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Sample records for achievement gender differences

  1. Gender Differences in Values and Their Impact on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglehart, Marita Rosch; Brown, Donald R.

    Gender differences in academic achievement of students in the medical school at the University of Michigan were investigated in this study. Observed achievement differences were attributed to gender differences in values which influence student motivation. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) that men place more importance on mastery-related issues,…

  2. The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

  3. Biological Gender Differences in Students' Errors on Mathematics Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Christie; Root, Melissa M.; Koriakin, Taylor; Choi, Dowon; Luria, Sarah R.; Bray, Melissa A.; Sassu, Kari; Maykel, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Patricia; Courville, Troy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated developmental gender differences in mathematics achievement, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-19 years) of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Participants were divided into two age categories: 6 to 11 and 12 to 19. Error categories within the Math Concepts & Applications…

  4. Gendered Habitus and Gender Differences in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Jason; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance

    2014-01-01

    Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction posits that students' habitus--learned behavioural and perceptual dispositions rooted in family upbringing--is a formative influence on how they react to their educational environments, affecting academic practices and academic achievement. Although originally conceived as a "class"…

  5. Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

  6. Mathematics Education in Lebanon: Gender Differences in Attitudes and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.; Chartouny, Madona

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in students' mathematics achievement and in their attitudes toward mathematics. Another purpose was to examine mathematics teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their male and female students' ability. The sample consisted of 692 students (353 girls, 339 boys) between the ages of…

  7. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was…

  8. Examining the Evidence from TIMSS: Gender Differences in Year 8 Science Achievement in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Australia's continuing participation in international science studies such as TIMSS provides a useful lens through which to monitor achievement in science over time. Gender differences in science were not evident in the early years of TIMSS but appear to be growing. This article examines gender differences in science achievement in early secondary…

  9. Gender Differences in Achievement in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Caroline; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Hajovsky, Daniel B.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental gender differences in academic achievement areas, with the primary focus on writing, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-21 years) of the "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition, Brief Form," norming sample (N = 1,574). Path analytic models with gender,…

  10. Gender Differences in Kindergarteners' Robotics and Programming Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for introducing girls to traditionally masculine fields of science and technology before more extreme gender stereotypes surface in later years. This study looks at the TangibleK Robotics Program in order to determine whether kindergarten boys and girls were equally successful in a series of building and…

  11. National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement.

    PubMed

    Nosek, Brian A; Smyth, Frederick L; Sriram, N; Lindner, Nicole M; Devos, Thierry; Ayala, Alfonso; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Bergh, Robin; Cai, Huajian; Gonsalkorale, Karen; Kesebir, Selin; Maliszewski, Norbert; Neto, Félix; Olli, Eero; Park, Jaihyun; Schnabel, Konrad; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Tulbure, Bogdan Tudor; Wiers, Reinout W; Somogyi, Mónika; Akrami, Nazar; Ekehammar, Bo; Vianello, Michelangelo; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Greenwald, Anthony G

    2009-06-30

    About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. Self-reported stereotypes did not provide additional predictive validity of the achievement gap. We suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement.

  12. Gender and Ethnicity Differences Manifested in Chemistry Achievement and Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Hong, Lee Hooi; Lee, Seung Chun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether gender and ethnicity differences are manifested in chemistry achievement and self-regulated learning among a matriculation programme students in Malaysia. The result of students' midterm chemistry exam was used as the measure of chemistry achievement. The information of self-regulated learning was…

  13. Gender Differences in the Factor Structure of the 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the factor structure of the 2x2 achievement goal framework using a multi-sample invariance analysis. A total of 117 male and 125 female undergraduate teacher education students completed Elliot and Murayama's (2008) Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R). Results provided empirical evidence…

  14. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  15. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Ronna C.; Lindsay, Harriet A.

    2003-05-01

    For many college students in the sciences, organic chemistry poses a difficult challenge. Indeed, success in organic chemistry has proven pivotal in the careers of a vast number of students in a variety of science disciplines. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to achievement in this course should contribute to efforts to increase the number of students in the science disciplines. Further, an awareness of gender differences in factors associated with achievement should aid efforts to bolster the participation of women in chemistry and related disciplines. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of several cognitive variables and noncognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. Cognitive variables included the second-semester general chemistry grade, the ACT English, math, reading, and science-reasoning scores, and scores from a spatial visualization test. Noncognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. The second-semester general chemistry grade was found to be the best indicator of performance in organic chemistry, while the effectiveness of other predictors varied between instructors. In addition, gender differences were found in the explanations of organic chemistry achievement variance provided by this study. In general, males exhibited stronger correlations between predictor variables and organic chemistry achievement than females.

  16. Gender Differences regarding Mathematics Achievement: The Case of Turkish Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isiksal, Mine; Cakiroglu, Erdine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in mathematics achievement as demonstrated by performance on the mathematics subsection of a nationwide high school entrance examination in Turkey. In this study, the cities in Turkey were separated into five groups according to their level of economic development. The analysis was based…

  17. Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement and Retention Scores: A Case of Problem-Based Learning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajai, John T.; Imoko, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess gender differences in mathematics achievement and retention by using Problem-Based Learning (PBL). The design of the study was pre-posttest quasi-experimental. Four hundred and twenty eight senior secondary one (SS I) students using multistage sampling from ten grant-aided and government schools were involved in…

  18. Gender Differences in Academic Achievement among Turkish Prospective Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten, Ismail Hakki

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to explain prevalent gender differences in academic achievement of 84 third-year students enrolled in a pre-service ELT (English Language Teaching) teacher training department. The study collected both qualitative and quantitative data through semi-structured interviews from a sample of 38 students. A content analysis of the data…

  19. Precollege science achievement growth: Racial-ethnic and gender differences in cognitive and psychosocial constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Patricia Ann

    The purpose of this study was to gain a more complete understanding of the differences in science, mathematics and engineering education among racial-ethnic and gender subgroups by exploring factors related to precollege science achievement growth rates. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and multi-wave, longitudinal data from the first three waves of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988--1994 (NELS:88/94), this study examined precollege science achievement growth rates during the 8th to 10th grade period and the 10th to 12th grade period for African American males, African American females, Latino males, Latina females, Asian American males, Asian American females, White males and White females. For the 8th--10th grade period, previous grades were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups; and socio-economic status and high school program were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups except one (Latino males, and Asian American males respectively). For the 10th--12th grade period, the quantity of science courses completed (science units) was the only variable that was statistically significant for more than one racial-ethnic by gender subgroup. Science units taken were significantly and positively related to 10 th--12th grade growth rates for all racial-ethnic by gender subgroups except Latino males. Locus-of-control was the only cognitive or psychosocial factor included from Eccles, Adler, Futterman, Goff, Kaczala, Meece and Midgley's (1983) theoretical framework for achievement behaviors that appeared to exhibit any pattern across race-ethnicities. Locus-of-control was positively related to 8th--10 th grade science achievement growth for females across all racial-ethnic subgroups, as well as for African American males. However, for both the 8 th--10th grade and 10th--12 th grade periods, there was no consistency across racial-ethnic or gender subgroups in

  20. Gender Differences in Achievement in Costa Rican Students: Science, Mathematics and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquivel, Juan Manuel; Brenes, Margarita

    Gender differences have been reported in the United States in the areas of mathematical reasoning favoring males and verbal abilities favoring females. Results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress Science Assessment also have consistently revealed small gender differences favoring males. This paper reports gender differences in…

  1. Gender and Achievement Differences in Secondary Students' Verbal Self-Concepts: A Closer Look beyond Bivariate Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Gunter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Against the background of contradictory research findings in the field the present study aimed at unraveling the structural complexities of gender differences in secondary students' verbal self-concepts and, thus, analyzing possible gender x achievement interaction effects in the L1 German and L2 English language subject. According…

  2. Numerical Ability, Course of Study and Gender Differences in Students' Achievement in Practical Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falaye, F. V.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, course of study and numerical ability (independent variables) on secondary school students' achievement in Practical Geography (dependent variable). Purposive sampling was used to select four co-educational secondary schools established in the same year. A sample of 367 Geography students (157…

  3. Educational standardization and gender differences in mathematics achievement: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Hanna; Livneh, Idit

    2013-03-01

    We argue that between-country variations in the gender gap in mathematics are related to the level of educational system standardization. In countries with standardized educational systems both genders are exposed to similar knowledge and are motivated to invest in studying mathematics, which leads to similar achievements. We hypothesize that national examinations and between-teacher uniformity in covering major mathematics topics are associated with a smaller gender gap in a country. Based on Trends of International Mathematical and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003, we use multilevel regression models to compare the link of these two factors to the gender gap in 32 countries, controlling for various country characteristics. The use of national examinations and less between-teacher instructional variation prove major factors in reducing the advantage of boys over girls in mathematics scores and in the odds of excelling. Factors representing gender stratification, often analyzed in comparative gender-gap research in mathematics, are at most marginal in respect of the gap.

  4. Examination of Gender Differences on Cognitive and Motivational Factors That Influence 8th Graders' Science Achievement in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Ömer; Türkmen, Lütfullah; Bilgin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of several students' cognitive and motivational factors on 8th graders' science achievement and also gender differences on factors that significantly contribute to the science achievement model. A total of 99 girls and 83 boys responded all the instruments used in this study. Results showed that girls outperformed boys on…

  5. Understanding Gender Differences in Achievement on the Social Studies Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills: An Interactive Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungurait, Michelle D.

    2007-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency's Social Studies Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills results show an achievement gap between males and females for every criteria on every test given since 2003. The most dramatic achievement difference is in the area of "traditional" U.S. History. The Texas results mimic a gender gap reported by College…

  6. Gender Difference in Achievement and Attitude of Public Secondary School Students towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatelure, Temitayo Abayomi

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on the gender difference in attitude and academic performance of students in selected public secondary schools in Akoko Land. The population for this study was made up of all the Junior Secondary Schools Three (JSS3) students in Akoko Land. Three hypotheses were raised to guide this study. 1626 student, (810 males, 816…

  7. Gender Differences in Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Examined 1,100 boys and 1,100 girls who matched the U.S. population using the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) cognitive-processing theory, built on the neuropsychological work of A.R. Luria (1973). Results illustrate that the PASS theory offers a useful way to examine gender differences in cognitive performance. (BF)

  8. Gender Differences among Elementary School-Aged Gifted Students in Achievement, Perceptions of Ability, and Subject Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Turner, Dana

    2002-01-01

    A study examined gender differences for 5,544 gifted students (grades 4-5). On an off-level achievement test, males outperformed females in mathematics beginning in grade 3. Both groups had a preference for mathematics over other subjects. Students' perceptions of academic strengths corresponded to their performance on the off-level test.…

  9. Effect of School Belonging Trajectories in Grades 6–8 on Achievement: Gender and Ethnic Differences

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung Hee; Allee, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association between trajectories of school belonging across grades 6–8 and academic achievement in grade 8 in an ethnically diverse sample of 527 academically at-risk adolescents. Students reported annually on school belonging. Reading and math achievement were assessed at grade 5 (baseline) and grade 8. Interactive effects of gender and ethnicity were found in the conditional growth models for school belonging. Girls of all ethnicities had identical growth trajectories and reported higher initial school belonging than Euro-American or Latino boys. Latino and Euro-American males had lower initial level of school belonging than African American males, and Latino males had lower growth in school belonging than Euro-American males. In structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses, initial level of school belonging predicted grade 8 reading for girls and grade 8 math for boys and girls, above prior achievement and school and child covariates, but growth in school belonging predicted grade 8 achievement only for African American students. Implications for strategies to improve school belonging among academically at-risk youth are discussed. PMID:26563601

  10. Gender Differences in Korean High School Students' Science Achievements and Attitudes towards Science in Three Different School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Baker, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of high schools' gender organization on Korean tenth-grade students' science achievements, and their attitudes towards science. The high schools involved included an all-male institution, an all-female institution, and a co-educational institution. Three schools, three principals, three science teachers, and 302…

  11. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.

