on educational achievement with an emphasis on the relative effects of schools and families in shaping educational outcomes. A methodology section provides a summary of data sources and defines the main variables measured. The paper then examines differences in school test score performance…

  6. Student Laptop Use and Scores on Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kposowa, Augustine J.; Valdez, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between ubiquitous laptop use and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that students with ubiquitous laptops would score on average higher on standardized tests than those without such computers. Methods: Data were obtained from two sources. First, demographic…

  7. What We Lose in Winning the Test Score Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    To achieve perpetually better test results each year as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), teachers in successful schools such as Leroy Anderson Elementary in San Jose, California, will "try anything" to raise scores, as the school's principal stated in an interview with "The San Jose Mercury News." In schools…

  8. Optofluidic lasers with a single molecular layer of gain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiushu; Ritt, Michael; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Sun, Yuze; Fan, Xudong

    2014-12-21

    We achieve optofluidic lasers with a single molecular layer of gain, in which green fluorescent protein, dye-labeled bovine serum albumin, and dye-labeled DNA, are used as the gain medium and attached to the surface of a ring resonator via surface immobilization biochemical methods. It is estimated that the surface density of the gain molecules is on the order of 10(12) cm(-2), sufficient for lasing under pulsed optical excitation. It is further shown that the optofluidic laser can be tuned by energy transfer mechanisms through biomolecular interactions. This work not only opens a door to novel photonic devices that can be controlled at the level of a single molecular layer but also provides a promising sensing platform to analyze biochemical processes at the solid-liquid interface.

  9. [Scores and stages in pneumology].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Max

    2013-10-01

    Useful scales and classifications for patients with pulmonary diseases are discussed. The modified Medical Research Council breathlessness scale (mMRC) is a measure of disability in lung patients. The GOLD classifications, the COPD-Assessment Test (CAT) and the BODE Index are important to classify the severity of COPD and to measure the disability of these patients. The Geneva score is a clinical prediction rule used in determining the pre-test probability of pulmonary embolism. The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) is a scoring system used to predict 30 day mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale is intended to measure daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. The Asthma Controll Test (ACT) determines if asthma symptoms are well controlled.

  10. GPU acceleration of Dock6's Amber scoring computation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hailong; Zhou, Qiongqiong; Li, Bo; Wang, Yongjian; Luan, Zhongzhi; Qian, Depei; Li, Hanlu

    2010-01-01

    Dressing the problem of virtual screening is a long-term goal in the drug discovery field, which if properly solved, can significantly shorten new drugs' R&D cycle. The scoring functionality that evaluates the fitness of the docking result is one of the major challenges in virtual screening. In general, scoring functionality in docking requires a large amount of floating-point calculations, which usually takes several weeks or even months to be finished. This time-consuming procedure is unacceptable, especially when highly fatal and infectious virus arises such as SARS and H1N1, which forces the scoring task to be done in a limited time. This paper presents how to leverage the computational power of GPU to accelerate Dock6's (http://dock.compbio.ucsf.edu/DOCK_6/) Amber (J. Comput. Chem. 25: 1157-1174, 2004) scoring with NVIDIA CUDA (NVIDIA Corporation Technical Staff, Compute Unified Device Architecture - Programming Guide, NVIDIA Corporation, 2008) (Compute Unified Device Architecture) platform. We also discuss many factors that will greatly influence the performance after porting the Amber scoring to GPU, including thread management, data transfer, and divergence hidden. Our experiments show that the GPU-accelerated Amber scoring achieves a 6.5× speedup with respect to the original version running on AMD dual-core CPU for the same problem size. This acceleration makes the Amber scoring more competitive and efficient for large-scale virtual screening problems.

  11. The Southampton Dupuytren's Scoring Scheme.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arvind; Vadher, Jane; Ismail, Hiba; Warwick, David

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to construct and validate a simple patient-related outcome score to quantify the disability caused by Dupuytren's disease (DD), thus enabling prioritisation of treatment, to allow reliable audit of surgical outcome and to support future research. The Southampton Dupuytren's Scoring System (SDSS) was developed in a staged fashion according to the recommendations of The Derby Outcomes Conference. (1) Item generation; (2) Item reduction; (3) Internal consistency; (4) Test-re-test; (5) Field management; (6) Sensitivity to change standardised response mean; and (7) Criterion validity: ability of the SDSS to measure what it is supposed to measure. Internal consistency measured with Cronbach's alpha indicated acceptable reliability. The test-re-test correlation coefficient showed high reliability with SDSS. Field-testing showed SDSS ratings to be higher than the QuickDASH (Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand) ratings evaluated by the patients who answered both questionnaires. Standardised response mean was more sensitive for SDSS compared with QuickDASH showing sensitivity to change. Criterion validity was used to assess if the SDSS was measuring what it is supposed to measure comparing the SDSS with QuickDASH. A highly significant correlation was found between the two scoring systems. SDSS is a disease-specific patient-related outcome measure with a good internal consistency and performs better than QuickDASH in terms of test-re-test reliability and sensitivity to change. SDSS shows better field-testing attributes suggesting that it is a relatively more patient and practitioner friendly scoring system. This study proposes to the SDSS is a useful patient-related outcome measure for DD.

  12. BDNF: no gain without pain?

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter A

    2014-12-26

    Injury to the adult nervous system promotes the expression and secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Because it promotes neuronal growth, survival and neurogenesis, BDNF may initiate compensatory processes that mitigate the deleterious effects of injury, disease or stress. Despite this, BDNF has been implicated in several injury-induced maladaptive processes including pain, spasticity and convulsive activity. This review will concentrate on the predominant role of BDNF in the initiation and maintenance of chronic and/or neuropathic pain at the spinal, peripheral and central levels. Within the spinal dorsal horn, the pattern of BDNF-induced changes in synaptic transmission across five different, identified neuronal phenotypes bears a striking resemblance to that produced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of peripheral nerves. The appearance of this "pain footprint" thus reflects multiple sensitizing actions of microglial-derived BDNF. These include changes in the chloride equilibrium potential, decreased excitatory synaptic drive to inhibitory neurons, complex changes in inhibitory (GABA/glycinergic) synaptic transmission, increases in excitatory synaptic drive to excitatory neurons and the appearance of oscillatory activity. BDNF effects are confined to changes in synaptic transmission as there is little change in the passive or active properties of neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. Actions of BDNF in the brain stem and periphery also contribute to the onset and persistence of chronic pain. In spite of its role in compensatory processes that facilitate the recovery of the nervous system from injury, the widespread maladaptive actions of BDNF mean that there is literally "no gain without pain".

  13. Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain.

