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Sample records for achievement gaps exist

  1. Achievement-Related within-School Socioeconomic Gaps in Science Subjects in China: Evidence on Existence, Consistency, and Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Xingkai

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the 2011 (Chinese) Student Academic Achievement Evaluation, we examined whether within-school socioeconomic gaps in science achievement exist across science subjects, how consistent they are, and whether there are relationships between school average science achievement and within-school socioeconomic gaps in science achievement.…

  2. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  3. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  4. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  5. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  6. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  7. Is the Achievement Gap in Indiana Narrowing? Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spradlin, Terry E.; Kirk, Ryan; Walcott, Crystal; Kloosterman, Peter; Zaman, Khadija; McNabb, Sarah; Zapf, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In this Special Report, the Center for Evaluation and Education Policy at Indiana University examines the factors that contribute to student achievement gaps, defines the scope of the achievement gaps that exist in Indiana, evaluates whether these gaps are narrowing or will persist as Neal suggests, and offers strategies that have been identified…

  8. Closing the Achievement Gap: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robards, Shirley N.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap between low- and high-achieving public school students is an important goal of public education. This article explores background information and research and discusses examples of best practices to close the achievement gap. Several plans have been proposed as ways to enhance the achievement of under-represented…

  9. School Quality and the Black-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2007-01-01

    Substantial uncertainty exists about the impact of school quality on the black-white achievement gap. Our results, based on both Texas Schools Project (TSP) administrative data and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey (ECLS), differ noticeably from other recent analyses of the black-white achievement gap by providing strong evidence that…

  10. Closing the Achievement Gap: Four States' Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixom, Micah Ann

    2015-01-01

    The achievement gap separating economically disadvantaged students from their more advantaged peers disproportionately affects students of color and has been the focus of discussion, research and controversy for more than 40 years. While the gap between black and white students narrowed considerably from the 1950s to the 1980s, that gap has…

  11. Racial and gender science achievement gaps in secondary education.

    PubMed

    Bacharach, Verne R; Baumeister, Alfred A; Furr, R Michael

    2003-03-01

    A substantial disparity exists for academic achievement in science between Black and White primary-school children. A similar gap exists between boys and girls. The extent to which secondary education influences these achievement gaps has not been established. The authors report analyses showing how these science achievement gaps change as a function of secondary education. Analyses of data from a large, nationally representative longitudinal study of academic achievement showed that racial disparities and disparities associated with gender continue to increase throughout high school.

  12. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Idaho, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Idaho for 2010. Idaho showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Latino and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. The state has also made progress in narrowing achievement gaps between Latino and white…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Mississippi, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Mississippi for 2010. Mississippi made changes to its state testing program in the 2007-08 school year. Therefore, subgroup and achievement gap trends could not be calculated because fewer than three consecutive years of data were available, too short a period to constitute a…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Vermont, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Vermont for 2010. Vermont's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white, low-income,…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  19. Want to Close the Achievement Gap? Close the Teaching Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For years now, educators have looked to international tests as a yardstick to measure how well students from the United States are learning compared with their peers. The answer has been: not so well. The United States has been falling further behind other nations and has struggled with a large achievement gap. Federal policy under No Child Left…

  20. Folk Belief Theory, the Rigor Gap, and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torff, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Folk belief theory is suggested as a primary cause for the persistence of the achievement gap. In this research-supported theory, culturally specified folk beliefs about learning and teaching prompt educators to direct more rigorous curriculum to high-advantage students but not to low-advantage students, resulting in impoverished pedagogy in…

  1. Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Income Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Finn, Amy S.; Leonard, Julia A.; Jacoby Senghor, Drew S.; West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F.O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the difference in academic achievement between higher- and lower-income students (i.e., the income achievement gap) is substantial and growing. Here, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of this gap in adolescents (n = 58) in whom academic achievement was measured by statewide standardized testing. Cortical gray matter volume was significantly greater in students from higher-income backgrounds (n = 35) compared to students from lower-income backgrounds (n = 23), but cortical white matter volume and total cortical surface area did not differ between groups. Cortical thickness in all lobes of the brain was greater in students from higher-income than lower-income backgrounds. Thicker cortex, particularly in temporal and occipital lobes, was associated with better test performance. These results represent the first evidence that cortical thickness differs across broad swaths of the brain between higher- and lower-income students, and that cortical thickness is related to academic achievement test scores. PMID:25896418

  2. Getting to Results. Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Tory

    2008-01-01

    The "Closing the Achievement Gap" series explores the Casey Foundation's education investments and presents stories, results, and lessons learned. This publication describes efforts to develop a flexible but rigorous results measurements system that enables the Foundation and its grantees to reflect on practice and course-correct as…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In New Jersey, achievement gaps narrowed in grade 11 reading and math for all major subgroups, with one exception. Comparable data for grade 11 by subgroup were available for 2002-2009, with a few exceptions. Because the state changed its tests at grades 4 and 8 in recent years, there were too few years of comparable data to determine trends at…

  4. Decomposing Achievement Gaps among OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Lee, Kristen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use decomposition methods on PISA 2006 data to compare student academic performance across OECD countries. We first establish an empirical model to explain the variation in academic performance across individuals, and then use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method to decompose the achievement gap between each of the OECD…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Asian and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Gains in math tended to be larger than in reading. Trends in closing achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were available from 2007 through 2009. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  6. High Ability Readers and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Parke, Cynthia J.; Bramble, Joan G.

    2004-01-01

    To close the achievement gap, the "No Child Left Behind" law calls for all students to make appropriate yearly progress. This presumably means that progress is being made by capable readers at the same time progress is being made by struggling readers. However, there appear to be unintended effects of "No Child Left Behind"…

  7. Patterns of Change in U.S. Gender Achievement Gaps during Elementary and Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahle, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Research on gender achievement gaps shows they exist, and are largest in the tails of the distribution, starting as early as Kindergarten and persisting through eighth grade. In mathematics, studies find small average gender achievement gaps and larger systematically male-favoring gaps among the highest achieving students. This paper seeks to…

  8. Environmental contributors to the achievement gap.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Kim, Dohyeong; Reiter, Jerome; Overstreet Galeano, M Alicia; Maxson, Pamela

    2009-11-01

    Extensive research shows that blacks, those of low socioeconomic status, and other disadvantaged groups continue to exhibit poorer school performance compared with middle and upper-class whites in the United States' educational system. Environmental exposures may contribute to the observed achievement gap. In particular, childhood lead exposure has been linked to a number of adverse cognitive outcomes. In previous work, we demonstrated a relationship between early childhood lead exposure and end-of-grade (EOG) test scores on a limited dataset. In this analysis, data from the North Carolina Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program surveillance registry were linked to educational outcomes available through the North Carolina Education Research Data Center for all 100 counties in NC. Our objectives were to confirm the earlier study results in a larger population-level database, determine whether there are differences in the impact of lead across the EOG distribution, and elucidate the impact of cumulative childhood social and environmental stress on educational outcomes. Multivariate and quantile regression techniques were employed. We find that early childhood lead exposure is associated with lower performance on reading EOG test scores in a clear dose-response pattern, with the effects increasingly more pronounced in moving from the high end to the low end of the test score distribution. Parental educational attainment and family poverty status also affect EOG test scores, in a similar dose-response fashion, with the effects again most pronounced at the low end of the EOG test score distribution. The effects of environmental and social stressors (especially as they stretch out the lower tail of the EOG distribution) demonstrate the particular vulnerabilities of socioeconomically and environmentally disadvantaged children. Given the higher average lead exposure experienced by African American children in the United States, lead does in fact explain part of the

  9. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  10. Achievement Gap and Sustainability: A Case Study of an Elementary School Bridging the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Sandra Jean

    2010-01-01

    The achievement gap problem is a growing phenomenon in the United States of America. In many schools, minority student populations are failing at alarming rates and are looking at different outcomes than those of their White and Asian counterparts. However, a few schools are breaking through the barriers of poverty, poor school attendance, low…

  11. Causes of and Solutions to the Achievement Gap: Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Nancy J.; Costner, Richard H.; Carroll, Kimberly L.; Jones, Cathy R.; Sheehan, Heather Chase; Hunt, Gilbert H.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from 874 educators regarding the achievement gap are shared. The importance of the achievement gap, causes of and solutions to the achievement gap, and performance expectations for students in their schools are explored. Implications for teacher educators are discussed as related to both pre-service and in-service training programs.

  12. Eliminating the Achievement Gap: A White Paper on How Charter Schools Can Help District Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robin; Hernandez, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A staggering achievement gap exists between minority and white students in America. The gap is unjust, and it is constraining the country economically, socially, and politically. Intense political pressures, labor contracts, and other forces prevent urban superintendents from closing those gaps. However, partnerships with high-performing charter…

  13. Social Equity Theory and Racial-Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process,…

  14. The Effects of Reading Recovery™ on the American Indian/Non-American Indian Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the attention being paid to the achievement gap of minorities, the regulations and laws being enacted, the research being conducted, and the funding made available to narrow the achievement gap, there is evidence that shows it still exists for American Indians. This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery, an early literacy…

  15. Connecting Social Disorganization Theory to African-American Outcomes to Explain the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madyun, Na'im H.

    2011-01-01

    African-American student achievement outcomes have been and continue to be a critical concern for education researchers. Much of the framing of African-American student outcomes centers on what is known as achievement gaps that exist between African-American and White students. Unfortunately, these gaps have remained roughly the same since the…

  16. Educating the African American Male College Student: The Achievement Gap Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Tawonga Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The academic achievement gap persists in spite of much concern and talk in both the educational and political arenas. Moreover, literature on the education of African American male students at the college level is scarce; the existing literature is on the achievement gap issue in general. In this phenomenological study, the academic achievement…

  17. Superintendents' Responses to the Achievement Gap: An Ethical Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.; Grogan, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Uses multidimensional ethical framework to critique 15 Virginia superintendents' responses to the achievement gap as measured by the Standards of Learning (SOL) tests. Questions majority of superintendents' readiness to deal with moral and ethical issues related to achievement gap. (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  18. Parsing the Achievement Gap II. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.; Coley, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Gaps in school achievement among racial/ethnic groups and between students from different socioeconomic circumstances are well documented. They are wide and persistent, well known and widely acknowledged. This report focuses on the conditions and experiences that create and perpetuate achievement gaps. It is the second edition of the report…

  19. Closing the Gap between Professional Development and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Michelle K.

    2009-01-01

    Whenever there is a discussion on closing or bridging the achievement gap in education, one accurately reasons that the "gap" in question is among groups of students from various cultural and/or socioeconomic backgrounds. Stakeholders throughout academia, then, frantically search for solution(s)" to poor student achievement in…

  20. The Black-White Achievement Gap: Do State Policies Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Henry I.; Wang, Aubrey; Jenkins, Frank; Weinbaum, Elliot

    2006-01-01

    A longstanding issue in American education is the gap in academic achievement between majority and minority students. The goal of this study is to accumulate and evaluate evidence on the relationship between state education policies and changes in the Black-White achievement gap, while addressing some of the methodological issues that have led to…

  1. Closing Achievement Gaps: Revisiting Benjamin S. Bloom's "Learning for Mastery"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of achievement gaps among different subgroups of students has been evident in education for many years. This manuscript revisits the work of renowned educator Benjamin S. Bloom, who saw reducing gaps in the achievement of various groups of students as a simple problem of reducing variation in student learning outcomes. Bloom observed…

  2. Closing the Minority Achievement Gap in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Minority students face numerous academic barriers for achievement in the classroom as well as outside the school. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) suggests six principles for maintaining the standard of school mathematics.

  3. Is the California Special Education Achievement Gap Really Closing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn, Emilene Johnson

    2012-01-01

    The achievement gains of California students with disabilities (SWDs) on the California Standards Test (CST)-English Language Arts have surpassed the achievement gains of students with no reported disabilities in recent years, and so the special education achievement gap seemed to be closing. However, the reported achievement for SWDs has not…

  4. Review of "Our Immense Achievement Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This report misrepresents and then criticizes recommendations from the Minnesota Department of Education, a think tank and two independent study groups, each of which recently encouraged particular voluntary efforts to reduce concentrated poverty and achieve racial and socioeconomic integration in schools and housing in Minnesota. In building its…

  5. Addressing Achievement Gaps with Psychological Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David; Walton, Gregory; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Student psychology--how the classroom looks and feels from the perspective of the student--can powerfully affect motivation and learning, and experiments are increasingly showing that even brief interventions to change psychology can boost achievement over months or years. When paired with other structural reforms, social-psychological…

  6. Does a global DNA barcoding gap exist in Annelida?

    PubMed

    Kvist, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    Accurate identification of unknown specimens by means of DNA barcoding is contingent on the presence of a DNA barcoding gap, among other factors, as its absence may result in dubious specimen identifications - false negatives or positives. Whereas the utility of DNA barcoding would be greatly reduced in the absence of a distinct and sufficiently sized barcoding gap, the limits of intraspecific and interspecific distances are seldom thoroughly inspected across comprehensive sampling. The present study aims to illuminate this aspect of barcoding in a comprehensive manner for the animal phylum Annelida. All cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences (cox1 gene; the chosen region for zoological DNA barcoding) present in GenBank for Annelida, as well as for "Polychaeta", "Oligochaeta", and Hirudinea separately, were downloaded and curated for length, coverage and potential contaminations. The final datasets consisted of 9782 (Annelida), 5545 ("Polychaeta"), 3639 ("Oligochaeta"), and 598 (Hirudinea) cox1 sequences and these were either (i) used as is in an automated global barcoding gap detection analysis or (ii) further analyzed for genetic distances, separated into bins containing intraspecific and interspecific comparisons and plotted in a graph to visualize any potential global barcoding gap. Over 70 million pairwise genetic comparisons were made and results suggest that although there is a tendency towards separation, no distinct or sufficiently sized global barcoding gap exists in either of the datasets rendering future barcoding efforts at risk of erroneous specimen identifications (but local barcoding gaps may still exist allowing for the identification of specimens at lower taxonomic ranks). This seems to be especially true for earthworm taxa, which account for fully 35% of the total number of interspecific comparisons that show 0% divergence.

  7. Practical Issues in Estimating Achievement Gaps from Coarsened Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Ho, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we presented methods for estimating achievement gaps when test scores are coarsened into a small number of ordered categories, preventing fine-grained distinctions between individual scores. We demonstrated that gaps can nonetheless be estimated with minimal bias across a broad range of simulated and real coarsened data…

  8. Fourth Grade Achievement Gap in Charter Schools Mirrors MPS. Research Brief. Volume 91, Number 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Although the hope for charter schools is the lessening and eventual elimination of the achievement gap that exists by race and income, this report indicates that charter schools in Milwaukee are mirroring the test score gap of both Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) and the state of Wisconsin in both fourth grade reading and fourth grade math. Other…

  9. The Achievement Gap, Revisited: An Empirical Assessment of What We Can Learn from East Asian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czehut, Katherine Jessica Drake

    2012-01-01

    International mathematics assessments have established students in East Asia as among the best in the world and their U.S. counterparts as mediocre. What is not clear is why this "achievement gap" exists. The last major study to address this question, Stevenson and Stigler's (1992) "The Learning Gap," was published prior to…

  10. Harming the Best: How Schools Affect the Black-White Achievement Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 14211

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    Sizeable achievement differences by race appear in early grades, but substantial uncertainty exists about the impact of school quality on the black-white achievement gap and particularly about its evolution across different parts of the achievement distribution. Texas administrative data show that the overall growth in the achievement gap between…

  11. Two Models of Learning and Achievement: An Explanation for the Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Despite decades of research, the persistence of the gap in student achievement between disadvantaged minority students and their middle-class peers remains unexplained. Purpose/Objective: The purpose of the current article is to propose a new model of the achievement gap. Research Design: Data were analyzed from three…

  12. Achievement Gaps: An Examination of Differences in Student Achievement and Growth. The Full Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Martha S.; Hauser, Carl; Cronin, John; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Houser, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The difference between the academic performance of poor students and wealthier students and between minority students and their non-minority peers is commonly known as the achievement gap. The current study examines the achievement gap using a large sample of students from a wide variety of school districts across the United States. It examines…

  13. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  14. School Improvement for All: Reflections on the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Gary R.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that three social dominance issues have caused and continue to perpetuate achievement disparities among poor and minority students: the assumption of rightness, the luxury of ignorance, and the legacy of privilege. Describes school district initiatives, leadership, and research findings related to overcoming this achievement gap. Contends…

  15. Closing the Gap: An Overview. The Achievement Gap: An Overview. Info Brief. Number 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakoff, Anne Rogers

    2006-01-01

    Persistent gaps between the academic achievements of different groups of children are thoroughly documented by the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress and other statistical analyses of state assessments, grades, course selection, and dropout rates. Despite improvements in some years, the gap endures as a consistent and disturbing…

  16. A Special Section on the Achievement Gap - Bridging the Achievement Gap: A Bridge Too Far?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, William J.

    2005-01-01

    Half a century after Brown v. Board of Education, the great progress made in education can be marked, but the gap remains. Some federal and state political leaders have made gung-ho proclamations about leaving no child behind. Yet they send in too few troops, too lightly supported, and with too little planning. The vaunted "historic…

  17. Closing the Educational Achievement Gap between Blacks and Whites: Nobody Wants to Be Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Austin L.; Kronick, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This research study attempts to explain the educational achievement gap between blacks and whites, the factors that cause the achievement gap, the consequences of the achievement gap for the black race, and possible solutions to the achievement gap. The data collected for this study has shown that the educational achievement gap between blacks and…

  18. From the Achievement Gap to the Education Debt: Understanding Achievement in U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    The "achievement gap" is one of the most talked-about issues in U.S. education. The term refers to the disparities in standardized test scores between Black and White, Latina/o and White, and recent immigrant and White students. This article argues that a focus on the gap is misplaced. Instead, we need to look at the "education…

  19. Expanding METCO and Closing Achievement Gaps. White Paper No. 129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfelbaum, Katherine; Ardon, Ken

    2015-01-01

    School systems around the United States are heavily segregated by income and race. At the same time, an achievement gap between white and nonwhite students persists despite many efforts to close it. Against this background, in this white paper the authors explore the history and successes of the Metropolitan Council for Educational Opportunity…

  20. Charter High Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap. Innovations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The eight schools profiled in this document are serving different populations, but all of them are closing the achievement gap between low-income, minority, and special needs students and their peers. By trying out innovative new strategies, these schools are blazing a trail for others to follow. They are dispelling the myth that some students can…

  1. Using Student-Involved Classroom Assessment to Close Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiggins, Rick; Chappuis, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The authors argue that the failure of 60 years of total reliance on assessment via standardized tests to help reduce achievement score gaps must compel us to rethink the role of assessment in this endeavor. They advocate rebalancing assessment priorities to bring classroom assessment into the equation. Evidence gathered over decades from around…

  2. Social Identity and Achievement Gaps: Evidence from an Affirmation Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    One provocative explanation for the continued persistence of minority achievement gaps involves the performance-dampening anxiety thought to be experienced by minority students in highly evaluative settings (i.e., "stereotype threat"). Recent field-experimental studies suggest that modest, low-cost "buffering" interventions…

  3. An Academic Curriculum Will Close the Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    America's unyielding academic achievement gap has been a national priority for a long time; yet, some schools have succeeded with academically disadvantaged youth. Usually, these institutions embrace a culture of success and follow an academic curriculum that is grounded in core knowledge and scholastic vocabulary. Academically disadvantaged…

  4. Minding the Achievement Gap One Classroom at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Jane E.; Ford, Sharon; Black, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    Do teachers have the power to close achievement gaps? Here's a book that boldly claims they do and lays out a blueprint for how to do something now to help students who are falling short of standards. Regardless of the student population you need to address--English language learners, special education, or just the unmotivated and hard to…

  5. Are Two Better than One? A Comparative Study of Achievement Gaps and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), the size of the literacy achievement gap between 15-year-old students from two-parent and those from single-mother households were compared across 18 industrialized nations. This study found that cross-national differences exist in the association between single motherhood…

  6. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  7. The Achievement Gap: Factors That Influenced the Achievement of Successful Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Kwame R., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The academic underperformance of Black students when compared to their White peers has confounded educators nationwide. This discrepancy in academic performance commonly referred to as the achievement gap has become a national crisis which has led to one of the most significant educational reforms undertaken in the United States of America in the…

  8. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  9. Closing the Achievement Gap: Oregon's Plan for Success for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Susan Castillo, Superintendent of Public Instruction in Oregon, named closing the achievement gap as a top instructional priority in Oregon. Superintendent Castillo notes three aspects to the achievement gap: (1) Performance gap: The discrepancies between the educational achievement and performance of students of diverse races, ethnicities, income…

  10. Narrowing the Achievement Gap: A Case Study of an Urban School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Rosalinda

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this case study was to identify the cultural norms, practices, and programs of an urban school that narrowed the achievement gap. The reason for identifying these factors in a successful school was to add to the body of literature regarding the achievement gap and what a struggling school was able to do to narrow the gap. This case…

  11. The Opportunity Gap Achievement and Inequality in Education. Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Carol DeShano, Ed.; Huguley, James Philip, Ed.; Kakli, Zenub, Ed.; Rao, Radhika, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Opportunity Gap" aims to shift attention from the current overwhelming emphasis on schools in discussions of the achievement gap to more fundamental questions about social and educational opportunity. The achievement gap looms large in the current era of high-stakes testing and accountability. Yet questions persist: Has the…

  12. Explanatory Factors of the Black Achievement Gap in Montreal's Public and Private Schools: A Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Bernier, Sylvain; Marceau, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory analysis uses multiple regression modeling to help shed light on the correlates of the Black achievement gap in Montreal's public and private secondary schools. Using school-level testing data from Quebec's Ministry of Education, the authors show that there is a Black achievement gap, and that this gap is highly associated with…

  13. Simultaneous existence of phononic and photonic band gaps in periodic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Pennec, Y; Djafari Rouhani, B; El Boudouti, E H; Li, C; El Hassouani, Y; Vasseur, J O; Papanikolaou, N; Benchabane, S; Laude, V; Martinez, A

    2010-06-21

    We discuss the simultaneous existence of phononic and photonic band gaps in a periodic array of holes drilled in a Si membrane. We investigate in detail both the centered square lattice and the boron nitride (BN) lattice with two atoms per unit cell which include the simple square, triangular and honeycomb lattices as particular cases. We show that complete phononic and photonic band gaps can be obtained from the honeycomb lattice as well as BN lattices close to honeycomb. Otherwise, all investigated structures present the possibility of a complete phononic gap together with a photonic band gap of a given symmetry, odd or even, depending on the geometrical parameters.

  14. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  15. Achievement Gap Elimination: Report of the Missouri K-16 Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    In 2001, Missouri's K-16 project launched the K-12 Task Force on Achievement Gap Elimination, which believes that improving teacher quality is the single most important factor in eliminating the achievement gap among Missouri students. This report describes the significance of teacher quality on student achievement, emphasizing the uneven…

  16. The Economic Impact of Achievement Gaps in Pennsylvania's Public Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.

    2015-01-01

    This study documents the magnitude of the gaps in student performance for public school students in Pennsylvania and estimates the economic consequences of those education performance gaps. Although Pennsylvania is one of the top-scoring states on the 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) on average, the achievement gaps between…

  17. Using Factors of Socioeconomic Status, Family Support, and Academic Preparation to Explain the Black-White Gap in Mathematics Achievement and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Charity Noel

    2012-01-01

    The Black-White achievement and participation gap in mathematics is a major concern for educators in America. In order to understand why these gaps exist and have continued to exist over the years, it is important to identify some of the factors that may contribute to them. However, one of the limitations in identifying factors that influence the…

  18. Addressing Achievement Gaps: School Finance and the Achievement Gap--Funding Programs That Work. Policy Notes. Volume 16, Number 3, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    In education reform, money matters, but so does spending it wisely--on programs designed to meet the ambitious goal of helping low-income and minority children achieve at the same levels as their more affluent peers. The latest in the Educational Testing Service's (ETS's) series of symposia on Addressing Achievement Gaps brought researchers,…

  19. Measuring Cognitive Achievement Gaps and Inequalities: The Case of Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Jose Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a new measure of educational inequalities based on cognitive achievement data, and uses it to examine achievement inequalities in mathematics between groups of students enrolled in basic education in Brazil. The groups of students are defined by their race, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and region of residence. The…

  20. Technology Enhanced Learning Environments for Closing the Gap in Student Achievement between Regions: Does It Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakir, Hasan; Delialioglu, Omer; Dennis, Alan; Duffy, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Student achievement gap between urban and suburban regions are a major issue in U.S. schools. Technology enhanced learning environments that support teaching and learning process with advanced technology may close this achievement gap. This paper examines the impact of student and school factors with an emphasis on schools' geographic location on…

  1. School Composition and the Black-White Achievement Gap. NCES 2015-018

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohrnstedt, G.; Kitmitto, S.; Ogut, B.; Sherman, D.; Chan, D.

    2015-01-01

    School Composition and the Black-White Achievement Gap explores public schools' demographic composition, in particular, the proportion of Black students enrolled in schools (also referred to "Black student density" in schools) and its relation to the Black-White achievement gap. This NCES study, the first of its kind, used the 2011 NAEP…

  2. The Relationship between the Minority Student Achievement Gap and Collective Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Jane A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Collective Teacher Efficacy and minority student achievement gap over and above that explained by socioeconomics, school size, and prior achievement gaps for Black and Hispanic students with White students. Forty-seven Virginia middle schools were selected to participate in the…

  3. The New Literacies of Online Research and Comprehension: Rethinking the Reading Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leu, Donald J.; Forzani, Elena; Rhoads, Chris; Maykel, Cheryl; Kennedy, Clint; Timbrell, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Is there an achievement gap for online reading ability based on income inequality that is separate from the achievement gap in traditional, offline reading? This possibility was examined between students in two pseudonymous school districts: West Town (economically advantaged) and East Town (economically challenged; N = 256). Performance-based…

  4. School Administrators' Perceptions of the Achievement Gap between African American Students and White Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royle, Jonathan; Brown, Casey Graham

    2014-01-01

    This study included an analysis of principal perceptions of the achievement gap between African American and White students. School administrators from campuses with a substantial number of African American students within the subgroup were interviewed to explore their perceptions of the achievement gap. The study revealed factors within the…

  5. K-8 Charter Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap. Innovations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This guide is part of a series produced by the U.S. Department of Education, and it builds on two previous works: "Successful Charter Schools" (ED493615) and "Charter High Schools Closing the Achievement Gap" (ED494482). It profiles seven K-8 charter schools that are making headway in narrowing gaps in achievement. It examines…

  6. The Black-White Achievement Gap through the Lens of Central Office Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Roger S., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of Black and White central office administrators regarding the Black-White achievement gap. Four research questions (RQ) were explored: RQ1: How do central office administrators understand the causes of the Black-White achievement gap? RQ2: How do central office administrators perceive their role in…

  7. Teachers, Technology and Training: A New Year's Resolution for 2006: Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing the glaring discrepancies in outcomes for many poor and minority children, the New York State Regents hosted an Education Summit in November 2005 with the theme of Closing the Achievement Gap. Leaders in business, government and education were in attendance and rallied to more thoroughly understand the achievement gap and produce…

  8. Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Portrayals of the Special Education Mathematics Achievement Gap. Research Brief 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ann C.; Stevens, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    We contrasted portrayals of the achievement gap on the North Carolina state mathematics assessment for students with disabilities (SWD) using two different ways of identifying this group of students. The first method used students' disability status in third grade as the basis for identifying SWD, and then tracked the achievement gap between SWD…

  9. Once, Sometimes, or Always in Special Education: Mathematics Growth and Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ann C.; Stevens, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a statewide longitudinal sample to examine mathematics achievement gaps and growth in students with and without disabilities and to examine the impact of different methods of determining disability group membership on achievement gaps and growth. When disability status was determined on the basis of special education placement each…

  10. A Meta-Analysis on the Factors That Best Reduce the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analyses was undertaken to determine the factors that are most related with reducing the achievement gap. The meta-analysis included 30 studies that examined attempts to bridge the achievement gap between White students on one hand and Black and Latino students on the other. The results indicate that several factors are associated with a…

  11. Achieving biodiversity benefits with offsets: Research gaps, challenges, and needs.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Vargas, Camila; Carreras, Maria Jose; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Donlan, C Josh

    2017-03-01

    Biodiversity offsets are becoming increasingly common across a portfolio of settings: national policy, voluntary programs, international lending, and corporate business structures. Given the diversity of ecological, political, and socio-economic systems where offsets may be applied, place-based information is likely to be most useful in designing and implementing offset programs, along with guiding principles that assure best practice. We reviewed the research on biodiversity offsets to explore gaps and needs. While the peer-reviewed literature on offsets is growing rapidly, it is heavily dominated by ecological theory, wetland ecosystems, and U.S.-based research. Given that majority of offset policies and programs are occurring in middle- and low-income countries, the research gaps we identified present a number of risks. They also present an opportunity to create regionally based learning platforms focused on pilot projects and institutional capacity building. Scientific research should diversify, both topically and geographically, in order to support the successful design, implementation, and monitoring of biodiversity offset programs.