  12. Gender and Race Differences in Achievement, Enjoyment of Academic Subjects and Persistence in Freshmen Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaer, Barbara; And Others

    This study was developed to investigate differences between black and white freshmen (both men and women) entering engineering programs. Specifically the study determined the relationships between enjoyment of course studied, achievement in those courses, and persistence, as reported by black/white, male/female students entering the engineering…

  13. Differences in Elementary School Achievement between Girls and Boys: Does the Teacher Gender Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burusic, Josip; Babarovic, Toni; Seric, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Elementary schools in many countries record an unequal representation of male and female teachers with female teachers in huge majority. At the same time, numerous studies reveal that girls generally outmatch boys in the majority of school subjects. Consequently, possible effects of teacher-pupil gender interaction are becoming an important topic…

  14. Gender Differences in Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a…

  15. Who Is Most Responsible for Gender Differences in Scholastic Achievements: Pupils or Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The disparities between the scholastic achievements of girls and boys have been attributed to biological and sociological factors. The present study investigated the validity of these explanations in a multi-variable situation similar to field conditions. Achievement scores of 3446 pupils in the 5th through 11th grades, half girls and half boys,…

  16. Parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic achievement: ethnic, gender, and SES differences.

    PubMed

    Radziszewska, B; Richardson, J L; Dent, C W; Flay, B R

    1996-06-01

    This paper examines whether the relationship between parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic grades varies according to ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Four parenting styles are distinguished, based on patterns of parent-adolescent decision making: autocratic (parents decide), authoritative (joint process but parents decide), permissive (joint process but adolescent decides), and unengaged (adolescent decides). The sample included 3993 15-year-old White, Hispanic, African-American, and Asian adolescents. Results are generally consistent with previous findings: adolescents with authoritative parents had the best outcomes and those with unengaged parents were least well adjusted, while the permissive and the autocratic styles produced intermediate results. For the most part, this pattern held across ethnic and sociodemographic subgroups. There was one exception, suggesting that the relationship between parenting styles, especially the unengaged style, and depressive symptoms may vary according to gender and ethnicity. More research is needed to replicate and explain this pattern in terms of ecological factors, cultural norms, and socialization goals and practices.

  17. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  18. Gender Differences in Mathematical Achievement Related to the Ratio of Girls to Boys in School Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manger, Terje; Gjestad, Rolf

    1997-03-01

    The relationship between mathematical achievement and the ratio of boys to girls in school classes was investigated in a sample of third-grade Norwegian elementary school students (440 girls and 480 boys). Belonging to classes with a numerical majority of boys or girls did not affect the achievement of either of the sexes. The results from the study do not support the single-sexing of mathematics teaching.

  19. Longitudinal Investigation of Elementary Students' Science Academic Achievement in 4-8th Grades: Grade Level and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursal, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the change of the science academic achievement by grade level and gender where 222 elementary students' science and technology course scores between the 4th and 8th grades and science success percentages in 6th and 8th grades Level Determination Exam were longitudinally analyzed. Based on the findings of this study,…

  20. Gender Differences in Achievement in Calculating Reacting Masses from Chemical Equations among Secondary School Students in Makurdi Metropols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriba, Joel O.; Ande, Sesugh

    2006-01-01

    Over the years there exists gender inequality in science achievement among senior secondary school students the world over. It is observed that the males score higher than the females in science and science- related examinations. This has created a big psychological alienation or depression in the minds of female students towards science and…

  1. College Chemistry and Piaget: An Analysis of Gender Difference, Cognitive Abilities, and Achievement Measures Seventeen Years Apart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Milakofsky, Louis M.; Bender, David S.; Patterson, Henry O.

    2003-05-01

    This study revisits an analysis of gender difference in the cognitive abilities of college chemistry students using scores from "Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks" (IPDT), the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), and final grades from an introductory college chemistry course. Comparison of 1998 scores with those from 1981 showed an overall decline on most of the measures and a changing pattern among males and females. Gender differences were found in the IPDT subtests measuring imagery, classification, and proportional reasoning, but not conservation, a pattern that differs from the findings reported 17 years earlier. The generational and gender differences revealed in this study suggest that instructors should be cognizant of, and should periodically assess, the diversity of students' cognitive abilities.

  2. The Dynamics of Gender Impact on Group Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen-Jones, Carolee; Chalupa, Marilyn R.; Charles, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    In cooperative learning groups of business students (n=38, 27, 28), half were self-selected, half were assigned. No differences in achievement were found across majors, gender, or membership choice. Groups with only one representative of a gender achieved significantly less than mixed or single-gender groups. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  3. Gender Differences of Neighborhood and Social Control Processes: A Study of the Timing of First Intercourse among Low- Achieving, Urban, African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Juarez, Lucia

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender-specific contextual and individual socioeconomic predictors of the timing of first intercourse among low-achieving African American high school students, following financial deprivation and collective socialization theories. Data from 3 years of surveys indicated that males and females were affected differently by social…

  4. Gender Differences in Gifted and Average-Ability Students: Comparing Girls' and Boys' Achievement, Self-Concept, Interest, and Motivation in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Pekrun, Reinhard; Kleine, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates gender differences in 181 gifted and 181 average-ability sixth graders in achievement, academic self-concept, interest, and motivation in mathematics. Giftedness was conceptualized as nonverbal reasoning ability and defined by a rank of at least 95% on a nonverbal reasoning subscale of the German Cognitive Abilities Test.…

  5. Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire across Gender and Age in a Sample of Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Castejon, Juan L.; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Delgado, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of scores on the Spanish version of the "Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire" (AGTQ) across gender and age groups in 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) in grades 7 through 10. The equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor…

  6. Gender differences in depression.

    PubMed

    Sagud, M; Hotujac, Lj; Mihaljević-Peles, A; Jakovljević, M

    2002-06-01

    Depression is twice as common in women as in men, although some concern has been raised in terms of misdiagnosing depression in men. The incidence of depression in women varies during the life span. The peak incidence during childbearing years appears to be associated with cyclic hormonal changes. Women also present with reproductive -specific mood disorders: pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), depression in pregnancy, postpartal mood disorder (PDD) and perimenopausal depressive disorder. Gender differences were repeatedly observed in response to antidepressant medication. Premenopausal women appear to respond poorly and to show low tolerability to TCAs, but they tend to show greater responsiveness to the SSRIs. In contrast, men and postmenopausal women can respond equally to the TCAs and SSRIs. These differences are contributed to gender differences in pharmacokinetics of antidepressants and to the influence of menstrual cycle. These findings suggest the need for a gender-specific approach to the evaluation and management of depression.

  7. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.

  8. Attitude, Gender and Achievement in Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…

  9. The Effects of On-Time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil Dagli, Ummuhan; Jones, Ithel

    2012-01-01

    This study was an examination of the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement. Central for this study was to explore if the relationship between the kindergarten enrollment status and mathematics achievement varies by children's gender, race, and family SES status. It used a…

  10. [Gender differences in cardiology].

    PubMed

    Hochleitner, Margarethe; Bader, Angelika

    2003-01-01

    Frequent reports of gender differences in cardiology prompted us to study the cardiological situation in Tyrol, Austria, from 1995 to 2000. Mortality statistics for heart deaths 1995: women 1008 (53.5%), men 875 (46.5%); 2000: women 1104 (58.2%), men 792 (41.8%). Coronary heart deaths 1995: women 572 (50.0%), men 571 (50.0%); 2000: women 634 (54.4%), men 531 (45.6%). Angiograms 1995: women 332 (33.9%), men 646 (66.1%); 2000: women 688 (32.5%), men 1429 (67.5%). Bypass surgery 1995: women 54 (33.0%), men 156 (67.0%); 2000: women 42 (27.5%), men 157 (72.5%). Heart deaths 1995-2000: women +9.5%, men -9.5%; coronary heart deaths 1995-2000: women +10.8%, men -7.0%. By (welcome) contrast, coronary angiograms 1995-2000: women +107.2%, men +121.2%. Bypass operations 1995-2000: women -22.2%, men +0.6%. Life expectancy 1995-2000: women +0.6%, men +0.6%. Patient age at heart death 1995-2000: women +1.8%, men +2.5%. In aggregate, we see that for decades more women than men have died a heart death, but that cardiac mortalities remain a typically "male bastion" with persistent gender differences in access to clinical cardiology. The worsening trend for women begs for awareness programs and corresponding preventive measures.

  11. [Laughter: gender differences].

    PubMed

    Mora-Ripoll, R; Ubal-López, R

    2011-01-01

    Laughter is associated to many physiological and psychological benefits. Although women laugh more than men do, the daily frequency of laughter does not seem to differ. Laughter in all its forms and manifestations is an indicator of family vitality and healthy couples. Laughter is very attractive at the interpersonal level, especially for women. Men use humor much more and laughter when it comes to discussing sensitive health issues. In women, laughter would be more associated with greater social support in relationships and as a tool to cope with stress. Inviting laughter in the doctor's office may be very useful when directing certain messages on therapeutic management. Taking into account possible gender differences in the use of humor and laughter may help to improve the relationship with the patient and optimize the clinical application of laughter in health care and education setting.

  12. Gender differences in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Angele, Martin K; Pratschke, Sebastian; Hubbard, William J; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2014-01-01

    During sepsis, a complex network of cytokine, immune, and endothelial cell interactions occur and disturbances in the microcirculation cause organ dysfunction or even failure leading to high mortality in those patients. In this respect, numerous experimental and clinical studies indicate sex-specific differences in infectious diseases and sepsis. Female gender has been demonstrated to be protective under such conditions, whereas male gender may be deleterious due to a diminished cell-mediated immune response and cardiovascular functions. Male sex hormones, i.e., androgens, have been shown to be suppressive on cell-mediated immune responses. In contrast, female sex hormones exhibit protective effects which may contribute to the natural advantages of females under septic conditions. Thus, the hormonal status has to be considered when treating septic patients. Therefore, potential therapies could be derived from this knowledge. In this respect, administration of female sex hormones (estrogens and their precursors) may exert beneficial effects. Alternatively, blockade of male sex hormone receptors could result in maintained immune responses under adverse circulatory conditions. Finally, administration of agents that influence enzymes synthesizing female sex hormones which attenuate the levels of pro-inflammatory agents might exert salutary effects in septic patients. Prospective patient studies are required for transferring those important experimental findings into the clinical arena. PMID:24193307

  13. Sticks and Stones Will Break My Bones but Failure Feedback May Not Hurt Me: Gender Differences in the Relationship between Achievement Motive, Coping Strategies and Environmental Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ser Hong; Pang, Joyce S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the processes through which achievement motivation guides the selection of coping strategies which in turn affects environmental mastery post-failure feedback. Seventy-six college students received failure feedback after completing a professional aptitude test. Findings showed that gender moderated the relationship between…

  14. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  15. Predicting Mathematics Achievement by Motivation and Self-Efficacy across Gender and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…

  16. Gender Differences in Mathematics and Science: The Role of the Actiotope in Determining Individuals' Achievements and Confidence in Their Own Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Park, Kyungbin; Portešová, Šárka; Porath, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Despite changes, gender differences in math and science continue to exist in some countries. We examined whether the actiotopes of boys and girls at the high school level in math and science differed and the extent to which (a) their actiotope components, (b) the progressive development of their actiotopes (dynamic perspective), and (c) the…

  17. [Gender differences in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Avila Escribano, José Juan; González Parra, David

    2007-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol consumption in women has increased in the last few years, which suggests that alcoholism in women will also increase in the near future. Moreover, this disease shows differential characteristics in women, and knowledge of these characteristics is important so that treatment can begin as early as possible. The objective of the present study was to explore clinical differences in alcohol use disorders according to patients' gender. It was carried out with a sample of 370 patients, 325 men (87.8%) and 45 women (12.2%), with mean ages of 42.83 and 44.6 years, respectively. The patients were assessed through the Europasi interview and analytical studies with liver enzyme profiles and blood tests. The most notable results were: women began alcohol consumption significantly later than men (19.61 and 16.9 years, respectively; p < 0.008); they were significantly older than men when the consumption pattern became problematic (30.93 and 24.68 years, respectively; p < 0.003); they had been drinking for fewer years (13.26 versus 17.85 years; p < 0.02); and they drank fewer grams of alcohol (117.7 and 133.8 g., respectively; n.s.). Women scored significantly higher than men on the Europasi psychiatric scale (2.91 and 1.97, respectively; p < 0.007) and men had more legal problems than women (1.2 and 1.0, respectively; p < 0.000). In the biological tests the GGT enzyme values were higher in men (137.51) than in women (96.7), but this difference was not significant, and the VCM value was significantly higher for women (98.1) than for men (95.05). Another important finding was that the percentage of women who had sought private professional help was higher than that of men (15% versus 4.6%; p < 0.01).