  14. Gain Control Network Conditions in Early Sensory Coding

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Eduardo; Nowotny, Thomas; Levi, Rafael; Smith, Brian H.; Huerta, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Gain control is essential for the proper function of any sensory system. However, the precise mechanisms for achieving effective gain control in the brain are unknown. Based on our understanding of the existence and strength of connections in the insect olfactory system, we analyze the conditions that lead to controlled gain in a randomly connected network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We consider two scenarios for the variation of input into the system. In the first case, the intensity of the sensory input controls the input currents to a fixed proportion of neurons of the excitatory and inhibitory populations. In the second case, increasing intensity of the sensory stimulus will both, recruit an increasing number of neurons that receive input and change the input current that they receive. Using a mean field approximation for the network activity we derive relationships between the parameters of the network that ensure that the overall level of activity of the excitatory population remains unchanged for increasing intensity of the external stimulation. We find that, first, the main parameters that regulate network gain are the probabilities of connections from the inhibitory population to the excitatory population and of the connections within the inhibitory population. Second, we show that strict gain control is not achievable in a random network in the second case, when the input recruits an increasing number of neurons. Finally, we confirm that the gain control conditions derived from the mean field approximation are valid in simulations of firing rate models and Hodgkin-Huxley conductance based models. PMID:23874176

  15. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  16. Stability in high gain plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Murakami, M.; Wade, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    Fusion power gain has been increased by a factor of 3 in DIII-D plasmas through the use of strong discharge shaping and tailoring of the pressure and current density profiles. H-mode plasmas with weak or negative central magnetic shear are found to have neoclassical ion confinement throughout most of the plasma volume. Improved MHD stability is achieved by controlling the plasma pressure profile width. The highest fusion power gain Q (ratio of fusion power to input power) in deuterium plasmas was 0.0015, which extrapolates to an equivalent Q of 0.32 in a deuterium-tritium plasma and is similar to values achieved in tokamaks of larger size and magnetic fields.

  17. Stability in High Gain Plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E. A.; Hong, R. M.; Navratil, G. A.; Sabbagh, S.; Strait, E. J.; Rice, B. W.; Ferron, J. R.; Greenfield, C. M.; Austin, M. E.; Chan, V. S.; DeBoo, J. C.; Doyle, E. J.; Forest, C. B.; Leonard, A. W.; Schissel, D. P.; Whyte, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    Fusion power gain has been increased by a factor of 3 in DIII-D plasmas through the use of strong discharge shaping and tailoring of the pressure and current density profiles. H-mode plasmas with weak or negative central magnetic shear are found to have neoclassical ion confinement throughout most of the plasma volume. Improved MHD stability is achieved by controlling the plasma pressure profile width. The highest fusion power gain Q (ratio of fusion power to input power) in deuterium plasmas was 0.0015. which extrapolates to an equivalent Q of 0.32 in a deuterium-tritium plasma and is similar to values achieved in tokamaks of larger size and magnetic fields.

  18. Controlling gain one photon at a time.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gregory W; Rieke, Fred

    2013-05-14

    Adaptation is a salient property of sensory processing. All adaptational or gain control mechanisms face the challenge of obtaining a reliable estimate of the property of the input to be adapted to and obtaining this estimate sufficiently rapidly to be useful. Here, we explore how the primate retina balances the need to change gain rapidly and reliably when photons arrive rarely at individual rod photoreceptors. We find that the weakest backgrounds that decrease the gain of the retinal output signals are similar to those that increase human behavioral threshold, and identify a novel site of gain control in the retinal circuitry. Thus, surprisingly, the gain of retinal signals begins to decrease essentially as soon as background lights are detectable; under these conditions, gain control does not rely on a highly averaged estimate of the photon count, but instead signals from individual photon absorptions trigger changes in gain. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00467.001.

  19. Investigating kindergarteners' number sense and self-regulation scores in relation to their mathematics and Turkish scores in middle school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İvrendi, Asiye

    2016-09-01

    Number sense and self-regulation are considered foundational skills for later school learning. This study aimed to investigate the predictive power of kindergarten children's number sense and self-regulation scores on their mathematics and Turkish language examination scores in the 5th and 6th grades. The participants in this study were 5th grade ( n = 46) and 6th grade ( n = 28) students, whose number sense and self-regulation skills were measured when they were in kindergarten in 2009 and 2010. Data were analyzed through multiple regression. The results showed positive and mid-level correlations. The children's kindergarten number sense and self-regulation scores significantly predicted their 5th and 6th grade mathematics and Turkish language examination scores. Self-regulation was the stronger predictor of mathematics scores, whereas number sense scores were the better predictor of Turkish language examination scores. The findings from this study provide further evidence as to the critical role of children's early skills in middle school mathematics and language achievement.

  20. Predicting Scores on the College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) General Examinations from Scores Earned on the American College Test (ACT) Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Shakiba-Nejad, Hadi

    The study was conducted to provide formulae by which College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) General Examination scores may be predicted from scores earned on the American College Test (ACT) Assessment. Five basic areas of liberal arts achievement are measured by the CLEP General Examinations: English Composition, Humanities, Mathematics, Natural…

  1. An Optimizing Weight For Wrong Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    This study empirically determined the optimizing weight to be applied to the Wrongs Total Score in scoring rubrics of the general form = R - kW, where S is the Score, R the Rights Total, k the weight and W the Wrongs Total, if reliability is to be maximized. As is well known, the traditional formula score rests on a theoretical framework which is…

  2. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education...; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process § 668.147 Passing scores. Except as provided in §§ 668... education and training offered, the Secretary specifies that the passing score on each approved test is...

  3. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  4. Bilingualism and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in kindergarten, Mixed Bilingual children fully closed the math gap with their White English Monolingual peers by fifth grade. However, because non-English-Dominant Bilinguals and non-English Monolinguals started kindergarten with significantly lower reading and math scores compared to their English Monolingual peers, by fifth grade the former groups still had significantly lower scores. School-level factors explained about one third of the reductions in the differences in children's academic performance.

  5. Weight gain in smokers after quitting cigarettes: meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Amanda; Lycett, Deborah; Lahmek, Pierre; Aveyard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe weight gain and its variation in smokers who achieve prolonged abstinence for up to 12 months and who quit without treatment or use drugs to assist cessation. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and trials listed in Cochrane reviews of smoking cessation interventions (nicotine replacement therapy, nicotinic partial agonists, antidepressants, and exercise) for randomised trials of first line treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline) and exercise that reported weight change. We also searched CENTRAL for trials of interventions for weight gain after cessation. Review methods Trials were included if they recorded weight change from baseline to follow-up in abstinent smokers. We used a random effects inverse variance model to calculate the mean and 95% confidence intervals and the mean of the standard deviation for weight change from baseline to one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting. We explored subgroup differences using random effects meta-regression. Results 62 studies were included. In untreated quitters, mean weight gain was 1.12 kg (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.47), 2.26 kg (1.98 to 2.54), 2.85 kg (2.42 to 3.28), 4.23 kg (3.69 to 4.77), and 4.67 kg (3.96 to 5.38) at one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting, respectively. Using the means and weighted standard deviations, we calculated that at 12 months after cessation, 16%, 37%, 34%, and 13% of untreated quitters lost weight, and gained less than 5 kg, gained 5-10 kg, and gained more than 10 kg, respectively. Estimates of weight gain were similar for people using different pharmacotherapies to support cessation. Estimates were also similar between people especially concerned about weight gain and those not concerned. Conclusion Smoking cessation is associated with a mean increase of 4-5 kg in body weight after 12 months of abstinence, and most weight gain occurs within three

  6. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement in Graduate Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieker, Richard F.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the academic achievement of 71 business administration graduates indicated that scores on the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) are more significant predictors of graduate performance than undergraduate performance is. The relationship between graduate performance and GMAT score differs for black students and white students.…

  7. Cognitive Predictors of Reading and Math Achievement among Gifted Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Miller, Cristin; Ebenstein, Lauren A.; Thompson, Dawna F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive power of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), the General Ability Index (GAI), and the WISC-IV index score composites on subsequent reading and math standardized test scores among high-achieving students. The sample consisted of 84 elementary-age students…

  8. A Validity Investigation of the Achievement Anxiety Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The concurrent and predictive validity of the Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT) were investigated. The evidence gives cause to be concerned about the quality of a difference score because of the nonindependence of the two scores. Further, the underlying structure of the instrument appears to be more complex than originally hypothesized. (Author/GK)