  12. Understanding and Reversing Underachievement, Low Achievement, and Achievement Gaps among High-Ability African American Males in Urban School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the achievement gap, with attention devoted to underachievement and low achievement among African American males in urban school contexts. More specifically, the article explains problems and issues facing or confronting these Black male students in urban education settings. A central part of this discussion is grounded in…

  13. Teen Pregnancy and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of teen pregnancy among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which nonmarital teen births adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address this problem. Methods: Literature review. Results: In 2006, the birth rate among 15-…

  14. Physical Activity and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of physical activity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which low levels of physical activity and fitness adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Methods:…

  15. Vision and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of vision problems among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which vision problems adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Methods: Literature review. Results: More than 20% of school-aged youth have…

  16. Early College High School: Closing the Latino Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Kristen Ann

    2016-01-01

    The population of United States Latino students is growing at a rapid rate but their academic achievement lags behind white and Asian students. This issue has significant consequences for the nation's economy, as the job market continues to demand more education and better skills. Early College High School programs have the potential to improve…

  17. Understanding the Gap in Mathematics Achievement of Malaysian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Noor Azina

    2009-01-01

    Of 46 countries that participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study in 2003 (I. V. S. Mullis, M. O. Martin, E. J. Gonzalez, & S. J. Chrostowski, 2004), Malaysia was ranked 10th in international scores of mathematics achievement for 8th-grade students. The present author aimed to examine the importance of students'…

  18. Asthma and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of asthma among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which poorly controlled asthma adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Methods: Literature review. Results: Asthma is the most common chronic…

  19. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Structured Approach to Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Chari A.; Brigman, Greg

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a group counseling intervention on student academic and social performance. Twenty-five school counselors were trained to use a structured approach to small-group counseling with students scoring in the mid-to-low range in math and reading. The group intervention focused on improving student achievement and…

  20. Breakfast and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of breakfast consumption among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which skipping breakfast adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase breakfast consumption. Methods: Literature review. Results: On any given day a…

  1. Does the Gender Wage Gap Exist at Riverside Community College District?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jami; Casolari, Amber

    2015-01-01

    The gender wage gap in the United States is a well-documented social and economic phenomenon. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 has done little to bring parity between men's and women's wages. Existing data show a relationship between race, age, geography, immigration, education, and women's pay status. This study analyzes wage disparity within higher…

  2. Mind the Gaps: How College Readiness Narrows Achievement Gaps in College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report discusses factors that contribute to lower college success rates among underrepresented racial/ethnic minority students and students from lower-income families. The report also shows that "racial/ethnic and family income gaps in college success rates narrow substantially among students who are ready for college." Everyone needs to…

  3. The Achievement Gap Between African-American and Non-minority Students: How Can We Close the Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Wayne D.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine and search various ways we can close the achievement gap between African-American and Non-minority students within the educational system in the United States. [Note: Special note of gratitude to Dr. Kimberly Grantham Griffith for her assistance in getting this article published. See: www.nationalforum.com

  4. Another Look at the Achievement Gap: Learning from the Experiences of Gifted Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.; Grantham, Tarek C.; Whiting, Gilman W.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on the achievement gap, with most findings pointing to how school and family variables affect Black students' achievement. Another body of work focuses on how social variables (i.e., peers) impact Black students' achievement, including how accusations of "acting White" affect the performance of Black students and…

  5. Creating the Opportunity to Learn: Moving from Research to Practice to Close the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Wade; Noguera, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    After years of applying more pressure on schools to raise achievement levels for all students, particularly those who underperform their mainstream peers, the achievement gap today remains virtually unchanged. But the reality is that there's proof that, under the right conditions, all students can achieve at high levels. Instead of "quick-fix…

  6. Building a Bridge to Span the Minority-Majority Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanasa, Philip J., III; Potter, Jane Hopkins

    A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain why black students lag behind whites in school achievement. In the 1950s and 1960s, an environmental hypothesis emerged which attributed the achievement gap to environment. Environmentalists at this point were divided between those who felt the family determined achievement and those who felt…

  7. Sustaining Success toward Closing the Achievement Gap: A Case Study of One Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Kimberly Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Coleman Report (1966), the focus on closing the achievement gap has been a critical component of educational policy for political leaders and field research by educators. The economic crisis which California and the nation at large currently face creates a challenging situation in attempting to narrow the gap.…

  8. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  9. Reassessing the Achievement Gap: Fully Measuring What Students Should Be Taught in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard; Jacobsen, Rebecca; Wilder, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    This presentation summarizes two products of the ongoing work the authors are doing for the Campaign for Educational Equity. Part 1 of this presentation is a summary of "A Report Card on Comprehensive Equity: Racial Gaps in the Nation's Youth Outcomes." This report estimates the black-white achievement gaps in each of these aspects of…

  10. Exploring Family, Neighborhood and School Factors in Racial Achievement Gap Dissertation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The racial achievement gap has been at the center of the educational debate for decades in the United States. Although disparities in educational outcomes have declined in part of the 20th century, the process has stalled in this decade. For instance, in mathematics the gap in raw scores for students aged 13 has decline from 41 points in 1978 to…

  11. School and Individual Factors That Contribute to the Achievement Gap in College Admissions Tests in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Mejias, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    In Chile, reports and research papers have shown that there is an achievement gap in college admissions tests mostly associated to students' gender, socioeconomic status and type of school attended. This gap represents a barrier for low-income and female students to access higher education, as well as for graduates of public schools. Prior studies…

  12. Closing the Achievement Gap with Culturally Relevant Technology-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The most significant educational problem of our time has been the achievement gap. The author discusses the need for the field of educational technology to join in the social movement to close this gap. He provides background on the significance of incorporating culture throughout the design and development of technology-based learning…

  13. Closing the Social Class Achievement Gap for First-Generation Students in Undergraduate Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Giffen, Cynthia J.; Blair, Seth S.; Rouse, Douglas I.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Many students start college intending to pursue a career in the biosciences, but too many abandon this goal because they struggle in introductory biology. Interventions have been developed to close achievement gaps for underrepresented minority students and women, but no prior research has attempted to close the gap for first-generation students,…

  14. In the Academic and Think Tank World, Pondering Achievement-Gap Remedies Takes Center Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Provides highlights from a conference titled "Closing the Gap: Promising Strategies for Narrowing the Achievement Gap" held in Washington, DC and sponsored by the Brookings Institution and the Edison Schools organization. The conference included presentations by notable scholars concerning ideas and research on strategies to boost the academic…

  15. The Hispanic-White Achievement Gap in Math and Reading in the Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Galindo, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the developmental patterns of Hispanic-White math and reading achievement gaps in elementary school, paying attention to variation in these patterns among Hispanic subgroups. Compared to non-Hispanic White students, Hispanic students enter kindergarten with much lower average math and reading skills. The gaps narrow by…

  16. Online Penalty: The Impact of Online Instruction on the Latino-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaupp, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Despite a substantial body of research on the effectiveness of distance education at the post-secondary level, little is known about the impact of online course delivery on the achievement gap. In California, the gap between white and Latino post-secondary student outcomes is significant and persistent, with Latino students overrepresented in…

  17. Geographic Variation of District-Level Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Gender achievement gaps on national and state assessments have been a popular research topic over the last few decades. Many prior studies examine these gaps in different subjects (e.g., mathematics, reading, and science) and grades (typically kindergarten through eighth grade) for students living in various regions (typically states or countries)…

  18. The Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage on the Black-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Madyun, Na'im

    2009-01-01

    Contextual analysis of the achievement gap has gained much momentum within the last few decades. This study furthers the discourse by examining the applicability of 2 sociological contextual development approaches on achievement. We analyzed 79 neighborhoods organized by the level of crime and poverty from both a social disorganization and social…

  19. Striving for Equity: District Leadership for Narrowing the Opportunity and Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert G.; Brazer, S. David

    2016-01-01

    Based on in-depth interviews, "Striving for Equity" brings to light the complex and illuminating stories of thirteen longtime superintendents--all leaders of the Minority Student Achievement Network (MSAN)--who were able to make progress toward narrowing opportunity and achievement gaps in traditional school districts with diverse…

  20. Rural-Urban Gaps in Academic Achievement, Schooling Conditions, Student, and Teachers' Characteristics in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayyaba, Saadia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recent educational research has demonstrated rural-urban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study seeks to report rural-urban disparities in achievement, student, teacher, and school characteristics based on a nationally representative sample of grade four students from…

  1. Narrowing the Achievement Gap: A Review of Research, Policies, and Issues. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertert, Linda; Teague, Jackie

    Student achievement tests consistently show that certain groups of children score far below children in other groups. The data document a strong association between poverty and students' academic success. The achievement gap begins early in children's lives as the result of physical, social, and emotional deprivations. California is attempting to…

  2. Developing a Perspective on the Global Achievement Gap: School Leaders as International Collaborators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanning, Michael C. P.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years American schools and the scholars who study these schools have become focused on bridging the achievement gap. The scholarly literature is most often focused on the discrepancy in achievement in one school, a region, or perhaps one nation. The literature examining the best practices of schools that have bridged this gap…

  3. Why Pre-K Is Critical to Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frede, Ellen; Barnett, W. Steven

    2011-01-01

    The recently released results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) comparison of educational achievement across 65 countries has brought renewed attention to the achievement gap and recommended changes to improve U.S. performance. The U.S. was well down in the middle of the pack for reading, math, and science while…

  4. Closing the Achievement Gap in Suburban and Urban School Communities. Policy Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Ronald F.; Clark, Reginald; Stewart, Judy

    This edition focuses on the topic of closing the achievement gap from the perspectives of urban and suburban school districts. After an introduction by Judy Stewart, the first article, "Addressing Racial Disparities in High-Achieving Suburban Schools" (Ronald F. Ferguson), shares findings from a recent survey of more than 34,000 students…

  5. Can Educators Close the Achievement Gap? An Interview with Richard Rothstein and Kati Haycock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Holly

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author interviews two leading thinkers in the field of education. Richard Rothstein and Kati Haycock talk about the possibility of closing the achievement gap through education and face off on poverty, race, and school achievement. In his book, "Class and Schools" (Teachers College Press, 2004), Rothstein writes that…

  6. Patterns of Achievement Gaps among School Districts: New Data, New Measures, New Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Shores, Kenneth A.; Kalogrides, Demetra; Weathers, Ericka S.

    2014-01-01

    There are nearly 14,000 school districts in the United States. Of these districts, there is very little information about the size of academic achievement gaps between whites and blacks and white and Hispanic students. This study was interested in district-level achievement patterns across the almost 14,000 school districts in the country because…

  7. Closing Achievement Gaps and Beyond: Teachers' Reactions to the Remedial Education Policy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Yu, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Educators have increasingly implemented remedial education in elementary and secondary schools throughout Taiwan as a systemic approach toward closing achievement gaps. However, students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and those in remote areas have shown little improvement in academic achievement. This issue raises the question of how…

  8. Understanding Science Achievement Gaps by Race/Ethnicity and Gender in Kindergarten and First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, F. Chris; Kellogg, Ann T.

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in science achievement across race and gender have been well documented in secondary and postsecondary school; however, the science achievement gap in the early years of elementary school remains understudied. We present findings from the recently released Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 that…

  9. Science Achievement Gaps Begin Very Early, Persist, and Are Largely Explained by Modifiable Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We examined the age of onset, over-time dynamics, and mechanisms underlying science achievement gaps in U.S. elementary and middle schools. To do so, we estimated multilevel growth models that included as predictors children's own general knowledge, reading and mathematics achievement, behavioral self-regulation, sociodemographics, other child-…

  10. Fragment library design: using cheminformatics and expert chemists to fill gaps in existing fragment libraries.

    PubMed

    Kutchukian, Peter S; So, Sung-Sau; Fischer, Christian; Waller, Chris L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment based screening (FBS) has emerged as a mainstream lead discovery strategy in academia, biotechnology start-ups, and large pharma. As a prerequisite of FBS, a structurally diverse library of fragments is desirable in order to identify chemical matter that will interact with the range of diverse target classes that are prosecuted in contemporary screening campaigns. In addition, it is also desirable to offer synthetically amenable starting points to increase the probability of a successful fragment evolution through medicinal chemistry. Herein we describe a method to identify biologically relevant chemical substructures that are missing from an existing fragment library (chemical gaps), and organize these chemical gaps hierarchically so that medicinal chemists can efficiently navigate the prioritized chemical space and subsequently select purchasable fragments for inclusion in an enhanced fragment library.

  11. Gender gaps in achievement and participation in multiple introductory biology classrooms.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Brownell, Sara E; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    Although gender gaps have been a major concern in male-dominated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines such as physics and engineering, the numerical dominance of female students in biology has supported the assumption that gender disparities do not exist at the undergraduate level in life sciences. Using data from 23 large introductory biology classes for majors, we examine two measures of gender disparity in biology: academic achievement and participation in whole-class discussions. We found that females consistently underperform on exams compared with males with similar overall college grade point averages. In addition, although females on average represent 60% of the students in these courses, their voices make up less than 40% of those heard responding to instructor-posed questions to the class, one of the most common ways of engaging students in large lectures. Based on these data, we propose that, despite numerical dominance of females, gender disparities remain an issue in introductory biology classrooms. For student retention and achievement in biology to be truly merit based, we need to develop strategies to equalize the opportunities for students of different genders to practice the skills they need to excel.

  12. Policy, Leadership, and Student Achievement: Implications for Urban Communities. The Achievement Gap, Research, Practice, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, C. Kent, Ed.; Ikpa, Vivian W., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This is the second book in the series examining student achievement. The chapters in this book reflect the scholarly papers presented at the July 2006 Education Policy, Leadership Summer Institute (EPLSI) by K-16 educators, researchers, community advocates, and policymakers who work in urban communities. The Institute serves as a place where…

  13. Addressing the Achievement Gap between Minority and Nonminority Children: Increasing Access and Achievement through Project EXCITE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Project EXCITE was developed and implemented specifically to raise the achievement of gifted minority students in a large suburban school district of Chicago so that they could qualify for advanced programs and accelerated tracks in high school in mathematics and science. This paper describes the goals, components, eligibility, and selection…

  14. Bridging the Great Divide: Broadening Perspectives on Closing the Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viewpoints, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This booklet presents information on the achievement gaps in education between white, Asian, and economically advantaged students and their African American, Hispanic, Native American, and economically disadvantaged peers. It provides examples from higher education, district, and school levels and summarizes available resources and tools to help…

  15. Strategic Funding Attracts Co-Investment. Closing the Achievement Gap Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Tory

    2008-01-01

    The "Closing the Achievement Gap" series explores the Casey Foundation's education investments and presents stories, results, and lessons learned. An objective of every education investment at the Annie E. Casey Foundation is to attract co-investment in promising and evidence-based programs and policies. One way the Foundation does this…

  16. Closing the Obesity Achievement Gap: Evidence-Based Practices that School Counselors Can Help Implement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perusse, Rachelle; Kailimang, Lukas; Krell, Megan

    2009-01-01

    School counselors are charged with helping students in the personal/social, academic, and career development domains. Obesity creates adverse educational outcomes for students along these three domains, suggesting an obesity achievement gap. Thus, school counselors can benefit from knowing which interventions have been shown to be successful in…

  17. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This paper introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  18. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  19. The Educational Achievement Gap as a Social Justice Issue for Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collopy, Rachel; Bowman, Connie; Taylor, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The educational achievement gap is a critical social justice issue. Catholic and Marianist conceptions of social justice in particular call people to work with others in their spheres of life to transform institutions in order to further human rights while promoting the common good. Drawing on key elements of Catholic teaching on social justice,…

  20. Beyond Popular Cultural and Structural Arguments: Imagining a Compass to Guide Burgeoning Urban Achievement Gap Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Sherick A.; North, Connie E.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript begins by distinguishing the common structural and cultural arguments that tend to guide popular urban achievement gap research. It highlights Jencks and Phillips, and Payne, as two cases of popular texts followed by critical responses to them. It concludes by imagining a compass to guide burgeoning scholars toward reading into…

  1. Gender Gaps in Mathematics, Science and Reading Achievements in Muslim Countries: A Quantile Regression Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    Using quantile regression analyses, this study examines gender gaps in mathematics, science, and reading in Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Jordan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Qatar, Tunisia, and Turkey among 15-year-old students. The analyses show that girls in Azerbaijan achieve as well as boys in mathematics and science and overachieve in reading. In Jordan,…

  2. School Composition and the Black-White Achievement Gap: Methodology Companion. NCES 2015-032

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohrnstedt, G.; Kitmitto, S.; Ogut, B.; Sherman, D.; Chan, D.

    2015-01-01

    The School Composition and the Black-White Achievement Gap study was undertaken by the National Center for Education Statistics to present both descriptive and associative information on the relationships among the percentage of students in a school who were Black (referred to as "Black student density" or "density"), the…

  3. Minority Achievement Gaps in STEM: Findings of a Longitudinal Study of Project Excite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Thomson, Dana; Rosen, Rhoda

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the outcomes of Project Excite on reducing minority students' achievement gaps in STEM over 14 years. Project Excite was designed to provide intensive supplemental enrichment and accelerated programming for high-potential, underrepresented minority students from third through eighth grades to better prepare them…

  4. Promoting Cultural Responsiveness and Closing the Achievement Gap with Standards Blending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, Rita; Grothaus, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, "standards blending"--the integration of core academic and school counseling standards--is demonstrated as a culturally responsive strategy to assist in closing the achievement gap for a group of third-grade African American males. The small-group intervention described resulted in knowledge gains in both the school counseling and…

  5. School Counseling to Close the Achievement Gap: A Social Justice Framework for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    School counselors can play a powerful role in closing the achievement gap when they incorporate the principles of social justice into their practice. In this much-needed resource for preservice and inservice counselors, the author addresses factors (such as racism, sexism, heterosexism, and classism) that can contribute to academic failure, and…

  6. Facing up to Realities: Harvard Economist Investigates the Racial Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    As an economist, Dr. Ronald F. Ferguson often applies quantitative analysis to public policy dilemmas, which yields data models and quantitative measures of complex issues. In tackling the racial achievement gap, the Harvard-based social policy expert has added investigation techniques from sociology and psychology to explore what might seem a…

  7. Teachers and the Gender Gaps in Student Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 11660

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, girls outperform boys in measures of reading achievement while generally underperforming in science and mathematics. One major class of explanations for these gaps involves the gender-based interactions between students and teachers (e.g., role-model and Pygmalion effects). However, the evidence on whether these interactions…

  8. Web-Based Interactive System for Analyzing Achievement Gaps in Public Schools System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kening; Mulvenon, Sean W.; Stegman, Charles; Xia, Yanling

    2010-01-01

    The National Office for Research on Measurement and Evaluation Systems (NORMES) at the University of Arkansas developed a web-based interactive system to provide information on state, district, and school level achievement gaps between white students and black students, socioeconomically disadvantaged students and non-disadvantaged students, male…

  9. The Black-White Achievement Gap: When Progress Stopped. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.; Coley, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This report is about understanding the periods of progress and the periods of stagnation in changes in the achievement gap that have occurred over the past several decades. The authors try to understand what might have contributed to the progress as well as probe the reasons that may account for the progress halting, in the hope of finding some…

  10. Closing the Math Achievement Gap: Institutions Find Success with MyMathLab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Pearl

    2012-01-01

    Institutions find success with Pearson Education's MyMathLab. The Department of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Memphis (UM) reported a narrowing of the achievement gap between Black and White students. According to the study conducted by UM professors and titled "The Effectiveness of Blended Instruction in Postsecondary General…

  11. In Their Own Voices: Adolescent African American Males' Experiences of the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Natasha S.; Singh, Anneliese A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors use a phenomenological research tradition grounded in CRT tenets to describe the daily lived experiences that 12 male African American youth had in relation to the achievement gap. Researchers collected individual semi-structured interviews and focus group data related to the study phenomenon. There were five themes identified in…

  12. Effects of Interim Assessments on the Achievement Gap: Evidence from an Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, all states operate accountability systems that measure and report school and student performance annually. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of interim assessments on the achievement gap. The authors examine the impact of interim assessments throughout the…

  13. "Acting White": How the Past Implementation of School Desegregation Helped Create Today's Attainment and Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Summarizing my prior work, the only book length treatment of the "acting White" phenomenon (Buck, 2010), I argue that while desegregation was both a moral necessity and a social good, the manner in which desegregation was implemented by White authorities led indirectly to today's achievement gaps. In the course of desegregation…

  14. The Role of Planning Skills in the Income-Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Stephen R.; Evans, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    The pervasive income-achievement gap has been attributed in part to deficiencies in executive functioning (EF). The development of EF is related to children's planning ability, an aspect of development that has received little attention. Longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development study of early child…

  15. The Impact of Early Childhood Education upon the Black-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zane, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    It can be argued that the current Black-White achievement gap provides evidence for a long-standing history of racial inequity within American society, as well as an informative barometer of progress toward educational parity. By all accounts, the measurements registered by this barometer continue to be cause for alarm. The disturbing Black-White…

  16. Bridging the Gap between Standards and Achievement: The Imperative for Professional Development in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Richard F.

    This paper discusses the importance of teacher professional development to student achievement. Section 1, "The Imperative: Investment in Human Skill and Knowledge," explains that despite contradictory evidence, prevailing assumptions asserts that teachers learn most of what they need during preservice education. Section 2, "The Knowledge Gap in…

  17. Classroom Environment, Instructional Resources, and Teaching Differences in High-Performing Kentucky Schools with Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Schumacher, Debbie; Hauser, Brenda; Croom, Nona D. M.

    This study examined differences at the classroom level between Kentucky schools with minimum versus large gaps in academic achievement between particular groups of students. Data were gathered via observations of 213 classrooms at 18 elementary, middle, and high schools. Although all the schools were identified as high-performing in terms of…

  18. Tackling Disadvantage: What Works in Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa; Mclean, Christabel

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the success factors behind narrowing the achievement gap of disadvantaged pupils who are entitled to free school meals. A complementary methodological approach including a case study and focus group were used to explore performance and the views of teachers, parents and pupils. The key criteria for the selection of schools were…

  19. Bridging English Language Learner Achievement Gaps through Effective Vocabulary Development Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Despite a well-documented history of immigration in the United States of America and rise in population of students that speak a language other than English, academic achievement gaps between English Language Learners and their native English language speaking counterparts from Grades Pre-Kindergarten through the college/university level still…

  20. Spanish-for-Native-Speaker Matters: Narrowing the Latino Achievement Gap through Spanish Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreira, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that Spanish-for-native-speakers (SNS) instruction at the secondary level can play a key role in narrowing the Latino achievement gap. To this end, SNS curricula and practices should be configured to: 1) support Spanish-English biliteracy, 2) support and facilitate learning across the curriculum, 3) socialize Latino students and…

  1. Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap between Urban and Suburban Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Jonathan; Duncan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that…

  2. Closing the Achievement Gap with Curriculum Enrichment and Differentiation: One School's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Margaret; Sweeny, Sheelah M.

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes a unique approach to reducing the achievement gap that strategically blended differentiated curriculum with schoolwide enrichment teaching and learning. The theories of enrichment and instructional differentiation were translated into practice in an elementary school that had previously embraced a remedial paradigm. This…

  3. Turnaround in Texas: How One District Closed Its Minority Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    Describes how one district closed its minority achievement gap by employing the Brazosport model, a combination of effective-schools research and Total Quality Management principles. The model includes an eight-step "plan-do-check" instructional cycle for teachers and emphasizes teacher training and tracking data. Student-achievement…

  4. Prospective Teachers from Urban Environments Examine Causes of the Achievement Gap in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Erik E.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the educational achievement gap between low and high socioeconomic students from the perspective of sixty-two prospective teachers in an undergraduate educational foundations course at a public majority minority urban university in the northeastern United States. The majority of these college students come from, and plan to…

  5. More than Sanctions: Closing Achievement Gaps through California's Use of Intensive Technical Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; McEachin, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    One of the enduring problems in education is the persistence of achievement gaps between White, wealthy, native English-speaking students and their counterparts who are minority, lower-income, or English language learners. This study shows that one intensive technical assistance (TA) intervention--California's District Assistance and Intervention…

  6. The White British-Black Caribbean Achievement Gap: Tests, Tiers and Teacher Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2012-01-01

    A recent analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) indicates a White British-Black Caribbean achievement gap at age 14 which cannot be accounted for by socio-economic variables or a wide range of contextual factors. This article uses the LSYPE to analyse patterns of entry to the different tiers of national mathematics…

  7. Closing the Achievement Gap: Principles for Improving the Educational Success of All Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest reviews educational policies and practices that have been proven effective in closing the achievement gap, offering a list of resources with detailed information about them. The digest focuses on state and district roles (e.g., developing and implementing educational goals, rigorous standards, and accountability standards and providing…

  8. Beating the Odds: The Real Challenges behind the Math Achievement Gap--And What High-Achieving Schools Can Teach Us about How to Close It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Susan

    2008-01-01

    One of the most persistent inequities in U.S. education is the gap in math achievement along income and race lines. Yet some secondary schools beat the odds, producing consistently strong math performance with students who likely would fail in traditional settings. This report advocates that the math achievement gap is not the result of poor and…

  9. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices - Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.; Keating, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  10. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices – Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.; Keating, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  11. Growth and gaps in mathematics achievement of students with and without disabilities on a statewide achievement test.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C; Elliott, Stephen N; Nese, Joseph F T; Tindal, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated mathematics achievement growth trajectories in a statewide sample of 92,045 students with and without disabilities over Grades 3 to 7. Students with disabilities (SWDs) were identified in seven exceptionality categories. Students without disabilities (SWoDs) were categorized as General Education (GE) or Academically/Intellectually Gifted (AIG). Students in all groups showed significant growth that decelerated over grades as well as significant variability in achievement by student group, both at the initial assessment in Grade 3 and in rates of growth over time. Race/ethnicity, gender, parental education, free/reduced lunch status, and English language proficiency were also significant predictors of achievement. Effect size estimates showed substantial year-to-year growth that decreased over grades. Sizeable achievement gaps that were relatively stable over grades were observed between SWoDs and students in specific exceptionality categories. Our study also demonstrated the importance of statistically controlling for variation related to student demographic characteristics. Additional research is needed that expands on these results with the same and additional exceptionality groups.

  12. Understanding Achievement Differences between Schools in Ireland--Can Existing Data-Sets Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleece, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increased focus on school accountability in Ireland and calls for greater use to be made of student achievement data for monitoring student outcomes. In this paper, it is argued that existing data-sets in Ireland offer limited potential for the value-added modelling approaches used for accountability purposes in many…

  13. Have Gender Gaps in Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, and Learning Behaviors across Two ECLS-K Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimpian, Joseph R.; Lubienski, Sarah T.; Timmer, Jennifer D.; Makowski, Martha B.; Miller, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K:1999) revealed gender gaps in mathematics achievement and teacher perceptions. However, recent evidence suggests that gender gaps have closed on state tests, raising the question of whether such gaps are absent in the ECLS-K:2011 cohort.…

  14. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    PubMed

    Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  15. Closing Achievement Gaps with a Utility-Value Intervention: Disentangling Race and Social Class

    PubMed Central

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Priniski, Stacy J.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2015-01-01

    Many college students abandon their goal of completing a degree in STEM when confronted with challenging introductory-level science courses. In the U.S., this trend is more pronounced for underrepresented minority (URM) and first-generation (FG) students, and contributes to persisting racial and social-class achievement gaps in higher education. Previous intervention studies have focused exclusively on race or social class, but have not examined how the two may be confounded and interact. This research therefore investigates the independent and interactive effects of race and social class as moderators of an intervention designed to promote performance, measured by grade in the course. In a double-blind randomized experiment conducted over four semesters of an introductory biology course (N = 1040), we tested the effectiveness of a utility-value intervention in which students wrote about the personal relevance of course material. The utility-value intervention was successful in reducing the achievement gap for FG-URM students by 61%: the performance gap for FG-URM students, relative to CG-Majority students, was large in the control condition, .84 grade points (d = .98), and the treatment effect for FG-URM students was .51 grade points (d = 0.55). The UV intervention helped students from all groups find utility value in the course content, and mediation analyses showed that the process of writing about utility value was particularly powerful for FG-URM students. Results highlight the importance of examining the independent and interactive effects of race and social class when evaluating interventions to close achievement gaps and the mechanisms through which they may operate. PMID:26524001

  16. Special Education--Non-Special Education Achievement Gap in Math: Effects of Reporting Methods, Analytical Techniques, and Reclassification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Wu, Yi-Chen; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Ysseldyke, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulations indicate that the achievement gap must be closed between subgroups, including the gap between special education and non-special education students. We explored the ways in which achievement trends are influenced by three methods of reporting (cross-sectional, cohort-static, and cohort-dynamic). We also investigated (a) the ways…

  17. Decision Points and Considerations for Identifying Rural Districts That Have Closed Student Achievement Gaps. REL 2016-130

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Michael J.; Billig, Shelley H.