  18. Investigating Gender Differences in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

  19. The Effect of Prior Knowledge and Gender on Physics Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Henderson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences on the Conceptual Survey in Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) have been extensively studied. Ten semesters (N=1621) of CSEM data is presented showing male students outperform female students on the CSEM posttest by 5 % (p < . 001). Male students also outperform female students on qualitative in-semester test questions by 3 % (p = . 004), but no significant difference between male and female students was found on quantitative test questions. Male students enter the class with superior prior preparation in the subject and score 4 % higher on the CSEM pretest (p < . 001). If the sample is restricted to students with little prior knowledge who answer no more than 8 of the 32 questions correctly (N=822), male and female differences on the CSEM and qualitative test questions cease to be significant. This suggests no intrinsic gender bias exists in the CSEM itself and that gender differences are the result of prior preparation measured by CSEM pretest score. Gender differences between male and female students increase with pretest score. Regression analyses are presented to further explore interactions between preparation, gender, and achievement.

  20. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

  1. Gender differences in romantic jealousy.

    PubMed

    Pines, A M; Friedman, A

    1998-02-01

    Findings of studies of gender differences in jealousy are contradictory. In the present study, conflicting literature was addressed by distinguishing 5 dimensions of jealousy: level, trigger, experience, focus, and responses. In 4 studies, 3 in the U.S. and 1 in Israel, gender differences were explored in these 5 dimensions of romantic jealousy. Although there were no gender differences in the likelihood, frequency, duration, or intensity of jealousy, there were differences in the responses to certain jealousy-producing occasions as well as in the focus, experience, and expression of jealousy.

  2. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  3. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  4. Gender and Education for All: Progress and Problems in Achieving Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisamya, Grace; DeJaeghere, Joan; Kendall, Nancy; Khan, Marufa Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the effects of rapid increases in gender parity in primary schooling in Bangladesh and Malawi on gender inequities in schools and communities. Based on an analysis of comparative case studies of marginalized communities, we argue that educational initiatives focused on achieving gender parity provide limited evidence that girls'…

  5. Gender Difference and Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    An exploratory study examined gender differences in writing in the essays of five male and five female freshman composition students. The findings suggest parallels between the writing and speaking behaviors of men and women students and between student writing and the work of male and female professional writers. The male students made few…

  6. IRIS, Gender, and Student Achievement at University of Genova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonfa, Antonella; Freddano, Michela

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the gender effects on student achievement at University of Genova and it is a part of the research performed by the University of Genova called "Benchmarks interfaculty students: Development of a gender perspective to find strategies to understand what leads students to success in their studies", financed by the…

  7. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in…

  8. Gender differences in trusting strangers: Role of the target's gender.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships.

  9. Gender differences in addiction severity.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.

  10. Games Strategies: Gender Differences vs. Motivational Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gower, Linda A.; And Others

    Rapoport and Chammah's (1965) Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game research and Vinacke's (1959) parchisi board game research revealed that players used various strategies to reach their desired outcomes. The researchers ascribed the strategy variations to gender differences. A study was conducted which replicated Vinacke's parchisi board game and…

  11. Gender differences in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Herlitz, A; Nilsson, L G; Bäckman, L

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between gender and memory has been largely neglected by research, despite occasional studies reporting gender differences in episodic memory performance. The present study examined potential gender differences in episodic memory, semantic memory, primary memory, and priming. Five hundred thirty women and 470 men, randomly sampled from the city of Umeå, Sweden, 35-80 years of age, participated in the study. There were no differences between men and women with regard to age or education, or on a measure of global intellectual functioning. As has been demonstrated previously, men out performed women on a visuospatial task and women outperformed men on tests of verbal fluency. In addition, the results demonstrated that women consistently performed at a higher level than did men on the episodic memory tasks, although there were no differences between men and women on the tasks assessing semantic memory, primary memory, or priming. The women's higher level of performance on the episodic memory tasks could not be fully explained by their higher verbal ability.

  12. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Lisa M

    2007-03-01

    Because estrogen has numerous effects on dopamine neurotransmission, many researchers are interested in its possible use to either slow the progression or reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The incidence of PD is greater in men than in women. Gender differences in neurotoxicity have been observed, and basic research in experimental animals indicates that estrogen protects neurons from various forms of injury. However, the results of retrospective surveys of the neuroprotective effects of estrogen replacement in PD have been mixed, with some showing no effect on risk and others showing a reduction in risk. A mildly significant gender difference in disability and quality-of-life reporting has been noted, with women citing greater disability and reduced quality of life. Gender differences have been shown in response to treatment of PD, for example, in how levodopa is metabolized--women have greater levodopa bioavailability. In the Parkinson's Disease on Estrogen Therapy Replacement in the Menopause Years (POETRY) study, participants were found to have improved scores on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. Based on the POETRY results, it is hypothesized that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) may lead to improvement in PD symptoms and provide an opportunity to reduce the dosage of antiparkinsonian medication in women.

  13. Gender and Achievement: What Have Exams Got to Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, Jannette

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that examinations have a complex role in creating and defining gender differences in performance in public examinations. To illustrate this argument three aspects of examining are reviewed: styles of examinations and how they define achievement; coursework and the role it plays in contributing to gender differences in…

  14. [Gender differences in dissociative disorders].

    PubMed

    Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between mental illness, on the one hand, and sex and gender, on the other hand, has received interest since the beginning of medicine in antique times. A prototypical example of a seemingly woman-specific disease is hysteria. The term itself, which is derived from the Greek word for womb, denotes a psychosexual dimension comprising the current attitude towards sexuality and the dominating gender relationship. In addition, the colourful history of hysteria indicates that illness is not exclusively determined by biological factors, but also significantly by socio-cultural influences, for example in the treatment of hysterical women. Even nowadays, there is a wide-spread belief that dissociative symptoms and disorders, which have succeeded hysteria in current classification systems, are predominantly seen in women. However, empirical studies in the general population and in different clinical samples using sound instruments have indicated that dissociative symptoms do not differ between the genders. The seemingly dominance of dissociative disorders in women may also depend on the socio-cultural context, because men with dissociative disorders usually do not enter the general health system, but rather the legal system, i.e. they can be found in jail or forensic institutions.

  15. The "Renaissance Child": High Achievement and Gender in Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of the "Renaissance Child" to illustrate the ways in which gender influences the opportunities and possibilities of high-achieving pupils. Using data from a study of 12-13-year high-achieving boys and girls based in schools in England, the paper considers the ways in which a group of popular boys was able…

  16. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  17. Effects of Single-Gender Middle School Classes on Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Tanisha

    Many girls continue to achieve below their male counterparts and portray negative attitudes towards science classes. Some school districts are using single-gender education as a way to shrink the gender gap in school achievement and science related attitude. The purpose of this study was to compare achievement and science-related attitudes of 7th grade girls in single-gender education to 7th grade girls in mixed-gender education. The theoretical base for this study included knowledge from brain-based learning and assimilation, accommodation and age factors of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The 12-week study included 48 7th grade girls, 21 in the single-gender classroom and 14 in each mixed-gender classroom. This quantitative randomized posttest only control group design utilized the TerraNova Science Assessment and the Test of Science Related Attitudes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed in the achievement and attitudes of girls in single and mixed-gender science classes. ANOVA analyses revealed that the girls in the single-gender classroom showed a significantly higher achievement level when compared to girls in the mixed-gender classrooms. Results showed no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The results of this study contribute to social change by raising awareness about gender issues in science achievement and attitude, addressing a deficiency in the single-gender science education literature, and assisting educational systems in decision making to address achievement gaps while moving toward adequate yearly progress and meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

  18. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-12-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.

  19. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  20. The Effects of Single Gender Education on Sixth through Eighth Grade Female Student Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Deanna Sherrise

    Currently, students in the United States are educated in either single or mixed gender learning environments. An achievement gap between male and female students in the area of science indicates a need for instructional strategies and environments that will address these learning needs. Single gender classrooms are one possible solution as males and females have gender differences that may contribute to the way they learn. This quantitative, causal comparative study compared the differences in the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards science achievement scores of middle school females in single and mixed gender environments in a state in the Southeastern United States. Independent samples t tests, Chi-Square Tests, and two-way ANOVA analyses determined if group differences in science achievement existed between sixth through eighth grade female students in single and mixed gender classrooms. Results of the study revealed there was no significant difference in achievement scores between the two groups. The research findings provide the stakeholders with information that can potentially influence the implementation of single gender programs to improve the achievement of female students in middle grades science. Keywords: single gender, science, female students, education

  1. Gender Differences in E-Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Guardiola, Jorge; Rodriguez, Oscar Martin; Alonso, Miguel Angel Montero

    2012-01-01

    Student learning skills differ depending on gender. The importance of studying this situation in the classroom is that recommendations can be made taking gender into consideration. In e-learning, the roles of students and teachers change. In line with recent research, the question this paper raises is whether or not gender differences also exist…

  2. Gender differences in collaboration patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohan; Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Amaral, Luis A. N.

    2014-03-01

    Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in research productivity and impact. However, it remains unclear whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ significantly from each other in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,920 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at selected top U.S. research universities. We find that while female faculty have significantly fewer co-authors over their careers, this can be fully explained by their lower number of publications. Indeed, we also find that females tend to distribute their co-authoring opportunities among their co-authors more evenly than males do. Our results suggest that females have had a greater propensity to collaborate, in order to succeed in a historically men-dominated academic world. Surprisingly, we find evidence that in molecular biology there has been a gender segregation within sub-disciplines. Female faculty in molecular biology departments tend to collaborate with smaller teams and publish in journals and fields where typical team size is smaller. Our results identify gender-specific collaborative behaviors as well as disciplines with distinct patterns. The authors thank the support from the following grants: NSF SBE 0624318, NSF IIS 0830388, and Spanish DGICYT under project FIS2010-18639.

  3. Racial and gender science achievement gaps in secondary education.

    PubMed

    Bacharach, Verne R; Baumeister, Alfred A; Furr, R Michael

    2003-03-01

    A substantial disparity exists for academic achievement in science between Black and White primary-school children. A similar gap exists between boys and girls. The extent to which secondary education influences these achievement gaps has not been established. The authors report analyses showing how these science achievement gaps change as a function of secondary education. Analyses of data from a large, nationally representative longitudinal study of academic achievement showed that racial disparities and disparities associated with gender continue to increase throughout high school.

  4. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born…

  5. The Role of Parental Support, Parental Monitoring, and Time Spent with Parents in Adolescent Academic Achievement in Iceland: A Structural Model of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental support, parental monitoring, and time spent with parents and academic achievement among adolescent girls and boys in Iceland, a high-income per-capita Nordic country. The indirect role of school effort is also examined. Data of 7430 9th and 10th graders is analyzed in the study. Structural…

  6. Influences of Disciplinary Classroom Climate on High School Student Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Achievement: A Look at Gender and Racial-Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of disciplinary climate in the classroom and student math self-efficacy on math achievement. The student part of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 survey containing 4,199 U.S. observations was employed in a weighted least squares nested multiple regression framework to predict math…

  7. Independent Reading: The Relationship of Challenge, Non-Fiction and Gender to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, K. J.; Samuels, J.; Paul, T.