  9. The Relationship of Self Concept to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ruth Watson

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference in the self-concept scores of first-grade children receiving self-concept training and those not receiving such training; whether there is a difference in the reading achievement scores of first-grade children receiving self-concept training and those not…

  10. An Exploratory Study of Creativity, Personality and Schooling Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Noémi; Tavani, Jean-Louis; Beasançon, Maud

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the link between schooling achievement and creativity scores, controlling for personality traits and other individual characteristics. Our study is based on field data collected in a secondary school situated in a Parisian suburb. Four scores of creativity were measured on 9th graders. Verbal divergent thinking negatively predicts…

  11. Practical Issues in Estimating Achievement Gaps from Coarsened Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Ho, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we presented methods for estimating achievement gaps when test scores are coarsened into a small number of ordered categories, preventing fine-grained distinctions between individual scores. We demonstrated that gaps can nonetheless be estimated with minimal bias across a broad range of simulated and real coarsened data…

  12. Teaching Effectiveness and Student Achievement: Examining the Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Sherman, Helene

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between teacher effectiveness and students' achievement as measured by test scores. A strong belief among policymakers and public as well as private funding agencies is that test scores are directly related to the quality of teaching effectiveness. This relationship implies that there could be a direct…

  13. The impact of sudden gains in cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kacie A; Rizvi, Shireen L; Monson, Candice M; Resick, Patricia A

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated sudden gains, i.e., rapid and stable improvements, in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms that may occur in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Twenty-nine of 72 participants (39.2%) experienced a sudden gain during treatment. Mixed model ANOVAs analyzed sudden gains impact on clinician-rated PTSD symptom severity, patient-rated PTSD symptom severity, and patient-rated depressive symptom severity. Sudden gains in PTSD symptomology were associated with greater reductions in PTSD symptom severity for the avoidance/numbing and hyperarousal symptom clusters at posttreatment. By 6-month follow-up, the sudden gains group had maintained those reductions in symptoms, but the nonsudden gains group had achieved equal reductions in symptom severity. Participants experiencing sudden gains on PTSD measures had lower depression severity at posttreatment and follow-up.

  14. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score

    PubMed Central

    Kepler, Christopher K.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Koerner, John D.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F. Cumhur

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  15. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Schroeder, Gregory D; Koerner, John D; Vialle, Luiz R; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J; Dvorak, Marcel F; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F Cumhur

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System.

  16. Transient gain analysis of gain-switched semiconductor lasers during pulse lasing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Ito, Takashi; Asahara, Akifumi; Nakamae, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Takahiro; Yoshita, Masahiro; Kim, Changsu; Zhang, Baoping; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Suemoto, Tohru; Akiyama, Hidefumi

    2015-12-10

    We analyzed the transient gain properties of three gain-switched semiconductor lasers with different materials and cavity structures during pulse lasing. All the semiconductor lasers were pumped with impulse optical pumping, and all the generated gain-switched output pulses were well described by exponential functions in their rise parts, wherein the transient gains were derived according to the rate-equation theoretical model. In spite of the different laser structures and materials, the results consistently demonstrated that a higher transient gain produces shorter output pulses, indicating the dominant role of higher transient gain in the generation of even shorter gain-switched pulses with semiconductor lasers.

  17. Studies on pressure-gain combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutomi, Yu

    Various aspects of the pressure-gain combustion engine are investigated analytically and experimentally in the current study. A lumped parameter model is developed to characterize the operation of a valveless pulse detonation engine. The model identified the function of flame quenching process through gas dynamic process. By adjusting fuel manifold pressure and geometries, the duration of the air buffer can be effectively varied. The parametric study with the lumped parameter model has shown that engine frequency of up to approximately 15 Hz is attainable. However, requirements for upstream air pressure increases significantly with higher engine frequency. The higher pressure requirement indicates pressure loss in the system and lower overall engine performance. The loss of performance due to the pressure loss is a critical issue for the integrated pressure-gain combustors. Two types of transitional methods are examined using entropy-based models. An accumulator based transition has obvious loss due to sudden area expansion, but it can be minimized by utilizing the gas dynamics in the combustion tube. An ejector type transition has potential to achieve performance beyond the limit specified by a single flow path Humphrey cycle. The performance of an ejector was discussed in terms of apparent entropy and mixed flow entropy. Through an ideal ejector, the apparent part of entropy increases due to the reduction in flow unsteadiness, but entropy of the mixed flow remains constant. The method is applied to a CFD simulation with a simple manifold for qualitative evaluation. The operation of the wave rotor constant volume combustion rig is experimentally examined. The rig has shown versatility of operation for wide range of conditions. Large pressure rise in the rotor channel and in a section of the exhaust duct are observed even with relatively large leakage gaps on the rotor. The simplified analysis indicated that inconsistent combustion is likely due to insufficient

  18. Scoring of precision spur gears

    SciTech Connect

    Budinski, K.G. )

    1994-09-01

    A group of manufacturing machines employed precision spur gears as the timing mechanism for machine operations. These machines had worked successfully for about ten years with little or no problems with gear wear or deterioration. When new machines were brought on line with recently made gears there were immediate problems with gear tooth scoring. A laboratory study was conducted to determine if metallurgical conditions were related to the gear scoring. Recent gears were made from a modification of the alloy used in early gears. The new alloy has been modified to make it more resistant to softening in coating operations. Reciprocating wear tests and galling tests were conducted to compare the tribological characteristics of the old and new gear steels. It was determined that the threshold galling stress of the gear steels was strongly dependent on the hardness. The reciprocating wear tests indicated that the wear resistance was affected by the volume fraction of hard phases in the steels. The recommended short-term solution was to alter the tempering procedure for the steel to keep Rockwell C hardness above 60; the long-term solution was to change the gear material and lubrication.

  19. Microchannel plate modal gain variations with temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the modal gain of two high-gain curved-channel microchannel plates (MCPs) at various operating temperatures are presented. Both MCPs were fabricated from the Long Life glass with 12-micron diam channels on 15-micron centers. The modal gain was found to decrease with increasing temperature at a rate of -0.1 percent C. This reduction of gain with temperature is attributed primarily to an axial temperature gradient along each MCP channel creating a nonuniform electric field within the channel that lowers the effective output gain. A lowering of the secondary electron yield resulting from increased phonon scattering of secondary electrons released within the walls of the MCP channels was assessed, but was found to have a negligible contribution to the drop in gain with temperature.

  20. Optical antenna gain. I - Transmitting antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM-00 mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  1. Optical antenna gain. 1: transmitting antennas.

    PubMed

    Klein, B J; Degnan, J J

    1974-09-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM(00) mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  2. Achieving Career Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.