    2016-01-01

    Rural districts have long faced challenges in closing achievement gaps between subgroups of students. This brief report describes key decision points and considerations for decision-makers interested in identifying rural districts that have closed academic achievement gaps. Examining practices in these districts may suggest activities associated…

  18. Parental Characteristics and the Achievement Gap in Mathematics: Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis of Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoraka, Mohammad; Arnold, Robert; Kim, Eun Sook; Salinitri, Geri; Kromrey, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    One of the most salient problems in education is the achievement gap. The researchers investigated the effects of parental education and parental occupations in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, or medical professions (STEMM) on the achievement gap in mathematics. Because students were nested within schools, two-level Hierarchical…

  19. A Cultural Analysis of the Achievement Gap Discourse: Challenging the Language and Labels Used in the Work of School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Roderick L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I critique the labels and terms used to frame practices aimed at closing the achievement gap. I examine how an unacknowledged "achievement gap Discourse" has emerged from the language that informs practices and policies of contemporary school reform. I use Gee's uppercase "Discourse" and a cultural analytic…

  20. Closing the Social Class Achievement Gap for First-Generation Students in Undergraduate Biology

    PubMed Central

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Giffen, Cynthia J.; Blair, Seth S.; Rouse, Douglas I.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Many students start college intending to pursue a career in the biosciences, but too many abandon this goal because they struggle in introductory biology. Interventions have been developed to close achievement gaps for underrepresented minority students and women, but no prior research has attempted to close the gap for first-generation students, a population that accounts for nearly a fifth of college students. We report a values affirmation intervention conducted with 798 U.S. students (154 first-generation) in an introductory biology course for majors. For first-generation students, values affirmation significantly improved final course grades and retention in the second course in the biology sequence, as well as overall GPA for the semester. This brief intervention narrowed the achievement gap between first-generation and continuing generation students for course grades by 50% and increased retention in a critical gateway course by 20%. Our results suggest that educators can expand the pipeline for first-generation students to continue studying in the biosciences with psychological interventions. PMID:25049437

  1. Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: a classroom study of values affirmation.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Akira; Kost-Smith, Lauren E; Finkelstein, Noah D; Pollock, Steven J; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Ito, Tiffany A

    2010-11-26

    In many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines, women are outperformed by men in test scores, jeopardizing their success in science-oriented courses and careers. The current study tested the effectiveness of a psychological intervention, called values affirmation, in reducing the gender achievement gap in a college-level introductory physics class. In this randomized double-blind study, 399 students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the 15-week course. Values affirmation reduced the male-female performance and learning difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. A brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance and learning.

  2. Teachers' perceptions of students' mathematics proficiency may exacerbate early gender gaps in achievement.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Cimpian, Joseph P; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Ganley, Colleen M; Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin

    2014-04-01

    A recent wave of research suggests that teachers overrate the performance of girls relative to boys and hold more positive attitudes toward girls' mathematics abilities. However, these prior estimates of teachers' supposed female bias are potentially misleading because these estimates (and teachers themselves) confound achievement with teachers' perceptions of behavior and effort. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), Study 1 demonstrates that teachers actually rate boys' mathematics proficiency higher than that of girls when conditioning on both teachers' ratings of behavior and approaches to learning as well as past and current test scores. In other words, on average girls are only perceived to be as mathematically competent as similarly achieving boys when the girls are also seen as working harder, behaving better, and being more eager to learn. Study 2 uses mediation analysis with an instrumental-variables approach, as well as a matching strategy, to explore the extent to which this conditional underrating of girls may explain the widening gender gap in mathematics in early elementary school. We find robust evidence suggesting that underrating girls' mathematics proficiency accounts for a substantial portion of the development of the mathematics achievement gap between similarly performing and behaving boys and girls in the early grades.

  3. Beyond Brown v. Board of Education: The Need to Remedy the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Dora W.

    2002-01-01

    Address the need to remedy the disparity in academic achievement of black and white students and examines why this disparity continues to exist in spite of the desegregation decrees issued under "Brown." Reviews how a court decides whether a school district has complied with a desegregation decree. Explains why schools are being released…

  4. Teaching a lay theory before college narrows achievement gaps at scale.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David S; Walton, Gregory M; Brady, Shannon T; Akcinar, Ezgi N; Paunesku, David; Keane, Laura; Kamentz, Donald; Ritter, Gretchen; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Urstein, Robert; Gomez, Eric M; Markus, Hazel Rose; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-06-14

    Previous experiments have shown that college students benefit when they understand that challenges in the transition to college are common and improvable and, thus, that early struggles need not portend a permanent lack of belonging or potential. Could such an approach-called a lay theory intervention-be effective before college matriculation? Could this strategy reduce a portion of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic achievement gaps for entire institutions? Three double-blind experiments tested this possibility. Ninety percent of first-year college students from three institutions were randomly assigned to complete single-session, online lay theory or control materials before matriculation (n > 9,500). The lay theory interventions raised first-year full-time college enrollment among students from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds exiting a high-performing charter high school network or entering a public flagship university (experiments 1 and 2) and, at a selective private university, raised disadvantaged students' cumulative first-year grade point average (experiment 3). These gains correspond to 31-40% reductions of the raw (unadjusted) institutional achievement gaps between students from disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged backgrounds at those institutions. Further, follow-up surveys suggest that the interventions improved disadvantaged students' overall college experiences, promoting use of student support services and the development of friendship networks and mentor relationships. This research therefore provides a basis for further tests of the generalizability of preparatory lay theories interventions and of their potential to reduce social inequality and improve other major life transitions.

  5. Teaching a lay theory before college narrows achievement gaps at scale

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, David S.; Walton, Gregory M.; Brady, Shannon T.; Akcinar, Ezgi N.; Paunesku, David; Keane, Laura; Kamentz, Donald; Ritter, Gretchen; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Urstein, Robert; Gomez, Eric M.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Dweck, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that college students benefit when they understand that challenges in the transition to college are common and improvable and, thus, that early struggles need not portend a permanent lack of belonging or potential. Could such an approach—called a lay theory intervention—be effective before college matriculation? Could this strategy reduce a portion of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic achievement gaps for entire institutions? Three double-blind experiments tested this possibility. Ninety percent of first-year college students from three institutions were randomly assigned to complete single-session, online lay theory or control materials before matriculation (n > 9,500). The lay theory interventions raised first-year full-time college enrollment among students from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds exiting a high-performing charter high school network or entering a public flagship university (experiments 1 and 2) and, at a selective private university, raised disadvantaged students’ cumulative first-year grade point average (experiment 3). These gains correspond to 31–40% reductions of the raw (unadjusted) institutional achievement gaps between students from disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged backgrounds at those institutions. Further, follow-up surveys suggest that the interventions improved disadvantaged students’ overall college experiences, promoting use of student support services and the development of friendship networks and mentor relationships. This research therefore provides a basis for further tests of the generalizability of preparatory lay theories interventions and of their potential to reduce social inequality and improve other major life transitions. PMID:27247409

  6. Daily online testing in large classes: boosting college performance while reducing achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    Pennebaker, James W; Gosling, Samuel D; Ferrell, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901) brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935). Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses.

  7. Reading Achievement Gaps, Correlates, and Moderators of Early Reading Achievement: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) Kindergarten to First Grade Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2006-01-01

    This study estimated reading achievement gaps in different ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic groups of 1st graders in the U.S. compared with specific reference groups and identified statistically significant correlates and moderators of early reading achievement. A subset of 2,296 students nested in 184 schools from the Early Childhood…

  8. The Education of English Language Learners in Arizona: A Legacy of Persisting Achievement Gaps in a Restrictive Language Policy Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews achievement gaps in both reading and math between ELL and non-ELL students in Arizona over the post-Proposition 203 period 2005-2009 and during the first year of implementation of the 4 hour ELD block, 2008-09. The study finds that Arizona has made little to no progress in closing the achievement gap between ELL and non-ELL…

  9. No major stratigraphic gap exists near the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian-Missourian) boundary in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Heckel, P.H.; DiMichele, W.A.; Blake, B.M.; Easterday, C.R.; Eble, C.F.; Elrick, S.; Gastaldo, R.A.; Greb, S.F.; Martino, R.L.; John, Nelson W.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.; Phillips, T.L.; Rosscoe, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Interregional correlation of the marine zones of major cyclothems between North America and eastern Europe does not support assertions that a major stratigraphic gap exists between the traditional regional Desmoinesian and Missourian stages in North America. Such a gap was previously proposed to explain an abrupt change in megafloral assemblages in the northern Appalachian Basin and by extension across all of North America. Conodont-based correlation from the essentially complete low-shelf Midcontinent succession (distal from the highstand shoreline), through the mid-shelf Illinois Basin, to the high shelf of the Appalachian Basin (proximal to highstand shoreline) demonstrates that all major ???400 kyr cyclothem groupings in the Midcontinent are recognizable in the Illinois Basin. In the Appalachian Basin, however, the grouping at the base of the Missourian is represented only by paleosols and localized coal. The immediately preceding grouping was removed very locally by paleovalley incision, as is evident at the 7-11 Mine, Columbiana County, Ohio, from which the original megafloral data were derived. At the few localities where incised paleodrainage exists, there may be a gap of ???1000 kyr, but a gap of no more than ???600 kyr occurs elsewhere in the Appalachian Basin at that level and its magnitude progressively decreases westward into the Illinois (???300 kyr) and Midcontinent (<200 kyr) Basins. Thus, while a gap is present near the Desmoinesian-Missourian boundary in North America, it is typically more than an order of magnitude smaller than that originally proposed and is similar to the gaps inferred at sequence boundaries between cyclothems at many horizons in the Pennsylvanian of North America. Copyright ?? 2011, SEPM.

  10. A Capstone Project: Closing the Achievement Gap of English Language Learners at Sunshine Elementary School Using the Gap Analysis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingo-Long, Enyetta

    2013-01-01

    This project was an alternative capstone dissertation conducted by a team of three doctoral students. The project focused on systematic and long-term underachievement of the English Language Learner (ELL) population of a single school, Sunshine Elementary, using the gap analysis model (Clark and Estes, 2008). More specifically, the purpose of the…

  11. Educational Achievement Gaps between Immigrant and Native Students in Two “New Immigration Countries”: Italy and Spain in comparison

    PubMed Central

    Azzolini, Davide; Schnell, Philipp; Palmer, John

    2013-01-01

    We use PISA 2009 data to determine how immigrant children in Italy and Spain compare with native students in reading and mathematics skills. Drawing on the vast empirical literature in traditional immigration countries, we test the extent to which the most well-established patterns and hypotheses of immigrant/native educational achievement gaps also apply to these new immigration countries. Findings show that both first- and second-generation immigrant students underperform natives in both countries. Although socioeconomic background and language skills contribute to the explanation of achievement gaps, significant differences remain within countries. While modeling socioeconomic background reduces the observed gaps to a very similar extent in the two countries, language spoken at home is more strongly associated with achievement in Italy. School-type differentiation, such as tracking in Italy and school ownership in Spain, do not reduce immigrant/native gaps, although in Italy tracking is strongly associated with students’ test scores. PMID:23493944

  12. Mind the Gap: 20 Years of Progress and Retrenchment in School Funding and Achievement Gaps. Policy Information Report. ETS RR-16-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.; Farrie, Danielle; Sciarra, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been significant progress in the long term, achievement gaps among the nation's students persist.Many factors have contributed to the disparities in outcomes, and societal changes can explain progress, or lack thereof, over the past few decades.This is well documented in the 2010 Educational Testing Service (ETS) report…

  13. Filling the Knowledge Gap that Exists Between the Public and Its Leaders and Climate Science Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandia, S. A.; Abraham, J. P.; Dash, J. W.; Ashley, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    There is a gap between what the general public and its elected leaders know about climate change and what climate scientists understand about this critical issue. One such effort by the authors to fill this gap is the Climate Science Rapid Response Team (CSRRT), formed in November 2010 to provide rapid, high-quality climate science information to international news media and lawmakers. Currently, CSRRT has enlisted 250 top climate scientists, including those with expertise on the economics and policy matters, whom are committed to be on call for climate-related inquiries. CSRRT has responded to more than 300 inquiries including, from among many others, The White House, Congress, and local governmental officials, major television and cable news networks, radio programs, mainstream international newspaper outlets, and a broad range of online news providers. CSRRT scientists have also been provided extensive communication training to help encourage the use of jargon-free language so that clear communication with the broader public can be more successful. In addition to the CSRRT, the authors have undertaken several behind the scenes initiatives to increase public awareness about climate change. This presentation will describe the operation of CSRRT along with some of its highlights, as well as offer a peek into the authors' less public efforts that have had a major impact on various climate-related news stories and policy.

  14. An Examination of Tri-Level Collaboration around Student Achievement Using the Gap Analysis Approach: Central Office Leadership Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamas, Sonia Rodarte

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this study examined collaboration around student achievement at the central office leadership level in the Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD). This study is one of three concurrent studies focused on collaboration around student achievement in the PUSD that include…

  15. Closing the Achievement Gap Report for 21st Century Learners in West Virginia. Third Edition, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Diana L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the "Closing the Achievement Gap for 21st Century Learners in West Virginia (CAG)" report, 3rd edition, is to update West Virginia educators to the status and improvement of student achievement in West Virginia which may then be utilized as a basis for determining future educational decisions. In order to enhance the quality…

  16. Is Montgomery County's Housing Policy One Answer to Baltimore's Education Achievement Gap? The Abell Report. Volume 24, No.3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1966, the Coleman Report firmly established the link between a family's socioeconomic status and a child's educational outcomes. Known as the "income achievement gap," the disparity between the achievement of poor and rich children has become entrenched in our nation's educational landscape: with few exceptions, schools with high…

  17. An Examination of Tri-Level Collaboration around Student Achievement Using the Gap Analysis Approach: School Site Leadership Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Esther Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this project examined collaboration around student achievement at the school site leadership level in the Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD). This project is one of three concurrent studies focused on collaboration around student achievement in the PUSD that include…

  18. An Examination of Tri-Level Collaboration around Student Achievement Using the Gap Analysis Approach: Teacher Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Anthony Steven

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this project examined collaboration around student achievement in the Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD) from the teacher perspective. As part of a tri-level study, two other projects examined collaboration around student achievement in PUSD from the perspectives of…

  19. Closing the gap in academic readiness and achievement: the role of early childcare

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Côté, Sylvana. M.; Giguère, Charles-Édouard; Dionne, Ginette; Zelazo, Philip David; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel; Séguin, Jean. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Socially disadvantaged children with academic difficulties at school entry are at increased risk for poor health and psychosocial outcomes. Our objective is to test the possibility that participation in childcare – at the population level – could attenuate the gap in academic readiness and achievement between children with and without a social disadvantage (indexed by low levels of maternal education). Methods A cohort of infants born in the Canadian province of Quebec in 1997/1998 was selected through birth registries and followed annually until 7 years of age (n = 1,863). Children receiving formal childcare (i.e., center-based or non-relative out-of-home) were distinguished from those receiving informal childcare (i.e., relative or nanny). Measures from 4 standardized tests that assessed cognitive school readiness (Lollipop Test for School Readiness), receptive vocabulary (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Revised), mathematics (Number Knowledge Test), and reading performance (Kaufman Assessment Battery for children) were administered at 6 and 7 years. Results Children of mothers with low levels of education showed a consistent pattern of lower scores on academic readiness and achievement tests at 6 and 7 years than those of highly educated mothers, unless they received formal childcare. Specifically, among children of mothers with low levels of education, those who received formal childcare obtained higher school readiness (d = 0.87), receptive vocabulary (d = 0.36), reading (d = 0.48) and math achievement scores (d = 0.38; although not significant at 5%) in comparison with those who were cared for by their parents. Childcare participation was not associated with cognitive outcomes among children of mothers with higher levels of education. Conclusions Public investments in early childcare are increasing in many countries with the intention of reducing cognitive inequalities between disadvantaged and advantaged children. Our findings provide further

  20. Gaps Between Aims and Achievements in Therapeutic Modification of Neuronal Damage ("Neuroprotection").

    PubMed

    Wiendl, Heinz; Elger, Christian; Förstl, Hans; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Oertel, Wolfgang; Reichmann, Heinz; Schwab, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The term "neuroprotection" is often misused, overused, or misunderstood. A reasonable definition of neuroprotection refers to the preservation of "neuronal structure and/or function." Although our knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration has expanded, experimental systems and animal models that mimic the process or allow translation into clinical success remain limited. This editorial discusses reasons for this gap and strategies to close it. Experimental models can only mirror certain aspects of disease mechanisms in humans. Therefore, findings in these models need to be linked with patient data to improve real-life relevance. Successful neuroprotection depends on finding the right "window of opportunity" which varies from very short (stroke) to very long (Alzheimer's disease), necessitating the need to focus on strategies for very early disease recognition. This need challenges the strategies to be chosen, trial approaches and methodologies, and the allocation of resources. Additionally, outcome measures are often not well suited to assess neuroprotection. To this end, surrogate measures, including biomarkers, are useful endpoints to demonstrate evidence of target directed therapeutic utility. Finally, studies have shown that neuroprotection is not likely to succeed when targeting only one pathway. These obstacles have reduced the level of enthusiasm for neuroprotection in certain disease areas (e.g., stroke). Academia, industry, regulatory authorities, funding agencies and patient organizations have to cooperate to a greater extent in order to overcome these impediments and to encourage nonclassical concepts. These concepts will be interdisciplinary in order to achieve meaningful disease modification.

  1. Toward Excellence with Equity: An Emerging Vision for Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Ronald F.

    2007-01-01

    For the past 15 years, economist Ronald Ferguson has investigated the myriad factors that combine to create racial disparities in academic performance. Beginning with his analysis of the impact of test scores in predicting racial wage gaps, Ferguson has explored how rates of progress in narrowing gaps have varied over the recent decades, the roles…

  2. Temperament, School Adjustment, and Academic Achievement: Existing Research and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hendawi, Maha

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, research has been examining the role of temperament in education. In particular, academic achievement and school adjustment were among the first variables to be examined. Subsequently, several studies have documented associations between temperament and either academic achievement or school adjustment. However, no review of this…

  3. Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close The Black?White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dianne L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of Richard Rothstein's book "Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close the Black-White Achievement Gap" (Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute, 2004). The insights offered in this book are timely in light of the No Child Left Behind legislation that puts the…

  4. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  5. Black-White Achievement Gap and Family Wealth. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #07-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, W. Jean; Conley, Dalton

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which family wealth affects the race-child achievement association for young children based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We found little evidence that wealth mediates the black-white test scores gap. However, liquid assets, particularly holding in stocks and mutual funds, are positively…

  6. Closing the Student Achievement Gap in California's Elementary Schools: A Lead Teachers' Perspective on Transformational Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    This study has tackled the thorny problem of closing the Student Achievement Gap (SAG) in California's elementary schools. To address that problem, an "Integrated" form of educational leadership called Transformational Instructional Leadership (TIL), a form grounded in "best practices" of Transformational and Instructional…

  7. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Summer School Program to Accelerate the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ramon Michael

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing disparity in educational outcomes among economically and racially different groups of students, summer school has received attention from school reformers as a means to close the achievement gap. Given the interest in this topic by educators, researchers, and policymakers, there is little research on the impact of summer school…

  8. Patterns and Trends in Achievement Gaps in Malaysian Secondary Schools (1999-2011): Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saw, Guan Kung

    2016-01-01

    Educational inequality is a highly debated yet empirically understudied topic in Malaysia. This paper examines the patterns and trends of academic achievement gaps by student social groups in Malaysia, drawing upon nationally representative data for the most recent four cohorts (1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) of eighth-grade Malaysian students from…

  9. Five Social Disadvantages That Depress Student Performance: Why Schools Alone Can't Close Achievement Gaps. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Leila; Rothstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    That students' social and economic characteristics shape their cognitive and behavioral outcomes is well established, yet policymakers typically resist accepting that non-school disadvantages necessarily depress outcomes. Rather, they look to better schools and teachers to close achievement gaps, and consistently come up short. This report…

  10. Closing the Academic Achievement Gap on the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) through Professional Learning Communities (PLC) Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buenrostro, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of importance that DuFour's nine characteristics of highly effective schools have on closing the academic achievement gap on the California High School Exit Exam, as perceived by high school principals. The study also examined the strategies believed to be most important in developing…

  11. Examining the Achievement Gap: The Effectiveness of African American Teachers Instructing African American Students in Kansas City Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Judith Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Over several years the American public educational system has failed to address one of the most infuriating problems faced by our nation, narrowing the achievement gap in urban districts with urban learners. Historically, minority students have not paralleled the academic performance of their White counterparts. This holds true with standardized…

  12. The School Age Gender Gap in Reading Achievement: Examining the Influences of Item Format and Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Franziska; McElvany, Nele; Trendtel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The importance of reading competence for both individuals and society underlines the strong need to understand the gender gap in reading achievement. Beyond mean differences in reading comprehension, research has indicated that girls possess specific advantages on constructed-response items compared with boys of the same reading ability. Moreover,…

  13. Addressing Achievement Gaps: The Family--America's Smallest School. Policy Notes. Volume 19, Number 1, Winter 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    When parents are married and employed, when they turn off the television and monitor homework, their children are more likely to succeed in school. Today, however, many families are struggling, and their struggles contribute to the stubborn achievement gap separating low-income and minority students from their more affluent White and Asian peers.…

  14. An Agenda for the Future: Closing the Achievement Gap for Underrepresented Groups in Gifted and Talented Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh

    2007-01-01

    To identify a future research agenda with the goal of narrowing the achievement gap between underrepresented groups and their peers in gifted and talented education, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) at the University of Connecticut convened a Needs Assessment Conference in January 2005 and commissioned four…

  15. Gap Analysis for Chinese Drug Control Institutes to Achieve the Standards of World Health Organization Medicine Prequalification.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xin; Yang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    The study aims to explore the challenges and the gaps faced by Chinese Drug Control Institutes in achieving the standards of World Health Organization (WHO) Medicine Prequalification. The study was undertaken with 6 Provincial Drug Control Institutes in China from November 2012 to November 2013. The study assessed key elements required to comply with WHO Good Practices for Pharmaceutical Quality Control Laboratories (GPPQCL). For GPPQCL, the study found gaps in quality management system, control of documentation, data-processing equipment, premises and equipment, contracts, reagents (water), reference substances and reference materials, calibration, verification of performance and qualification of equipment, instruments and other devices, analytical worksheet, evaluation of test results, personnel, and validation of analytical procedures. The study indicates that gaps are attributed to differences between the standards of Chinese Accreditation Standards and WHO-GPPQCL.

  16. The Shrinking Black-White Gap on SAT II Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Recent research shows that the SAT II test is a much better predictor of college success than the standard SAT. In recent years, black students appear to be making progress in closing the racial scoring gap on the wide variety of academic subjects (particularly chemistry, world history, and biology) that are measured by the SAT II test. (SM)

  17. Closing the Racial Achievement Gap: Learning from Florida's Reforms. Backgrounder. No. 2468

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Matthew; Burke, Lindsey M.

    2010-01-01

    An education gap between white students and their black and Hispanic peers is something to which most Americans have become accustomed. But this racial division of education--and hence of prospects for the future--is nothing less than tragic. The good news is that the racial divide in learning is a problem that can be fixed. Of course, it can only…

  18. Dollars for Sense: Assessing Achievement Gaps in Arkansas in the Context of Substantial Funding Increases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Joshua; Jensen, Nathan C.; Ritter, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-four of the fifty states have experienced school finance lawsuits as a consequence of funding gaps between rich and poor districts. In some states, such as Kentucky, lawsuits brought about by property-poor districts have resulted in a statewide remedy that reforms the property tax system and seeks to provide every child with an adequate…

  19. Administrator Perceptions of the Achievement Gap between African American Students and Other Subpopulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royle, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The consistent underperformance of African American students casts a disparaging shadow on the success of American public schools. Research was necessary to understand the reason for such a difference in scores. Parents, teachers, and administrators must understand the reason for the gap in order to determine the strategies and support systems…

  20. An Effort to Close Achievement Gaps at Scale through Self-Affirmation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Grigg, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses closing the academic performance gaps between African American and Latino students and their White counterparts, and between girls and boys in mathematics. Of the various models and theories of these social inequalities that have been advanced in literature, one particularly compelling line of research concerns the idea of…

  1. Reading Attainment in Irish Primary Schools--A Progressive Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, M. O.

    Approximately 4,000 children took part in a study of the reading attainments of children from different social-class backgrounds in Irish primary schools to find out if the progessive reading gap between children from different home backgrounds that has been observed in other countries could also be found in Irish school children. Tests were…

  2. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions are explored. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement made by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  3. Examination of Achievement Gaps among Fourth Grade Students in a Selected Louisiana School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeJeune, Kevin Scott

    2010-01-01

    A major concern for educators is that student achievement is disproportionate and not increasing for all groups at the same rate. This applied dissertation addressed the problem of unequal achievement for African American, economically disadvantaged, and academically at-risk students. This quantitative study utilized a correlational design to…

  4. The Role of Schools in the English Language Learner Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Students designated as English language learners (ELL) tend to go to public schools that have low standardized test scores. However, these low levels of assessed proficiency are not solely attributable to poor achievement by ELL students. These same schools report poor achievement by other major student groups as well, and have a set of…

  5. The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

  6. D.C.'s Achievement Gap: Why Place Matters. Data Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Every child deserves educational opportunity and the chance to achieve, no matter his or her school, neighborhood or background. Unfortunately, large and persistent disparities in achievement among public school students in the District of Columbia indicate that all children here may not have the same opportunities. This Data Snapshot examines…

  7. No Student Left Behind: A Collaborative and Competitive Game-Based Learning Environment to Reduce the Achievement Gap of EFL Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching; Lin, Chiu-Pin

    2015-01-01

    How to close the achievement gap in the classroom so that no student is left behind becomes one of the most important issues nowadays. This study aims to construct a collaborative and competitive game-based learning environment to improve English proficiencies and reduce the achievement gap for disadvantaged students. The Wireless Crossword…

  8. Narrowing the Achievement Gap and Sustaining Success: A Qualitative Study of the Norms, Practices, and Programs of a Successful High School with Urban Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senesac, Donald Raymond

    2010-01-01

    The academic achievement gap is the manifestation of differential learning outcomes for students typified by membership in an ethnic minority sub group or economically disadvantaged sub group. Addressing the achievement gap has become vital for the nation as a whole, and even more critical for the state of California because the majority of…

  9. Classroom-Based Inequalities and Achievement Gaps in First Grade: The Role of Classroom Context and Access to Qualified and Effective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palardy, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: An enduring question about achievement gaps is, which aspects of schools contribute most? At the early grade levels, when children spend the vast majority of their school day in a single classroom with a single teacher, school inequities that correlate with achievement gaps likely originate within the classroom. This study examined the…

  10. Making the Case for the Outlier: Researcher Reflections of an African-American Female Deputy Superintendent Who Decided to Close the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Karen Stansberry

    2012-01-01

    This article presents researcher reflections of a case study of a Black female deputy superintendent who made the value-driven decision to close the achievement gap in her district. I posit that she is an outlier because she is Black and female in a predominantly white male field of practice, she effectively closed the achievement gap through her…

  11. Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous…

  12. What Is the Nature of the Achievement Gap, Why Does It Persist and Are Government Goals Sufficient to Create Social Justice in the Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ruth; Burton, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The "achievement gap"--the term typically used to refer to differences in pupil attainment associated with social class, ethnicity and gender--remains an enduring obstacle to government goals of creating a socially just society. This article explores the nature of the achievement gap and some of the mechanisms that serve to perpetuate…

  13. The Early College High School Model as a Means of Reducing or Eliminating the Achievement Gap for Students from Traditionally Underrepresented Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramucci, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The existence of a gap in academic performance between various groups of students, such as minority and non-minority students or socioeconomically disadvantaged and advantaged students, has been the subject of public discourse and research for many years. Research has indicated numerous reasons for the existence of this gap and its impact on…

  14. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health. PMID:20377862

  15. A Case Study of Tire Crumb Use on Playgrounds: Risk Analysis and Communication When Major Clinical Knowledge Gaps Exist

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Mark E.; Kirkland, Katherine H.; Guidotti, Tee L.; Rose, Cecile

    2006-01-01

    Physicians and public health professionals working with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Region 8 Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) received several telephone calls requesting information regarding the safety of recycled tire crumb as a playground surface constituent placed below children’s play structures. There were no reported symptoms or adverse health effects in exposed children. The literature available on the safety and risk of exposure to crumb rubber constituents was limited and revealed no information quantifying exposures associated with product use. Callers were informed by the PEHSU that no evidence existed suggesting harm from intended use of the product, but gaps in knowledge about the product were identified and communicated. Here the case of crumb rubber on playgrounds is used as a model to present an approach to similar environmental medicine questions. From defining the question, to surveying traditional and nontraditional resources for information, synthesis of findings, and risk communication, the case provides a model to approach similar questions. PMID:16393649

  16. Latino English Language Learners: Bridging Achievement and Cultural Gaps between Schools and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Mary Ellen; Masewicz, Sophia; Vogel, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study grounded in critical inquiry and cultural-ecological theory explores barriers to academic achievement for Latino English language learners (ELLs). Parents and teachers were purposefully selected from a rural school district in the Rocky Mountain region to participate in focus group interviews. Findings included barriers…

  17. Nonlinear Gompertz Curve Models of Achievement Gaps in Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Claire E.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Steele, Joel S.; Castro-Schilo, Laura; Grissmer, David W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined achievement trajectories in mathematics and reading from school entry through the end of middle school with linear and nonlinear growth curves in 2 large longitudinal data sets (National Longitudinal Study of Youth--Children and Young Adults and Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort [ECLS-K]). The S-shaped…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Mathematics Proficiency May Exacerbate Early Gender Gaps in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Cimpian, Joseph P.; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Ganley, Colleen M.; Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    A recent wave of research suggests that teachers overrate the performance of girls relative to boys and hold more positive attitudes toward girls' mathematics abilities. However, these prior estimates of teachers' supposed female bias are potentially misleading because these estimates (and teachers themselves) confound achievement with teachers'…

  19. Coincidence or Conspiracy? Whiteness, Policy and the Persistence of the Black/White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2008-01-01

    Adopting an approach shaped by critical race theory (CRT) the paper proposes a radical analysis of the nature of race inequality in the English educational system. Focusing on the relative achievements of White school leavers and their Black (African Caribbean) peers, it is argued that long standing Black/White inequalities have been obscured by a…

  20. Analyzing the Gender Gap in Math Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Galluzzo, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The US portion of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 student questionnaire comprising of 4,733 observations was used in a multiple regression framework to predict math achievement from demographic variables, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, and two student-specific measures of perception, math anxiety and…

  1. The Achievement Gap among Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents: Life Stressors Hinder Latina/o Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sita G.; Barrera, Alinne Z.; Strambler, Michael J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Macciomei, Erynn

    2016-01-01

    This study compares life stressors and school outcomes among newcomer immigrant adolescents from Latin America, Asia, and the Caribbean. Participants attended a predominantly low-income, urban international public high school in the northeast. The Latina/o students were exposed to more life stressors and had lower attendance and achievement than…

  2. Aggression and Violence and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of aggression and violence among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which aggression and violence adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Methods: Literature review. Results: Recent national data…

  3. Leading Schools of Excellence and Equity: Documenting Effective Strategies in Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.; Benkovitz, Jen; Muttillo, A. J.; Urban, Thad

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: In the Fall 2006 issue of AERJ, Hoy, Tarter, and Woolfolk Hoy identified the new construct of academic optimism as a general latent concept related to student achievement even after controlling for SES, previous performance, and other demographic variables. Through structural equation modeling, they found that the collective…

  4. Exploring the Middle School Science Achievement Gap: Influences of Curriculum, Instruction and Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winning, Rosalie Anne

    2012-01-01

    Students' science achievement has been subject to scrutiny and criticism in the United States. The decline in rankings on standardized international assessments has been the focus of concern for educators, policy makers, parents and society at large. This study, designed as an action research, explored the factors contributing to the decrease in…

  5. The Racial, Ethnic, and Social Class Achievement Gaps: A Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaynor, Alan Kibbe

    2012-01-01

    This system dynamics analysis draws on the literature to outline the factors commonly discussed as predictive of and, perhaps, causally related to problematic differences in academic achievement among students who vary in race, ethnicity, and social class. It first treats these as a wide-ranging set of exogenous variables, many of which interact…

  6. The Effects of the Achievement Gap on Students Formally Identified as Gifted. Does Giftedness Prevail?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Dwayne T.