    2008-01-01

    To explore whether different balances of fiction/non-fiction reading and challenge might help explain differences in reading achievement between genders, data on 45,670 pupils who independently read over 3 million books were analysed. Moderate (rather than high or low) levels of challenge were positively associated with achievement gain, but…

  8. Sex and gender differences in clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Seeland, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Sex and gender differences in frequent diseases are more widespread than one may assume. In addition, they have significant yet frequently underestimated consequences on the daily practice of medicine, on outcomes and effects of therapies. Gender medicine is a novel medical discipline that takes into account the effects of sex and gender on the health of women and men. The major goal is to improve health and health care for both, for women as well as for men. We give in this chapter an overview on sex and gender differences in a number of clinical areas, in cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, gastroenterology and hepatology, in nephrology, autoimmune diseases, endocrinology, hematology, neurology. We discuss the preferential use of male animals in drug development, the underrepresentation of women in early and cardiovascular clinical trials, sex and gender differences in pharmacology, in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, in management and drug use. Most guidelines do not include even well-known sex and gender differences. European guidelines for the management of cardiovascular diseases in pregnancy have only recently been published. Personalized medicine cannot replace gender-based medicine. Large databases reveal that gender remains an independent risk factor after ethnicity, age, comorbidities, and scored risk factors have been taken into account. Some genetic variants carry a different risk in women and men. The sociocultural dimension of gender integrating lifestyle, environment, stress, and other variables cannot be replaced by a sum of biological parameters. Because of this prominent role of gender, clinical care algorithms must include gender-based assessment.

  9. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  10. Explaining the gender difference in nightmare frequency.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed a robust gender difference in nightmare frequency of medium effect size in adolescents and young adults: Women tend to report nightmares more frequently than men. The present study, carried out in an unselected student sample, indicates that 2 factors mediate the gender difference in nightmare frequency: neuroticism and overall dream recall frequency. The effect of neuroticism on the gender difference and the finding that the gender difference in nightmare frequency emerges at an age of about 10 years suggest that gender-specific socialization processes may play an important role in explaining the gender differences in nightmare frequency in adolescents and young to middle-aged adults. This idea is supported by the previous finding that nightmare frequency is related to sex role orientation. However, longitudinal studies are necessary to validate these hypotheses.

  11. Students' Achievement in Human Circulatory System Unit: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effect of gender and reasoning ability on the human circulatory system concepts achievement and attitude toward biology. Reports a statistically significant mean difference between concrete and formal students with regard to achievement and attitude toward biology. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  12. The Effect of Gender upon Heritability and Common Environmental Estimates in Measures of Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee Anne

    1994-01-01

    Examined the effects of gender on academic achievement for 138 mono- and 125 dizygotic twin pairs, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years. Results suggested that individual differences in academic achievement may be more influenced by genetic than environmental variance in females, and by environmental than genetic variance in males. (BC)

  13. Personality and gender differences in global perspective.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, David P; Long, Audrey E; McPhearson, Allante; O'Brien, Kirby; Remmert, Brooke; Shah, Seema H

    2016-03-21

    Men's and women's personalities appear to differ in several respects. Social role theories of development assume gender differences result primarily from perceived gender roles, gender socialization and sociostructural power differentials. As a consequence, social role theorists expect gender differences in personality to be smaller in cultures with more gender egalitarianism. Several large cross-cultural studies have generated sufficient data for evaluating these global personality predictions. Empirically, evidence suggests gender differences in most aspects of personality-Big Five traits, Dark Triad traits, self-esteem, subjective well-being, depression and values-are conspicuously larger in cultures with more egalitarian gender roles, gender socialization and sociopolitical gender equity. Similar patterns are evident when examining objectively measured attributes such as tested cognitive abilities and physical traits such as height and blood pressure. Social role theory appears inadequate for explaining some of the observed cultural variations in men's and women's personalities. Evolutionary theories regarding ecologically-evoked gender differences are described that may prove more useful in explaining global variation in human personality.

  14. Gender and Student Achievement in English Schools. CEE DP 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    In the UK, there is a marked gender gap in the educational attainment of boys and girls. At the end of compulsory education, 10 per cent fewer boys achieve 5 or more good GCSEs. This gap is by no means confined to GCSE. It is evident at all Key Stages. Furthermore, some indicators suggest that the gap has widened over time. In this paper, we…

  15. Gender Differences and Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yi; Weymouth, Christine M.; Dragseth, Kenneth

    This study examined gender issues in public education, focusing on the Edina Public Schools, Minnesota. Data gathered from district, state, national, and international sources included student enrollment, student participation in school or district programs, grades from school report cards, standardized test scores, and perceptions and attitudes…

  16. Gender, Technology, and Mathematics Education: Working Together To Achieve "Equality."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Mary E.

    The launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957 initiated a series of reform movements in mathematics education. These reform movements provide a framework from which to chronicle the development of interest into gender differences in mathematics learning. The paper examines these issues and is presented in six sections. The first section…

  17. Gender Differences in Family Dinnertime Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Natalie; Gallo, Emily; Fivush, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Family dinnertime conversations are key settings where children learn behavior regulation, narrative skills, and knowledge about the world. In this context, parents may also model and socialize gender differences in language. The present study quantitatively examines gendered language use across a family dinnertime recorded with 37 broadly…

  18. Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

  19. Gender Differences in International Students' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Wonsun

    2009-01-01

    As gender roles in the society are being rapidly redefined, female students today are showing outstanding academic prowess and pursuing higher education. The current study recruited Korean international students (n = 76) enrolled in universities in the US and examined gender differences in academic adjustment. The findings of the current study…

  20. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  1. Gender-based differences in cardiac diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei-Chi; Clancy, Colleen E.

    2011-01-01

    It has been observed that the incidence of heart failure and Brugada syndrome are higher in men, while women are more likely to have QT interval prolongation and develop torsades de pointes (TdP). Over the past decade, new studies have improved our understanding of the mechanisms of abnormal repolarization and the relationship between gender differences in cardiac repolarization and presentation of clinical syndromes. Nevertheless, the causes of gender-based differences in cardiac disease are still not completely clear. This review paper briefly summarized what is currently known about gender differences in heart failure, Brugada syndrome and long QT syndrome from molecular mechanisms to clinical presentations. PMID:23554675

  2. Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined.

  3. Gender Differences in Family Stories: Moderating Influence of Parent Gender Role and Child Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Skillman, Gemma

    2000-01-01

    Examined thematic differences in family stories told by parents according to parent and child gender, noting differences according to parent gender-type and matches between story themes and personal values related to child behavior. No significant main effects or interactions for affiliation themes existed. Interaction existed between parent…

  4. Lizard thermal biology: do genders differ?

    PubMed

    Huey, Raymond B; Pianka, Eric R

    2007-09-01

    For more than six decades, physiological ecologists have intensively studied diverse aspects of lizard thermal biology. Nevertheless, a recent review notes that prior studies have generally ignored gender differences in body temperatures, thermal sensitivity, or other aspects of thermal biology. We concur that gender differences have been ignored and should be examined: if gender differences prove common, standard protocols for studying lizard natural history, thermal physiology, and ecology will require significant modification. To help resolve this issue, we conducted a retrospective analysis of our huge data set on the thermal biology of many desert lizards (more than 11,000 individuals from 56 species in seven major clades) from Africa, Australia, and North America. Results are unambiguous: gender differences in body temperature, air temperature, and time of activity--and thus in field thermal biology--are almost always minor. In fact, mean body temperatures of males and females differ by less than 1 degrees C in 80.4% of species. For desert lizards, gender differences in thermal biology are the exception, not the rule. Nevertheless, gender differences should be examined when feasible because exceptions--though likely rare--could be biologically interesting.

  5. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  6. Effect of Foreign Language Anxiety on Gender and Academic Achievement among Yemeni University EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Yassin, Amr Abdullatif; Maasum, Tengku Nor Rizan Bt Tengku Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in terms of anxiety among Yemeni university EFL learners. It also aimed to investigate the correlation between the level of anxiety and the academic achievement of the students. The participants of this study were 155 students chosen from the population through stratified random sampling. The…

  7. Geographic Variation of District-Level Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Gender achievement gaps on national and state assessments have been a popular research topic over the last few decades. Many prior studies examine these gaps in different subjects (e.g., mathematics, reading, and science) and grades (typically kindergarten through eighth grade) for students living in various regions (typically states or countries)…

  8. Gender-related differences in moral judgments.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, M; Ferrucci, R; Mameli, F; Marceglia, S; Mrakic-Sposta, S; Zago, S; Lucchiari, C; Consonni, D; Nordio, F; Pravettoni, G; Cappa, S; Priori, A

    2010-08-01

    The moral sense is among the most complex aspects of the human mind. Despite substantial evidence confirming gender-related neurobiological and behavioral differences, and psychological research suggesting gender specificities in moral development, whether these differences arise from cultural effects or are innate remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of gender, education (general education and health education) and religious belief (Catholic and non-Catholic) on moral choices by testing 50 men and 50 women with a moral judgment task. Whereas we found no differences between the two genders in utilitarian responses to non-moral dilemmas and to impersonal moral dilemmas, men gave significantly more utilitarian answers to personal moral (PM) dilemmas (i.e., those courses of action whose endorsement involves highly emotional decisions). Cultural factors such as education and religion had no effect on performance in the moral judgment task. These findings suggest that the cognitive-emotional processes involved in evaluating PM dilemmas differ in men and in women, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying neural mechanisms. Gender-related determinants of moral behavior may partly explain gender differences in real-life involving power management, economic decision-making, leadership and possibly also aggressive and criminal behaviors.

  9. An Analysis of Gender Differences on Performance Assessment in Mathematics--A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liru; Wilson, Linda; Manon, Jon

    To add to previous research on gender differences in mathematics ability and achievement, this study was designed to investigate gender differences in problem-solving strategies for two extended constructed-response mathematics questions in grade 3. It is a followup to a study of gender differences on constructed-response and multiple-choice items…

  10. [Sex and gender differences in pharmacotherapy].

    PubMed

    Regitz-Zagrosek, V

    2014-09-01

    Many drugs have act differently in women and men. Biological differences between women and men lead to sex differences in pharmacokinetics, i.e., in drug absorption, distribution in tissues, metabolism by liver enzymes, and excretion via the kidney and intestine. In addition there are sex differences in pharmacodynamics, leading to a different efficacy of drugs in women and men. The biological differences between women and men may be caused by sex-specific gene expression, by sex-specific epigenetic modifications, and finally by the effect of sex hormones. In addition, gender plays a role in drug efficacy as a sociocultural dimension that may lead to differences between women and men. Frequently drugs are only tested on animals of one sex and thereby optimized for one sex. This is based on the notion that sex differences are not important for clinical drug effects. Furthermore, to date, sex and gender differences have been underestimated in clinical studies, and phase III studies were not prospectively designed to assess sex differences in drug effects. In addition, women and men use drugs differently with respect to compliance, adherence, and self-medication with over-the-counter drugs. Further, it is known that male and female physicians treat women and men as patients differently. In conclusion, drug therapy is not yet optimized for both genders. However, there is increasing awareness that differences between women and men should be respected in order to provide optimal drugs in optimal doses for both genders.