    Gaining career decision-making and world-of-work knowledge, and increasing career planning and exploratory behavior represent key tasks of adolescent career development. To better understand this process, the extent to which personality type relates to career development in high school students is examined in this report. A cohort of 64 high…

  3. The Role of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate in Evaluating Behavior for Achieving Gains and Avoiding Losses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Elena; Simoes-Franklin, Cristina; Robertson, Ian H.; Garavan, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Effective goal-directed behavior relies on a network of regions including anterior cingulate cortex and ventral striatum to learn from negative outcomes in order to improve performance. We employed fMRI to determine if this frontal-striatal system is also involved in instances of behavior that do not presume negative circumstances. Participants…

  4. Instructional Conditions in Charter Schools and Students' Mathematics Achievement Gains. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark; Goldring, Ellen; Stein, Marc; Cravens, Xiu

    2010-01-01

    When examining school choice in the United States, one is struck by the variety of options available as well as the bitter controversies surrounding these choices. Nevertheless, the school choice movement is gathering steam, and research on choice is expanding to assess whether or not the movement is doing what it aims to do: advance educational…

  5. Undergraduates Achieve Learning Gains in Plant Genetics through Peer Teaching of Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrispeels, H. E.; Klosterman, M. L.; Martin, J. B.; Lundy, S. R.; Watkins, J. M.; Gibson, C. L.; Muday, G. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that undergraduates who peer teach genetics will have greater understanding of genetic and molecular biology concepts as a result of their teaching experiences. Undergraduates enrolled in a non-majors biology course participated in a service-learning program in which they led middle school (MS) or high school (HS)…

  6. Nursing Homes That Increased The Proportion Of Medicare Days Achieved Gains In Quality

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Michael; Leland, Natalie E.

    2017-01-01

    Nursing homes are increasingly serving short-stay rehabilitation residents under Medicare skilled nursing facility coverage, which is substantially more generous than Medicaid coverage for long-stay residents. In relation to increasing short-stay resident care, potential exists for beneficial or detrimental effects on long-stay resident outcomes. We employ panel multivariate regression analyses using facility fixed-effects models to determine how increasing the proportion of Medicare days in nursing homes relates to changes in quality outcomes for long-stay residents. We find increasing the proportion of Medicare days in a nursing home is significantly associated with improved quality outcomes for long-stay residents. Findings reinforce prior research indicating that quality outcomes tend to be superior in nursing homes with greater financial resources. This study bolsters arguments for financial investments in nursing homes, including increases in Medicaid payment rates, to support better care. PMID:26643633

  7. Has NCLB Encouraged Educational Triage? Accountability and the Distribution of Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Dale; Springer, Matthew G.

    2017-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has been criticized for encouraging schools to neglect students whose performance exceeds the proficiency threshold or lies so far below it that there is no reasonable prospect of closing the gap during the current year. We examine this hypothesis using longitudinal data from 2002-03 through 2005-06. Our…

  8. Assessing for Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creghan, Kathleen Adair; Creghan, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Nothing satisfies a teacher more than seeing a smile of delight on students' faces when they turn over their test paper to reveal a successful score. In today's world of standardized testing, some elementary science teachers may struggle to help students move from active engagement in hands-on science experiences to high levels of…

  9. Bilingualism and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in…

  10. Gestational weight gain trajectories in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Lee-Baggley, Dayna; Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify gestational weight gain trajectories, stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), of women with singleton pregnancies who received prenatal care in a primary care setting, and to compare these trajectories with the 2009 Institute of Medicine gestational weight gain recommendations. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Halifax, NS. Participants Women who received prenatal care at the Dalhousie Family Medicine clinics in Halifax from 2009 to 2013. Main outcome measures For each prenatal visit, gestational age and weight measurements were obtained. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the gestational weight gain trajectories. The upper limit of the guideline-recommended weekly gestational weight gain was compared with the 95% CI of the observed mean weekly gestational weight gain for each prepregnancy BMI category. Results A total of 280 women were included in the analyses. There was a significant interaction between prepregnancy BMI category and gestational weight gain over time (P < .001), with gestational weight gain being significantly lower among women with prepregnancy BMI of 30.0 kg/m2 or greater compared with those with BMI of 18.5 to less than 25.0 kg/m2 and 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2. When comparing women’s weight gain with the recommendations, women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 had the most guideline discordance, deviating from the weight gain recommendations at 20 weeks’ gestation. Conclusion These results are relevant and of benefit to women and clinicians wishing to address excess gestational weight gain, and to researchers and policy makers developing interventions aimed at curbing gestational weight gain in primary care. Although our results showed women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 gained the most excess, guideline-discordant weight, interventions should target all women planning or experiencing a pregnancy.

  11. Unstable resonators with a distributed focusing gain.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T R

    1994-08-20

    The geometrical optics approximation is used to form a model of axisymmetric unstable resonators having distributed focus, gain, and loss. A tapered reflectivity feedback mirror is included. The rate equations for propagation through the focusing gain medium are derived. A unique grid is found for propagation without interpolation along eigenrays in each direction. Numerical examples show the effects of distributed gain and focus on the axial and transverse intensity distributions.

  12. Scoring and modeling psychological measures in the presence of multidimensionality.

    PubMed

    Reise, Steven P; Bonifay, Wes E; Haviland, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analytic studies of psychological measures showing item responses to be multidimensional do not provide sufficient guidance for applied work. Demonstrating that item response data are multifactorial in this way does not necessarily (a) mean that a total scale score is an inadequate indicator of the intended construct, (b) demand creating and scoring subscales, or (c) require specifying a multidimensional measurement model in research using structural equation modeling (SEM). To better inform these important decisions, more fine-grained psychometric analyses are necessary. We describe 3 established, but seldom used, psychometric approaches that address 4 distinct questions: (a) To what degree do total scale scores reflect reliable variation on a single construct? (b) Is the scoring and reporting of subscale scores justified? (c) If justified, how much reliable variance do subscale scores provide after controlling for a general factor? and (d) Can multidimensional item response data be represented by a unidimensional measurement model in SEM, or are multidimensional measurement models (e.g., second-order, bifactor) necessary to achieve unbiased structural coefficients? In the discussion, we provide guidance for applied researchers on how best to interpret the results from applying these methods and review their limitations.

  13. Do elderly people score better on cognitive tests at home?

    PubMed Central

    Shievitz, A. L.; Tudiver, F.; Araujo, A.; Sanghe, P.; Boyle, E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of elderly family medicine patients are different when the test is administered at home rather than at the clinic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison study. SETTING: University family practice unit in an urban area. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of family practice clinic patients 70 years or older were referred to the study in the sequence seen at the clinic. Of 171 patients approached in person or by telephone, 77 agreed to participate. METHOD: The MMSE was administered at home and at the clinic on the same day for all subjects. Testing site order was randomized across patients. MAIN FINDINGS: Of the 77 patients who agreed to be subjects, only 13 (16.9%) had low MMSE scores (< or = 24). Five (41.7%) of these had normal scores (> 24) at home, but low scores in the clinic. Subjects had significantly higher scores on MMSEs administered at home (P < .01) on the same day. CONCLUSIONS: Previous research has shown patients achieve higher MMSE scores at home; this study demonstrated it in a representative family medicine population. Primary care physicians should be cautious about classifying elderly patients as possibly cognitively impaired based on clinic testing alone. Testing at home could avoid many unnecessary referrals to specialist services for further assessment and diagnostic tests that use up precious health care resources. PMID:9721421

  14. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  15. Error margin for antenna gain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, V.

    2002-01-01

    The specification of measured antenna gain is incomplete without knowing the error of the measurement. Also, unless gain is measured many times for a single antenna or over many identical antennas, the uncertainty or error in a single measurement is only an estimate. In this paper, we will examine in detail a typical error budget for common antenna gain measurements. We will also compute the gain uncertainty for a specific UHF horn test that was recently performed on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) antenna range. The paper concludes with comments on these results and how they compare with the 'unofficial' JPL range standard of +/- ?.