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that minority students who, based upon a standardized test, have shown a high academic performance capability have a readiness for rigorous courses in high school and can sustain high academic achievement over time when compared to non-minority peers. Therefore, the on-going question for many educators needs to be why doesn't…

  7. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  8. Asian American and Pacific Islander Students: Equity and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Valerie Ooka; Han, Peggy P.; Pang, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied more than 1 million Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) and White seventh graders in a statewide California testing program between 2003 and 2008, examining their reading and math achievement. AAPI student performance is often reported as an aggregate in discussions of the success of schoolchildren and issues of racial…

  9. Student to Teacher Racial/Ethnic Ratios as Contributors to Regional Achievement Gaps, 1999-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, James M.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of No Child Left Behind legislation in 2002 and its mandates for annual yearly progress for all students, many districts and schools in Texas have had difficulty elevating African American and Hispanic students' scores. The current study examined these students' achievement on the annual Texas high-stakes measure as a function of a…

  10. Reducing Achievement Gaps in Academic Writing for Latinos and English Learners in Grades 7-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carol Booth; Matuchniak, Tina; Chung, Huy Q.; Stumpf, Rachel; Farkas, George

    2017-01-01

    This study reports 2 years of findings from a randomized controlled trial designed to replicate and demonstrate the efficacy of an existing, successful professional development program, the Pathway Project, that uses a cognitive strategies approach to text-based analytical writing. Building on an earlier randomized field trial in a large, urban,…

  11. Comprehensive School Reform: Meta-Analytic Evidence of Black-White Achievement Gap Narrowing.

    PubMed

    Gorey, Kevin M

    2009-12-30

    This meta-analysis extends a previous review of the achievement effects of comprehensive school reform (CSR) programs (Borman, Hewes, Overman, & Brown, 2003). That meta-analysis observed significant effects of well endowed and well-researched programs, but it did not account for race/ethnicity. This article synthesizes 34 cohort or quasi-experimental outcomes of studies that incorporated the policy-critical characteristic of race/ethnicity.

  12. The Effect of Reform-Based Science Teaching on SES-Associated Achievement Gap on PISA 2006: A Comparative Study of the United States and Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Nai-En

    The goal of this study is to examine how reform-based science teaching has been implemented and whether reform-based science teaching has promoted education equity through being available and beneficial for students from different socioeconomic status (SES) family backgrounds in the U.S. and Taiwan. No existing study used large-scale assessment to investigate the implementation and outcomes of the science reform movement in the U.S. and Taiwan. This study was developed to fill this gap using the Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data including 5,611 students in the United States and 5995 students in Taiwan. A Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) was used to classify students into different science learning subgroups to understand how broadly reform-based science learning has been implemented in classrooms. The results showed that students in the U.S. had more opportunity to learn science through the reform-based learning activities than students in Taiwan. Latent Class Regression (LCR) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were used for examining the availability of reform-based science teaching in both countries. The results showed that in the U.S., higher SES students had more opportunity to learn science reform-based learning activities. On the other hand, students' SES had no association with reform-based science learning in Taiwan. Regression Mixture Modeling and SEM were used to examine whether there was an association between reform-based science teaching and SES-associated achievement gaps. The results found no evidence to support the claim that reform-based science teaching helps to minimize SES-associated achievement gaps in both countries.

  13. Changes in Math Achievement Gaps under the Era of NNCLB: Between Different Immigrant Student Groups and Native-Born White Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Sue Bin

    2010-01-01

    Previous comparisons of the gaps in educational achievement between various minority groups (non-White, non-English-speaking, low income) and their counterparts (White, English-speaking, middle income) have tended to disregard the immigrant status of the minority students. In this study, I investigated these gaps within and between immigrant…

  14. The Politics of Achievement Gaps: U.S. Public Opinion on Race-Based and Wealth-Based Differences in Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valant, Jon; Newark, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, researchers have documented large differences in average test scores between minority and White students and between poor and wealthy students. These gaps are a focal point of reformers' and policymakers' efforts to address educational inequities. However, the U.S. public's views on achievement gaps have received little attention from…

  15. Exploring the middle school science achievement gap: Influences of curriculum, instruction and students' perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winning, Rosalie Anne

    Students' science achievement has been subject to scrutiny and criticism in the United States. The decline in rankings on standardized international assessments has been the focus of concern for educators, policy makers, parents and society at large. This study, designed as an action research, explored the factors contributing to the decrease in the number of students attaining advanced proficiency in science learning as measured by state assessments in grades four and eight in a New Jersey school district. Specifically, this study addressed the degree to which the middle school curriculum reflected the national science framework standards for 21st century leaning and the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards; the pedagogical approaches regularly planned and implemented in the middle school science classrooms; and the students' perceptions of their science learning. Research data were collected by teacher and student surveys, focus group discussions, student interviews, document reviews of written curricula, and classroom observations. An important disparity emerged between the document analysis of the local curriculum and the teachers' views that 21st century learning skills are reflected in the written curriculum and classroom pedagogy. Further, classroom observations revealed the prevalence of a traditional pedagogy, focused on repetition of teacher-disseminated information and featuring limited differentiation, inquiry-based or constructivist learning strategies. The students expressed a value for discovery and collaboration with peers in order to develop, share and refine their understanding of science. The research concluded with recommendations for a revised curriculum process, sustained and collaborative professional development, on-going formative assessments of student learning and the formal integration of an online student science blog as a means of encouraging the co-construction of deep and enduring science knowledge.

  16. Examining the Black-White achievement gap among low-income children using the NICHD study of early child care and youth development.

    PubMed

    Burchinal, Margaret; McCartney, Kathleen; Steinberg, Laurence; Crosnoe, Robert; Friedman, Sarah L; McLoyd, Vonnie; Pianta, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Black-White achievement gap in children's reading and mathematics school performance from 4½ years of age through fifth grade was examined in a sample of 314 lower income American youth followed from birth. Differences in family, child care, and schooling experiences largely explained Black-White differences in achievement, and instructional quality was a stronger predictor for Black than White children. In addition, the achievement gap was detected as young as 3 years of age. Taken together, the findings suggest that reducing the Black-White achievement gap may require early intervention to reduce race gaps in home and school experiences during the infant and toddler years as well as during the preschool and school years.

  17. Parental Resources, Schooling Achievements, and Gender Schooling Gaps: Evidence of Change over 25 years in Rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Maluccio, John A.; Behrman, Jere R.; Hoddinott, John; Murphy, Alexis; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2013-01-01

    We use village census data and linear regression models to examine changes between 1975 and 2002 in the associations of parental resources with boys' and girls' schooling in four rural Guatemalan villages. Levels of schooling in 1975 were universally low for children 7–17 years. Large increases in schooling achievements occurred between 1975 and 2002. By 2002, schooling levels were comparable for younger boys and girls (7–12 years, N = 3,525) and favored older boys compared to older girls (13–17 years, N = 2,440) by about 0.5 grades. The associations of household standard of living and maternal schooling with schooling among girls diminished over time and became more comparable with these associations among boys, and the associations of household standard of living with schooling among older boys declined and became more comparable with these associations among girls. Thus, as increased social investments reduce the costs of schooling or increase the supply and quality of schooling to families, the magnitudes of the associations between parental resources and children's schooling decline and become more gender equitable at all ages. However, our results show that older boys may benefit more than older girls from social investments in schooling. These changes suggest potential needs to monitor gender gaps in schooling retention among older children, to insure gender equitable access to social investments in schooling, and to encourage parents to invest in schooling as joint measures to achieve greater schooling achievements of girls and boys. PMID:23888089

  18. The Impact of Resources on Education: A Position Paper on How Theories of Social Capital Provide Insight on the Achievement Gap in the United States Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeisler, Kayla

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that there is a gap in educational achievement between socioeconomic and racial groups in the public education system in the United States. This paper identifies the link between resources and academic achievement. Through examining educational resources, from in-school factors, such as facilities and teacher quality, to…

  19. A Capstone Project: Closing the Achievement Gap of English Learners in Literacy at Sunshine Elementary School Using the Gap Analysis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This project was an alternative capstone dissertation conducted by a team of three doctoral students. The project focused on systematic and long-term underachievement of the English Language (EL) population of a single school, Sunshine Elementary, using the gap analysis model (Clark and Estes, 2008). More specifically, the purpose of the analysis…

  20. Postindustrial Capitalism and the Problems with Bourdieu's Social and Cultural Capital in Understanding the Black/White Achievement Gap in the United States and United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    This hermeneutical essay demonstrates why and how Pierre Bourdieu's social reproduction theory is neither an adequate explanation for understanding praxis nor the Black/White academic achievement gap in contemporary postindustrial economies like that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The underlining hypothesis of the work is that the…

  1. Who Is Ahead and Who Is Behind? Gaps in School Readiness and Student Achievement in the Early Grades for California's Children. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jill S.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of preschool education in California, the RAND Corporation has undertaken the California Preschool Study to improve understanding of achievement gaps in the early elementary grades, the adequacy of preschool education currently given, and what efficiencies or additional resources might be brought to bear in…

  2. A Hierarchical Examination of the Immigrant Achievement Gap: The Additional Explanatory Power of Nationality and Educational Selectivity over Traditional Explorations of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared immigrant and nonimmigrant educational achievement (i.e., the immigrant gap) in math by reexamining the explanatory power of race and socioeconomic status (SES)--two variables, perhaps, most commonly considered in educational research. Four research questions were explored through growth curve modeling, factor analysis, and…

  3. The Effects of the Implementation of NCLB on the Achievement Gap between African American and White Students in Georgia Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Stacey L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the implementation of No Child Left Behind and the achievement gap between African American and white students' eighth-grade math scores on the yearly-standardized test (Criterion Referenced Competency Test--CRCT) in Georgia. A descriptive research design was utilized to examine data obtained from the…

  4. Equity Within Reach: Insights from the Front Lines of America's Achievement Gap. Results from a Survey of Teach For America Corps Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Abigail

    2005-01-01

    There is growing consensus among educators and policy makers that the gap in academic outcomes that exists along socio-economic and racial lines is the most pressing educational challenge of the day. Given their daily work teaching in public schools in the nation's lowest-income urban and rural communities, Teach For America teachers--or "corps…

  5. Closing the science achievement gap for ninth grade English learners through standards- and inquiry-based science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Myrna Hipol

    In light of the need to close the achievement gap among our culturally and linguistically diverse students, more specifically the Hispanics and the Hispanic English Learners (ELs), the effects of teacher professional development (2 year PD vs. 1 Year PD vs. no PD) on the implementation of a standards-aligned and inquiry-based science curriculum program---the Integrated Coordinated Science for the 21st Century published by It's About Time, Inc. (ICS-IAT)---on the LAUSD ninth graders science scores were examined. Participants included 8,937 9th grade students (7,356 Hispanics). The primary outcome measurement was scaled scores from the California Standard Test (CST) in Integrated Coordinated Science (CST_ICS1). Correlations between California English Language Development Test (CELDT) component subscores (reading, listening and speaking) and CST scores were also examined. Results indicated that the science scores of the students of teachers who participated in two year PD were significantly higher compared to the scores of students of the one year PD group and the control group. The results show that all ethnic groups benefited from two years of teacher PD, except the African American group. Among Hispanics, students classified as IFEP, RFEP and EO gained from the teachers having two years of professional development. But the target population, ELs did not benefit from two years of teacher PD. The correlations between the CELDT and CST_ELA were much higher than the CELDT and CST_ICS1 correlations. This finding validates Abedi's claim (2004) that EL students are disadvantaged because of their language handicap on tests that have a greater language load. Two year PD participation significantly enhanced the accessibility of science to the ninth graders. The essential features in the PD were classroom simulation of all the activities identified in the storyboard with the actual and correct use of needed equipment and materials; creation and presentation of sample or model

  6. Computer-Based Drill and Practice in Arithmetic: Widening the Gap between High- and Low-Achieving Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    1988-01-01

    The differential effects of computer-assisted instruction for high-achieving and low-achieving students were examined for seven elementary students of varied background. Higher-achieving students were more able to adjust to the requirements of computer work and to derive benefit from it than were lower-achieving students. Implications for teaching…

  7. Principals and School Counselors: Separate Entities in Identifying Achievement Gaps in College Readiness for African American Students With Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Laura A.; Bouknight, Tamisha M.

    2015-01-01

    This case illustrates an example of how one school relied solely on aggregate data and failed to address the college readiness needs of African American students with disabilities. However, the way in which the school counselor identified this opportunity gap may not have been the most ethical approach, and now she is faced with a dilemma. This…

  8. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions. MDRC Working Papers on Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  9. Trends in Education Excellence Gaps: A 12-Year International Perspective via the Multilevel Model for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study in the USA documented the existence and growth of "excellence gaps" among students. These gaps are similar to the minimum competency achievement gaps that proliferate in policy discussions in many Western countries, but excellence gaps focus on the highest level of achievement rather than minimum competency. We extend this…

  10. Closing the gaps in child health in the Pacific: An achievable goal in the next 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Trevor; Kado, Joseph H; Auto, James; Amini, James; Gilbert, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    It is not inconceivable that by 2035 the substantial gaps in child health across the Pacific can close significantly. Currently, Australia and New Zealand have child mortality rates of 5 and 6 per 1000 live births, respectively, while Pacific island developing nations have under 5 mortality rates ranging from 13 to 16 (Vanuatu, Fiji and Tonga) to 47 and 58 per 1000 live births (Kiribati and Papua New Guinea, respectively). However, these Pacific child mortality rates are falling, by an average of 1.4% per year since 1990, and more rapidly (1.9% per year) since 2000. Based on progress elsewhere, there is a need to (i) define the specific things needed to close the gaps in child health; (ii) be far more ambitious and hopeful than ever before; and (iii) form a new regional compact based on solidarity and interdependence. PMID:25586845

  11. Closing the gaps in child health in the Pacific: an achievable goal in the next 20 years.

    PubMed

    Duke, Trevor; Kado, Joseph H; Auto, James; Amini, James; Gilbert, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    It is not inconceivable that by 2035 the substantial gaps in child health across the Pacific can close significantly. Currently, Australia and New Zealand have child mortality rates of 5 and 6 per 1000 live births, respectively, while Pacific island developing nations have under 5 mortality rates ranging from 13 to 16 (Vanuatu, Fiji and Tonga) to 47 and 58 per 1000 live births (Kiribati and Papua New Guinea, respectively). However, these Pacific child mortality rates are falling, by an average of 1.4% per year since 1990, and more rapidly (1.9% per year) since 2000. Based on progress elsewhere, there is a need to (i) define the specific things needed to close the gaps in child health; (ii) be far more ambitious and hopeful than ever before; and (iii) form a new regional compact based on solidarity and interdependence.

  12. Evaluation of green building rating tools based on existing green building achievement in Indonesia using Life Cycle Assessment Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basten, Van; Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Budiman, Rachmat; Riswanto

    2017-03-01

    Total completed building construction value in Indonesia increased 116% during 2009 to 2011. That's followed by increasing 11% energy consumption in Indonesia in the last three years with 70% energy met to the electricity needs of commercial building. In addition, a few application of green building concept in Indonesia made the greenhouse gas emissions or CO2 amount increased by 25%. Construction, operation, and maintain of building cost consider relatively high. The evaluation in this research is used to improve the building performance with some of green concept alternatives. The research methodology is conducted by combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches through interview and case study. Assessing the successful of optimization functions in the existing green building is based on the operational and maintenance phase with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Method. The result of optimization that is the largest efficiency and effective of building life cycle.

  13. Mathematics Achievement Gaps between Suburban Students and Their Rural and Urban Peers Increase over Time. Issue Brief No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Suzanne E.; Provost, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    In this brief, authors Suzanne Graham and Lauren Provost examine whether attending a school in a rural, urban, or suburban community is related to children's mathematics achievement in kindergarten, and whether increases in mathematics achievement between kindergarten and eighth grade differ for children in rural, urban, and suburban schools. They…

  14. It Takes Leadership to Build a Village: A Portrait of a Public School Community That Is Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCarthy, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This case study explored a high-achieving elementary school on Chicago's far South Side that fosters academic success for its African American students who come from predominately low-income homes. Tyler School serves a demographic group that historically underperforms. Yet multiple measures of evaluating student achievement indicate that Tyler is…

  15. The Impact of School Climate on Student Achievement in the Middle Schools of the Commonwealth of Virginia: A Quantitative Analysis of Existing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, David Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study was designed to be an analysis of the relationship between school climate and student achievement through the creation of an index of climate-factors (SES, discipline, attendance, and school size) for which publicly available data existed. The index that was formed served as a proxy measure of climate; it was analyzed…

  16. Achievement Gaps: How Hispanic and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2011-459

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, F. Cadelle; Vanneman, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This report provides detailed information on the size of the achievement gaps between Hispanic and White public school students at the national and state levels and describes how those achievement gaps have changed over time. Additional information about race/ethnicity in NAEP is given in Appendix A. Most of the data in this report is derived from…

  17. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M.; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A.; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Porto, Antonio Lo; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J.; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60 % by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  18. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Lo Porto, Antonio; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60% by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  19. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; González-Díaz, G.; Olea, J.

    2015-12-28

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (10{sup 13 }cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup -2}) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around E{sub c}-425 and E{sub c}-275 meV for implantation doses of 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, E{sub c} and E{sub c}-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known

  20. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; Olea, J.; González-Díaz, G.

    2015-12-01

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around Ec-425 and Ec-275 meV for implantation doses of 1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, Ec and Ec-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known, the Meyer-Neldel rule typically appears in processes involving multiple excitations, like

  1. The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories…

  2. Raising the Bar -- Closing the Gap. Recommendations for Improving the Academic Achievement of African-American Students in Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    In September 1996, the Missouri Commissioner of Education appointed a statewide task force on the Achievement of African-American Students. The findings of the state-level task force, the views of Missouri students, and the experience of successful educators all support the conclusion that the single most important nontangible element required to…

  3. Surmounting the Challenges of Improving Academic Performance: Closing the Achievement Gap through Social-Emotional and Character Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; White, Gwyne; Stepney, Cesalie

    2014-01-01

    While educators and policy makers have an intuitive understanding of the influence of socioeconomic factors and race on student achievement, these factors make the current emphasis on standardized test scores as a primary criterion for evaluating schools and teachers indefensible and ineffective. The research presented illustrates the limits of…

  4. Interrogating the Language Gap of Young Bilingual and Bidialectal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Ofelia; Otheguy, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how the belief in the existence of a language gap has negative educational consequences for bilingual and bidialectal children from minoritized communities. This article first positions the idea of the language gap within the "achievement gap" discourse that has long been prevalent in educational circles. We then…

  5. Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Erika

    2012-01-01

    On average, children from low SES homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have different language development trajectories than children from middle class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many reach school age with lower levels of English language skill than middle class, monolingual children. Because early differences in English oral language skill have consequences for academic achievement, low levels of English language skill constitute a deficit for children about to enter school in the U.S. Declaring all developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not change the robust relation between English oral language skills and academic achievement and would not help children with poor English skills to be successful in school. Remedies aimed at supporting the development of the English skills required for academic success need not and should not entail devaluing or diminishing children’s other language skills. PMID:22329382

  6. Interpreting the early language trajectories of children from low-SES and language minority homes: implications for closing achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Erika

    2013-01-01

    On average, children from low socioeconomic status (SES) homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have language development trajectories that are different from those of children from middle-class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low-SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many reach school age with lower levels of English language skill than do middle-class, monolingual children. Because early differences in English oral language skill have consequences for academic achievement, low levels of English language skill constitute a deficit for children about to enter school in the United States. Declaring all developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not change the robust relation between English oral language skills and academic achievement and would not help children with poor English skills to be successful in school. Remedies aimed at supporting the development of the English skills required for academic success need not and should not entail devaluing or diminishing children's other language skills.

  7. Closing the social-class achievement gap: a difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin

    2014-04-01

    College students who do not have parents with 4-year degrees (first-generation students) earn lower grades and encounter more obstacles to success than do students who have at least one parent with a 4-year degree (continuing-generation students). In the study reported here, we tested a novel intervention designed to reduce this social-class achievement gap with a randomized controlled trial (N = 168). Using senior college students' real-life stories, we conducted a difference-education intervention with incoming students about how their diverse backgrounds can shape what they experience in college. Compared with a standard intervention that provided similar stories of college adjustment without highlighting students' different backgrounds, the difference-education intervention eliminated the social-class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students' tendency to seek out college resources (e.g., meeting with professors) and, in turn, improving their end-of-year grade point averages. The difference-education intervention also improved the college transition for all students on numerous psychosocial outcomes (e.g., mental health and engagement).

  8. Mapping the existing body of health policy implementation research in lower income settings: what is covered and what are the gaps?

    PubMed

    Erasmus, E; Orgill, M; Schneider, H; Gilson, L

    2014-12-01

    This article uses 85 peer-reviewed articles published between 1994 and 2009 to characterize and synthesize aspects of the health policy analysis literature focusing on policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It seeks to contribute, first, to strengthening the field of LMIC health policy analysis by highlighting gaps in the literature and generating ideas for a future research agenda and, second, to thinking about the value and applicability of qualitative synthesis approaches to the health policy analysis field. Overall, the article considers the disciplinary perspectives from which LMIC health policy implementation is studied and the extent to which the focus is on systems or programme issues. It then works with the more specific themes of the key thrusts of the reviewed articles, the implementation outcomes studied, implementation improvement recommendations made and the theories used in the reviewed articles. With respect to these more specific themes, the article includes explorations of patterns within the themes themselves, the contributions of specific disciplinary perspectives and differences between systems and programme articles. It concludes, among other things, that the literature remains small, fragmented, of limited depth and quite diverse, reflecting a wide spectrum of health system dimensions studied and many different suggestions for improving policy implementation. However, a range of issues beyond traditional 'hardware' health system concerns, such as funding and organizational structure, are understood to influence policy implementation, including many 'software' issues such as the understandings of policy actors and the need for better communication and actor relationships. Looking to the future, there is a need, given the fragmentation in the literature, to consolidate the existing body of work where possible and, given the often broad nature of the work and its limited depth, to draw more explicitly on theoretical

  9. A Long-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injury Therapy Using Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells (Sk-SCs): An Achievement of Significant Morphological, Numerical and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Maki; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Soeda, Shuichi; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always favorable. Here, we use human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs) to reconstitute the function after long nerve-gap injury. Muscles samples were obtained from the amputated legs from 9 patients following unforeseen accidents. The Sk-SCs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and sorted as CD34+/45- (Sk-34) and CD34-/45-/29+ (Sk-DN/29+) cells. Cells were separately cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks, then injected into the athymic nude mice sciatic nerve long-gap model (7-mm) bridging an acellular conduit. After 8–12 weeks, active cell engraftment was observed only in the Sk-34 cell transplanted group, showing preferential differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as formation of the myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium surrounding regenerated axons, resulted in 87% of numerical recovery. Differentiation into vascular cell lineage (pericyte and endothelial cells) were also observed. A significant tetanic tension recovery (over 90%) of downstream muscles following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (at upper portion of the gap) was also achieved. In contrast, Sk-DN/29+ cells were completely eliminated during the first 4 weeks, but relatively higher numerical (83% vs. 41% in axon) and functional (80% vs. 60% in tetanus) recovery than control were observed. Noteworthy, significant increase in the formation of vascular networks in the conduit during the early stage (first 2 weeks) of recovery was observed in both groups with the expression of key factors (mRNA and protein levels), suggesting the paracrine effects to angiogenesis. These results suggested that the human Sk

  10. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  11. Description of landscape features, summary of existing hydrologic data, and identification of data gaps for the Osage Nation, northeastern Oklahoma, 1890-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    The Osage Nation of northeastern Oklahoma, conterminous with Osage County, is characterized by gently rolling uplands and incised stream valleys that have downcut into underlying sedimentary rock units of Pennsylvanian through Permian age. Cattle ranching and petroleum and natural-gas extraction are the principal land uses in this rural area. Freshwater resources in the Osage Nation include water flowing in the Arkansas River and several smaller streams, water stored in several lakes, and groundwater contained in unconsolidated alluvial aquifers and bedrock aquifers. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is the primary source of fresh groundwater in this area. Fresh groundwater is underlain by saline groundwater in aquifers underlying the Osage Nation. Because of the potential for future population increases, demands for water from neighboring areas such as the Tulsa metropolitan area, and expansion of petroleum and natural-gas extraction on water resources of this area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Osage Nation, summarized existing hydrologic data and identified data gaps to provide information for planning of future development of water resources in the Osage Nation. Streamflows in the Osage Nation are substantially affected by precipitation. During the relatively wet periods from the 1970s to 2000, the annual streamflows in the Osage Nation increased by as much as a factor of 2 relative to preceding decades, with subsequent decreases in streamflow of as much as 50 percent being recorded during intermittent drier years of the early 2000s. This report summarizes hydrologic data from 3 surface-water sites and 91 wells distributed across the Osage Nation. Data collected at those sites indicate that surface water in the Osage Nation generally has sufficient dissolved oxygen for survival of both coldwater and warmwater aquatic biota. Total dissolved solids concentration exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in up to

  12. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  13. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  14. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  15. Birth Cohort and the Black-White Achievement Gap: The Roles of Access and Health Soon after Birth. NBER Working Paper No. 15078

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chay, Kenneth Y.; Guryan, Jonathan; Bhashkar, Mazumder

    2009-01-01

    One literature documents a significant, black-white gap in average test scores, while another finds a substantial narrowing of the gap during the 1980's, and stagnation in convergence after. We use two data sources -- the Long Term Trends NAEP and AFQT scores for the universe of applicants to the U.S. military between 1976 and 1991 -- to show: 1)…

  16. Birth Cohort and the Black-White Achievement Gap: The Roles of Access and Health Soon After Birth. WP2008-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chay, Kenneth Y.; Guryan, Jonathan; Mazumder, Bhashkar

    2009-01-01

    One literature documents a significant, black-white gap in average test scores, while another finds a substantial narrowing of the gap during the 1980's, and stagnation in convergence after. We use two data sources--the Long Term Trends NAEP and AFQT scores for the universe of applicants to the U.S. military between 1976 and 1991--to show: (1) the…

  17. EFSA's scientific activities and achievements on the risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) during its first decade of existence: looking back and ahead.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Aguilera, Jaime; Diveki, Zoltán; Gomes, Ana; Liu, Yi; Paoletti, Claudia; du Jardin, Patrick; Herman, Lieve; Perry, Joe N; Waigmann, Elisabeth

    2014-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived food and feed products are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market in the European Union (EU). In this risk analysis process, the role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which was created in 2002 in response to multiple food crises, is to independently assess and provide scientific advice to risk managers on any possible risks that the use of GMOs may pose to human and animal health and the environment. EFSA's scientific advice is elaborated by its GMO Panel with the scientific support of several working groups and EFSA's GMO Unit. This review presents EFSA's scientific activities and highlights its achievements on the risk assessment of GMOs for the first 10 years of its existence. Since 2002, EFSA has issued 69 scientific opinions on genetically modified (GM) plant market registration applications, of which 62 for import and processing for food and feed uses, six for cultivation and one for the use of pollen (as or in food), and 19 scientific opinions on applications for marketing products made with GM microorganisms. Several guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants, GM microorganisms and GM animals, as well as on specific issues such as post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) were elaborated. EFSA also provided scientific advice upon request of the European Commission on safeguard clause and emergency measures invoked by EU Member States, annual PMEM reports, the potential risks of new biotechnology-based plant breeding techniques, evaluations of previously assessed GMOs in the light of new scientific publications, and the use of antibiotic resistance marker genes in GM plants. Future challenges relevant to the risk assessment of GMOs are discussed. EFSA's risk assessments of GMO applications ensure that data are analysed and presented in a way that facilitates scientifically sound decisions that protect human and animal health and the environment.