  11. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  12. Gender Interest Differences with Multimedia Learning Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passig, David; Levin, Haya

    1999-01-01

    This study of 90 kindergarten children examined gender differences in learning interest from different designs of multimedia interfaces. Results indicate a significant difference between boys and girls in the influence of the design of interactive multimedia stories on time on task and on level of satisfaction with the interfaces. (Author/LRW)

  13. Gender Differences in Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement in Third- through Eighth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearrington, Jamie Y.; Parker, Patricia D.; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela; Gagnon, Sandra G.; McCane-Bowling, Sara; Sorrell, Christy A.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found gender differences in certain areas of academic achievement, such as reading and math. Fewer studies have examined gender disparities in writing skills. The current study explored gender differences in written expression performance. Participants were 1,240 male and female students in third through eighth grade,…

  14. Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…

  15. Gender Differences in Perceptions of Studying for the GCSE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Lynne; Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored gender differences in perceptions of studying for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). The sample comprised 644 pupils drawn from eight schools in Outer London, UK. The schools encompassed pupils who could be regarded as high, middle and low achievers drawn from co-educational and single-sex schools. Pupils…

  16. A Comparison of Students' Achievement in Private and Conventional Public Secondary Schools in Malawi from a Gender Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwendo, Martha

    2010-01-01

    This article explores differences in achievement between private and conventional public schools with reference to gender in the face of Education for All targets and Millennium Development Goals. It shows that on average the gender gap is narrower in public schools than in private schools and that the pass rate for public school girls is higher…

  17. Mathematics achievement based on gender among eight grade school students in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabab'h, Belal Sadiq Hamed; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Perumal, Selvan

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the differences in gender base on numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement among Jordanian 8th grade school students. The respondent of this study were 337 students from eight public secondary schools in Alkoura district and selected by using stratified random sampling. The study comprised of 179 (53%) males and 158 (47%) females students. The mathematics test comprises of 30 items which has eight items for numbers, 14 items for algebra and eight items for geometry. Finding from independent sample t-test shows that female student score higher than male students in numbers, algebra, mathematics achievement and spatial visualization. There is no significant difference in geometry base for gender. This study also indicates that numbers, algebra and mathematics achievement favorable to female and bias to male students. The main recommendations from this study are for teachers and other educational professionals to focus on the numbers and algebra for male students to improve the learning of mathematics, and feeding program through benefiting from tutorial classes to avoid of weakness in different aspects of mathematics achievement. Gender differences in mathematics in secondary school students in Jordan continue to exist and these differences may influence future educational and occupational pathways.

  18. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  19. Gender differences in crowd perception

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Leib, Allison Y.; Puri, Amrita M.; Whitney, David; Peng, Kaiping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the first impression of a crowd of faces—crowd perception—is influenced by social background and cognitive processing. Specifically, we explored whether males and females, two groups that are distinct biologically and socially, differ in their ability to extract ensemble characteristics from crowds of faces that were comprised of different identities. Participants were presented with crowds of similar faces and were instructed to scroll through a morphed continuum of faces until they found a face that was representative of the average identity of each crowd. Consistent with previous research, females were more precise in single face perception. Furthermore, the results showed that females were generally more accurate in estimating the average identity of a crowd. However, the correlation between single face discrimination and crowd averaging differed between males and females. Specifically, male subjects' ensemble integration slightly compensated for their poor single face perception; their performance on the crowd perception task was not as poor as would be expected from their single face discrimination ability. Overall, the results suggest that group perception is not an isolated or uniform cognitive mechanism, but rather one that interacts with biological and social processes. PMID:26388805

  20. Gender Differences in Alcohol and Polysubstance Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lex, Barbara W.

    This paper selectively reviews current knowledge about the effects of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Highlights of the review include findings that: (1) gender differences in alcohol and polysubstance users are reflected in epidemiological, biobehavioral, and neuroendocrine factors; (2) women and men exhibit different patterns of alcohol…

  1. Gender Differences in Students' Mathematics Game Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of…

  2. Gender gaps in achievement and participation in multiple introductory biology classrooms.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Brownell, Sara E; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    Although gender gaps have been a major concern in male-dominated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines such as physics and engineering, the numerical dominance of female students in biology has supported the assumption that gender disparities do not exist at the undergraduate level in life sciences. Using data from 23 large introductory biology classes for majors, we examine two measures of gender disparity in biology: academic achievement and participation in whole-class discussions. We found that females consistently underperform on exams compared with males with similar overall college grade point averages. In addition, although females on average represent 60% of the students in these courses, their voices make up less than 40% of those heard responding to instructor-posed questions to the class, one of the most common ways of engaging students in large lectures. Based on these data, we propose that, despite numerical dominance of females, gender disparities remain an issue in introductory biology classrooms. For student retention and achievement in biology to be truly merit based, we need to develop strategies to equalize the opportunities for students of different genders to practice the skills they need to excel.

  3. Gender differences in substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brady, K T; Randall, C L

    1999-06-01

    Despite the fact that the rate of substance abuse and dependence is higher among men than it is among women, the prevalence rates, especially the more recent ones, indicate that a diagnosis of substance abuse is not gender specific. From the emerging literature on gender differences over the past 25 years, male and female substance abusers are clearly not the same. Women typically begin using substances later than do men, are strongly influenced by spouses or boyfriends to use, report different reasons for maintaining the use of the substances, and enter treatment earlier in the course of their illnesses than do men. Importantly, women also have a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, than do men, and these disorders typically predate the onset of substance-abuse problems. For women, substances such as alcohol may be used to self-medicate mood disturbances, whereas for men, this may not be true. Although these comorbid disorders might complicate treatment for women, women are, in fact, responsive to treatment and do as well as men in follow-up. Gender differences and similarities have significant treatment implications. This is especially true for the telescoping phenomenon, in which the window for intervention between progressive landmarks is shorter for women than for men. This is also true for the gender differences in physical and sexual abuse, as well as other psychiatric comorbidity that is evident in female substance abusers seeking treatment. The barriers to treatment for women are being addressed in many treatment settings to encourage more women to enter treatment, and family and couples therapy are standard therapeutic interventions. Negative consequences associated with substance abuse are different for men and women, and gender-sensitive rating instruments must be used to measure not only the severity of the problem but also to evaluate treatment efficacy. To determine whether gender

  4. CHARACTERIZING GENDER DIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT SEEKERS

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ben; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-01-01

    Background Available evidence suggests women may be more vulnerable to the effects of chronic alcohol consumption than men. The few investigations of gender differences in treatment-seeking populations have often involved study samples restricted by selection criteria (e.g., age, education). The current study examined gender differences in a heterogeneous sample of individuals seeking treatment for a substance use disorder. We examined alcohol drinking levels, age at drinking milestones (e.g., first drink, first intoxication), and progression from milestones to alcohol problems or treatment. Additionally, family history, spousal alcoholism, and nicotine use were analyzed. Methods Participants included men (n=274) and women (n=257) in substance abuse treatment facilities. Participants completed inventories quantifying affect, intellectual ability, and drinking consequences. A family tree for substance use and personal histories for alcohol and nicotine use, including chronicity, frequency, and regularity, were collected. Results Telescoping was not observed when progression from drinking milestones to alcoholism or alcohol problems was compared between men and women. In contrast, when considered as progression to treatment, marked telescoping effects were detected, with women entering treatment more rapidly by approximately four years. Familial differences included a greater proportion of women reporting alcoholic parents (73% women; 61% men) and alcoholic spouses (58% women; 38% men). Smoking behaviors were similar between genders, however men reporting higher levels of alcohol consumption reported greater intensity of chronic smoking. Smoking and drinking behaviors were correlated among men, but not women. Rates of pre-treatment drug problems were equivalent between genders. Conclusions When contrasted with the available literature, our data were only partially supportive of gender-contingent telescoping. While women did not experience alcohol problems or

  5. Gender differences in the temporal voice areas

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Merle-Marie; Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Bashar; Giordano, Bruno L.; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    There is not only evidence for behavioral differences in voice perception between female and male listeners, but also recent suggestions for differences in neural correlates between genders. The fMRI functional voice localizer (comprising a univariate analysis contrasting stimulation with vocal vs. non-vocal sounds) is known to give robust estimates of the temporal voice areas (TVAs). However, there is growing interest in employing multivariate analysis approaches to fMRI data (e.g., multivariate pattern analysis; MVPA). The aim of the current study was to localize voice-related areas in both female and male listeners and to investigate whether brain maps may differ depending on the gender of the listener. After a univariate analysis, a random effects analysis was performed on female (n = 149) and male (n = 123) listeners and contrasts between them were computed. In addition, MVPA with a whole-brain searchlight approach was implemented and classification maps were entered into a second-level permutation based random effects models using statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM; Nichols and Holmes, 2002). Gender differences were found only in the MVPA. Identified regions were located in the middle part of the middle temporal gyrus (bilateral) and the middle superior temporal gyrus (right hemisphere). Our results suggest differences in classifier performance between genders in response to the voice localizer with higher classification accuracy from local BOLD signal patterns in several temporal-lobe regions in female listeners. PMID:25126055

  6. Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

  7. Real Gender Differences: The Feminist's Fear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunker, Barbara D.

    This paper presents a brief overview of behavioral and biological research that implicates real gender differences as a basis for stereotypical behavior patterns of men and women. A commentary follows that addresses the reactions to the findings by some feminist psychologists and by those feminists who advocate women's rights in the popular press…

  8. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momsen, Janet Henshall

    2000-01-01

    Examines cross-culturally the assertion that women have a special relationship with the environment and are more motivated than men to work for environmental sustainability. Explores the discourse on ecofeminism and evaluates alternative explanations of gender differences in environmental awareness. (CMK)

  9. Gender Differences in Business Faculty's Research Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin

    2013-01-01

    The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…

  10. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

  11. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  12. Gender Differences in the Response to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    I use the introduction of a competitive fellowship program for graduate students to test whether men and women respond differently to competition and whether this response depends on the gender mix of the group. Men experienced a 10% increase in performance in response to the program, with the largest gains for men in departments with the most…

  13. Gender Differences in Peace Movement Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marullo, Sam

    Women have been believed to be peacemakers throughout the centuries. Whether this is biologically determined or a socially structured has been a matter of controversy. This study examined gender differences and the social dynamics of peace movement participation. Subjects (N=272) were members of a local nuclear freeze campaign in 1984.…

  14. Educational achievement of immigrant adolescents in Spain: do gender and region of origin matter?

    PubMed

    Vaquera, Elizabeth; Kao, Grace

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the educational achievement of immigrant youth in Spain employing data from 3 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Families and Childhood (Pànel de Famílies i Infància), a representative sample of children in Catalonia first interviewed at ages 13-16 in 2006 (N = 2,710). Results suggest consistent disadvantage in achievement among first-generation students. Differences in achievement between the second and third generations are apparent in bivariate analyses, but are explained by observable characteristics in multivariate analyses. Gender-specific analyses uncover a large achievement gap between first-generation girls and their third-generation counterparts, but no equivalent gap for boys. Region-of-origin differences are modest, with the exception of Latin American adolescents who exhibit the lowest educational outcomes. The significance of perceptions about school on achievement are discussed.