  16. Single-Sex Classrooms and Reading Achievement: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra; Denny, George

    2012-01-01

    Gendered schooling is growing in the United States, but little research exists on single-sex classes in public elementary schools. This study sought to find out if single-sex classes in two elementary schools made a difference in boys' reading gains in 2008-2009, as judged by scores on the state's annual literacy test. In one school, boys in the…

  17. Dental hygiene continuing education. Satisfaction and achievement.

    PubMed

    Young, L J; Keenan, K M; Bakdash, M B; Grayden, S K

    1989-01-01

    This study addresses questions associated with performance on a continuing education course in periodontics and the participants' satisfaction with that course. The authors examine relationships between pre- and post-course test scores and various characteristics of the 120 dental hygienists who enrolled in one or more continuing education courses on periodontics. Four characteristics were found to be related to pre-course test scores. Those who performed significantly better on the written pre-course test generally were (1) younger, (2) less experienced, (3) educators and (4) four-year graduates rather than two-year graduates. Those who went on to take additional continuing education courses in periodontics had higher mean scores on the post-course I test than those who did not. Satisfaction with the course was generally high. Additional research is needed on factors which may influence achievement in a continuing education program and encourage participation in additional learning experiences.

  18. Prospective associations of eating behaviors with weight gain in infants

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Desti N.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal reports of infant eating behaviors are stable over time and whether eating behaviors are prospectively associated with weight gain. Methods In an ongoing study of infant growth, weight and length were measured at 2-weeks, 3-months, and 5-months of age. Food responsiveness (FR), satiety responsiveness (SR), enjoyment of feeding (EF), and slow eating (SE) were assessed with the Baby Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to examine changes in eating behaviors from 2-weeks to 5-months. Simple Pearson correlations examined associations among eating behaviors across time, and associations of eating behaviors with subsequent change in weight-for-length z-scores. Results Among 31 infants studied from 2-weeks to 3-months, FR and SR remained consistent (P<0.05), and among 21 infants studied from 3- to 5-months, FR, EF, and SE were consistent (P<0.01). Infants ate more quickly (P<0.01), and tended to have greater SR with age (P=0.09). Only SE at 3-months was associated with subsequent gain in weight-for-length (P<0.05). Conclusions Consistent with previous research, SE was predictive of weight gain during infancy. Given that eating behaviors were largely consistent after 3-months of age, it may be important to encourage the development of healthy eating behaviors during early infancy. PMID:26242892

  19. A Comparison of Gains in Keypad Response Technology Classroom with Other Pedagogies in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from the socio-cultural theory of Vygotsky, this study compared the academic performance gains scores of pupils in a Keypad Response Technology (KRT) class with those in two other pedagogies to determine the learners' language proficiency level in ESL classroom. A sample of 99 Nigerian primary six pupils participated in the study.…

  20. Predictors Revised: Linguistic Knowledge and Metalinguistic Awareness in Second Language Gain in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golonka, Ewa M.

    2006-01-01

    The empirical study reported here investigated predictors of oral proficiency gain to the Advanced level resulting from immersion study abroad. The data consisted of 22 preimmersion Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPIs) of American students who participated in semester immersion programs in Moscow and St. Petersburg, and received a score of…

  1. Whose Children Gain from Starting School Later?--Evidence from Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altwicker-Hamori, Szilvia; Kollo, Janos

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of school starting age on standardized test scores using data covering all Grade 4 and Grade 8 students in Hungary. Instrumental variables estimates of the local average treatment effect suggest that children generally gain from starting school 1 year later, and the effects are much stronger in the case of students coming…

  2. Propensity Score Matching: Retrospective Randomization?

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    Randomized controlled trials are viewed as the optimal study design. In this commentary, we explore the strength of this design and its complexity. We also discuss some situations in which these trials are not possible, or not ethical, or not economical. In such situations, specifically, in retrospective studies, we should make every effort to recapitulate the rigor and strength of the randomized trial. However, we could be faced with an inherent indication bias in such a setting. Thus, we consider the tools available to address that bias. Specifically, we examine matching and introduce and explore a new tool: propensity score matching. This tool allows us to group subjects according to their propensity to be in a particular treatment group and, in so doing, to account for the indication bias.

  3. Gain enhancement for wideband end-fire antenna design with artificial material.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Sun, Yuanhua; Wu, Xi; Wen, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Gain enhancement wideband end-fire antenna is proposed in this paper. The proposed antenna can achieve gain enhancement by loading novel artificial materials structures (Split-ring Resonators) in the end-fire direction while broad bandwidth is realized by using elliptic dipole elements and a microstrip to coplanar balun. The measurements show that the proposed antenna have around 5-8 dB gain in the working band (5-11 GHz), which is around 2 dB more than the unloaded one. This antenna can be used in target recognition systems for its advantages of end-fire radiation broad bandwidth and high gain.

  4. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  5. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  6. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  7. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  8. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  9. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  10. Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

  11. From the Achievement Gap to the Education Debt: Understanding Achievement in U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    The "achievement gap" is one of the most talked-about issues in U.S. education. The term refers to the disparities in standardized test scores between Black and White, Latina/o and White, and recent immigrant and White students. This article argues that a focus on the gap is misplaced. Instead, we need to look at the "education…

  12. An Introduction to Graphical Analysis of Residual Scores and Outlier Detection in Bivariate Least Squares Regression Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serdahl, Eric

    The information that is gained through various analyses of the residual scores yielded by the least squares regression model is explored. In fact, the most widely used methods for detecting data that do not fit this model are based on an analysis of residual scores. First, graphical methods of residual analysis are discussed, followed by a review…

  13. Body weight gain rate in patients with Parkinson's disease and deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Barichella, Michela; Marczewska, Agnieszka M; Mariani, Claudio; Landi, Andrea; Vairo, Antonella; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2003-11-01

    We evaluated body weight changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to clinical improvement. Thirty PD patients who received STN DBS were included (22 men, 8 women; mean age, 60.0 +/- 7.1 years; mean PD duration, 13.5 +/- 3.7 years; mean body mass index [BMI], 21.6 +/- 3.0 kg/m2). Body weight, physical activity, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores were noted before and 3 and 12 months after the procedure. Significant weight gain occurred in 29 patients; the mean increase was 14.8 +/- 9.8% of initial body weight in 1 year. Of the patients, 46.5% reported weight gain in the first 3 months, 21.4% gradual weight gain in the first 6 months, and 32.1% a slow increase for 1 year. Mean BMI increased up to 24.7 +/- 3.7 kg/m2. After 1 year, mean UPDRS motor score improved significantly in off and in on; and therapy complications improved by 91.0 +/- 17.0%. BMI changes at 3 and 12 months were significantly correlated to dyskinesia score changes, and levodopa dosage was not. In PD, STN DBS produces not only symptom control, but also weight gain. DBS candidates should be given nutritional counseling before the intervention to prevent rapid and/or excessive weight gain.

  14. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality.

  15. Effects of Relaxation and EMG Training on Academic Achievement of Educable Retarded Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, John L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Eight educable mentally retarded boys who participated in a ten-week electromyographic biofeedback training evidenced significant gains in cognition, reading achievement, coordination, memory, and handwriting. (CL)

  16. Academic achievement and career choice in science: Perceptions of African American urban high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sheila Kay

    2007-12-01

    Low test scores in science and fewer career choices in science among African American high school students than their White counterparts has resulted in lower interest during high school and an underrepresentation of African Americans in science and engineering fields. Reasons for this underachievement are not known. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to examine what influence parental involvement, ethnic identity, and early mentoring had on the academic achievement in science and career choice in science of African American urban high school 10th grade students. Using semi-structured open-ended questions in individual interviews and focus groups, twenty participants responded to questions about African American urban high school student achievement in science and their career choice in science. The median age of participants was 15 years; 85% had passed either high school biology or physical science. The findings of the study revealed influences and interactions of selected factors on African American urban high school achievement in science. Sensing potential emerged as the overarching theme with six subthemes; A Taste of Knowledge, Sounds I Hear, Aromatic Barriers, What Others See, The Touch of Others, and The Sixth Sense. These themes correlate to the natural senses of the human body. A disconnect between what science is, their own individual learning and success, and what their participation in science could mean for them and the future of the larger society. Insight into appropriate intervention strategies to improve African American urban high school achievement in science was gained.