  18. Designing a Qualitative Data Collection Strategy (QDCS) for Africa - Phase 1: A Gap Analysis of Existing Models, Simulations, and Tools Relating to Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Competitive Influence Game ( CIG ) Simulation (Independent & Federated) John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Composite Vulnerability...government will probably face in a given simulation run. In the army’s Competitive Influence Game ( CIG ), causal relationships exist, but the size of the...This should not be interpreted as a critique of CIG , which due to time constraints, limited resources and greater emphasis on other aspects of the game

  19. Closing the Achievement Gap by Improving Reading Instruction. Hearing before the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (Orlando, Florida, November 13, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    A field hearing of the United States House of Representatives' Committee on Education and the Workforce, entitled "Closing the Achievement Gap by Improving Reading Instruction," was held at Lancaster Elementary School in Orlando, Florida, on November 13, 2001. The hearing begins with welcoming statements by the committee chairman and one…

  20. Behind the Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  1. Achieving omnidirectional photonic band gap in sputter deposited TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} one dimensional photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Jena, S. Tokas, R. B.; Sarkar, P.; Thakur, S.; Sahoo, N. K.; Haque, S. Maidul; Misal, J. S.; Rao, K. D.

    2015-06-24

    The multilayer structure of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} (11 layers) as one dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC) has been designed and then fabricated by using asymmetric bipolar pulse DC magnetron sputtering technique for omnidirectional photonic band gap. The experimentally measured photonic band gap (PBG) in the visible region is well matched with the theoretically calculated band structure (ω vs. k) diagram. The experimentally measured omnidirectional reflection band of 44 nm over the incident angle range of 0°-70° is found almost matching within the theoretically calculated band.

  2. Narrowing Participation Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Victoria; Kirtley, Karmen; Matassa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shrinking the achievement gap in mathematics is a tall order. One way to approach this challenge is to think about how the achievement gap manifests itself in the classroom and take concrete action. For example, opportunities to participate in activities that involve mathematical reasoning and argumentation in a safe and supportive manner are…

  3. Use of Latent Growth Curve Modeling for Assessing the Effects of Summer and After-School Learning on Adolescent Students' Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chunn-Ying; Hsieh, Ya-Heng; Chen, Cheng-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Many Western researchers have found that the gaps in the learning progress between students from different socioeconomic statuses primarily occur due to the accumulated effects of long summer vacations, rather than during the school years. However, it remains to be seen whether these findings can be cross-culturally applied to children in Taiwan.…

  4. Closing the Achievement Gap for Economically Disadvantaged Students? Analyzing Change since No Child Left Behind Using State Assessments and the National Assessment of Educational Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rolf K.

    2011-01-01

    A critical state-level indicator of progress in public education is student achievement annual performance and change over time. The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) has been very active in tracking and reporting on student achievement results and using state assessment scores and other data to analyze achievement trends. A central…

  5. Relationship of Non-Verbal Intelligence Materials as Catalyst for Academic Achievement and Peaceful Co-Existence among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambo, Aminu

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines students' performance in Non-verbal Intelligence tests relative academic achievement of some selected secondary school students. Two hypotheses were formulated with a view to generating data for the ease of analyses. Two non-verbal intelligent tests viz: Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and AH[subscript 4] Part II…

  6. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate. Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  7. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate: Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.; Sherwin, J.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  8. "Brown" and Black-White Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armor, David J.

    2006-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" only presumed to eliminate the "de jure" apartheid that existed in 1954. It was never intended to resolve the "de facto" gap in minority achievement that still faces education policymakers today. Sociologist David J. Armor goes beyond "Brown" to identify a set of definite risk…

  9. Income Inequality and the Online Reading Gap: Teaching Our Way to Success With Online Research and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leu, Donald J.; Forzani, Elena; Kennedy, Clint

    2015-01-01

    A recent study in "Reading Research Quarterly" provided evidence that an online reading achievement gap, based on income inequality, exists that is separate and independent from the well-known achievement gap in offline reading. This column briefly reviews the evidence and provides an initial set of instructional suggestions that may be…

  10. Preparation by Candidate Countries for Involvement in the EU Lifelong Learning Policy: Achievements, Gaps and Challenges. Synthesis of the Monographs Exercise. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Jean-Raymond

    The reforms undertaken in the vocational education and training systems and the public employment services systems of European Union (EU) candidate countries in the 10 years since the transition have resulted in the following achievements: (1) participation in upper secondary and tertiary education has increased and curricula for general education…

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; McMurrer, Jennifer; Silva, Malini R.

    2011-01-01

    Title I provides extra instructional services designed to raise achievement for low-performing students in schools with relatively high poverty rates, and for all students in many of the nation's highest-poverty schools. To learn more about how well Title I students are performing academically, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) compared…

  12. Mathematics Achievement Gaps for Elementary and Secondary Students: The Influence of Opportunity to Learn and Special Education Status. Research Brief 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Kurz, Alexander; Tindal, Gerald; Stevens, Joseph; Yel, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationship among key instructional process variables and the achievement of students with and without disabilities as measured by both interim and end-of-year summative assessments. Examination of the instructional process data indicated that students with and without disabilities receiving mathematics instruction in the same…

  13. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review of the Article "Are High-Quality Schools Enough to Close the Achievement Gap? Evidence from a Social Experiment in Harlem"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects on academic achievement of offering students enrollment in the Promise Academy charter middle school. The school is sponsored by the Harlem Children's Zone[R], which combines reform-minded charter schools with a web of community services designed to provide a positive and supportive social environment outside of…

  14. Revisiting the Impact of NCLB High-Stakes School Accountability, Capacity, and Resources: State NAEP 1990-2009 Reading and Math Achievement Gaps and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Reeves, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of high-stakes school accountability, capacity, and resources under NCLB on reading and math achievement outcomes through comparative interrupted time-series analyses of 1990-2009 NAEP state assessment data. Through hierarchical linear modeling latent variable regression with inverse probability of treatment…

  15. A Framework for Understanding Cross-National and Cross-Ethnic Gaps in Math and Science Achievement: The Case of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmi, R. Sergio; Brekke, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Comparative international assessments of academic achievement consistently indicate that US students trail behind many peers, particularly those from east Asia, in math and science. Traditional efforts to explain this finding have focused on identifying characteristics that might differentiate the United States from top-performing countries.…

  16. The Impact of Online or F2F Lecture Choice on Student Achievement and Engagement in a Large Lecture-Based Science Course: Closing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Cheryl A.; Stewart, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning options vary and universities are exploring an assortment of instructional combinations, some involving video lectures as a replacement for face-to-face (f2f) lectures. This methodological study investigates the impact of the provision of lecture choice (online or f2f) on overall student achievement and course engagement. This…

  17. Closing the health and nutrition gap in Odisha, India: A case study of how transforming the health system is achieving greater equity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Deborah; Sarangi, Biraj Laxmi; Garg, Anu; Ahuja, Arti; Meherda, Pramod; Karthikeyan, Sujata R; Joddar, Pinaki; Kar, Rajendra; Pattnaik, Jeetendra; Druvasula, Ramesh; Dembo Rath, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Health equity is high on the international agenda. This study provides evidence of how health systems can be strengthened to improve health equity in a low-income state. The paper presents a case study of how the Government of Odisha in eastern India is transforming the health system for more equitable health and nutrition outcomes. Odisha has a population of over 42 million, high levels of poverty, and poor maternal and child health concentrated in its Southern districts and among Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste communities. Conducted between 2008 and 2012 with the Departments of Health and Family Welfare, and Women and Child Development, the study reviewed a wide range of literature including policy and programme documents, evaluations and studies, published and grey material, and undertook secondary analysis of state level household surveys. It identifies innovative and expanded provision of health services, reforms to the management and development of human resources for health, and the introduction of a number of cash transfer and entitlement schemes as contributing to closing the gap between maternal and child health and nutrition outcomes of Scheduled Tribes, and the Southern districts, compared to the state average. The institutional delivery rate for Scheduled Tribes has risen from 11.7% in 2005-06 to 67.3% in 2011, and from 35.6% to 79.8% for all women. The social gradient has also closed for antenatal and postnatal care and immunisation. Nutrition indicators though improving are proving slower to budge. The paper identifies how political will, committed policy makers and fiscal space energised the health system to promote equity. Sustained political commitment will be required to continue to address the more challenging human resource, health financing and gender issues.

  18. Excellence Gaps: What They Are, Why They Are Bad, and How Smart Contexts Can Address Them … or Make Them Worse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Jacob; McWilliams, Jenna; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Every country--and even every community--has populations of students who severely underperform relative to other groups and to their own potential. These performance differences are generally called achievement gaps, and they tend to focus on gaps at basic levels of academic proficiency. But such gaps also exist among the highest levels of…

  19. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  20. The Gender Income Gap and the Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt-Zeher, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Education is thought to be the pathway to success for disadvantaged groups. Given that young women now match or surpass men's educational achievements on many measures, how do they fare in terms of equal earnings? Would further educational changes matter for closing any existing gap? Analyzing data from the National Educational Longitudinal…

  1. Broadband Helps Bridge the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Jamal

    2013-01-01

    In education, technology is giving new meaning to the phrase "equal opportunity." Teachers and students in schools across America--urban, rural, wealthy, and impoverished--are gaining access to online learning and all of its benefits through broadband technology. What is broadband? According to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), it is…

  2. Closing the Achievement Gap Means Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colgren, Chris; Sappington, Neil E.

    2015-01-01

    Educating students in public schools has never been at a higher priority. As this nation enters the informational-based economy public schools are going to be required to educate far more students at a higher and more rigorous level. Inspired by theories of educational equity, this study sought to explore the problem that not all students in…

  3. Close the Achievement Gap with Summer Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Summer vacation from school can bring afternoons at the swimming pool, family vacations, and maybe a spirit-filled summer camp that ignites a passion for art or rock climbing. But for many children, summer also means setbacks in learning that take a tremendous toll on teaching and student performance over time. PTA leaders can make a vital…

  4. Achievement Gaps Tied to Income Found Widening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2012-01-01

    The fractious debate over how much schools can counteract poverty's impact on children is far from settled, but a recently published collection of research strongly suggests that until policymakers and educators confront deepening economic and social disparities, poor children will increasingly miss out on finding a path to upward social mobility.…

  5. Closing the achievement gap through modification of neurocognitive and neuroendocrine function: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children's engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap.

  6. Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children’s engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap. PMID:25389751

  7. Gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Daniel A; Paul, David L

    2009-07-01

    Gap junctions are aggregates of intercellular channels that permit direct cell-cell transfer of ions and small molecules. Initially described as low-resistance ion pathways joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions are found joining virtually all cells in solid tissues. Their long evolutionary history has permitted adaptation of gap-junctional intercellular communication to a variety of functions, with multiple regulatory mechanisms. Gap-junctional channels are composed of hexamers of medium-sized families of integral proteins: connexins in chordates and innexins in precordates. The functions of gap junctions have been explored by studying mutations in flies, worms, and humans, and targeted gene disruption in mice. These studies have revealed a wide diversity of function in tissue and organ biology.

  8. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Daniel A.; Paul, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Gap junctions are aggregates of intercellular channels that permit direct cell–cell transfer of ions and small molecules. Initially described as low-resistance ion pathways joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions are found joining virtually all cells in solid tissues. Their long evolutionary history has permitted adaptation of gap-junctional intercellular communication to a variety of functions, with multiple regulatory mechanisms. Gap-junctional channels are composed of hexamers of medium-sized families of integral proteins: connexins in chordates and innexins in precordates. The functions of gap junctions have been explored by studying mutations in flies, worms, and humans, and targeted gene disruption in mice. These studies have revealed a wide diversity of function in tissue and organ biology. PMID:20066080

  9. Undecidability of the spectral gap.

    PubMed

    Cubitt, Toby S; Perez-Garcia, David; Wolf, Michael M

    2015-12-10

    The spectral gap--the energy difference between the ground state and first excited state of a system--is central to quantum many-body physics. Many challenging open problems, such as the Haldane conjecture, the question of the existence of gapped topological spin liquid phases, and the Yang-Mills gap conjecture, concern spectral gaps. These and other problems are particular cases of the general spectral gap problem: given the Hamiltonian of a quantum many-body system, is it gapped or gapless? Here we prove that this is an undecidable problem. Specifically, we construct families of quantum spin systems on a two-dimensional lattice with translationally invariant, nearest-neighbour interactions, for which the spectral gap problem is undecidable. This result extends to undecidability of other low-energy properties, such as the existence of algebraically decaying ground-state correlations. The proof combines Hamiltonian complexity techniques with aperiodic tilings, to construct a Hamiltonian whose ground state encodes the evolution of a quantum phase-estimation algorithm followed by a universal Turing machine. The spectral gap depends on the outcome of the corresponding 'halting problem'. Our result implies that there exists no algorithm to determine whether an arbitrary model is gapped or gapless, and that there exist models for which the presence or absence of a spectral gap is independent of the axioms of mathematics.

  10. Closing the Performance Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Cheryl G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the principal of a K-2, 400-student suburban elementary school near Flint, Michigan, worked with her staff and superintendent to develop and implement a strategic plan to close the student achievement gap. Reports significant improvement in reading and math scores after 1 year. (PKP)

  11. Confronting the Autonomy Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamowski, Steven; Petrilli, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    "The Autonomy Gap," a recent study by the American Institute for Research and the Thomas B. Fordham Institute, found that many public elementary school principals feel constrained by a bureaucracy that impedes their ability to raise student achievement. Unfortunately, those principals are still held accountable for their school's results--even…

  12. Purpose Plus: Supporting Youth Purpose, Control, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison

    2011-01-01

    Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic…

  13. Excellence Gaps in Education: Expanding Opportunities for Talented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Peters, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    In "Excellence Gaps in Education," Jonathan A. Plucker and Scott J. Peters shine a spotlight on "excellence gaps"--the achievement gaps among subgroups of students performing at the highest levels of achievement. Much of the focus of recent education reform has been on closing gaps in achievement between students from different…

  14. Post-Formalist Explanation of Academic Achievement: Exploring the Contribution of John Ogbu and Joe Kincheloe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    The present paper attempts to interrogate the existing approach to understand academic achievement in the mainstream educational psychology. The paper explores the persistent question of "why academic achievement gap" in the modern society from the cultural ecological and postformalist framework of John Ogbu and Joe Kincheloe…

  15. Closing the Mathematical Achievement Gap Through the Heart To the Brain: A Case Study of Urban High School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of How Their Emotional Intelligence Facilitates Instruction and Learning in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chung-Chieh

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine urban high school mathematics teachers' perceptions of how they manage their own and their students' emotional intelligence (EI) to facilitate instruction and learning; their reports of how they handle their emotions as urban mathematics teachers; and their reports of how they manage the emotions of their students. The study focused on the voices of sixteen urban mathematics teachers and was undertaken in reaction to the significant mathematics achievement gap between urban students and their suburban counterparts. The conceptual framework undergirding the study was synthesized work by Daniel Goleman, (1995) and Mayer and Salovey (1997); categorizing emotional intelligence in emotional selfawareness, managing emotions, harnessing emotions, empathy, and handling relationships. Research questions addressing each category were created and from these categories an interview guide was developed. Data gathered during individual teacher interviews was transcribed and sorted into emergent categories using open coding. The findings were organized and presented according to the study's research questions. Urban math teachers reported passion for their students, their feelings affect teaching and learning, and that humor is an important tool in mediating emotions. The study concludes with multiple recommendations for further research and practices. Future studies should compare teachers assuming paternal vs. mentor role when dealing with their students. The study can evaluate if either role has a significant impact in student teacher relationships. A recommendation for practice is for teachers to have professional development experiences focusing on the proper use of humor in the classroom. Humor used properly promotes a positive classroom environment. This is a skill that would be especially beneficial to urban teachers.

  16. The 7th Asia Cancer Forum: from the perspective of human security, how can we collaborate as Asians in order to place cancer on the global health agenda? How can we fill in the gaps that exist among us?

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Norie; Roh, Jae Kyung; Akaza, Hideyuki; Inoue, Hajime; Shibuya, Kenji; Iwasaki, Masaru; Tsuji, Tetsuo; Nishiyama, Masanori; Nakagawara, Akira; Watanabe, Kenji; Nozaki, Shinjiro; Inoue, Manami; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Miyake, Jun; Li, Fu

    2011-06-01

    This forum has continued to discuss the inclusion of cancer on the global health agenda, and specifically the Millennium Development Goals. The seventh forum presented an overview of activities to date, supplemented by reports from Korea, local governments in Japan and representatives from the pharmaceutical industry. Discussion focused on how to engage in measures to tackle cancer prevention and achieve early detection and effective treatment, using limited resources. It was recognized that with non-communicable diseases gaining increasing attention in international dialogue, it is now of the utmost importance to share an accurate recognition of cancer research and treatment throughout Asia and the wider world. Participants concurred that cancer issues are decoupled from the development aid agenda and that cooperation should be advanced on the basis of international cooperation without recourse to governmental development aid.

  17. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  18. Caring Closes the Language-Learning Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borba, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The gap in academic achievement between English speakers and English learners continues to concern educators, parents, and legislators. Rising expectations for literacy and the increasing number of students from diverse backgrounds contribute to this achievement gap. In this article, the author discusses a variety of strategies for reaching out to…

  19. Is there an optimal resting velopharyngeal gap in operated cleft palate patients?

    PubMed Central

    Yellinedi, Rajesh; Damalacheruvu, Mukunda Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Context: Videofluoroscopy in operated cleft palate patients. Aims: To determine the existence of an optimal resting velopharyngeal (VP) gap in operated cleft palate patients Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis of lateral view videofluoroscopy of operated cleft palate patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 117 cases of operated cleft palate underwent videofluoroscopy between 2006 and 2011. The lateral view of videofluoroscopy was utilised in the study. A retrospective analysis of the lateral view of videofluoroscopy of these 117 patients was performed to analyse the resting VP gap and its relationship to VP closure. Statistical analysis used: None. Results: Of the 117 cases, 35 had a resting gap of less than 6 mm, 34 had a resting gap between 6 and 10 mm and 48 patients had a resting gap of more than 10 mm. Conclusions: The conclusive finding was that almost all the patients with a resting gap of <6 mm (group C) achieved radiological closure of the velopharynx with speech; thus, they had the least chance of VP insufficiency (VPI). Those patients with a resting gap of >10 mm (group A) did not achieve VP closure on phonation, thus having full-blown VPI. Therefore, it can be concluded that the ideal resting VP gap is approximately 6 mm so as to get the maximal chance of VP closure and thus prevent VPI. PMID:23960311

  20. Immersion scenarios bridge the education-practice gap for new graduate registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Mowry, Marianne J; Crump, Mark D

    2013-07-01

    An education gap exists for new graduate registered nurses in mental health because of insufficient clinical experience. In an effort to bridge this gap, defined competencies and assessments provided the framework and direction for educational immersion scenarios with standardized patients. Kirkpatrick's (1995) model directed the evaluation of the learning achieved through the immersion scenarios. A qualitative evaluation provided themes of realism, safety, and opportunity. Formative and summative competencies were met effectively and efficiently. This educational method can be used to actively achieve competency and enhance the transition to clinical practice.

  1. The global drug gap.

    PubMed

    Reich, M R

    2000-03-17

    Global inequities in access to pharmaceutical products exist between rich and poor countries because of market and government failures as well as huge income differences. Multiple policies are required to address this global drug gap for three categories of pharmaceutical products: essential drugs, new drugs, and yet-to-be-developed drugs. Policies should combine "push" approaches of subsidies to support targeted drug development, "pull" approaches of financial incentives such as market guarantees, and "process" approaches aimed at improved institutional capacity. Constructive solutions are needed that can both protect the incentives for research and development and reduce the inequities of access.

  2. GAP Analysis Bulletin Number 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, Jill; Gergely, Kevin; Aycrigg, Jocelyn; Canonico, Gabrielle; Davidson, Anne; Coffey, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    The Mission of the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is to promote conservation by providing broad geographic information on biological diversity to resource managers, planners, and policy makers who can use the information to make informed decisions. As part of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) ?a collaborative program to provide increased access to data and information on the nation?s biological resources--GAP data and analytical tools have been used in hundreds of applications: from basic research to comprehensive state wildlife plans; from educational projects in schools to ecoregional assessments of biodiversity. The challenge: keeping common species common means protecting them BEFORE they become threatened. To do this on a state or regional basis requires key information such as land cover descriptions, predicted distribution maps for native animals, and an assessment of the level of protection currently given to those plants and animals. GAP works cooperatively with Federal, state, and local natural resource professionals and academics to provide this kind of information. GAP activities focus on the creation of state and regional databases and maps that depict patterns of land management, land cover, and biodiversity. These data can be used to identify ?gaps? in conservation--instances where an animal or plant community is not adequately represented on the existing network of conservation lands. GAP is administered through the U.S. Geological Survey. Through building partnerships among disparate groups, GAP hopes to foster the kind of collaboration that is needed to address conservation issues on a broad scale. For more information, contact: John Mosesso National GAP Director 703-648-4079 Kevin Gergely National GAP Operations Manager 208-885-3565

  3. Filling the gap of existing MWA-VCS archival data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, M.; Bhat, R.; Tremblay, S.; Ord, S.; Sobey, C.; Kirsten, F.

    2017-01-01

    Since July 2014, around 110 hours of high time resolution voltage data observed by MWA Voltage Capture System (VCS; Tremblay et al. 2015) have been archived on tapes in the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre. Except some short duration test data and calibration data, the total amount of the observation data which have a duration longer than 400 s is 84 hours. These data cover a significant portion of a lot of the Southern sky and could be used for many science purposes including radio pulsars census and fast radio bursts (FRBs) searching. But there are still some 'holes' in the sky that we do not have VCS archival data for yet. We are proposing a set of MWA-VCS drift scan observations of 3 hours to fill some of these 'holes' and help provide a more complete MWA-VCS data set. We will also census known (cataloged) pulsars in these areas. These observations would be performed between 170-200 MHz. This project will form part of the PhD program of Mengyao Xue.

  4. A Look in the Mirror: One School's Study of Race-Based Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Helping all students find academic success is a central tenet of independent schools. But at many independent schools, mounting anecdotal evidence indicates that a persistent achievement gap exists between white and Asian-American students and their Latino and African-American counterparts. In 2007, Rebecca Upham, head of school at Buckingham…

  5. The Impact of Instructional Methodology on the Reading Achievement of African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terri I.

    2012-01-01

    The academic achievement gap that exists between African American students and their Caucasian peers is a challenging national concern for which an absolute solution has been elusive. Specifically, the African American male over-represents failure in most academic categories. Policy makers and educators acknowledge that this represents a national…

  6. Trajectories of Achievement within Race/Ethnicity: "Catching Up" in Achievement across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Jager, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap has long been the focus of educational research, policy, and intervention. The authors took a new approach to examining the achievement gap by examining achievement trajectories within each racial group. To identify these trajectories they used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, which is a nationally…

  7. A Causal-Comparative Study: Determining the Diffference in Principals' Beliefs Regarding Order of Change for Closing Achievement Gaps High-Performing Schools as Compared to Low-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Student achievement is inconsistent when comparing subgroups of students in public schools (Finn, 1999; Spellings, 2008; Teale, Paciga, & Hoffman, 2007). According to research, effective school principals believe that the problem is internal and subject to their control to effect change by addressing inequities. The changes required in closing…

  8. A Better Way to Motivate Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Many low income, minority schools in California are within 100 points of closing the achievement gap, a prize worth working for no matter how inconvenient, uncomfortable, or risky. In this article, the author describes a better way to motivate educators to try new things that will accelerate student learning and close the achievement gap. The…

  9. Academic Socialization and the Transition to Elementary School: Parents' Conceptions of School Readiness, Practices, and Children's Academic Achievement Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puccioni, Jaime Lynn

    2012-01-01

    By the time children enter kindergarten, significant socioeconomic and racial gaps in academic achievement exist (Coley, 2002; Rouse, Brooks-Gunn, & Mclanahan, 2005). Kindergarten is considered to be a pivotal point of educational transition, as academic achievement upon kindergarten entry is associated with subsequent academic success…

  10. Public Perceptions of the Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Women have made gains toward closing the gender pay gap during the past two decades. Much of the progress occurred during the 1980s, with smaller gains in the 1990s (Institute for Women's Policy Research 2004). Women's achievements in higher education are partly responsible for narrowing the pay gap in the 1980s and 1990s. As more women earned…

  11. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  12. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  13. Achieving and Maintaining Existing Building Sustainability Certification at Georgetown University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payant, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is the promotion of high performance, healthful, energy-efficient, and environmentally stable buildings. Buildings intended for sustainable certification must meet guidelines developed by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) of the U.S. Green Building Council. The problem is that LEED certification often fails to…

  14. Small Multiples with Gaps.

    PubMed

    Meulemans, Wouter; Dykes, Jason; Slingsby, Aidan; Turkay, Cagatay; Wood, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Small multiples enable comparison by providing different views of a single data set in a dense and aligned manner. A common frame defines each view, which varies based upon values of a conditioning variable. An increasingly popular use of this technique is to project two-dimensional locations into a gridded space (e.g. grid maps), using the underlying distribution both as the conditioning variable and to determine the grid layout. Using whitespace in this layout has the potential to carry information, especially in a geographic context. Yet, the effects of doing so on the spatial properties of the original units are not understood. We explore the design space offered by such small multiples with gaps. We do so by constructing a comprehensive suite of metrics that capture properties of the layout used to arrange the small multiples for comparison (e.g. compactness and alignment) and the preservation of the original data (e.g. distance, topology and shape). We study these metrics in geographic data sets with varying properties and numbers of gaps. We use simulated annealing to optimize for each metric and measure the effects on the others. To explore these effects systematically, we take a new approach, developing a system to visualize this design space using a set of interactive matrices. We find that adding small amounts of whitespace to small multiple arrays improves some of the characteristics of 2D layouts, such as shape, distance and direction. This comes at the cost of other metrics, such as the retention of topology. Effects vary according to the input maps, with degree of variation in size of input regions found to be a factor. Optima exist for particular metrics in many cases, but at different amounts of whitespace for different maps. We suggest multiple metrics be used in optimized layouts, finding topology to be a primary factor in existing manually-crafted solutions, followed by a trade-off between shape and displacement. But the rich range of possible

  15. Experimental verification of the capillary plasma triggered long spark gap under the extremely low working coefficient in air

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, D.; Yang, L. J. Ma, J. B.; Liu, S.; Wang, W.; Ding, W. D.; Huo, P.; Li, G.; Yao, S. L.

    2016-01-15

    The paper has proposed a new triggering method for long spark gap based on capillary plasma ejection and conducted the experimental verification under the extremely low working coefficient, which represents that the ratio of the spark gap charging voltage to the breakdown voltage is particularly low. The quasi-neutral plasma is ejected from the capillary and develops through the axial direction of the spark gap. The electric field in the spark gap is thus changed and its breakdown is incurred. It is proved by the experiments that the capillary plasma ejection is effective in triggering the long spark gap under the extremely low working coefficient in air. The study also indicates that the breakdown probabilities, the breakdown delay, and the delay dispersion are all mainly determined by the characteristics of the ejected plasma, including the length of the plasma flow, the speed of the plasma ejection, and the ionization degree of the plasma. Moreover, the breakdown delay and the delay dispersion increase with the length of the long spark gap, and the polarity effect exists in the triggering process. Lastly, compared with the working patterns of the triggering device installed in the single electrode, the working pattern of the devices installed in both the two electrodes, though with the same breakdown process, achieves the ignition under longer gap distance. To be specific, at the gap length of 14 cm and the working coefficient of less than 2%, the spark gap is still ignited accurately.

  16. Two-dimensional topological insulators with large bulk energy gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. Q.; Jia, Jin-Feng; Qian, Dong

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs, or quantum spin Hall insulators) are special insulators that possess bulk 2D electronic energy gap and time-reversal symmetry protected one-dimensional (1D) edge state. Carriers in the edge state have the property of spin-momentum locking, enabling dissipation-free conduction along the 1D edge. The existence of 2D TIs was confirmed by experiments in semiconductor quantum wells. However, the 2D bulk gaps in those quantum wells are extremely small, greatly limiting potential application in future electronics and spintronics. Despite this limitation, 2D TIs with a large bulk gap attracted plenty of interest. In this paper, recent progress in searching for TIs with a large bulk gap is reviewed briefly. We start by introducing some theoretical predictions of these new materials and then discuss some recent important achievements in crystal growth and characterization. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. U1632272, 11574201, and 11521404). D. Q. acknowledges support from the Changjiang Scholars Program, China and the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar), China.