  15. Patterns of Change in U.S. Gender Achievement Gaps during Elementary and Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahle, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Research on gender achievement gaps shows they exist, and are largest in the tails of the distribution, starting as early as Kindergarten and persisting through eighth grade. In mathematics, studies find small average gender achievement gaps and larger systematically male-favoring gaps among the highest achieving students. This paper seeks to…

  16. Single-Parent Families: The Role of Parent's and Child's Gender on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Kushner, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Using national survey data, the present study investigated whether adolescents living with parents of their same gender fare better on academic achievement than their peers living with opposite-gender parents. Multiple analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) procedures were employed to examine the effects of the children's gender in single-father and…

  17. Gender Differences in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hannawa, Kevin K.; Eliason, Jonathan L.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the 10th leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65–74 years of age, and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in the year 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues due to excessive local production of matrix degrading enzymes, and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, there are no medical therapies available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation are critical, as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms. PMID:19426607

  18. Gender Differences of Popular Music Production in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, the author investigated how students' gender affected their participation in a secondary popular music class in which participants wrote and performed original music. Three same-gendered rock groups and two mixed-gendered rock groups were observed. Would students of different genders rehearse and compose differently? How would…

  19. Gender Differences in Neurodevelopment and Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wilson C.J.; Auger, Anthony P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The concept that the brain differs in make-up between males and females is not new. For example, it is well-established that anatomists in the nineteenth century found sex differences in human brain weight. The importance of sex differences in the organization of the brain cannot be overstated as they may directly affect cognitive functions, such as verbal skills and visio-spatial tasks in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, the incidence of neurological and psychiatric diseases is also highly dependent on sex. These clinical observations reiterate the importance that gender must be taken into account as a relevant possible contributing factor in order to understand the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gender-dependent differentiation of the brain has been detected at every levels of organization: morphological, neurochemical, and functional, and have been shown to be primarily controlled by sex differences in gonadal steroid hormone levels during perinatal development. In this review, we discuss how the gonadal steroid hormone testosterone and its metabolites, affect downstream signaling cascades, including gonadal steroid receptor activation, and epigenetic events in order to differentiate the brain in a gender-dependent fashion. PMID:23503727

  20. Achievement and Behaviour in Undergraduate Mathematics: Personality Is a Better Predictor than Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Lara; Attridge, Nina; Kenny, Steven; Inglis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We investigated two factors that predict students' achievement and behaviour in undergraduate mathematics: gender and personality. We found that gender predicted students' achievement and behaviour when considered in isolation, but ceased to be predictive when personality profiles were taken into account. Furthermore, personality accounted for…

  1. Sex Differences in Adults' Motivation to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA) for ordered categorical data was used…

  2. Results of an Empirical Study into Gender Differences in Attitudes towards Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser-Messmer, Gabriele

    1993-01-01

    Differences in attitude toward mathematics of German students (n=748) aged 14-19 were examined to verify previously reported differences. Results indicated continuing gender differences in interest in mathematics, perceived importance of mathematics achievement, and mathematics career choice; changed views on gender roles. (Contains 25…

  3. School Context and the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legewie, Joscha; DiPrete, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Today, boys generally underperform relative to girls in schools throughout the industrialized world. Building on theories about gender identity and reports from prior ethnographic classroom observations, we argue that school environment channels conceptions of masculinity in peer culture, fostering or inhibiting boys' development of anti-school…

  4. Achieving the Best: Gender and the Literacy Hour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Helen

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 30 British elementary children investigated the relationship between reading and gender and attitudes towards the literacy hour. Findings indicate boys wanted shorter time spans of learning activities, preferred independent work, and liked computer work. Both sexes liked working in small groups and disliked sharing their work…

  5. Correlates of gender and achievement in introductory algebra based physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rachel Clara

    The field of physics is heavily male dominated in America. Thus, half of the population of our country is underrepresented and underserved. The identification of factors that contribute to gender disparity in physics is necessary for educators to address the individual needs of students, and, in particular, the separate and specific needs of female students. In an effort to determine if any correlations could be established or strengthened between sex, gender identity, social network, algebra skill, scientific reasoning ability, and/or student attitude, a study was performed on a group of 82 students in an introductory algebra based physics course. The subjects each filled out a survey at the beginning of the semester of their first semester of algebra based physics. They filled out another survey at the end of that same semester. These surveys included physics content pretests and posttests, as well as questions about the students' habits, attitudes, and social networks. Correlates of posttest score were identified, in order of significance, as pretest score, emphasis on conceptual learning, preference for male friends, number of siblings (negatively correlated), motivation in physics, algebra score, and parents' combined education level. Number of siblings was also found to negatively correlate with, in order of significance, gender identity, preference for male friends, emphasis on conceptual learning, and motivation in physics. Preference for male friends was found to correlate with, in order of significance, emphasis on conceptual learning, gender identity, and algebra score. Also, gender identity was found to correlate with emphasis on conceptual learning, the strongest predictor of posttest score other than pretest score.

  6. Gender Differences in White Matter Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Richard A.; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco; Barker, Gareth J.; Daly, Eileen; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Woolley, James; McGuire, Philip K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual dimorphism in human brain structure is well recognised, but little is known about gender differences in white matter microstructure. We used diffusion tensor imaging to explore differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of microstructural integrity. Methods A whole brain analysis of 135 matched subjects (90 men and 45 women) using a 1.5 T scanner. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to confirm those results where proximity to CSF raised the possibility of partial-volume artefact. Results Men had higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in cerebellar white matter and in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus; women had higher FA in the corpus callosum, confirmed by ROI. Discussion The size of the differences was substantial - of the same order as that attributed to some pathology – suggesting gender may be a potentially significant confound in unbalanced clinical studies. There are several previous reports of difference in the corpus callosum, though they disagree on the direction of difference; our findings in the cerebellum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus have not previously been noted. The higher FA in women may reflect greater efficiency of a smaller corpus callosum. The relatively increased superior longitudinal fasciculus and cerebellar FA in men may reflect their increased language lateralisation and enhanced motor development, respectively. PMID:22701619

  7. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  8. Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: a classroom study of values affirmation.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Akira; Kost-Smith, Lauren E; Finkelstein, Noah D; Pollock, Steven J; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Ito, Tiffany A

    2010-11-26

    In many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines, women are outperformed by men in test scores, jeopardizing their success in science-oriented courses and careers. The current study tested the effectiveness of a psychological intervention, called values affirmation, in reducing the gender achievement gap in a college-level introductory physics class. In this randomized double-blind study, 399 students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the 15-week course. Values affirmation reduced the male-female performance and learning difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. A brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance and learning.

  9. Cross-national patterns of gender differences in mathematics: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Linn, Marcia C

    2010-01-01

    A gender gap in mathematics achievement persists in some nations but not in others. In light of the underrepresentation of women in careers in science, technology, mathematics, and engineering, increasing research attention is being devoted to understanding gender differences in mathematics achievement, attitudes, and affect. The gender stratification hypothesis maintains that such gender differences are closely related to cultural variations in opportunity structures for girls and women. We meta-analyzed 2 major international data sets, the 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study and the Programme for International Student Assessment, representing 493,495 students 14-16 years of age, to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in mathematics achievement, attitudes, and affect across 69 nations throughout the world. Consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis, all of the mean effect sizes in mathematics achievement were very small (d < 0.15); however, national effect sizes showed considerable variability (ds = -0.42 to 0.40). Despite gender similarities in achievement, boys reported more positive math attitudes and affect (ds = 0.10 to 0.33); national effect sizes ranged from d = -0.61 to 0.89. In contrast to those of previous tests of the gender stratification hypothesis, our results point to specific domains of gender equity responsible for gender gaps in math. Gender equity in school enrollment, women's share of research jobs, and women's parliamentary representation were the most powerful predictors of cross-national variability in gender gaps in math. Results are situated within the context of existing research demonstrating apparently paradoxical effects of societal gender equity and highlight the significance of increasing girls' and women's agency cross-nationally.

  10. Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries.

    PubMed

    Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition.

  11. Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition. PMID:27802294

  12. Gender differences in depression across parental roles.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.

  13. Gender Differences in Ocular Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Schmidl, Doreen; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Popa-Cherecheanu, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Gender medicine has been a major focus of research in recent years. The present review focuses on gender differences in the epidemiology of the most frequent ocular diseases that have been found to be associated with impaired ocular blood flow, such as age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Data have accumulated indicating that hormones have an important role in these diseases, since there are major differences in the prevalence and incidence between men and pre- and post-menopausal women. Whether this is related to vascular factors is, however, not entirely clear. Interestingly, the current knowledge about differences in ocular vascular parameters between men and women is sparse. Although little data is available, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone are most likely important regulators of blood flow in the retina and choroid, because they are key regulators of vascular tone in other organs. Estrogen seems to play a protective role since it decreases vascular resistance in large ocular vessels. Some studies indicate that hormone therapy is beneficial for ocular vascular disease in post-menopausal women. This evidence is, however, not sufficient to give any recommendation. Generally, remarkably few data are available on the role of sex hormones on ocular blood flow regulation, a topic that requires more attention in the future. PMID:24892919

  14. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1995-01-01

    Investigates gender differences in computer use among 147 college students. Students completed a questionnaire designed to measure self-efficacy, computer anxiety, computer liking, and computer confidence. Results indicate gender differences in perceived self-efficacy in word processing and spreadsheet software. No gender differences were found in…

  15. Gender Differences in Child Aggression: Relations With Gender-Differentiated Parenting and Parents' Gender-Role Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression.

  16. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  17. The role of difficulty and gender in numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabab'h, Belal Sadiq Hamed; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Perumal, Selvan

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to identify the role of difficulty and gender in numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement among secondary schools students in Jordan. The respondent of the study were 337 students from eight public secondary school in Alkoura district by using stratified random sampling. The study comprised of 179 (53%) males and 158 (47%) females students. The mathematics test comprises of 30 items which has eight items for numbers, 14 items for algebra and eight items for geometry. Based on difficulties among male and female students, the findings showed that item 4 (fractions - 0.34) was most difficult for male students and item 6 (square roots - 0.39) for females in numbers. For the algebra, item 11 (inequality - 0.23) was most difficult for male students and item 6 (algebraic expressions - 0.35) for female students. In geometry, item 3 (reflection - 0.34) was most difficult for male students and item 8 (volume - 0.33) for female students. Based on gender differences, female students showed higher achievement in numbers and algebra compare to male students. On the other hand, there was no differences between male and female students achievement in geometry test. This study suggest that teachers need to give more attention on numbers and algebra when teaching mathematics.

  18. A Professor Like Me: The Influence of Instructor Gender on College Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Florian; Oreopoulos, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Many wonder whether teacher gender plays an important role in higher education by influencing student achievement and subject interest. The data used in this paper help identify average effects from male and female college students assigned to male or female teachers. We find instructor gender plays only a minor role in determining college student…

  19. Gender Disparity Analysis in Academic Achievement at Higher Education Preparatory Schools: Case of South Wollo, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshetu, Amogne Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Gender is among the determinant factors affecting students' academic achievement. This paper tried to investigate the impact of gender on academic performance of preparatory secondary school students based on 2014 EHEECE result. Ex post facto research design was used. To that end, data were collected from 3243 students from eight purposively…

  20. Achievement Goal Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Gender Invariance in a Sample of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing; Bai, Yu; He, Yini; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Ling, Yu; Smith, Hannah; Huebner, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the gender invariance of the Chinese version of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-C) utilizing a sample of 1,115 Chinese university students. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the AGQ-C across genders. Analyses also revealed that the latent…

  1. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  2. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  3. [Gender differences in genetic and environmental etiology of gender role personality (BSRI)].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shoko; Yamagata, Shinji; Shikishima, Chizuru; Ozaki, Koken; Ando, Juko

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the possible effects of genetic and environmental gender differences in effect on individual differences by using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) with twins. A sex/gender-limitation analysis, a behavior genetics methodology was used to the following: (a) effects of gender-specific genes, (b) gender differences in quantitative genetic effects, (c) effects of gender-specific shared environment, (d) gender differences of quantitative shared environment, and (e) gender differences of quantitative nonshared environment. Participants were adolescent and adult twins, including 111 identical male pairs, 241 identical female pairs, 36 fraternal male pairs, 65 fraternal female pairs, and 58 opposite-gender pairs. The results indicated that although masculinity and femininity were explained by genetic factors to some extent, there were no significant gender differences in the genetic factors. Moreover, because our data did not support a model which explained gender differences in the effects of specific common environment factors, no evidence was found to support the prenatal hormonal hypothesis or the existence of parenting which encouraged children's gender role personality.