  17. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Tristan Brooks; Devlin, Matthew James

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  18. 75 FR 43615 - Program Integrity: Gainful Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Education 34 CFR Part 668 Program Integrity: Gainful Employment; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... RIN 1840-AD04 Program Integrity: Gainful Employment AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education... against the education and training (and increased employment income) that higher education can provide....

  19. Physical and psychological consequences of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I

    1999-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are clearly associated with many serious conditions, including type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Excess weight also increases the risk of death. Recent evidence suggests that weight gain itself, even if persons remain within the "normal" weight range, also increases the risk of medical illnesses and premature death. Persons who gain 5.0 to 7.9 kg (11 to 17.3 lb) as adults are 1.9 times more likely to develop type II diabetes mellitus and 1.25 times more likely to develop coronary heart disease than those who lose weight or maintain a stable weight after age 18 years. Gaining 11 to 20 kg (24.2 to 44 lb) or more in adulthood increases the risk of ischemic stroke 1.69 to 2.52 times. The relationship between weight gain and breast cancer has been difficult to study, primarily because postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy can mask the effect of weight gain on cancer risk. Accordingly, weight gain in adulthood has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer only among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy. In addition to its adverse effects on disease outcomes, weight gain also impairs physical functioning, reduces quality of life, and is associated with poor mental health. These psychological and mental health consequences of weight gain can become an added burden for patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.

  20. Complying with physician gain-sharing restrictions.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, P K

    1998-05-01

    Many IDSs are considering implementing gain-sharing programs as a way to motivate their physicians to provide high-quality, cost-effective services. Before embarking on such programs, however, IDSs need to understand the legal requirements associated with such programs to ensure that the gain-sharing arrangement is in compliance with Federal law.

  1. GaInNAs laser gain

    SciTech Connect

    CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-05-23

    The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

  2. Species Identification in Malaise Trap Samples by DNA Barcoding Based on NGS Technologies and a Scoring Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Morinière, Jérôme; Cancian de Araujo, Bruno; Hausmann, Axel; Balke, Michael; Hendrich, Lars; Doczkal, Dieter; Arvidsson, Samuel; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The German Barcoding initiatives BFB and GBOL have generated a reference library of more than 16,000 metazoan species, which is now ready for applications concerning next generation molecular biodiversity assessments. To streamline the barcoding process, we have developed a meta-barcoding pipeline: We pre-sorted a single malaise trap sample (obtained during one week in August 2014, southern Germany) into 12 arthropod orders and extracted DNA from pooled individuals of each order separately, in order to facilitate DNA extraction and avoid time consuming single specimen selection. Aliquots of each ordinal-level DNA extract were combined to roughly simulate a DNA extract from a non-sorted malaise sample. Each DNA extract was amplified using four primer sets targeting the CO1-5’ fragment. The resulting PCR products (150-400bp) were sequenced separately on an Illumina Mi-SEQ platform, resulting in 1.5 million sequences and 5,500 clusters (coverage ≥10; CD-HIT-EST, 98%). Using a total of 120,000 DNA barcodes of identified, Central European Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera downloaded from BOLD we established a reference sequence database for a local CUSTOM BLAST. This allowed us to identify 529 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) from our sequence clusters derived from pooled Malaise trap samples. We introduce a scoring matrix based on the sequence match percentages of each amplicon in order to gain plausibility for each detected BIN, leading to 390 high score BINs in the sorted samples; whereas 268 of these high score BINs (69%) could be identified in the combined sample. The results indicate that a time consuming presorting process will yield approximately 30% more high score BINs compared to the non-sorted sample in our case. These promising results indicate that a fast, efficient and reliable analysis of next generation data from malaise trap samples can be achieved using this pipeline. PMID:27191722

  3. Sudden Gains During Therapy of Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schulz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive–behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967 session-to-session intervals met criteria for sudden gains, which most frequently occurred in Session 5. Individuals with sudden gains showed similar improvements in the 2 treatment groups. Although cognitive–behavioral therapy was associated with more cognitive changes than exposure therapy, cognitive changes did not precede sudden gains. In general, the results of this study question the clinical significance of sudden gains in social phobia treatment. PMID:16881776

  4. Bispectral index score and observer's assessment of awareness/sedation score may manifest divergence during onset of sedation: Study with midazolam and propofol

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Dipanjan; Mandal, Mohan Chandra; Das, Sabyasachi; Basu, Sekhar Ranjan; Sarkar, Susanta; Das, Jyotirmoy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Correlation between the clinical and electroencephalogram-based monitoring has been documented sporadically during the onset of sedation. Propofol and midazolam have been studied individually using the observer's assessment of awareness/sedation (OAA/S) score and Bispectral index score (BIS). The present study was designed to compare the time to onset of sedation for propofol and midazolam using both BIS and OAA/S scores, and to find out any correlation. Methods: A total of 46 patients (18-60 years, either sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I/II) posted for infraumbilical surgeries under spinal anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either injection propofol 1 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion 3 mg/kg/h (Group P, n=23) or injection midazolam 0.05 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion 0.06 mg/kg/h (Group M, n=23). Spinal anaesthesia was given with 2.5 ml to 3.0 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy. When sensory block reached T6 level, sedation was initiated. The time to reach BIS score 70 and time to achieve OAA/S score 3 from the start of study drug were noted. OAA/S score at BIS score 70 was noted. Data from 43 patients were analyzed using SPSS 12 for Windows. Results: Time to reach BIS score 70 using propofol was significantly lower than using the midazolam (P<0.05). Time to achieve OAA/S score 3 using propofol was comparable with midazolam (P=0.358). Conclusion: A divergence exists between the time to reach BIS score 70 and time to achieve OAA/S score 3 using midazolam, compared with propofol, during the onset of sedation. PMID:24163448

  5. Weight Gain in Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome After Acid Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Riff, Brian P.; Leiman, David A.; Bennett, Bonita; Fraker, Douglas L.; Metz, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) is characterized by hypergastrinemia and gastric acid hypersecretion resulting in peptic ulcer disease, diarrhea and weight loss. Acid secretion can be controlled with medication and biochemical cure is possible with surgery. Data on how these interventions affect patients’ weight are lacking. We aimed to determine how medical and surgical acid control affects weight over time. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study on 60 ZES patients. Acid control was achieved with appropriate dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Surgery was performed for curative intent when appropriate. Weight change was assessed versus pre-acid control or immediate pre-operative weights and expressed as absolute and percent change from baseline at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Results A total of 30 PPI-controlled patients and 20 surgery-controlled patients were analyzed. Weight gain was noted at all-time points while on appropriate dose PPI therapy (p<0.005). Of patients who had surgery with curative intent, weight gain was noted at 12 months (7.9%, p=0.013) and 18 months (7.1%, p=0.007). There was a trend toward weight gain seen at all-time points in the patients who were surgically cured. Conclusion These data represent a novel description of weight gain after acid suppression in ZES. PMID:26164604

  6. Robust Optimal Adaptive Control Method with Large Adaptive Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly. However, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient stability robustness. Simulations were conducted for a damaged generic transport aircraft with both standard adaptive control and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model while maintaining a sufficient time delay margin.