  17. The Effects of Pre-Collegiate Academic Outreach Programs on First-Year Financial Aid Attainment, Academic Achievement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Angela Alvarado

    2011-01-01

    National statistics continue to show substantial disparities in the postsecondary enrollment and completion rates between more and less advantaged groups. Despite gains made on the part of low-income, first generation, and minority students in the areas of access, persistence, and academic achievement, gaps still exist (Avery & Kane, 2004;…

  18. The Effects of Single-Gender Classrooms on the Mathematics Achievement of 9th Grade, African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    An achievement gap exists in mathematics between low-income African American male students and their European American counterparts. Although this problem has been approached using different interventions with minimal results, the impact of homogenous grouping is not well understood in spite of its use. As a result, this study was conducted to…

  19. The Impact of Higher Expectations in Math on the Perception of Achievement of High School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przybylinski, Vincent S., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    There exists a dearth of research on strategies that will help students with disabilities gain greater access to standards-based mathematics and close the mathematics achievement gap between general education students and students with disabilities (Browder et al., 2012; Jitendra, 2013; van Garderen, Scheuermann, Jackson, & Hampton, 2009).…

  20. Addressing the Gender Gap in Boys' Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welldon, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that boys have a tougher time that girls learning to read, and they score lower in reading achievement tests. The school literacy initiative was to help reduce the gender gap in reading and get boys in grades 4-6 excited about reading. To achieve this goal, the Cool Guys Reading Club, promoting reading as a cool activity, was born.…

  1. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  2. Teacher Dispositions and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Kathleen Adams

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to close the achievement gap between students of minority and majority populations and between students in higher and lower economic circumstances, the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) added instruction and evaluation of teacher dispositions to its requirements for credentialing prospective teachers.…

  3. Purpose plus: supporting youth purpose, control, and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison

    2011-01-01

    Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic achievement. Using a sample of 209 high school students, this study examines the effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote purpose development and internal control over academic success in high school students from a low-socioeconomic-status community. Findings reveal that a short-term intervention was effective in significantly increasing internal control over academic success and purpose in life for students participating in the intervention group. In addition, analysis of academic achievement for students who experienced positive gains in internal control and purpose demonstrates significant gains in academic achievement as measured by grade point average. Implications are made for further study of internal control and life purpose as a means of academic intervention in the effort to address the achievement gap.

  4. Acoustic Band Gap Formation in Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elford, D. P.; Chalmers, L.; Kusmartsev, F.; Swallowe, G. M.

    We present several new classes of metamaterials and/or locally resonant sonic crystal that are comprised of complex resonators. The proposed systems consist of multiple resonating inclusion that correspond to different excitation frequencies. This causes the formation of multiple overlapped resonance band gaps. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the individual band gaps achieved, span a far greater range (≈ 2kHz) than previously reported cases. The position and width of the band gap is independent of the crystal's lattice constant and forms in the low frequency regime significantly below the conventional Bragg band gap. The broad envelope of individual resonance band gaps is attractive for sound proofing applications and furthermore the devices can be tailored to attenuate lower or higher frequency ranges, i.e., from seismic to ultrasonic.

  5. Acoustic Band Gap Formation in Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elford, D. P.; Chalmers, L.; Kusmartsev, F.; Swallowe, G. M.

    2011-03-01

    We present several new classes of metamaterials and/or locally resonant sonic crystal that are comprised of complex resonators. The proposed systems consist of multiple resonating inclusion that correspond to different excitation frequencies. This causes the formation of multiple overlapped resonance band gaps. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the individual band gaps achieved, span a far greater range (≈ 2kHz) than previously reported cases. The position and width of the band gap is independent of the crystal's lattice constant and forms in the low frequency regime significantly below the conventional Bragg band gap. The broad envelope of individual resonance band gaps is attractive for sound proofing applications and furthermore the devices can be tailored to attenuate lower or higher frequency ranges, i.e., from seismic to ultrasonic.

  6. Gap-minimal systems of notations and the constructible hierarchy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucian, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    If a constructibly countable ordinal alpha is a gap ordinal, then the order type of the set of index ordinals smaller than alpha is exactly alpha. The gap ordinals are the only points of discontinuity of a certain ordinal-valued function. The notion of gap minimality for well ordered systems of notations is defined, and the existence of gap-minimal systems of notations of arbitrarily large constructibly countable length is established.

  7. Education "Reform" in Latino Detroit: Achievement Gap or Colonial Legacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Sandra M.; Shields, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Using critical theory and an analysis of missionary reports and documentation describing education in colonial Puerto Rico and Mexico, the authors cross borders and time periods to socially and historically situate Spanish colonial educational methodologies and their contemporary use in one low-income Latino community in urban Detroit, Michigan.…

  8. Why Is Preschool Essential in Closing the Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, Robert; Loucks, Sharon; Stelwagon, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Studies suggest that three and four-year old children who are exposed to preschool have a greater chance of academic success throughout their schooling. This article highlights a five-year case study of children of poverty who attended a structured preschool in Salinas, California. The longitudinal study exposed various components of a successful…

  9. Can Technology Narrow the Black-White Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beglau, Monica M.

    2005-01-01

    The author begins this article by relating the experiences of her fourth-grade students who had just completed an intensive four-week project that involved crafting arguments to convince their local school board to allow a field trip to the Missouri state capitol so they could explore their state's government in person and in depth. Just one year…

  10. Free School Choice and the Educational Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Welie, Liesbeth; Hartog, Joop; Cornelisz, Ilja

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, school choice is free and all schools are equally funded by the government. We measured distance from home to school as a proxy for the selectivity of choice and used characteristics of the nearest school to explain the choice of a school other than the nearest school. Almost 89% of all pupils in the 4 largest cities do not…

  11. The Achievement Gap between White and Non-White Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-LeBouef, Ana; Slate, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This Collection contains three seminal modules by Authors Ana Rojas-LeBouef and John R. Slate, professors and researchers from Sam Houston State University in Texas. They are nationally recognized scholars in the area of the academic inequity between White and Non-White students. This paper is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1--The…

  12. Failure to Launch: Confronting the Male College Student Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Lane A.; Van Wert, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    A few years ago, Mathew McConaughey and Sarah Jessica Parker generated big laughs and big box office sales in "Failure to Launch," an absurd comedy about a 26-year old man still living in his parents' basement, spending his days watching television and playing video games while the world passed him by. The film was closer to the truth…

  13. School Context and the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legewie, Joscha; DiPrete, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Today, boys generally underperform relative to girls in schools throughout the industrialized world. Building on theories about gender identity and reports from prior ethnographic classroom observations, we argue that school environment channels conceptions of masculinity in peer culture, fostering or inhibiting boys' development of anti-school…

  14. Closing the Achievement Gap: Urban Schools. CSR Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Kathleen; Soper, Stephanie

    This report reviews efforts to reform urban schools, focusing on initiatives in Tennessee and California as examples from which distric leaders may draw useful lessons. The report suggests that comprehensive school reform (CSR) offers promise to struggling urban schools by focusing on transforming the academic climate, school culture, and…

  15. Closing the Achievement Gap between Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The critical role of accountability on schools has intensified the need to understand the impact of intervention strategies and best practices on literacy. Of particular concern is the underachievement of boys and identifying the learning differences between boys and girls. Examined in this quantitative study were the strategies and practices…

  16. Superconducting gap structure of FeSe.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lin; Huang, Chien-Lung; Rößler, Sahana; Koz, Cevriye; Rößler, Ulrich K; Schwarz, Ulrich; Wirth, Steffen

    2017-03-07

    The microscopic mechanism governing the zero-resistance flow of current in some iron-based, high-temperature superconducting materials is not well understood up to now. A central issue concerning the investigation of these materials is their superconducting gap symmetry and structure. Here we present a combined study of low-temperature specific heat and scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements on single crystalline FeSe. The results reveal the existence of at least two superconducting gaps which can be represented by a phenomenological two-band model. The analysis of the specific heat suggests significant anisotropy in the gap magnitude with deep gap minima. The tunneling spectra display an overall "U"-shaped gap close to the Fermi level away as well as on top of twin boundaries. These results are compatible with the anisotropic nodeless models describing superconductivity in FeSe.

  17. Superconducting gap structure of FeSe

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Lin; Huang, Chien-Lung; Rößler, Sahana; Koz, Cevriye; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Schwarz, Ulrich; Wirth, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The microscopic mechanism governing the zero-resistance flow of current in some iron-based, high-temperature superconducting materials is not well understood up to now. A central issue concerning the investigation of these materials is their superconducting gap symmetry and structure. Here we present a combined study of low-temperature specific heat and scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements on single crystalline FeSe. The results reveal the existence of at least two superconducting gaps which can be represented by a phenomenological two-band model. The analysis of the specific heat suggests significant anisotropy in the gap magnitude with deep gap minima. The tunneling spectra display an overall “U”-shaped gap close to the Fermi level away as well as on top of twin boundaries. These results are compatible with the anisotropic nodeless models describing superconductivity in FeSe. PMID:28266654

  18. Superconducting gap structure of FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lin; Huang, Chien-Lung; Rößler, Sahana; Koz, Cevriye; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Schwarz, Ulrich; Wirth, Steffen

    2017-03-01

    The microscopic mechanism governing the zero-resistance flow of current in some iron-based, high-temperature superconducting materials is not well understood up to now. A central issue concerning the investigation of these materials is their superconducting gap symmetry and structure. Here we present a combined study of low-temperature specific heat and scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements on single crystalline FeSe. The results reveal the existence of at least two superconducting gaps which can be represented by a phenomenological two-band model. The analysis of the specific heat suggests significant anisotropy in the gap magnitude with deep gap minima. The tunneling spectra display an overall “U”-shaped gap close to the Fermi level away as well as on top of twin boundaries. These results are compatible with the anisotropic nodeless models describing superconductivity in FeSe.

  19. Hyperbolic metamaterial-based near-field thermophotovoltaic system for hundreds of nanometer vacuum gap.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seokmin; Lim, Mikyung; Lee, Seung S; Lee, Bong Jae

    2016-03-21

    Artificially designed hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) possesses extraordinary electromagnetic features different from those of naturally existing materials. In particular, the dispersion relation of waves existing inside the HMM is hyperbolic rather than elliptical; thus, waves that are evanescent in isotropic media become propagating in the HMM. This characteristic of HMMs opens a novel way to spectrally control the near-field thermal radiation in which evanescent waves in the vacuum gap play a critical role. In this paper, we theoretically investigate the performance of a near-field thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system in which a W/SiO2-multilayer-based HMM serves as the emitter at 1000 K and InAs works as the TPV cell at 300 K. By carefully designing the thickness of constituent materials of the HMM emitter, the electric power of the near-field TPV devices can be increased by about 6 times at 100-nm vacuum gap as compared to the case of the plain W emitter. Alternatively, in regards to the electric power generation, HMM emitter at experimentally achievable 100-nm vacuum gap performs equivalently to the plain W emitter at 18-nm vacuum gap. We show that the enhancement mechanism of the HMM emitter is due to the coupled surface plasmon modes at multiple metal-dielectric interfaces inside the HMM emitter. With the minority carrier transport model, the optimal p-n junction depth of the TPV cell has also been determined at various vacuum gaps.

  20. Columbia River Component Data Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2007-10-23

    This Data Gap Analysis report documents the results of a study conducted by Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) to compile and reivew the currently available surface water and sediment data for the Columbia River near and downstream of the Hanford Site. This Data Gap Analysis study was conducted to review the adequacy of the existing surface water and sediment data set from the Columbia River, with specific reference to the use of the data in future site characterization and screening level risk assessments.

  1. Closing the Pay Gap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    the pay gap has been narrowed, hut only to just under 10 percent. And current military compensation legislation does not close the gap until 2026. There...will continue to be a pay gap until 2026 unless the next administration and the next Congress provide more for pay above the 1999 legislated ramp- up...of .5 percent (one half of one percent) per year to attain pay equality . That means that soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines and Coast Guardsmen

  2. Greening Existing Tribal Buildings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance about improving sustainability in existing tribal casinos and manufactured homes. Many steps can be taken to make existing buildings greener and healthier. They may also reduce utility and medical costs.

  3. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Maria O.; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    % versus 6 %) within gaps. Both sites demonstrate limited gap contagiousness defined by an increase in the likelihood of mortality in the immediate vicinity (~6 m) of existing gaps. PMID:26168242

  4. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Maria O; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    %) within gaps. Both sites demonstrate limited gap contagiousness defined by an increase in the likelihood of mortality in the immediate vicinity (~6 m) of existing gaps.

  5. Robotic tele-existence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tachi, Susumu; Arai, Hirohiko; Maeda, Taro

    1989-01-01

    Tele-existence is an advanced type of teleoperation system that enables a human operator at the controls to perform remote manipulation tasks dexterously with the feeling that he or she exists in the remote anthropomorphic robot in the remote environment. The concept of a tele-existence is presented, the principle of the tele-existence display method is explained, some of the prototype systems are described, and its space application is discussed.

  6. Senseless Extravagance, Shocking Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Dodge, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Although most people in the United States believe, at least theoretically, in educational equality, fewer and fewer appear to care about the resource gaps between affluent and poor schools, says Weissbourd. He illustrates these gaps with vivid descriptions of what he calls an "opulence arms race" among affluent independent schools, but…

  7. Information Gap Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicekdag, Mehmet Ali

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on a real world technique used to teach language proficiency in the classroom. This method involves creating deliberate information and opinion gaps by administering pop quizzes and other communicative games and filling those gaps through cooperative action. Use of this technique generated heated discussion among students. (nine…

  8. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  9. The National "Expertise Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's report, "Diversity and the Ph.D.," released in May, which documents in troubling detail the exact dimensions of what the foundation's president, Dr. Robert Weisbuch, is calling the national "expertise gap." Weisbuch states that the expertise gap extends beyond the…

  10. The Parenting Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Richard V.; Howard, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    The parenting gap is a big factor in the opportunity gap. The chances of upward social mobility are lower for children with parents struggling to do a good job--in terms of creating a supportive and stimulating home environment. Children lucky enough to have strong parents are more likely to succeed at all the critical life stages, which means…

  11. A HOT GAP AROUND JUPITER'S ORBIT IN THE SOLAR NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, N. J.; Choukroun, M.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Bryden, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Sun was an order of magnitude more luminous during the first few hundred thousand years of its existence, due in part to the gravitational energy released by material accreting from the solar nebula. If Jupiter was already near its present mass, the planet's tides opened an optically thin gap in the nebula. Using Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that sunlight absorbed by the nebula and re-radiated into the gap raised temperatures well above the sublimation threshold for water ice, with potentially drastic consequences for the icy bodies in Jupiter's feeding zone. Bodies up to a meter in size were vaporized within a single orbit if the planet was near its present location during this early epoch. Dust particles lost their ice mantles, and planetesimals were partially to fully devolatilized, depending on their size. Scenarios in which Jupiter formed promptly, such as those involving a gravitational instability of the massive early nebula, must cope with the high temperatures. Enriching Jupiter in the noble gases through delivery trapped in clathrate hydrates will be more difficult, but might be achieved by either forming the planet much farther from the star or capturing planetesimals at later epochs. The hot gap resulting from an early origin for Jupiter also would affect the surface compositions of any primordial Trojan asteroids.

  12. MI Gap Clearing Kicker Magnet Design Review

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    The kicker system requirements were originally conceived for the NOvA project. NOvA is a neutrino experiment located in Minnesota. To achieve the desired neutrino flux several upgrades are required to the accelerator complex. The Recycler will be used as a proton pre-injector for the Main Injector (MI). As the Recycler is the same size as the MI, it is possible to do a single turn fill ({approx}11 {micro}sec), minimizing the proton injection time in the MI cycle and maximizing the protons on target. The Recycler can then be filled with beam while the MI is ramping to extract beam to the target. To do this requires two new transfer lines. The existing Recycler injection line was designed for 10{pi} pbar beams, not the 20{pi} proton beams we anticipate from the Booster. The existing Recycler extraction line allows for proton injection through the MI, while we want direct injection from the Booster. These two lines will be decommissioned. The new injection line from the MI8 line into the Recycler will start at 848 and end with injection kickers at RR104. The new extraction line in the RR30 straight section will start with a new extraction kicker at RR232 and end with new MI injection kickers at MI308. Finally, to reduce beam loss activation in the enclosure, a new gap clearing kicker will be used to extract uncaptured beam created during the slip stack injection process down the existing dump line. It was suggested that the MI could benefit from this type of system immediately. This led to the early installation of the gap clearing system in the MI, followed by moving the system to Recycler during NOvA. The specifications also changed during this process. Initially the rise and fall time requirements were 38 ns and the field stability was {+-}1%. The 38 ns is based on having a gap of 2 RF buckets between injections. (There are 84 RF buckets that can be filled from the Booster for each injection, but 82 would be filled with beam. MI and Recycler contain 588 RF buckets

  13. Closing the Gap: Early Childhood Education. The Achievement Gap: Early Childhood Education. Info Brief. Number 45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Anne

    2006-01-01

    In popular culture, the age of 40 is sometimes considered "over the hill." This is decidedly not the case for the Perry Preschoolers--a cohort of low-income, predominantly African American children who 37 years ago were randomly assigned to attend a high-quality preschool program. The latest findings from the well-known longitudinal study of this…

  14. Updated Starshade Technology Gap List

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crill, Brendan P.; Siegler, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) guides the development of technology that enables the direct imaging and characterization of exo-Earths in the habitable zone of their stars, for future space observatories. Here we present the Starshade portion of the 2017 ExEP Enabling Technology Gap List, an annual update to ExEP's list of of technology to be advanced in the next 1-5 years. A Starshade is an external occulter on an independent spacecraft, allowing a space telescope to achieve exo-Earth imaging contrast requirements by blocking starlight before it enters the telescope. Building and operating a Starshade requires new technology: the occulter is a structure tens of meters in diameter that must be positioned precisely at a distance of tens of thousands of kilometers from the telescope. We review the current state-of-the-art performance and the performance level that must be achieved for a Starshade.

  15. SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Neal, R.B.

    1957-12-17

    An improved triggered spark gap switch is described, capable of precisely controllable firing time while switching very large amounts of power. The invention in general comprises three electrodes adjustably spaced and adapted to have a large potential impressed between the outer electrodes. The central electrode includes two separate elements electrically connected togetaer and spaced apart to define a pair of spark gaps between the end electrodes. Means are provided to cause the gas flow in the switch to pass towards the central electrode, through a passage in each separate element, and out an exit disposed between the two separate central electrode elements in order to withdraw ions from the spark gap.

  16. The treatment gap in mental health care.

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Robert; Saxena, Shekhar; Levav, Itzhak; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2004-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent and cause considerable suffering and disease burden. To compound this public health problem, many individuals with psychiatric disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. We examine the extent of this treatment gap. We reviewed community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and alcohol abuse or dependence. The median rates of untreated cases of these disorders were calculated across the studies. Examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are also presented. Thirty-seven studies had information on service utilization. The median treatment gap for schizophrenia, including other non-affective psychosis, was 32.2%. For other disorders the gap was: depression, 56.3%; dysthymia, 56.0%; bipolar disorder, 50.2%; panic disorder, 55.9%; GAD, 57.5%; and OCD, 57.3%. Alcohol abuse and dependence had the widest treatment gap at 78.1%. The treatment gap for mental disorders is universally large, though it varies across regions. It is likely that the gap reported here is an underestimate due to the unavailability of community-based data from developing countries where services are scarcer. To address this major public health challenge, WHO has adopted in 2002 a global action programme that has been endorsed by the Member States. PMID:15640922

  17. Confined PBX 9501 gap reinitiation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Salyer, Terry R; Hill, Larry G; Lam, Kin

    2009-01-01

    For explosive systems that exhibit gaps or cracks between their internal components (either by design or mechanical failure), measurable time delays exist for detonation waves crossing them. Reinitiation across such gaps is dependent on the type of explosive, gap width, gap morphology, confinement, and temperature effects. To examine this reinitiation effect, a series of tests has been conducted to measure the time delay across a prescribed gap within an 'infinitely' confined PBX 9501 system. Detonation breakout along the explosive surface is measured with a streak camera, and flow features are examined during reinitiation near the gap. Such tests allow for quantitative determination of the time delay corresponding to the time of initiation across a given gap oriented normal to the direction of the detonation wave. Measured time delays can be compared with numerical calculations, making it possible to validate initiation models as well as estimate detonation run-up distances. Understanding this reinitiation behavior is beneficial for the design and evaluation of explosive systems that require precision timing and performance.

  18. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication for parents and community leaders from the Office of Communications and Outreach, U.S. Department of Education. This issue contains the following articles: (1) President Seeks to Build on Law's Results; (2) Bridging the Gap: Ohio Charter School Surmounts Age, Achievement Barriers; (3) Spellings'…

  19. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood

    2015-01-01

    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  20. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  1. Fiber optic gap gauge

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Billy E.; Groves, Scott E.; Larsen, Greg J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.

    2006-11-14

    A lightweight, small size, high sensitivity gauge for indirectly measuring displacement or absolute gap width by measuring axial strain in an orthogonal direction to the displacement/gap width. The gap gauge includes a preferably titanium base having a central tension bar with springs connecting opposite ends of the tension bar to a pair of end connector bars, and an elongated bow spring connected to the end connector bars with a middle section bowed away from the base to define a gap. The bow spring is capable of producing an axial strain in the base proportional to a displacement of the middle section in a direction orthogonal to the base. And a strain sensor, such as a Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensor, is connected to measure the axial strain in the base, so that the displacement of the middle section may be indirectly determined from the measurement of the axial strain in the base.

  2. Book Probes Scoring Gaps Tied to Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A recent book assembles a collection of studies on one of the great mysteries of contemporary American education: Why did national progress in narrowing the achievement gap separating African-American and white students stall from the late 1980s until 2004? "Steady Gains and Stalled Progress," published by the Russell Sage Foundation of New York…

  3. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes. National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A.

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified by researchers from four national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes.

  4. Quantifying the Gender Gap in Science Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 5,000 self-generated science-related K-12 students' questions, classified into seven science subjects, were used to quantitatively measure the gender gap in science interests and its change with age. In this data set, a difference between boys' and girls' science interests did not exist during early childhood, but increased over 20-fold by…

  5. 28 CFR 42.521 - Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services to accessible buildings, assignment of aids to beneficiaries, delivery of services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of existing facilities, or any other method that results in making its program... in existing facilities where other methods are effective in achieving compliance with paragraph...

  6. Hand hygiene compliance: is there a theory-practice-ethics gap?

    PubMed

    Mortell, Manfred

    Practice is usually based on tradition, rituals and outdated information; there is often an additional gap between theoretical knowledge and its application in practice. This theory-practice gap has long existed (Allmark, 1995; Hewison et al, 1996). It often arises when theory is ignored because it is seen as idealistic and impractical, even if it is practical and beneficial. Most research relating to the lack of integration between theory and practice has concluded that environmental factors are responsible and will affect learning and practice outcomes. The author believes an additional dimension of ethics is required to bridge the gap between theory and practice. This would be a moral obligation to ensure theory and practice are integrated. To implement new practices effectively, healthcare practitioners must deem these practices worthwhile and relevant to their role. This introduces a new concept that the author calls the theory-practice-ethics gap. This theory-practice-ethics gap must be considered when examining some of the unacceptable outcomes in healthcare practice (Mortell, 2009). The literature suggests that there is a crisis of ethics where theory and practice integrate, and practitioners are failing to fulfil their duty as providers of healthcare and as patient advocates. This article examines the theory-practice-ethics gap when applied to hand hygiene. Non-compliance exists in hand hygiene among practitioners, which may increase patient mortality and morbidity rates, and raise healthcare costs. Infection prevention and control programmes to improve hand hygiene among staff include: ongoing education and training; easy access to facilities such as wash basins; antiseptic/alcohol handgels that are convenient, effective, and skin- and user-friendly; and organisational recognition and support for clinicians in hand washing and handgel practices. Yet these all appear to have failed to achieve the required and desired compliance in hand hygiene.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gap Flow

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xu; Haiming, Huang; Guo, Huang; Song, Mo

    2015-01-01

    Various gaps in the surface of the supersonic aircraft have a significant effect on airflows. In order to predict the effects of attack angle, Mach number and width-to-depth ratio of gap on the local aerodynamic heating environment of supersonic flow, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method, where convective flux of space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of time term is achieved by 5-step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The numerical results reveal that the heat flux ratio is U-shaped distribution on the gap wall and maximum at the windward corner of the gap. The heat flux ratio decreases as the gap depth and Mach number increase, however, it increases as the attack angle increases. In addition, it is important to find that chamfer in the windward corner can effectively reduce gap effect coefficient. The study will be helpful for the design of the thermal protection system in reentry vehicles. PMID:25635395

  8. Exposing Gaps in/between Discourses of Linguistic Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric J.; Avineri, Netta; Johnson, David Cassels

    2017-01-01

    Hart and Risley's (1995) concept of a "word gap" (aka "language gap") is widely used to describe inferior cognitive development and lower academic achievement as by-products of the language patterns of families from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. In recent decades, this line of deficit research has proliferated and…

  9. Precision gap particle separator

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Miles, Robin; Jones, II., Leslie M.; Stockton, Cheryl

    2004-06-08

    A system for separating particles entrained in a fluid includes a base with a first channel and a second channel. A precision gap connects the first channel and the second channel. The precision gap is of a size that allows small particles to pass from the first channel into the second channel and prevents large particles from the first channel into the second channel. A cover is positioned over the base unit, the first channel, the precision gap, and the second channel. An port directs the fluid containing the entrained particles into the first channel. An output port directs the large particles out of the first channel. A port connected to the second channel directs the small particles out of the second channel.

  10. MULTIPLE SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Schofield, A.E.

    1958-07-22

    A multiple spark gap switch of unique construction is described which will permit controlled, simultaneous discharge of several capacitors into a load. The switch construction includes a disc electrode with a plurality of protuberances of generally convex shape on one surface. A firing electrode is insulatingly supponted In each of the electrode protuberances and extends substantially to the apex thereof. Individual electrodes are disposed on an insulating plate parallel with the disc electrode to form a number of spark gaps with the protuberances. These electrodes are each connected to a separate charged capacitor and when a voltage ls applied simultaneously between the trigger electrodes and the dlsc electrode, each spark gap fires to connect its capacitor to the disc electrode and a subsequent load.

  11. Does Unconscious Racism Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quillian, Lincoln

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues for the existence of a form of unconscious racism. Research on implicit prejudice provides good evidence that most persons have deeply held negative associations with minority groups that can lead to subtle discrimination without conscious awareness. The evidence for implicit attitudes is briefly reviewed. Criticisms of the…

  12. Relativity, Dimensionality, and Existence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, Vesselin

    A 100 years have passed since the advent of special relativity and 2008 will mark another important to all relativists anniversary - 100 years since Minkowski gave his talk "Space and Time" on September 21, 1908 in which he proposed the unifi- cation of space and time into an inseparable entity - space-time. Although special relativity has been an enormously successful physical theory no progress has been made in clarifying the question of existence of the objects represented by two of its basic concepts - space-time and world lines (or worldtubes in the case of extended bodies). The major reason for this failure appears to be the physicists' tradition to call such questions of existence philosophical. This tradition, however, is not quite consistent. In Newtonian mechanics physicists believe that they describe real objects whenever they talk about particles - one of the basic concepts of Newtonian physics. The situation is the same in quantum physics - no one questions the existence of electrons, protons, etc. Then why should the question of existence of worldtubes (representing particles in relativity) be regarded as a philosophical question?

  13. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes: National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, researchers from four of the national laboratories involved in residential research (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) were asked to prepare papers focusing on the key longer term research challenges, market barriers, and technology gaps that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes. This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified in the national laboratory white papers.

  14. After-school enrichment and the activity theory: How can a management service organization assist schools with reducing the achievement gap among minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Reagan D.

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how a management service organization can assist schools with reducing the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours. Developing a strategic plan through creating a program that provides support services for the implementation of hands-on activities in STEM for children during the after-school hours was central to this purpose. This Project Demonstrating Excellence (PDE), a social action project, also presents historical and current after-school program developments in the nation. The study is quantitative and qualitative in nature. Surveys were utilized to quantitatively capture the opinions of participants in the social action project on three specific education related issues: (1) disparity in academic motivation of students to participate in after-school STEM enrichment programs; (2) whether teachers and school administrators saw a need for STEM after-school enrichment; and (3) developing STEM after-school programs that were centered on problem-solving and higher-order thinking skills to develop students' interest in STEM careers. The sample consisted of 50 participants comprised of students, teachers, and administrators. The focus groups and interviews provided the qualitative data for the study. The qualitative sample consisted of 14 participants comprised of students, parents and teachers, administrators, an education consultant, and a corporate sponsor. The empirical data obtained from the study survey, focus groups, and interviews provided a comprehensive profile on the current views and future expectations of STEM after-school enrichment, student and school needs, and community partnerships with STEM companies. Results of the study and review of the implementation of the social action project, C-STEM (communication, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Teacher and Student Support

  15. Analysis of photonic band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals with rods covered by a thin interfacial layer

    SciTech Connect

    Trifonov, T.; Marsal, L.F.; Pallares, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Alcubilla, R.