  4. Gender and Middle School Science: An Examination of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Affecting Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Jennifer

    Gender differences in middle school science were examined utilizing a mixed-methods approach. The intrinsic and extrinsic experiences of male and female non-gifted high-achieving students were investigated through the administration of the CAIMI, student interviews, teacher questionnaires, observations, and document examination. Male and female students were selected from a rural Northeast Georgia school district based on their high performance and high growth during middle school science. Eighty-three percent of the student participants were white and 17% were Hispanic. Half of the male participants and one third of the female participants were eligible for free and reduced meals. Findings revealed that male participants were highly motivated, whereas female participants exhibited varying levels of motivation in science. Both male and female students identified similar instructional strategies as external factors that were beneficial to their success. Due to their selection by both genders, these instructional strategies were considered to be gender-neutral and thereby useful for inclusion within coeducational middle school science classrooms.

  5. Gender Differences in Post-Traumatic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Modena, Maria Grazia; Pettorelli, Daniele; Lauria, Giulia; Giubertoni, Elisa; Mauro, Erminio; Martinotti, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Acute stress can trigger cardiovascular events and disease. The earthquake is an “ideal” natural experiment for acute and chronic stress, with impact mainly on the cardiovascular system. On May 20th and 29th, 2012, two earthquakes of magnitude 5.9° to 6.4° on the Richter scale, hit the province of Modena and Reggio Emilia, an area of the north-center of Italy never considered at seismic risk. The purpose of our study was to assess whether there were gender-specific differences in stress-induced incidence of cardiovascular events and age of patients who arrived at the Emergency Departments (ED) of the three main teaching hospitals of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Global access of patients, divided in relation to age, gender, and diagnosis was compared with that one detected in the same departments and in the same interval of time in 2010. The data collected were relative to consecutive cases derived by retrospective chart and acute cardiovascular events were classified according to ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision). A total of 1,401 accesses were recorded in the year of earthquake versus 530 in 2010 (p ≤ 0.05), with no statistically significant differences in number of cases and mean age in relation to gender, despite the number of women exceeded that of men in 2012 (730 vs. 671); the opposite occurred, in 2010 (328 vs. 202). The gender analysis of 2012 showed a prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs 177 vs. 73, p ≤ 0.03) in men, whereas women presented more strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) (90 vs. 94, p ≤ 0.05), atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 49, p ≤ 0.05), deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE; 64 vs. 9, p ≤ 0.05), panic attacks (124 vs. 26, p ≤ 0.03), aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 18, p ≤ 0.05), TakoTsubo cardiomyopathy (10 vs. 0, p ≤ 0.05), and DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p ≤ 0.03). The gender analysis of 2010 showed no

  6. Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not out perform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation…

  7. The School Age Gender Gap in Reading Achievement: Examining the Influences of Item Format and Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Franziska; McElvany, Nele; Trendtel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The importance of reading competence for both individuals and society underlines the strong need to understand the gender gap in reading achievement. Beyond mean differences in reading comprehension, research has indicated that girls possess specific advantages on constructed-response items compared with boys of the same reading ability. Moreover,…

  8. An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective on Gender Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alastair P. C.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2006-01-01

    Comments on the article by J. S. Hyde (see record EJ733581), which reviewed the results of 46 meta-analyses of studies investigating gender differences and produced results that supported the gender similarities hypothesis that men and women are similar along most psychological traits. The current authors agree with the gender similarities…

  9. Gender differences in nightmare frequency: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Reinhard, Iris

    2011-04-01

    Many studies have reported gender differences in nightmare frequency. In order to study this difference systematically, data from 111 independent studies have been included in the meta-analysis reported here. Overall, estimated effect sizes regarding the gender difference in nightmare frequency differed significantly from zero in three age groups of healthy persons (adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults), whereas for children and older persons no substantial gender difference in nightmare frequency could be demonstrated. There are several candidate variables like dream recall frequency, depression, childhood trauma, and insomnia which might explain this gender difference because these variables are related to nightmare frequency and show stable gender differences themselves. Systematic research studying the effect of these variables on the gender difference in nightmare frequency, though, is still lacking. In the present study it was found that women tend to report nightmares more often than men but this gender difference was not found in children and older persons. Starting with adolescence, the gender difference narrowed with increasing age. In addition, studies with binary coded items showed a markedly smaller effect size for the gender difference in nightmare frequency compared to the studies using multiple categories in a rating scale. How nightmares were defined did not affect the gender difference. In the analyses of all studies and also in the analysis for the children alone the data source (children vs. parents) turned out to be the most influential variable on the gender difference (reporting, age). Other results are also presented. Investigating factors explaining the gender difference in nightmare frequency might be helpful in deepening the understanding regarding nightmare etiology and possibly gender differences in other mental disorders like depression or posttraumatic stress disorder.

  10. Girls and Mathematics--A "Hopeless" Issue? A Control-Value Approach to Gender Differences in Emotions towards Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed gender differences in achievement emotions in the domain of mathematics. Based on Pekrun's (2000, 2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, we hypothesized that there are gender differences in mathematics emotions due to the students' different levels of control and value beliefs in mathematics, even when controlling…

  11. Gender differences in the perception of pungency.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Noriega, G

    1985-03-01

    Males and females judged the intensity of the typical pungent stimulus CO2, presented by nose and by mouth, employing two scaling procedures: magnitude estimation and magnitude matching. The two groups differed in their perception of CO2 pungency only when it was judged in the nose. Perceived nasal pungency grew as a power function of CO2 concentration, with an exponent of 2.2 for females and 1.6 for males, and the magnitude matching test showed that, relative to their perception of sucrose sweetness, females perceived pungency more intense throughout the range studied. Perceived buccal pungency grew for both groups as the 1.1 power of CO2 concentration, and the magnitude matching test, employing again sweetness as the reference modality, revealed no intensity differences in the perception of buccal pungency between the genders. It is suggested that the susceptibility of the nasal environment to hormonal and neural influences may account for the differences in perceived pungency between males and females.

  12. Gender and gender role differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences.

    PubMed

    Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.

  13. Gender and Gender Role Differences in Self- and Other-Estimates of Multiple Intelligences

    PubMed Central

    Szymanowicz, Agata

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others’ multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in “personal” ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons’ intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones. PMID:23951949

  14. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G.; DeVito, Elise E.; Kober, Hedy

    2016-01-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss. PMID:27354843

  15. Gender and High School Chemistry: Student Perceptions on Achievement in a Selective Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Andrew; Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken in a middle-class Australian school. The focus of the research was on the relationship between gender and students' engagement with high school chemistry. Achievement data from many OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries suggest that middle-class girls are achieving equally…

  16. The Effects of Gender and Attributions on Achievement Motivation and Subsequent Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Sibylle J.; Latta, R. Michael

    One attributional model of achievement proposes that individuals attribute their own and others' performance outcomes to one or more of four causes, i.e., ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, and that such attributions have motivational significance for subsequent achievement-related behavior. The effects of gender, level of resultant…

  17. The Effect of Gender on the Achievement of Students in Biology Using the Jigsaw Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amedu, Odagboyi Isaiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the effect of gender on the achievement of students in biology using the jigsaw method. The sample was made up of 87 students in SS1 in a secondary school. The study utilized an intact class because the study took place in a normal school term. There were 39 males and 49 females. The Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was…

  18. Understanding Science Achievement Gaps by Race/Ethnicity and Gender in Kindergarten and First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, F. Chris; Kellogg, Ann T.

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in science achievement across race and gender have been well documented in secondary and postsecondary school; however, the science achievement gap in the early years of elementary school remains understudied. We present findings from the recently released Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 that…

  19. [Failure effects and gender differences in perfectionism].

    PubMed

    Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M

    2003-01-01

    perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality

  20. Science self-efficacy of African American middle school students: Relationship to motivation self-beliefs, achievement, gender, and gender orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britner, Shari Lynn

    Motivation researchers have established that students' self-efficacy beliefs, the confidence they have in their academic capabilities, are related to academic outcomes. Self-efficacy has been amply researched in mathematics and language arts and nearly exclusively with White students. African American students and the area of science have each received scant attention. Typically, gender differences favor boys in mathematics and girls in language arts. Researchers have also found that these differences may be a function of gender orientation beliefs. The purpose of this study was to extend findings in science self-efficacy and to African American middle school students. I sought to determine whether self-efficacy assessed at differing levels of specificity (lab skills versus science grades) would each predict science achievement assessed at corresponding levels, to discover whether mean scores in academic motivation and achievement would differ by gender, and to determine whether these differences are a function of gender orientation (N = 268). Science grade self-efficacy was positively associated with the grades obtained by boys and by girls. For girls, grades were also associated positively with science self-concept and negatively with value of science. For reasons resulting from problematic instructional practices, lab skills self-efficacy was not associated with lab grades. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and received higher grades in science class. Gender orientation beliefs did not account for these differences, but masculinity and femininity were each associated with science grade self-efficacy, suggesting that androgyny is an adaptive orientation for the science self-efficacy beliefs of African American students. Findings are interpreted within the framework of A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory.

  1. A meta-analysis on gender differences in negotiation outcomes and their moderators.

    PubMed

    Mazei, Jens; Hüffmeier, Joachim; Freund, Philipp Alexander; Stuhlmacher, Alice F; Bilke, Lena; Hertel, Guido

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigates gender differences in economic negotiation outcomes. As suggested by role congruity theory, we assume that the behaviors that increase economic negotiation outcomes are more congruent with the male as compared with the female gender role, thereby presenting challenges for women's negotiation performance and reducing their outcomes. Importantly, this main effect is predicted to be moderated by person-based, situation-based, and task-based influences that make effective negotiation behavior more congruent with the female gender role, which should in turn reduce or even reverse gender differences in negotiation outcomes. Using a multilevel modeling approach, this meta-analysis includes 123 effect sizes (overall N = 10,888, including undergraduate and graduate students as well as businesspeople). Studies were included when they enabled the calculation of an effect size reflecting gender differences in achieved economic negotiation outcomes. As predicted, men achieved better economic outcomes than women on average, but gender differences strongly depended on the context: Moderator analysis revealed that gender differences favoring men were reduced when negotiators had negotiation experience, when they received information about the bargaining range, and when they negotiated on behalf of another individual. Moreover, gender differences were reversed under conditions of the lowest predicted role incongruity for women. In conclusion, gender differences in negotiations are contextually bound and can be subject to change. Future research is needed that investigates the underlying mechanisms of new moderators revealed in the current research (e.g., experience). Implications for theoretical explanations of gender differences in negotiation outcomes, for gender inequalities in the workplace, and for future research are discussed.

  2. Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…

  3. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in ‘private’ activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics. PMID:20407575

  4. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in 'private' activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics.

  5. Two-year study relating adolescents' self-concept and gender role perceptions to achievement and attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Herbert M.; Morse, Linda W.

    To assess the developmental relationship of perceptions of self-concept and gender role identification with adolescents' attitudes and achievement in science, a two-year longitudinal study was conducted. A battery of instruments assessing 16 dimensions of self-concept/gender role identifications was employed to predict students' achievement and attitudes toward science. Specific behaviors studied included self-concept in school and science and mathematics, attitudes toward appropriate gender roles in science activities and careers, and self-perceptions of masculine and feminine traits. One hundred and fifty-five adolescents, enrolled, respectively, in the seventh and eighth grades, participated in the study. Through Fisher z transformations of correlation coefficients, differences in relationships between these two sets of variables were studied for males and females during the two years. Results indicated that students' self-concepts/gender role perceptions were related to both achievement and attitudes toward science, but more related to attitudes than achievement. These relationships became more pronounced for students as they matured from seventh to eighth graders.

  6. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption.