  7. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  8. Leadership Strategies: Achieving Personal and Professional Success.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Physicians and allied health staff in healthcare are finding themselves in situations characterized by uncertainty, chaos, and ambiguity, with high levels of burnout. A major influence is an aging U.S. population, resulting in increasing cost and reimbursement pressures. Medical group practices need leaders who have the capability to thrive in this environment. This article presents an integrated leadership model offering strategies and insights gained from keeping a journal for 40 years. Strategies to be shared include leading self through learning, leading others by developing relationships, leading organizations by achieving excellence, and achieving work-life integration and synergy.

  9. Oocyte Scoring Enhances Embryo-Scoring in Predicting Pregnancy Chances with IVF Where It Counts Most

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaroni-Tealdi, Emanuela; Barad, David H.; Albertini, David F.; Yu, Yao; Kushnir, Vitaly A.; Russell, Helena; Wu, Yan-Guang; Gleicher, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Context Our center’s quality improvement optimization process on many occasions anecdotally suggested that oocyte assessments might enhance embryo assessment in predicting pregnancy chances with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Objective To prospectively compare a morphologic oocyte grading system to standard day-3 morphologic embryo assessment. Design, Setting, Patients We prospectively investigated in a private academically-affiliated infertility center 94 consecutive IVF cycles based on 6 criteria for oocyte quality: morphology, cytoplasm, perivitelline space (PVS), zona pellucida (ZP), polar body (PB) and oocyte size, each assigned a value of -1 (worst), 0 (average) or +1 (best), so establishing an average total oocyte score (TOS). Embryo assessment utilized grade and cell numbers of each embryo on day-3 after oocyte retrieval. Clinical pregnancy was defined by presence of at least one intrauterine gestational sac. Interventions Standard IVF cycles in infertile women. Main Outcome Measures Predictability of pregnancy based on oocyte and embryo-grading systems. Results Average age for all patients was 36.5 ± 7.3 years; mean oocyte yield was 7.97± 5.76; Patient specific total oocyte score (PTOS) was -1.05 ± 2.24. PTOS, adjusted for patient age, was directly related to odds of increased embryo cell numbers (OR 1.12, P = 0.025), embryo grade (OR 1.19, P < 0.001) and clinical pregnancy [OR 1.58 (95%CI 1.23 to 2.02), P < 0.001]. Restricting the analysis to day three embryos of high quality (8-cell/ good grades), TOS was still predictive of clinical pregnancy (OR 2.08 (95%CI 1.26 to 3.44, P = 0.004). Among the 69 patients with embryos of Grade 4 or better available for transfer 23 achieved Clinical Pregnancy. When the analysis was restricted to the 69 transfers with good quality embryos (≥ Grade 4) the Oocyte Scoring System (TOS) (AUC±SE 0.863±0.044, oocyte score) provided significantly greater predictive value for clinical pregnancy compared to the embryo grade

  10. Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Income Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Finn, Amy S.; Leonard, Julia A.; Jacoby Senghor, Drew S.; West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F.O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the difference in academic achievement between higher- and lower-income students (i.e., the income achievement gap) is substantial and growing. Here, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of this gap in adolescents (n = 58) in whom academic achievement was measured by statewide standardized testing. Cortical gray matter volume was significantly greater in students from higher-income backgrounds (n = 35) compared to students from lower-income backgrounds (n = 23), but cortical white matter volume and total cortical surface area did not differ between groups. Cortical thickness in all lobes of the brain was greater in students from higher-income than lower-income backgrounds. Thicker cortex, particularly in temporal and occipital lobes, was associated with better test performance. These results represent the first evidence that cortical thickness differs across broad swaths of the brain between higher- and lower-income students, and that cortical thickness is related to academic achievement test scores. PMID:25896418

  11. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ)

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of the English Developmental Sentence Scoring model (Lee, 1974). Using this measure, we calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8 and 5;2 on the basis of 100-sentence samples collected from free-play child-adult conversations. The analysis showed a high correlation of the DSSJ overall score with the Mean Length of Utterance. The analysis of the DSSJ subarea scores revealed large variations between these subarea scores for children with similar overall DSSJ scores. When investigating the high-scoring children (over 1 SD over group average), most children scored high in three to five subareas, but the combination of scores for these subareas varied from child to child. It is concluded that DSSJ is a valuable tool especially for the language acquisition research. The overall DSSJ score reliably reflects the overall morpho-syntactic development of Japanese children, and the subarea scores provide specific information on individual acquisition patterns. PMID:25414535

  12. 42 CFR 414.1260 - Composite scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Composite scores. 414.1260 Section 414.1260 Public... Modifier Under the Physician Fee Schedule § 414.1260 Composite scores. (a)(1) The standardized score for... determine the quality composite: (i) Patient safety. (ii) Patient experience. (iii) Care coordination....

  13. 42 CFR 414.1260 - Composite scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Composite scores. 414.1260 Section 414.1260 Public... Modifier Under the Physician Fee Schedule § 414.1260 Composite scores. (a)(1) The standardized score for... determine the quality composite: (i) Patient safety. (ii) Patient experience. (iii) Care coordination....

  14. Validation of Automated Scoring of Science Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Heilman, Michael; Gerard, Libby; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Constructed response items can both measure the coherence of student ideas and serve as reflective experiences to strengthen instruction. We report on new automated scoring technologies that can reduce the cost and complexity of scoring constructed-response items. This study explored the accuracy of c-rater-ML, an automated scoring engine…

  15. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  16. On the Reliability of Categorically Scored Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupermintz, Haggai

    2004-01-01

    A decision-theoretic approach to the question of reliability in categorically scored examinations is explored. The concepts of true scores and errors are discussed as they deviate from conventional psychometric definitions and measurement error in categorical scores is cast in terms of misclassifications. A reliability measure based on…

  17. "Score Choice": A Tempest in a Teapot?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new option that allows students to choose which of their test scores to send to colleges has generated renewed criticism of the College Board. College Board officials tout the option, called Score Choice, as a way to ease test taker anxiety. Some prominent admissions officials have publicly described Score Choice as a sales tactic that will…

  18. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  19. Graphene plasmons embedded in a gain medium: layer and ribbon plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altares Menendez, Galaad; Rosolen, Gilles; Maes, Bjorn

    2016-12-01

    Graphene plasmonics has attracted much attention due to its remarkable properties such as tunable conductivity and extreme confinement. However, losses remain one of the major drawbacks to developing more efficient devices based on graphene plasmons. Here we show that when a gain medium is introduced around a 1D graphene sheet, lossless propagation can be achieved for a critical gain value. Both numerics and analytics are employed; and with the Drude approximation the analytical expression for this critical gain becomes remarkably simple. Furthermore, we examine a single 2D graphene nanoribbon within a gain environment. We report that the plasmonic resonant modes exhibit a spasing effect for a specific value of the surrounding gain. This feature is indicated by an absorption cross section that strongly increases and narrows. Finally, we manage to connect the ribbon results to the 1D sheet critical gain, by taking external coupling into account.

  20. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  1. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  2. Correlations Between Chiropractic National Board (Part I) Scores and Basic Science Course Grades and Related Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfenberger, Virginia

    1999-01-01

    A study at one institution found significant correlations between students' scores on the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners test and academic achievement data. Results indicate that it is not always course subject matter that influences the relationship between course grade and board scores, but may instead be the ability to assimilate…

  3. The Effects of Developmental Placement and Early Retention on Children's Later Scores on Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Deborah C.; Welch, Edward L.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early school retention as a result of preschool and kindergarten developmental testing and children's later academic achievement (N=223). Results showed children who scored as immature on the Gesell Screening Test and who were retained a year had the lowest scores on all measures. (JAC)

  4. Reporting the Percentage of Students above a Cut Score: The Effect of Group Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingshead, Lynne; Childs, Ruth A.