    2004-11-15

    We investigate different aspects of the absolute photonic band gap (PBG) formation in two-dimensional photonic structures consisting of rods covered with a thin dielectric film. Specifically, triangular and honeycomb lattices in both complementary arrangements, i.e., air rods drilled in silicon matrix and silicon rods in air, are studied. We consider that the rods are formed of a dielectric core (silicon or air) surrounded by a cladding layer of silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), or germanium (Ge). Such photonic lattices present absolute photonic band gaps, and we study the evolution of these gaps as functions of the cladding material and thickness. Our results show that in the case of air rods in dielectric media the existence of dielectric cladding reduces the absolute gap width and may cause complete closure of the gap if thick layers are considered. For the case of dielectric rods in air, however, the existence of a cladding layer can be advantageous and larger absolute PBG's can be achieved.

  16. The Aspiration-Attainment Gap: Black Students and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample from two waves of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS), this research examines the aspiration-attainment gap that exists for Black students (N = 823). This gap is a measure of the difference between the educational level students said they aspired to reach reported in 1988 when attending 8th…

  17. Improving Student Learning: Examining the Teacher Knowing-Doing Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunnally, Gary S.

    2012-01-01

    Research literature is full of research-based instructional strategies that highly effective teachers utilize on a consistent and systematic basis. And, it is well known that in multiple fields there exists a gap between what people know and what they actually do, commonly referred to as the knowing-doing gap. This study sought to examine whether…

  18. Why "Gender" Disappeared from the Gender Gap: (Re-)Introducing Gender Identity Theory to Educational Gender Gap Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…

  19. Rho GAPs and GEFs

    PubMed Central

    van Buul, Jaap D; Geerts, Dirk; Huveneers, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Within blood vessels, endothelial cell–cell and cell–matrix adhesions are crucial to preserve barrier function, and these adhesions are tightly controlled during vascular development, angiogenesis, and transendothelial migration of inflammatory cells. Endothelial cellular signaling that occurs via the family of Rho GTPases coordinates these cell adhesion structures through cytoskeletal remodelling. In turn, Rho GTPases are regulated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). To understand how endothelial cells initiate changes in the activity of Rho GTPases, and thereby regulate cell adhesion, we will discuss the role of Rho GAPs and GEFs in vascular biology. Many potentially important Rho regulators have not been studied in detail in endothelial cells. We therefore will first overview which GAPs and GEFs are highly expressed in endothelium, based on comparative gene expression analysis of human endothelial cells compared with other tissue cell types. Subsequently, we discuss the relevance of Rho GAPs and GEFs for endothelial cell adhesion in vascular homeostasis and disease. PMID:24622613

  20. STEMMING the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Jim; Valentine, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    America has a gap when it comes to youth pursuing science and technology careers. In an effort to improve the knowledge and application of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), after-school programs can work in conjunction with formal in-school curriculum to improve science education. One organization that actively addresses this…

  1. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  2. Structuring the Information Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Julian

    1984-01-01

    Describes an information gap procedure to teach a new structure which requires students to look for and exchange information in order to complete a task in an English as a second language class. Illustrates the method with a set of materials and suggests ways for teachers to produce similar materials. (SED)

  3. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  4. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  5. California: Emigrant Gap

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of the Central Valley and the Sierra Nevada Mountains show several smoke plumes from wildfires ... from the Emigrant Gap Fire, located about 40 kilometers west of Lake Tahoe. The animated panorama uses different MISR cameras to enable ...

  6. Bridging a Communication Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Ethel

    1972-01-01

    Description of a community program in cooperation with a regional extension service. The goals were to explore the generation gap, and conflict in life values, understand family role, increase self awareness, improve adult-youth communication, and understand the individual and his relationship to basic social principles. (Author/JB)

  7. Bridging the Development Gap.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    Bridging the Development Gap is contractual cooperative agreement between Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. and DARPA. This program was developed...processing, interfacing with I/O devices, memory constraints, as well as real-time throughput and latency challenges. Mercury has bridged the indicated

  8. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality.

  9. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2013-10-15

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  10. Small Boat and Swarm Defense: A Gap Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    for mounting an effective defense is often very short. This thesis shows that a gap in capability exists in the surface force to defend itself...timeline for mounting an effective defense is often very short. This thesis shows that a gap in capability exists in the surface force to defend...identification of and defense against hostile small craft extremely difficult. Even after a craft is designated hostile the timeline for mounting an

  11. Schools in Violent Neighborhoods: The Impact on African American Elementary School Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The academic achievement gap between African American and Caucasian students continues to be a major concern for policymakers and educators. This gap started to shrink in the 1970s and 1980s with integration, but the 1990s showed the achievement gap was on the rise again. The characteristics of the neighborhoods where children live and attend…

  12. Sub-wavelength plasmonic modes in a conductor-gap-dielectric system with a nanoscale gap.

    PubMed

    Avrutsky, Ivan; Soref, Richard; Buchwald, Walter

    2010-01-04

    We study guided modes in a conductor-gap-dielectric (CGD) system that includes a low-index dielectric gap layer of deep sub-wavelength thickness sandwiched between a conductor and a high-index dielectric cladding. Analysis of the dispersion equation for CGD modes provides an analytical estimation for the cut-off thickness of the gap layer. This guided mode is unusual because it exists when the gap thickness is less than the cutoff thickness. In the direction normal to the interfaces, the modal electric field is tightly confined within the gap. Sub-wavelength lateral mode confinement is readily provided by a spatial variation of the gap-layer thickness: the modal field localizes at the narrowest gap. Various lateral confinement schemes are proposed and verified by numerical simulations. Possible applications of CGD modes include surface-plasmon nano-lasers (SPASERs) and sensors. If these plasmonic waveguides are scaled for operation at far infrared rather than telecomm wavelengths, then the propagation losses are dramatically reduced, thereby enabling the construction of practical chip-scale plasmonic integrated circuits or PLICs.

  13. Evaluation of Existing Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    EVALUATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES Final Report 6 PERFORMING ORG . REPORT NUMBER 7 AUTHOR(s) 8 CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERls) C. K. Wiehie IDAHC20-71-C-0292 9...43,F:9J 4).IC A-44) S ’t 1001 iC 310140’ Cl144 PcC.0 4,:,(F <R49,10.- 1.y 10. . . U .A 30G150 4 -L4T-’P-.T’Ii𔃻J 4’ IARA (4.PS4*IC).P4)FC 30R100: RFAL R

  14. Existence of hyperbolic calorons

    PubMed Central

    Sibner, Lesley; Sibner, Robert; Yang, Yisong

    2015-01-01

    Recent work of Harland shows that the SO(3)-symmetric, dimensionally reduced, charge-N self-dual Yang–Mills calorons on the hyperbolic space H3×S1 may be obtained through constructing N-vortex solutions of an Abelian Higgs model as in the study of Witten on multiple instantons. In this paper, we establish the existence of such minimal action charge-N calorons by constructing arbitrarily prescribed N-vortex solutions of the Witten type equations. PMID:27547084

  15. Gap and out-gap solitons in modulated systems of finite length: exact solutions in the slowly varying envelope limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, M.; Kirr, K.; Kovalev, A. S.; Kroon, L.

    2011-06-01

    We discuss nonlinear excitations in finite-size one-dimensional modulated systems. Considering a binary modulated discrete nonlinear Schrödinger chain of large but finite length with periodic boundary conditions, we obtain exact elliptic-function solutions corresponding to stationary excitations in the slowly varying envelope limit. From these solutions, we analyze how the transformation between (localized) gap and (delocalized) out-gap solitons manifests itself in a system of finite length. The analogue of a localized gap soliton appears through a bifurcation at a critical point, so that gap soliton analogues exist only for chains longer than a critical value, which scales inversely proportional to the modulation depth. The total norm of these gap-out-gap states is found to be a monotonic function of the frequency, always inside a 'nonlinear gap' with edges defined by the main nonlinear modes which approach the linear spectrum gap boundaries in the small-amplitude limit. The transformation from a gap to an out-gap state is associated with a particular frequency, close to the lower boundary of the linear gap; at this point the elliptic functions become trigonometric, corresponding to a finite-size analogue of an algebraic soliton. We compare the scenario with earlier results obtained numerically for purely discrete chains with few degrees of freedom.

  16. A look back at achieving ISO 14001 certification

    SciTech Connect

    Heyob, K.; Heigel, G.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996, Honda of America Mfg., Inc. (Honda) set a goal of achieving ISO 14001 certification for all major US manufacturing plants by the end of 1998. This paper is a reality-based look at what implementation of ISO 14001 really entailed and, after implementation, the benefits and problems that Honda has experienced. Honda will describe the implementation experience from start to finish, including development of the implementation strategy, problems encountered along the way, implementation tips learned during the process, and what would be done differently the second time. Honda initially developed an implementation plan, estimated resource requirements and assigned plant-wide implementation teams. A core team of project leaders was trained to lead the implementation and general training was provided for all project team members. Honda evaluated the gaps between Honda's existing TQM-based environmental management systems and the requirements of ISO 14001 and developed a strategy to fill the gaps using TQM principles. The paper will describe how Honda addressed each element of the ISO 14001 standard and integrated them within existing business and environmental management practices. The paper will also look-back at the implementation process and identify problems that Honda experienced and what could be done differently to save time and resources. Finally, Honda will describe any problems encountered with maintaining the ISO 14001 certified environmental management system and the benefits that have come from certification.

  17. Gender Gap or Program Gap? Students' Negotiations of Study Practice in a Course in Electromagnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Staffan; Johansson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This study of achievement differences, as reflected by course grades, on a third-semester electromagnetism course at a Swedish research university was motivated by instructor concerns about gender inequalities. Quantitative analysis showed a gender gap in course grades between female and male students for the period of fall 2007 to spring 2013.…

  18. Minding the Gap

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Millicent Anne

    2015-02-23

    Neutron & X-ray scattering provides nano- to meso-scale details of complex fluid structure; 1D electronic density maps dervied from SAXS yield molecular level insights; Neutron reflectivity provides substructure details of substrate supported complex fluids; Complex fluids composition can be optimized to support a wide variety of both soluble and membrane proteins; The water gap dimensions can be finely tuned through polymer component.

  19. Variable Gap Conjugated Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    conducting gold interfacial layer interjected between the ITO glass electrode and the PEDOT/PSS hole transport layer . A family of low band gap, and near IR...which can be used as both electrochromics and as the hole transport layers in light emitting diodes. Hybrid electrochromic and electroluminescent (EC...MEH-PPV, P3HT, etc.) in order to blanket the solar spectrum. Initial device results on these multi-component blends are promising. In addition, we

  20. Does 'mental kinesiophobia' exist?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anton J M

    2003-10-01

    In this study the relevance of the concept of mental kinesiophobia (respectively cogniphobia or fear of mental exertion) for clients with chronic stress problems was explored. It was hypothesized that cognitive, chronic stress complaints, such as concentration problems or decreased problem solving abilities, could be catastrophized as signs of heightened personal vulnerability, with a chance of becoming permanent. As a consequence, mental exertion is avoided. This line of reasoning comes from the existing concept of kinesiophobia. This concept describes the avoidance behavior in chronic benign pain patients and refers to their fear of inflicting irreversible bodily damage due to physical exertion.An illustrative case of cogniphobia is presented. In an explorative pilot-study it was demonstrated that chronically stressed clients scored significantly higher on an experimental questionnaire measuring avoidance tendencies for mental exertion, compared with actively working employees. Consequences for treatment and suggestions for further study are discussed.

  1. Symbiotic two-component gap solitons.

    PubMed

    Roeksabutr, Athikom; Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai; Malomed, Boris A

    2012-10-22

    We consider a two-component one-dimensional model of gap solitons (GSs), which is based on two nonlinear Schrödinger equations, coupled by repulsive XPM (cross-phase-modulation) terms, in the absence of the SPM (self-phase-modulation) nonlinearity. The equations include a periodic potential acting on both components, thus giving rise to GSs of the "symbiotic" type, which exist solely due to the repulsive interaction between the two components. The model may be implemented for "holographic solitons" in optics, and in binary bosonic or fermionic gases trapped in the optical lattice. Fundamental symbiotic GSs are constructed, and their stability is investigated, in the first two finite bandgaps of the underlying spectrum. Symmetric solitons are destabilized, including their entire family in the second bandgap, by symmetry-breaking perturbations above a critical value of the total power. Asymmetric solitons of intra-gap and inter-gap types are studied too, with the propagation constants of the two components falling into the same or different bandgaps, respectively. The increase of the asymmetry between the components leads to shrinkage of the stability areas of the GSs. Inter-gap GSs are stable only in a strongly asymmetric form, in which the first-bandgap component is a dominating one. Intra-gap solitons are unstable in the second bandgap. Unstable two-component GSs are transformed into persistent breathers. In addition to systematic numerical considerations, analytical results are obtained by means of an extended ("tailed") Thomas-Fermi approximation (TFA).

  2. Trunnion Collar Removal Machine - Gap Analysis Table

    SciTech Connect

    M. Johnson

    2005-06-27

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing the trunnion collar removal machine against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards can not fully meet these requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Trunnion Collar Removal Machine Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 15]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements for the trunnion collar removal machine are provided in the gap analysis table (Appendix A, Table 1). Because the trunnion collar removal machine is credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the trunnion collar removal machine performs required safety functions and meets performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis tables supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed.

  3. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  4. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  5. A gap analysis and comprehensive conservation strategy for riverine ecosystems of Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sowa, Scott P.; Annis, Gust; Morey, Michael E.; Diamond, David D.

    2007-01-01

    North America harbors an astounding proportion of the world's freshwater species, but it is facing a freshwater biodiversity crisis. A first step to slowing the loss of biodiversity involves identifying gaps in existing efforts to conserve biodiversity and prioritizing opportunities to fill these gaps. In this monograph we detail two separate, but complementary, conservation planning efforts - a Gap Analysis (GAP) and a State Wildlife Action Plan (WAP) - for Missouri that address this first step. The goal of the Missouri Aquatic GAP Project was to identify riverine ecosystems, habitats, and species not adequately represented (i.e., gaps) within existing conservation lands. The goal of the freshwater component of the Missouri Wildlife Action Plan was to identify and map a set of conservation-opportunity areas (COAs) that holistically represent all riverine ecosystems, habitats, and species in Missouri. Since conservation planning is a geographical exercise, both efforts utilized geographic information systems (GIS). Four principal GIS data sets were used in each planning effort: (1) a hierarchical riverine ecosystem classification, (2) predicted species distributions, (3) public ownership/stewardship, and (4) a human-threat index. Results of the gap analyses are not encouraging. Forty five, mostly rare, threatened, or endangered, species are not represented in lands set aside for conserving biodiversity. Results also illustrate the fragmented nature of conservation lands, which are mainly situated in the uplands and fail to provide connectivity among riverine habitats. Furthermore, many conservation lands are severely threatened by an array of human disturbances. In contrast, results of the WAP provide hope that relatively intact riverine ecosystems still exist. A total of 158 COAs, representing ∼6% of the total kilometers of stream in Missouri, were selected for the WAP. This illustrates that a wide spectrum of biodiversity can be represented within a small

  6. A unified framework for spiking and gap-junction interactions in distributed neuronal network simulations

    PubMed Central

    Hahne, Jan; Helias, Moritz; Kunkel, Susanne; Igarashi, Jun; Bolten, Matthias; Frommer, Andreas; Diesmann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary simulators for networks of point and few-compartment model neurons come with a plethora of ready-to-use neuron and synapse models and support complex network topologies. Recent technological advancements have broadened the spectrum of application further to the efficient simulation of brain-scale networks on supercomputers. In distributed network simulations the amount of spike data that accrues per millisecond and process is typically low, such that a common optimization strategy is to communicate spikes at relatively long intervals, where the upper limit is given by the shortest synaptic transmission delay in the network. This approach is well-suited for simulations that employ only chemical synapses but it has so far impeded the incorporation of gap-junction models, which require instantaneous neuronal interactions. Here, we present a numerical algorithm based on a waveform-relaxation technique which allows for network simulations with gap junctions in a way that is compatible with the delayed communication strategy. Using a reference implementation in the NEST simulator, we demonstrate that the algorithm and the required data structures can be smoothly integrated with existing code such that they complement the infrastructure for spiking connections. To show that the unified framework for gap-junction and spiking interactions achieves high performance and delivers high accuracy in the presence of gap junctions, we present benchmarks for workstations, clusters, and supercomputers. Finally, we discuss limitations of the novel technology. PMID:26441628

  7. Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood.

    PubMed

    Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base.

  8. Unseen WEIRD Assumptions: The So-Called Language Gap Discourse and Ideologies of Language, Childhood, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Susan D.

    2017-01-01

    Claiming to rely on "science," many well-intentioned "experts" offer advice on how to "close the gap"--word gap, language gap, achievement gap--between disadvantaged and advantaged children. Based on both research and personal experience, this advice promises magic solutions to apparently complex and intractable…

  9. Factors Implicated in High Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Hill, Janelle C.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (2009) mathematical literacy results provide evidence that in Western English-speaking countries, including Australia, the gender gap in achievement appears to be widening in favour of males. In the study reported in this article, the aim was to explore the effects of gender,…

  10. Educational Opportunity Is Achievable and Affordable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.; Wolff, Jessica R.

    2012-01-01

    Raising academic standards while eliminating achievement gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged students are among America's primary national educational goals. According to a growing body of research, America will attain its goals of equity and preparing students to function effectively as citizens and productive workers only through a…

  11. Academic Achievement, Technology and Race: Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairlie, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Although a large literature explores the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students, very little is known about whether disparities in access to technology are partly responsible. Data from the first-ever field experiment involving the random provision of free computers to low-income community college students for home use are used…

  12. Gender and Student Achievement in English Schools. CEE DP 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    In the UK, there is a marked gender gap in the educational attainment of boys and girls. At the end of compulsory education, 10 per cent fewer boys achieve 5 or more good GCSEs. This gap is by no means confined to GCSE. It is evident at all Key Stages. Furthermore, some indicators suggest that the gap has widened over time. In this paper, we…

  13. The role of intelligent online interfaces to bridge the communication gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickery, A.

    1991-02-01

    A great deal of technical and professional communication today, is mediated through documents, or even more indirectly, through computer systems. Communication gaps between man and system are just as real and important as any other, and it is this kind of gap that is considered. The difficulties are listed which arise in accessing computer-based information: (1) the language barriers such as databases in different national languages, concepts having different meanings in different databases (or parts of the same database), variations in command or query languages; (2) the intellectual difficulties, i.e., the gap in knowledge which exists in the searcher's mind during the stage of search formulation, the misunderstandings which can arise during the human/human communication (if the search is done by an intermediary), and errors arising from human/computer communication during the search process; and (3) the technical barriers in achieving a satisfactory search result, i.e., in communication with various hosts and many databases, in using telecommunication links, in different techniques in interrogating files, in different indexing methods, in variations in structure of vocabularies, in classification. The current achievements in overcoming the barriers to information for online databases and the problems which still need solutions are summarized.

  14. [A comparison study on the species diversity between the gap and non-gap in Jinyun Mountain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhouping; Li, Xuguang; Shi, Shengyou; Qi, Daihua; He, Zhengming; Xu, Wenwei; Deng, Xianbao

    2003-01-01

    The species diversity and community stability of gap and non-gap stands in Jinyun Mountain were studied by using species richness index(dGL), Shannon-Weiner index, Pielou evenness index(J), Simpson index(D), ecological dominance(lambda), evenness-dominance-abundance index(Z) and community dominance(C). The results showed that the dGL, H', J and D calculated by individuals numbers in gap are 12.14, 4.62, 0.70, 13.32, respectively. Shrub layer plays a greater role than other layers. The corresponding indices in non-gap stand are 6.32, 3.74, 0.66 and 8.16, respectively, which were lower than those in gap. Species diversity indices of the community were far higher in gap than in non-gap. However, ecological dominance and community dominance in gap were smaller than those in non-gap significantly. It suggested that species diversity of the community increased, and community stability decreased, due to the existence of gap formed by natural or human disturbance.

  15. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution

    of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land

    stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

  16. To Learn or Not to Learn: A Potential Organizational Learning Gap among School Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinson, Vivienne

    2010-01-01

    For decades, researchers have studied student achievement gaps in many countries. This article posits that a similar learning gap may be occurring among the organizations we call school systems--a potential gap between school systems that have maintained the status quo and those that have been working to innovate and improve. The case study…

  17. Vertical cavity surface emitting laser based on gallium arsenide/air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors: From concept to working devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Qingwei

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have created new opportunities in optoelectronics. However, VCSELs have so far been commercialized mainly for operation at 0.85 mum, despite their potential importance at other wavelengths, such as 1.3 mum and 1.55 mum. The limitations at these longer wavelengths come from material characteristics, such as a low contrast ratio in mirror materials, lower mirror reflectivity, and smaller optical gain for longer wavelength materials versus AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wells. A similar situation, insufficient gain relative to the cavity loss, existed in the past for shorter wavelength VCSELs before high quality epitaxial mirrors were developed. Semiconductor/air-gap Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) are attractive due to their high index contrast, which leads to a high reflectivity, wide stop band and low optical loss mirror with a small number of pairs. This concept is ready to be integrated into material systems other than AlGaAs/GaAs, which is studied in this work. Therefore, the impact of these DBRs can be extended into both visible and longer infrared wavelengths as a solution to the trade-off between DBR and active region materials. Air-gap DBRs can also be used as basic building blocks of micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS). The high Q microcavity formed by the air-gap DBRs also provide a good platform for microcavity physics study. Air-gap DBRs are modeled using the transmission matrix formulae of the Maxwell equations. A comparison to existing DBR technology shows the great advantage and potential that the air-gap DBR possesses. Two types of air-gap are proposed and developed. The first one includes multiple GaAs/air pairs while the second one combines a single air-gap with metal and dielectric mirrors. New device structures and processing designs, especially an all-epitaxial lateral current and optical confinement technique, are carried out to incorporate air-gap DBRs into VCSEL structures. The first VCSEL

  18. Mind the gap.

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, M. S.; Krassnigg, A.; Maris, P.; Roberts, C. D.; Physics; Univ. Graz; Univ. of Pittsburgh

    2007-03-01

    In this summary of the application of Dyson-Schwinger equations to the theory and phenomenology of hadrons, some deductions following from a nonperturbative, symmetry-preserving truncation are highlighted, notable amongst which are results for pseudoscalar mesons. We also describe inferences from the gap equation relating to the radius of convergence of a chiral expansion, applications to heavy-light and heavy-heavy mesons, and quantitative estimates of the contribution of quark orbital angular momentum in pseudoscalar mesons; and recapitulate upon studies of nucleon electromagnetic form factors.

  19. The Relationship between Title I Funding Allocations and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Title I legislation was enacted in 1965 under the Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged Act. The goal of Title I was to support disadvantaged students in achieving academic excellence and to close the achievement gap between disadvantaged students and students from high socioeconomic backgrounds. Despite billions of dollars, and…

  20. Gender gap or program gap? Students' negotiations of study practice in a course in electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Staffan; Johansson, Anders

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study of achievement differences, as reflected by course grades, on a third-semester electromagnetism course at a Swedish research university was motivated by instructor concerns about gender inequalities. Quantitative analysis showed a gender gap in course grades between female and male students for the period of fall 2007 to spring 2013. Dynamics behind this gap were explored through interpretative discourse analysis on interviews of 21 students who had recently passed the course. A recurring pattern was identified in the interviews. Students described studying electromagnetism as either studying to pass or studying to learn. Their choice of practice was influenced by the significance recognized in the course, which primarily was discussed in relation to program affiliation. Students stressed that perceived differences, in their study context, were larger between students affiliated with different programs than between male and female students on the same program. This was supported by quantitative analysis of course grades in relation to study programs, where the grade difference between female and male students on the same program in most cases were not statistically significant. The gender gap in grades for the whole course was related to different achievements on different programs. Programs further from the discipline of physics had lower mean grades and also enrolled a larger fraction of female students. Society-wide gender differences in interest and study choice are reflected in the grades on this single course. These results displace the achievement gap from the level of individuals to that of programs, and the gender gap from a difference in achievement to a difference in study choice. We discuss the implications of this shift of perspective in relation to gender differences for both research and teaching.

  1. Non-invasive microfluidic gap junction assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sisi; Lee, Luke P

    2010-03-01

    Gap junctions are protein channels between cells that allow direct electrical and metabolic coupling via the exchange of biomolecules and ions. Their expression, though ubiquitous in most mammalian cell types, is especially important for the proper functioning of cardiac and neuronal systems. Many existing methods for studying gap junction communication suffer from either unquantifiable data or difficulty of use. Here, we measure the extent of dye spread and effective diffusivities through gap junction connected cells using a quantitative microfluidic cell biology platform. After loading dye by hydrodynamic focusing of calcein/AM, dye transfer dynamics into neighboring, unexposed cells can be monitored via timelapse fluorescent microscopy. By using a selective microfluidic dye loading over a confluent layer of cells, we found that high expression of gap junctions in C6 cells transmits calcein across the monolayer with an effective diffusivity of 3.4 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, which are highly coupled by Cx43. We also found that the gap junction blocker 18alpha-GA works poorly in the presence of serum even at high concentrations (50 microM); however, it is highly effective down to 2.5 microM in the absence of serum. Furthermore, when the drug is washed out, dye spread resumes rapidly within 1 min for all doses, indicating the drug does not affect transcriptional regulation of connexins in these Cx43+ cells, in contrast to previous studies. This integrated microfluidic platform enables the in situ monitoring of gap junction communication, yielding dynamic information about intercellular molecular transfer and pharmacological inhibition and recovery.

  2. A Multigrade, Multiyear Statewide Examination of Reading Achievement: Examination of Reading Achievement Examining Variability between Districts, Schools, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelson, Jill L.; Dickinson, Emily R.; Cunningham, Brittany C.

    2016-01-01

    This brief examined the patterns of reading achievement using statewide data from all students (Grades 3-10) in multiple years to examine gaps based on student, school, and district characteristics. Results indicate reading achievement varied most between students within schools and that students' prior achievement was the strongest predictor of…

  3. The Academic Achievement of Immigrant Children in Japan: An Empirical Analysis of the Assimilation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishida, Kenji; Nakamuro, Makiko; Takenaka, Ayumi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we test the assimilation thesis by comparing the academic achievement between native students and first and second generation immigrant pupils. It is the first empirical study that systematically analyzes the native-immigrant achievement gap in Japan. Although numerous studies have examined the achievement gap, most of them are…

  4. Current Status and Future Plans for the General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, Lorenzo; Koglin, Johnathon D; Craig, Teresa M; Mori, Ken-Ichi; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2012-01-01

    We discuss current progress and future plans for the general antiparticle spectrometer experiment (GAPS). GAPS detects antideuterons through the X-rays and pions emitted during the deexcitation of exotic atoms formed when the antideuterons are slowed down and stopped in targets. GAPS provides an exceptionally sensitive means to detect cosmic-ray antideuterons. Cosmic-ray antideuterons can provide indirect evidence for the existence of dark matter in such form as neutralinos or Kaluza-Klein particles. We describe results of accelerator testing of GAPS prototypes, tentative design concepts for a flight GAPS detector, and near-term plans for flying a GAPS prototype on a balloon.

  5. Design and application of gas-gap heat switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Gas-gap heat switches can serve as an effective means of thermally disconnecting a standby cryocooler when the primary (operating) cooler is connected and vice versa. The final phase of the development and test of a cryogenic heat switch designed for loads ranging from 2 watts at 8 K, to 100 watts at 80 K are described. Achieved heat-switch on/off conductance ratio ranged from 11,000 at 8 K to 2200 at 80 K. A particularly challenging element of heat-switch design is achieving satisfactory operation when large temperatures differentials exist across the switch. A special series of tests and analyses was conducted and used in this Phase-2 activity to evaluate the developed switches for temperature differentials ranging up to 200 K. Problems encountered at the maximum levels are described and analyzed, and means of avoiding the problems in the future are presented. A comprehensive summary of the overall heat-switch design methodology is also presented with special emphasis on lessons learned over the course of the 4-year development effort.

  6. Gap analysis: Concepts, methods, and recent results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid progress is being made in the conceptual, technical, and organizational requirements for generating synoptic multi-scale views of the earth's surface and its biological content. Using the spatially comprehensive data that are now available, researchers, land managers, and land-use planners can, for the first time, quantitatively place landscape units - from general categories such as 'Forests' or 'Cold-Deciduous Shrubland Formation' to more categories such as 'Picea glauca-Abies balsamea-Populus spp. Forest Alliance' - in their large-area contexts. The National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) has developed the technical and organizational capabilities necessary for the regular production and analysis of such information. This paper provides a brief overview of concepts and methods as well as some recent results from the GAP projects. Clearly, new frameworks for biogeographic information and organizational cooperation are needed if we are to have any hope of documenting the full range of species occurrences and ecological processes in ways meaningful to their management. The GAP experience provides one model for achieving these new frameworks.