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale assessment results for schools, school boards/districts, and entire provinces or states are commonly reported as the percentage of students achieving a standard--that is, the percentage of students scoring above the cut score that defines the standard on the assessment scale. Recent research has shown that this method of reporting is…

  5. Considerations in the Use of Difference Scores to Identify Learning-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ann; Borich, Gary D.

    1984-01-01

    Presents reliability and standard error of measurement figures for several combinations of ability and achievement measures. Discusses the rates and types of errors that occur when such scores are used to classify children as learning-disabled. Three recommendations for using difference scores are given. (BH)

  6. Examining Relationships among Assessment Scores and Math Coursework in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates relationships between assessment scores and other indicators of math performance. The impetus for the research came from a district's need to better understand high school math achievement. Longitudinal data for a cohort of students were obtained, including math scores from their state assessment, TerraNova, and New…

  7. Exploratory Study of Factors Related to Educational Scores of First Preclinical Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Srisuma, Sorachai; Kanavitoon, Sawita; Summachiwakij, Sarawut

    2014-01-01

    The relationships among the scores of major subjects taught in the first preclinical year of a Thai medical school, previous academic achievements, and daily life activities are rarely explored. We therefore performed an exploratory study identifying various factors possibly related to the educational scores of these medical students.…

  8. Could There Be a Medical Basis for the Declining SAT Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Charles B.

    The scores of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) have been declining since 1963. While this decline has occurred, scores on achievement tests administered to students in grades 3 to 11 have been stable. An alalysis of the medical and epidemiological literature was conducted to determine whether there could be a health factor that might have caused…

  9. Community College Faculty Development Program and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Aaron M.; McShannon, Judy; Hynes, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Community college administrators look for strategies to help students. GRASP (Gaining Retention and Achievement for Students Program) is a semester-long faculty development program that coaches community college instructors about simple, effective teaching strategies that promote student academic achievement. GRASP is founded on the belief that…

  10. Student Factors and Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azina, Ismail Noor; Halimah, Awang

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics learning and achievement is one area of research that has gained momentum in recent years because of its importance as a subject in the school curriculum and its usefulness as a prerequisite for developing the quantitative and analytical skills. However, studies on factors affecting mathematics achievement in Malaysia are limited both…

  11. Brief Group Therapy with Low-Achieving Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shechtman, Zipora; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effect of treatment on both the cognitive and the affective functioning of 142 low achievers. Results indicate significant gains for the experimental group on four variables (academic achievement, self-concept, social acceptance, and locus of control). Group therapy enhanced academic progress and social well-being of low-achieving…

  12. Creating and Assessing Student Perception of an Examination Mastery Score Report for a Pharmacotherapy Course

    PubMed Central

    Nuzum, Donald S.; Pegram, Angela; Harris, John Brock

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare student-perceived utility of two types of score reports. Methods. Assessment standards were followed to create a new examination score report for pharmacotherapy coursework. Student examination scores were returned using the traditional score report, the utility of which students rated along 9 dimensions. A mastery score report was also distributed, and students rated it on the same 9 dimensions. The ratings were compared to determine which the students perceived as more useful. Results. The students rated the mastery score report significantly better on each of the 9 dimensions and in aggregate. Conclusion. Pharmacy students perceived the mastery score report as more useful in helping them improve their achievement of educational outcomes. PMID:26889064

  13. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  14. Gain modulation by graphene plasmons in aperiodic lattice lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Marshall, O. P.; Folland, T. G.; Kim, Y.-J.; Grigorenko, A. N.; Novoselov, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphene plasmon-based technologies will enable the development of fast, compact, and inexpensive active photonic elements because, unlike plasmons in other materials, graphene plasmons can be tuned via the doping level. Such tuning is harnessed within terahertz quantum cascade lasers to reversibly alter their emission. This is achieved in two key steps: first, by exciting graphene plasmons within an aperiodic lattice laser and, second, by engineering photon lifetimes, linking graphene’s Fermi energy with the round-trip gain. Modal gain and hence laser spectra are highly sensitive to the doping of an integrated, electrically controllable, graphene layer. Demonstration of the integrated graphene plasmon laser principle lays the foundation for a new generation of active, programmable plasmonic metamaterials with major implications across photonics, material sciences, and nanotechnology.

  15. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households. PMID:27598524

  16. Cathode driven high gain crossed-field amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-07-01

    The objective of this three-phase program is to achieve the design of a cathode driven high gain re-entrant Crossed Field Amplifier capable of meeting the parameters of Raytheon Company specification No. 968838 dated 10 May 1978. The effort includes the fabrication and test of three developmental and four final configuration tubes. One final configuration tube will be life tested and two will be delivered to the Navy. The tasks discussed during this report period relate to the cold tests performed on various subassemblies of model no. 4 and on the sealed-in model no. 4 of the S-band high gain cathode driven crossed field amplifier. Based on the performance of model no. 3 certain remedial measures have been implemented in model no. 4 that have resulted in the elimination of key resonances within the tube and an improvement in the isolation between the cathode and anode circuits.

  17. Application of small-signal fusion energy gain

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The measured burnup fraction of the 1-MeV tritons produced in a deuterium tokamak plasma, multiplied by 17.5, is essentially the small-signal fusion energy gain g/sub T/ for an ideal 1-MeV triton beam injected into the deuterium plasma. The measured g/sub T/ can be converted directly into the two-component fusion energy gain that would be realized if a lower energy tritium beam were injected into the plasma, or if a deuterium beam were injected into a tritium target plasma having the same parameters as the acutal deuterium plasma. Under certain conditions, g/sub T/ greater than or equal to 1 can be obtained by injection of a low-current 225-keV tritium beam into a hot deuterium plasma, thereby verifying that the plasma has the essential characteristics needed for achieving macroscopic fusion energy ''break-even.''

  18. Gain control in molecular information processing: lessons from neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemenman, Ilya

    2012-04-01

    Statistical properties of environments experienced by biological signaling systems in the real world change, which necessitates adaptive responses to achieve high fidelity information transmission. One form of such adaptive response is gain control. Here, we argue that a certain simple mechanism of gain control, understood well in the context of systems neuroscience, also works for molecular signaling. The mechanism allows us to transmit more than 1 bit (on or off) of information about the signal independent of the signal variance. It does not require additional molecular circuitry beyond that already present in many molecular systems, and in particular, it does not depend on existence of feedback loops. The mechanism provides a potential explanation for abundance of ultrasensitive response curves in biological regulatory networks.

  19. Socioeconomic Status, Aptitude, and Gender Differences in CAI Gains of Arithmetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; Shorer, Dvora

    1989-01-01

    A report is given of a study which examined the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in mathematics on 99 disadvantaged and 112 advantaged Israeli students. Higher performance levels and larger gains were found for advantaged over disadvantaged students, for high achievers over low achievers, and for boys over girls. (IAH)

  20. Status Value, Group Learning, and Minority Achievement in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilin, Robert; Rabow, Jerome

    1981-01-01

    Tested the relationship between interracial group learning and academic achievement in college. Results indicated White students participating in Learning Through Discussion (LTD) groups scored higher on the final essay. There was no difference in minority achievement. Findings support the proposition that status equalization is an essential…