  7. Gap Opening in 3D: Single-planet Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Giant planets can clear deep gaps when embedded in 2D (razor-thin) viscous circumstellar disks. We show by direct simulation that giant planets are just as capable of carving out gaps in 3D. Surface density maps are similar between 2D and 3D, even in detail. In particular, the scaling {{{Σ }}}{gap}\\propto {q}-2 of gap surface density with planet mass, derived from a global “zero-dimensional” balance of Lindblad and viscous torques, applies equally well to results obtained at higher dimensions. Our 3D simulations reveal extensive, near-sonic, meridional flows both inside and outside the gaps; these large-scale circulations might bear on disk compositional gradients, in dust or other chemical species. At high planet mass, gap edges are mildly Rayleigh unstable and intermittently shed streams of material into the gap—less so in 3D than in 2D.

  8. The Gap-Tpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, B.; Anastasio, A.; Boiano, A.; Catalanotti, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Di Meo, P.; Longo, G.; Vanzanella, A.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Fiorillo, G.

    2016-02-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency.

  9. SAR backscatter from coniferous forest gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John L.; Davis, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    A study is in progress comparing Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) backscatter from coniferous forest plots containing gaps to backscatter from adjacent gap-free plots. Issues discussed are how do gaps in the range of 400 to 1600 sq m (approximately 4-14 pixels at intermediate incidence angles) affect forest backscatter statistics and what incidence angles, wavelengths, and polarizations are most sensitive to forest gaps. In order to visualize the slant-range imaging of forest and gaps, a simple conceptual model is used. This strictly qualitative model has led us to hypothesize that forest radar returns at short wavelengths (eg., C-band) and large incidence angles (e.g., 50 deg) should be most affected by the presence of gaps, whereas returns at long wavelengths and small angles should be least affected. Preliminary analysis of 1989 AIRSAR data from forest near Mt. Shasta supports the hypothesis. Current forest backscatter models such as MIMICS and Santa Barbara Discontinuous Canopy Backscatter Model have in several cases correctly predicted backscatter from forest stands based on inputs of measured or estimated forest parameters. These models do not, however, predict within-stand SAR scene texture, or 'intrinsic scene variability' as Ulaby et al. has referred to it. For instance, the Santa Barbara model, which may be the most spatially coupled of the existing models, is not truly spatial. Tree locations within a simulated pixel are distributed according to a Poisson process, as they are in many natural forests, but tree size is unrelated to location, which is not the case in nature. Furthermore, since pixels of a simulated stand are generated independently in the Santa Barbara model, spatial processes larger than one pixel are not modeled. Using a different approach, Oliver modeled scene texture based on an hypothetical forest geometry. His simulated scenes do not agree well with SAR data, perhaps due to the simple geometric model used. Insofar as texture

  10. Gap Assessment (FY 13 Update)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Getman, Dan

    2013-09-30

    To help guide its future data collection efforts, The DOE GTO funded a data gap analysis in FY2012 to identify high potential hydrothermal areas where critical data are needed. This analysis was updated in FY2013 and the resulting datasets are represented by this metadata. The original process was published in FY 2012 and is available here: https://pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/db/GeoConf/papers/SGW/2013/Esposito.pdf Though there are many types of data that can be used for hydrothermal exploration, five types of exploration data were targeted for this analysis. These data types were selected for their regional reconnaissance potential, and include many of the primary exploration techniques currently used by the geothermal industry. The data types include: 1. well data 2. geologic maps 3. fault maps 4. geochemistry data 5. geophysical data To determine data coverage, metadata for exploration data (including data type, data status, and coverage information) were collected and catalogued from nodes on the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). It is the intention of this analysis that the data be updated from this source in a semi-automated fashion as new datasets are added to the NGDS nodes. In addition to this upload, an online tool was developed to allow all geothermal data providers to access this assessment and to directly add metadata themselves and view the results of the analysis via maps of data coverage in Geothermal Prospector (http://maps.nrel.gov/gt_prospector). A grid of the contiguous U.S. was created with 88,000 10-km by 10-km grid cells, and each cell was populated with the status of data availability corresponding to the five data types. Using these five data coverage maps and the USGS Resource Potential Map, sites were identified for future data collection efforts. These sites signify both that the USGS has indicated high favorability of occurrence of geothermal resources and that data gaps exist. The uploaded data are contained in two data files for

  11. Band gap scaling laws in group IV nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chongze; Fu, Xiaonan; Guo, Yangyang; Guo, Zhengxiao; Xia, Congxin; Jia, Yu

    2017-03-01

    By using the first-principles calculations, the band gap properties of nanotubes formed by group IV elements have been investigated systemically. Our results reveal that for armchair nanotubes, the energy gaps at K points in the Brillouin zone decrease as 1/r scaling law with the radii (r) increasing, while they are scaled by ‑1/r 2 + C at Γ points, here, C is a constant. Further studies show that such scaling law of K points is independent of both the chiral vector and the type of elements. Therefore, the band gaps of nanotubes for a given radius can be determined by these scaling laws easily. Interestingly, we also predict the existence of indirect band gap for both germanium and tin nanotubes. Our new findings provide an efficient way to determine the band gaps of group IV element nanotubes by knowing the radii, as well as to facilitate the design of functional nanodevices.

  12. Band gap scaling laws in group IV nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chongze; Fu, Xiaonan; Guo, Yangyang; Guo, Zhengxiao; Xia, Congxin; Jia, Yu

    2017-03-17

    By using the first-principles calculations, the band gap properties of nanotubes formed by group IV elements have been investigated systemically. Our results reveal that for armchair nanotubes, the energy gaps at K points in the Brillouin zone decrease as 1/r scaling law with the radii (r) increasing, while they are scaled by -1/r (2) + C at Γ points, here, C is a constant. Further studies show that such scaling law of K points is independent of both the chiral vector and the type of elements. Therefore, the band gaps of nanotubes for a given radius can be determined by these scaling laws easily. Interestingly, we also predict the existence of indirect band gap for both germanium and tin nanotubes. Our new findings provide an efficient way to determine the band gaps of group IV element nanotubes by knowing the radii, as well as to facilitate the design of functional nanodevices.

  13. Filling the treatment gap in the weight management of overweight and obese patients.

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, N

    2012-07-01

    Approximately two out of three adult Americans are overweight or obese. Despite widespread recognition of this disorder, there has been little progress in the past 20 years in finding effective noninvasive treatments for weight loss. The consequences of obesity are increasingly well recognized and include increases in blood pressure, plasma lipids, the onset of type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, asthma, osteoarthritis and a variety of cancers. Obesity can increase the rate of pregnancy complications and fetal malformations in normoglycemic women. Current medical approaches to obesity, including intensive lifestyle interventions and drug therapies, have been successful in achieving modest weight loss of 4-7%, less than the 1998 NIH Guidelines target of 10%. Surgical approaches, including laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical banded gastroplasty and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, are much more successful, achieving weight loss of 15-50%. A treatment gap therefore exists in the management of obese and overweight patients, because many patients desire and would receive great health benefits by achieving weight loss of 7-15%. This review will discuss the dilemma of the treatment gap and explore possible ways by which it may be filled in the future by the use of innovative approaches.

  14. Comparing Novel Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stien, Haley; EIC PID Consortium Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Investigating nuclear structure has led to the fundamental theory of Quantum Chromodynamics. An Electron Ion Collider (EIC) is a proposed accelerator that would further these investigations. In order to prepare for the EIC, there is an active detector research and development effort. One specific goal is to achieve better particle identification via improved Time of Flight (TOF) detectors. A promising option is the Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber (mRPC). These detectors are similar to the more traditional RPCs, but their active gas gaps have dividers to form several thinner gas gaps. These very thin and accurately defined gas gaps improve the timing resolution of the chamber, so the goal is to build an mRPC with the thinnest gaps to achieve the best possible timing resolution. Two different construction techniques have been employed to make two mRPCs. The first technique is to physically separate the gas gaps with sheets of glass that are .2mm thick. The second technique is to 3D print the layered gas gaps. A comparison of these mRPCs and their performances will be discussed and the latest data presented. This research was supported by US DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  15. The Black Faculty Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Reviews Cole and Barber's "Increasing Faculty Diversity: The Occupational Choices of High-Achieving Minority Students," which has aroused controversy because its findings bear directly on the University of Michigan's affirmative action cases. Cole and Barber surveyed minority and white students in Ivy League, elite, and historically…

  16. The "Other" Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    When it comes to academic achievement, it is indisputable that, as a group, Asian-American students outperform their African-American and Latino peers on every measure. By most measures, they also beat white students. But another truth, much less acknowledged in education and policy circles, is that the story of Asian-American academic achievement…

  17. Mind the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2007-01-01

    One of the most striking, and almost universal, educational trends of the last decade has been the shift in the relative achievements of males and females. In almost every OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) country, girls now do better than boys at almost every level, up to and including doctoral, and in almost every…

  18. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  19. Gap and stripline combined monitor

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Y.

    1984-02-16

    A combined gap and stripline monitor device for measuring the intensity and position of a charged particle beam bunch in a beam pipe of a synchrotron radiation facility. The monitor has first and second beam pipe portions with an axial gap therebetween. An outer pipe cooperates with the first beam pipe portion to form a gap enclosure, while inner strips cooperate with the first beam pipe portion to form a stripline monitor, with the stripline length being the same as the gap enclosure length.

  20. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  1. Gap and stripline combined monitor

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Y.

    1986-08-19

    A combined gap and stripline monitor device for measuring the intensity and position of a charged particle beam bunch in a beam pipe of a synchrotron radiation facility is disclosed. The monitor has first and second beam pipe portions with an axial gap therebetween. An outer pipe cooperates with the first beam pipe portion to form a gap enclosure, while inner strips cooperate with the first beam pipe portion to form a stripline monitor, with the stripline length being the same as the gap enclosure length. 4 figs.

  2. Wide-field hard x-ray survey telescope: ProtoEXIST1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J. E.; Chammas, N.; Allen, B.; Copete, A.; Said, B.; Burke, M.; Howell, J.; Gauron, T.; Baker, R. G.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Sheikh, S.; Gehrels, N.; Cook, W. R.; Burnham, J. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Collins, J.; Labov, S.; Garson, A., III; Krawczynski, H.

    2007-09-01

    We report our progress on the development of pixellated imaging CZT detector arrays for our first-generation balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray (20 - 600 keV) telescope, ProtoEXIST1. Our ProtoEXIST program is a pathfinder for the High Energy Telescope (HET) on the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey telescope (EXIST), a proposed implementation of the Black Hole Finder Probe. ProtoEXIST1 consists of four independent coded-aperture telescopes with close-tiled (~0.4 mm gaps) CZT detectors that preserve their 2.5mm pixel pitch. Multiple shielding/field-of-view configurations are planned to identify optimal geometry for the HET in EXIST. The primary technical challenge in ProtoEXIST is the development of large area, close-tiled modules of imaging CZT detectors (1000 cm2 for ProtoEXIST1), with all readout and control systems for the ASIC readout vertically stacked. We describe the overall telescope configuration of ProtoEXIST1 and review the current development status of the CZT detectors, from individual detector crystal units (DCUs) to a full detector module (DM). We have built the first units of each component for the detector plane and have completed a few Rev2 DCUs (2x2 cm2), which are under a series of tests. Bare DCUs (pre-crystal bonding) show high, uniform ASIC yield (~70%) and ~30% reduction in electronics noise compared to the Rev1 equivalent. A Rev1 DCU already achieved ~1.2% FWHM at 662 keV, and preliminary analysis of the initial radiation tests on a Rev2 DCU shows ~ 4 keV FWHM at 60 keV (vs. 4.7 keV for Rev1). We therefore expect about <=1% FWHM at 662 keV with the Rev2 detectors.

  3. An air gap moderates the performance of nanowire array transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tong; Mehta, Jeremy S.; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.

    2017-03-01

    Solution-processed nanowires are promising for low-cost and flexible electronics. When depositing nanowires from solution, due to stacking of the nanowires, an air gap exists between the substrate and much of the active material. Here, using confocal Raman spectroscopy, we quantify the thickness of the air gap in transistors comprising organic semiconductor nanowires. The average air gap thickness is found to be unexpectedly large, being at least three times larger than the nanowire diameter, leading to a significant impact on transistor performance. The air gap acts as an additional dielectric layer that reduces the accumulation of charge carriers due to a gate voltage. Conventional determination of the charge carrier mobility ignores the presence of an air gap, resulting in an overestimate of charge carrier accumulation and an underestimate of charge carrier mobility. It is shown that the larger the air gap, the larger the mobility correction (which can be greater than an order of magnitude) and the larger the degradation in on–off current ratio. These results demonstrate the importance of minimizing the air gap and of taking the air gap into consideration when analyzing the electrical performance of transistors consisting of stacked nanowires. This finding is applicable to all types of stacked one-dimensional materials including organic and inorganic nanowires, and carbon nanotubes.

  4. An air gap moderates the performance of nanowire array transistors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tong; Mehta, Jeremy S; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M

    2017-03-24

    Solution-processed nanowires are promising for low-cost and flexible electronics. When depositing nanowires from solution, due to stacking of the nanowires, an air gap exists between the substrate and much of the active material. Here, using confocal Raman spectroscopy, we quantify the thickness of the air gap in transistors comprising organic semiconductor nanowires. The average air gap thickness is found to be unexpectedly large, being at least three times larger than the nanowire diameter, leading to a significant impact on transistor performance. The air gap acts as an additional dielectric layer that reduces the accumulation of charge carriers due to a gate voltage. Conventional determination of the charge carrier mobility ignores the presence of an air gap, resulting in an overestimate of charge carrier accumulation and an underestimate of charge carrier mobility. It is shown that the larger the air gap, the larger the mobility correction (which can be greater than an order of magnitude) and the larger the degradation in on-off current ratio. These results demonstrate the importance of minimizing the air gap and of taking the air gap into consideration when analyzing the electrical performance of transistors consisting of stacked nanowires. This finding is applicable to all types of stacked one-dimensional materials including organic and inorganic nanowires, and carbon nanotubes.

  5. Gap solitons in parity-time-symmetric mixed linear-nonlinear optical lattices with fourth-order diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xing; Shi, Zhiwei; Li, Huagang

    2017-01-01

    We report on the existence and stability of fundamental and out-of-phase dipole gap solitons in parity-time (PT)-symmetric mixed linear-nonlinear optical lattices with a fourth-order diffraction. These solitons exist in the semi-infinite gap. For fundamental gap solitons, they can bifurcate from the higher edge of the first Bloch band, solitons are stable in the low power region. For dipole gap solitons, they cannot bifurcate from the higher edge of the first Bloch band, they can stably exist in the moderate power region. The coupling constant of the fourth-order diffraction can influence the stability of these gap solitons.

  6. Closing the Gap: Modeling Within-School Variance Heterogeneity in School Effect Studies. CSE Report 689

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kilchan; Kim, Junyeop

    2006-01-01

    Effective schools should be superior in both enhancing students' achievement levels and reducing the gap between high- and low-achieving students in the school. However, the focus has been placed mainly on schools' achievement levels in most school effect studies. In this article, we attend to the school-specific achievement dispersion as well as…

  7. Dynamical Energy Gap Engineering in Graphene via Oscillating Out-of-Plane Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandler, Nancy; Zhai, Dawei

    The close relation between electronic properties and mechanical deformations in graphene has been the topic of active research in recent years. Interestingly, the effect of deformations on electronic properties can be understood in terms of pseudo-magnetic fields, whose spatial distribution and intensity are controllable via the deformation geometry. Previous results showed that electromagnetic fields (light) have the potential to induce dynamical gaps in graphene's energy bands, transforming graphene from a semimetal to a semiconductor. However, laser frequencies required to achieve these regimes are in the THz regime, which imposes challenges for practical purposes. In this talk we report a novel method to create dynamical gaps using oscillating mechanical deformations, i.e., via time-dependent pseudo-magnetic fields. Using the Floquet formalism we show the existence of a dynamical gap in the band structure at energies set by the frequency of the oscillation, and with a magnitude tuned by the geometry of the deformation. This dynamical-mechanical manipulation strategy appears as a promising venue to engineer electronic properties of suspended graphene devices. Work supported by NSF-DMR 1508325.

  8. Single-mode interface states in heterostructure waveguides with Bragg and non-Bragg gaps

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ya-Xian; Sang, Tang-Qing; Liu, Ting; Xu, Lan-Lan; Tao, Zhi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Interface states can always arise in heterostructures that consist of two or more (artificial) materials with topologically different energy bands. The gapped band structure can be classified by the Chern number (a topological invariant) generally or the Zak phase in one-dimensional periodic systems. Recently, topological properties have been employed to investigate the interface states occurring at the connecting regions of the heterostructures of mechanical isostatic lattices and acoustical waveguides. Here, we study this heterostructure phenomenon by carefully connecting two corrugated stainless steel waveguides with Bragg and non-Bragg gaps at approximately the same frequency. These two waveguide structures can be achieved by continuously varying their geometry parameters when a topological transition exists in the forbidden bands, in which the reflection impedance changes the sign. Furthermore, a localized single high-order mode has been observed at the interface because of the transverse mode interactions, which relate to the non-Bragg gaps created by the different transverse mode resonances. Such a localized acoustic single mode with very large enhanced intensity could find its applications in sound detection, biomedical imaging, and underwater sound control, and could also enrich our means of wave front manipulations in various engineering fields. PMID:28287173

  9. Single-mode interface states in heterostructure waveguides with Bragg and non-Bragg gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ya-Xian; Sang, Tang-Qing; Liu, Ting; Xu, Lan-Lan; Tao, Zhi-Yong

    2017-03-01

    Interface states can always arise in heterostructures that consist of two or more (artificial) materials with topologically different energy bands. The gapped band structure can be classified by the Chern number (a topological invariant) generally or the Zak phase in one-dimensional periodic systems. Recently, topological properties have been employed to investigate the interface states occurring at the connecting regions of the heterostructures of mechanical isostatic lattices and acoustical waveguides. Here, we study this heterostructure phenomenon by carefully connecting two corrugated stainless steel waveguides with Bragg and non-Bragg gaps at approximately the same frequency. These two waveguide structures can be achieved by continuously varying their geometry parameters when a topological transition exists in the forbidden bands, in which the reflection impedance changes the sign. Furthermore, a localized single high-order mode has been observed at the interface because of the transverse mode interactions, which relate to the non-Bragg gaps created by the different transverse mode resonances. Such a localized acoustic single mode with very large enhanced intensity could find its applications in sound detection, biomedical imaging, and underwater sound control, and could also enrich our means of wave front manipulations in various engineering fields.

  10. Adaptive Filter-bank Approach to Restoration and Spectral Analysis of Gapped Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Petre; Larsson, Erik G.; Li, Jian

    2000-10-01

    The main topic of this paper is the nonparametric estimation of complex (both amplitude and phase) spectra from gapped data, as well as the restoration of such data. The focus is on the extension of the APES (amplitude and phase estimation) approach to data sequences with gaps. APES, which is one of the most successful existing nonparametric approaches to the spectral analysis of full data sequences, uses a bank of narrowband adaptive (both frequency and data dependent) filters to estimate the spectrum. A recent interpretation of this approach showed that the filterbank used by APES and the resulting spectrum minimize a least-squares (LS) fitting criterion between the filtered sequence and its spectral decomposition. The extended approach, which is called GAPES for somewhat obvious reasons, capitalizes on the aforementioned interpretation: it minimizes the APES-LS fitting criterion with respect to the missing data as well. This should be a sensible thing to do whenever the full data sequence is stationary, and hence the missing data have the same spectral content as the available data. We use both simulated and real data examples to show that GAPES estimated spectra and interpolated data sequences have excellent accuracy. We also show the performance gain achieved by GAPES over two of the most commonly used approaches for gapped-data spectral analysis, viz., the periodogram and the parametric CLEAN method. This work was partly supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research.

  11. Effects of Single-Gender Middle School Classes on Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Tanisha

    Many girls continue to achieve below their male counterparts and portray negative attitudes towards science classes. Some school districts are using single-gender education as a way to shrink the gender gap in school achievement and science related attitude. The purpose of this study was to compare achievement and science-related attitudes of 7th grade girls in single-gender education to 7th grade girls in mixed-gender education. The theoretical base for this study included knowledge from brain-based learning and assimilation, accommodation and age factors of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The 12-week study included 48 7th grade girls, 21 in the single-gender classroom and 14 in each mixed-gender classroom. This quantitative randomized posttest only control group design utilized the TerraNova Science Assessment and the Test of Science Related Attitudes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed in the achievement and attitudes of girls in single and mixed-gender science classes. ANOVA analyses revealed that the girls in the single-gender classroom showed a significantly higher achievement level when compared to girls in the mixed-gender classrooms. Results showed no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The results of this study contribute to social change by raising awareness about gender issues in science achievement and attitude, addressing a deficiency in the single-gender science education literature, and assisting educational systems in decision making to address achievement gaps while moving toward adequate yearly progress and meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

  12. Measuring the Gap

    PubMed Central

    She, Xinshu; Zhao, Deqing; Scholnick, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    China is a large country where rapid development is accompanied by growing inequalities. How economic inequalities translate to health inequalities is unknown. Baseline health assessment is lacking among rural Chinese children. We aimed at assessing baseline student health of rural Chinese children and comparing them with those of urban children of similar ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2003 Global School-Based Student Health Survey among 100 students Grade 4 to 6 from rural Guizhou, China. Results were summarized and compared with public data from urban Beijing using multivariate logistic regression models. Rural children are more likely to not wash their hands before a meal (odds ratio [OR] = 5.71, P < .01) and after using the toilet (OR = 5.41, P < .01). They are more likely to feel sick or to get into trouble after drinking (OR = 7.28, P < .01). They are more likely to have used drugs (OR = 8.54, P < .01) and to have no close friends (OR = 8.23, P < .01). An alarming percentage of rural (8.22%) and urban (14.22%) children have had suicidal ideation in the past year (OR = 0.68, P > .05). Rural parents are more likely to not know their children’s whereabouts (OR = 1.81, P < .05). Rural children are more than 4 times likely to have serious injuries (OR = 4.64, P < .01) and to be bullied (OR = 4.01, P < .01). In conclusion, school-age rural Chinese children exhibit more health risk behaviors and fewer protective factors at baseline compared to their urban counterparts. Any intervention aimed at improving child health should take this distributive gap into consideration. PMID:27335999

  13. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  14. A Gap in TW Hydrae's Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Located a mere 176 light-years away, TW Hydrae is an 8-million-year-old star surrounded by a nearly face-on disk of gas and dust. Recent observations have confirmed the existence of a gap within that disk a particularly intriguing find, since gaps can sometimes signal the presence of a planet.Gaps and PlanetsNumerical simulations have shown that newly-formed planets orbiting within dusty disks can clear the gas and dust out of their paths. This process results in pressure gradients that can be seen in the density structure of the disk, in the form of visible gaps, rings, or spirals.For this reason, finding a gap in a protoplanetary disk can be an exciting discovery. Previous observations of the disk around TW Hydrae had indicated that there might be a gap present, but they were limited in their resolution; despite TW Hydraes relative nearness, attempting to observe the dim light scattered off dust particles in a disk surrounding a distant, bright star is difficult!But a team led by Valerie Rapson (Rochester Institute of Technology, Dudley Observatory) recently set out to follow up on this discovery using a powerful tool: the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI).New ObservationsComparison of the actual image of TW Hydraes disk from GPI (right) to a simulated scattered-light image from a model of a ~0.2 Jupiter-mass planet orbiting in the disk at ~21 AU (left) in two different bands (top: J, bottom: K1).[Adapted from Rapson et al. 2015]GPI is an instrument on the Gemini South Telescope in Chile. Its near-infrared imagers, equipped with extreme adaptive optics, allowed it to probe the disk from ~80 AU all the way in to ~10 AU from the central star, with an unprecedented resolution of ~1.5 AU.These observations from GPI allowed Rapson and collaborators to unambiguously confirm the presence of a gap in TW Hydraes disk. The gap lies at a distance of ~23 AU from the central star (roughly the same distance as Uranus to the Sun), and its ~5 AU wide.Modeled PossibilitiesThere are a

  15. Mind the Gap: How do climate and agricultural management explain the "yield gap" of croplands around the world?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licker, R.; Foley, J. A.; Johnston, M.

    2007-12-01

    At present, cultivated lands extend across approximately fifteen million square kilometers of the Earth's surface, making it one of the most dominant land cover types. The management practices used on these lands have become increasingly intensified, requiring large inputs of fertilizers and water, in addition to mechanization and biotechnology. These intensified practices have had implications for ecosystem goods and services ranging from water quality and availability to carbon sequestration. However, the billions of additional people that are projected to inhabit the planet in the twenty-first century will require further outputs from our global agricultural system. Given our food system's already expansive and intensive state, it is important to consider where the additional yields might come from and what additional management inputs this might require. In this study, we compare yields both within crop types and within regions of similar climate to determine where yield gaps exist. We do so using recently created, five-minute datasets of the area harvested and yield of 175 different crop types for the year 2000. We also explore the links of these yield gaps to global patterns of management. For example, we consider the ways in which management practices such as irrigation and fire are influencing yields around the world - analyses that can help critically evaluate the level of management currently employed and help imagine what management might be necessary to achieve higher yields in the future. These data will be needed in the next generation of Earth System models, in order to better represent the practices of agricultural land use in more realistic ways, thereby improving our understanding of land use / land cover change on the global carbon and water cycles, and the climate system.

  16. Improving Oncology Quality Measurement in Accountable Care: Filling Gaps with Cross-Cutting Measures.

    PubMed

    Valuck, Tom; Blaisdell, David; Dugan, Donna P; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W; Miller, Robert S; McClellan, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Payment for health care services, including oncology services, is shifting from volume-based fee-for-service to value-based accountable care. The objective of accountable care is to support providers with flexibility and resources to reform care delivery, accompanied by accountability for maintaining or improving outcomes while lowering costs. These changes depend on health care payers, systems, physicians, and patients having meaningful measures to assess care delivery and outcomes and to balance financial incentives for lowering costs while providing greater value. Gaps in accountable care measure sets may cause missed signals of problems in care and missed opportunities for improvement. Measures to balance financial incentives may be particularly important for oncology, where high cost and increasingly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics intersect with the highly complex and heterogeneous needs and preferences of cancer patients. Moreover, the concept of value in cancer care, defined as the measure of outcomes achieved per costs incurred, is rarely incorporated into performance measurement. This article analyzes gaps in oncology measures in accountable care, discusses challenging measurement issues, and offers strategies for improving oncology measurement. Discern Health analyzed gaps in accountable care measure sets for 10 cancer conditions that were selected based on incidence and prevalence; impact on cost and mortality; a diverse range of high-cost diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities (e.g., genomic tumor testing, molecularly targeted therapies, and stereotactic radiotherapy); and disparities or performance gaps in patient care. We identified gaps by comparing accountable care set measures with high-priority measurement opportunities derived from practice guidelines developed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and other oncology specialty societies. We found significant gaps in accountable care measure sets across all 10 conditions. For

  17. Gene Circuit Analysis of the Terminal Gap Gene huckebein

    PubMed Central

    Ashyraliyev, Maksat; Siggens, Ken; Janssens, Hilde; Blom, Joke; Akam, Michael; Jaeger, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The early embryo of Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful model system to study the role of genes in pattern formation. The gap gene network constitutes the first zygotic regulatory tier in the hierarchy of the segmentation genes involved in specifying the position of body segments. Here, we use an integrative, systems-level approach to investigate the regulatory effect of the terminal gap gene huckebein (hkb) on gap gene expression. We present quantitative expression data for the Hkb protein, which enable us to include hkb in gap gene circuit models. Gap gene circuits are mathematical models of gene networks used as computational tools to extract regulatory information from spatial expression data. This is achieved by fitting the model to gap gene expression patterns, in order to obtain estimates for regulatory parameters which predict a specific network topology. We show how considering variability in the data combined with analysis of parameter determinability significantly improves the biological relevance and consistency of the approach. Our models are in agreement with earlier results, which they extend in two important respects: First, we show that Hkb is involved in the regulation of the posterior hunchback (hb) domain, but does not have any other essential function. Specifically, Hkb is required for the anterior shift in the posterior border of this domain, which is now reproduced correctly in our models. Second, gap gene circuits presented here are able to reproduce mutants of terminal gap genes, while previously published models were unable to reproduce any null mutants correctly. As a consequence, our models now capture the expression dynamics of all posterior gap genes and some variational properties of the system correctly. This is an important step towards a better, quantitative understanding of the developmental and evolutionary dynamics of the gap gene network. PMID:19876378

  18. Variance in Math Achievement Attributable to Visual Cognitive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehlert, Jeremy J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has reported positive correlations between math achievement and the cognitive constructs of spatial visualization, working memory, and general intelligence; however, no single study has assessed variance in math achievement attributable to all three constructs, examined in combination. The current study fills this gap in the…

  19. New York: Expanding Time, Increasing Opportunities for Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tiffany D.

    2014-01-01

    New York is poised to take an important step to improve student achievement by expanding learning time for students attending high-poverty, low-performing schools. Recent district- and state-level investments in expanded learning time--a promising strategy to close achievement and opportunity gaps--will give students more time to learn core…

  20. Robert M. Finley Middle School: Building Community, Respect, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features Robert M. Finley Middle School, a school that is considered by the entire Glen Cove, New York, community as important and successful. Gaps in student achievement have decreased significantly and all student achievement has improved over the last five years in this school, where nearly half of the 652 students are from…