  7. Gender Similarity or Gender Difference? Contemporary Women's and Men's Career Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmarsh, Lona; Wentworth, Diane Keyser

    2012-01-01

    Career development research has often explored gender differences in and development of career patterns (Gottfredson, 2006). Hyde's (2005) meta-analysis indicated that men and women shared more similarities than differences. Applying Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis to careers, the authors conducted a 2-stage study. Stage 1 was an analysis of…

  8. Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

  9. Gendered utilization differences of mental health services in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Krenawi, A; Graham, J R; Kandah, J

    2000-10-01

    A revised Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL), translated into Arabic, was distributed to a sample of 87 nonpsychotic mental health out-patients in Zarka, Jordan (male = 61, female = 26). Findings revealed no significant gendered differences, but higher responses among women in all dimensions. Regardless of gender, patients also expected and were satisfied with medicinal treatment; explained etiologies as having supernatural origins; and utilized informal community traditional healing and religious healing systems. The supernatural explanations and community healing systems varied by gender. Findings emphasize future treatment and programme development strategies that take into account the biomedical/traditional interface, culturally appropriate treatment modalities, different gendered patient needs, and the potential stigma of professional treatment.

  10. Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

    2013-01-01

    Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

  11. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  12. Do the Paths to STEMM Professions Differ by Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Linda G.; Miller, Jon D.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine gender differences in factors related to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) education and employment between the ages of 36 and 39. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, we identified a STEMM high school talent pool. We found early gender differences in interest in…

  13. Gender Differences in Predicting Loneliness from Social Network Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph; Levin, Ira

    Recent research suggesting a link between loneliness and social networks and a difference between males and females in both the quantity and quality of relationships support the view that loneliness can be predicted by gender from social network variables. In one study, two samples were used to explore gender differences. Sample 1, 97 males and 82…

  14. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…

  15. Gender Differences in Computerised and Conventional Educational Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Research has demonstrated girls outperform boys on conventional literacy tests. The present studies concern gender differences on computerised educational tests. Seventy-one children were tested using LASS Secondary and a set of seven conventional measures. No significant gender differences were found on any of the LASS Secondary modules,…

  16. Gender Differences in Social Support among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Keith, Verna

    1989-01-01

    Studies exposure to life stress as an explanation for gender differences in older adults' utilization of social support. Results suggest that, as stressful events increase, elderly men and women are equally likely to become more involved in their social network, while gender differences emerge in response to chronic financial strain. (JS)

  17. Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Sexual Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…

  18. Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2006-01-01

    Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

  19. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of gender in the areas of environmental education that included environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels in the outdoors. The current study was part of a larger study designed to explore the effects of a treatment that consisted of 14 weeks of outdoor lessons conducted in the schoolyard as…

  20. Age and Gender Differences in Instructional Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcheir, Marcia J.

    This study examines whether students' age and/or gender impact their preferences for instructional practices thought to improve learning, and their preparation for college and performance in college. Students were asked which of 38 instructional practices they preferred, how often they experienced each practice, and how well prepared they felt in…

  1. Gender differences in narcissism: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender

  2. The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drab, Deborah D.

    Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

  3. Influence of gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling on students' enjoyment and achievement in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-11-01

    This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) show that there are still marked differences between the achievement and attitude of male and female students in Irish mathematics classrooms. This paper examines the influence of gender in more detail and also investigates the impact of single-sex or co-educational schooling. This is a follow on study which further analyses data collected by the authors when they designed a pedagogical framework and used this to develop, implement and evaluate a teaching intervention in four second-level Irish schools. The aim of this pedagogical framework was to promote student interest in the topic of algebra through effective teaching of the domain. This paper further analyses the quantitative data collected and investigates whether there were differences in students' enjoyment and achievement scores based on their gender and whether they attended single-sex or co-educational schools.

  4. Gender Differences in Respiratory Morbidity and Mortality of Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Townsel, Courtney Denise; Emmer, Sawyer F.; Campbell, Winston A.; Hussain, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    For the past century, researchers have underscored the “disadvantage” observed in respiratory morbidity and mortality of male newborns. In this contemporary review, we examine gender differences in preterm infant respiratory morbidity and mortality specifically appraising differences in the very low birth weight (VLBW) population as well as the late preterm (LPT) population. In the era of postnatal surfactant and antenatal corticosteroids, the gender gap in neonatal outcomes has not narrowed. Structural, physiologic, and hormonal sex differences may be at the root of this disparity. Further exploration into the origin of gender differences in respiratory morbidity and neonatal mortality will shape future therapies. These therapies may need to be gender specific to close the gender gap. PMID:28194395

  5. [Sex and gender: Two different scientific domains to be clarified].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Nowadays, the word sex and its related terms (sexual differences, sexual roles and stereotypes), so common not long ago, seems to have been replaced by gender and its related terms (gender differences, gender roles and stereotypes). We can sometimes find both sex and gender sharing the same space in scientific articles, although referring to different domains. In this paper, I try to explain the need for a model that can integrate both of these complex domains of sex and gender, leading to two independent, although complementary, disciplines: Sexology and Genderology. In both cases, I start from a functional standpoint, which will give meaning to both disciplines' specificities, as it is meant to link contributions from different fields of knowledge. This approach can have consequences for research, education, the experience of women, men, and ambiguous individuals, and therapy.

  6. Learning Microbiology with Computer Simulations: Students' Academic Achievement by Method and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huppert, Jehuda; Yaakobi, Judith; Lazarowitz, Reuven

    1998-01-01

    Studies the use of a computer-assisted learning simulation episode during a unit on the growth curve of microorganisms in grade ten. Finds no significant gender differences in either the experimental or control groups. Contains 25 references. (DDR)

  7. Gender Gaps in Mathematics, Science and Reading Achievements in Muslim Countries: A Quantile Regression Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    Using quantile regression analyses, this study examines gender gaps in mathematics, science, and reading in Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Jordan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Qatar, Tunisia, and Turkey among 15-year-old students. The analyses show that girls in Azerbaijan achieve as well as boys in mathematics and science and overachieve in reading. In Jordan,…

  8. Achievement, Agency, Gender, and Socioeconomic Background as Predictors of Postschool Choices: A Multicontext Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Schoon, Ingrid; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Nagy, Gabriel; Trautwein, Ulrich; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop and test a differential effects model of university entry versus major selection using a set of common predictors, including background factors (gender and socioeconomic status), academic achievement, and academic self-concept. The research used data from 2 large longitudinal databases from Germany (N = 5,048)…

  9. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  10. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  11. Science Anxiety: Relation with Gender, Year in Chemistry Class, Achievement, and Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynstra, Sharon; Cummings, Corenna

    The relationships of science anxiety to measures of achievement, test anxiety, year of chemistry taken, and gender were investigated for high school students; the study also attemped to establish reliability data on the Czerniak Assessment of Science Anxiety (CASA) of L. Chiarelott and C. Czerniak (1987). Subjects were 101 students (45 males and…

  12. Teachers and the Gender Gaps in Student Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 11660

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, girls outperform boys in measures of reading achievement while generally underperforming in science and mathematics. One major class of explanations for these gaps involves the gender-based interactions between students and teachers (e.g., role-model and Pygmalion effects). However, the evidence on whether these interactions…

  13. Analyzing the Gender Gap in Math Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Galluzzo, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The US portion of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 student questionnaire comprising of 4,733 observations was used in a multiple regression framework to predict math achievement from demographic variables, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, and two student-specific measures of perception, math anxiety and…

  14. Influence of Creative Style and Gender on Students' Achievement in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkpanang, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The research investigated the influence of creative style and gender on students' achievement in physics. The sample consisting one hundred (100) Senior Secondary II physics students, made up of 50 males and 50 females in Oruk Anam Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, were administered the Kirton Adaptor-Innovator Inventory (KAI),…

  15. Correlation Study of Physics Achievement, Learning Strategy, Attitude and Gender in an Introductory Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezgin Selcuk, Gamze

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between multiple predictors of physics achievement including reported use of four learning strategy clusters (elaboration, organization, comprehension monitoring and rehearsal), attitudes towards physics (sense of care and sense of interest) and a demographic variable (gender) in order to determine the…

  16. Emotional Intelligence and Gender as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Some University Students in Barbados

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayombo, Grace A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated emotional intelligence (attending to emotion, positive expressivity and negative expressivity) and gender as predictors of academic achievement among 163 undergraduate psychology students in The University of the West Indies (UWI), Cave Hill Campus, Barbados. Results revealed significant positive and negative correlations…

  17. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  18. Students' Achievement in Relation to Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Ayse; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated students' achievement regarding photosynthesis and respiration in plants in relation to reasoning ability, prior knowledge and gender. A total of 117 eighth-grade students participated in the study. Test of logical thinking and the two-tier multiple choice tests were administered to determine students' reasoning ability and…

  19. Emotional Design in Multimedia: Does Gender and Academic Achievement Influence Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Jeya Amantha; Muniandy, Balakrishnan; Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed as a preliminary study (N = 33) to explore the effects of gender and academic achievement (Cumulative Grade Point Average-CGPA) on polytechnic students' learning outcomes when exposed to Multimedia Learning Environments (MLE) designed to induce emotions. Three designs namely positive (PosD), neutral (NeuD) and negative…

  20. Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Current study examines the predictors of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.…

  1. Gender differences in preschool children's commentary on self and other.

    PubMed

    Sigelman, Carol K; Holtz, Kristen D

    2013-01-01

    To examine gender differences in commentary about self and others in same- and mixed-gender contexts, the authors analyzed dyadic conversations involving 78 children in 5 preschool facilities. Compared to girls talking to girls, boy talking to boys made more statements with negative connotations for others and less often pointed out self-other similarities. No gender differences were observed in mixed-gender contexts. Compared to boys talking with boys, boys talking with girls spoke more frequently of similarities and abilities. Compared to girls with girls, girls with boys less often spoke descriptively or talked of activities and possessions and more often spoke of conduct, possibly in an effort to manage boys' behavior. Overall, the findings support a social-constructivist or contextual rather than a biological perspective on early gender differences.

  2. Gender differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methadone substitution therapy

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Manuela; Nisticò, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Gender-related differences in the pharmacological effects of drug are an emerging topic. This review examines gender differences in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of methadone, a long-acting opioid agonist that is prescribed as a treatment for opioid dependence and the management of chronic pain. Method: We performed a search in the Medline database from 1990 to 2014 in order to find published literature related to gender differences in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of methadone. Results: None of the studies were carried out with the primary or secondary aim to identify any gender differences in the pharmacokinetic profile of methadone. Importantly; high inter-subjects variability in PK parameters was found also intra female population. The reported differences in volume of distribution could be ascribed to the physiological differences between men and women in body weight and composition, taking into account that the dose of methadone was established irrespective of body weight of patients (Peles and Adelson, 2006). On the other hand, the few studies present in literature found no gender difference in some direct pharmacodynamic parameters. Some reports have suggested that female gender is associated with an increased risk for long-QT-related cardiac arrhythmias in methadone maintenance subjects. Conclusion: Even though it may be too simplistic to expect variability only in one parameter to explain inter-individual variation in methadone response, we believe that a better knowledge of gender-related differences might have significant implications for better outcomes in opioid dependence substitution therapy in women. PMID:26106330

  3. Gender Differences in Preschoolers' and Kindergartners' Artistic Production and Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyatzis, Chris J.; Eades, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Examined sex differences in preschoolers' and kindergartners' art generation and preference. First, researchers assessed gender stereotypicality in their drawings and preferences for pictures. Both sexes drew somewhat gender stereotypical pictures. Next, when choosing coloring book pictures to color, boys chose masculine and girls chose feminine…

  4. Gender Difference in Math Performance in the International Baccalaureate Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schantz, Ashley Lynn Overley

    2011-01-01

    For years, researchers and educators alike have studied differences in educational performance as they relate to gender. And while many subject areas have been debated, "the existence, degree, and origin of a gender gap in mathematics are highly debated" (Guiso, Monte, Sapienza & Zingales, 2008). What has not been more widely…

  5. Gender Differences in Comparisons and Entitlement: Implications for Comparable Worth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the role of comparison processes in the persistence of the gender wage gap, its toleration by those disadvantaged by it, and resistance to comparable worth as a corrective strategy. Argues that gender segregation and undercompensation for women's jobs leads women to use different comparison standards when evaluating what they deserve.…

  6. Gender Differences in Altruistic Reputation: Are They Artifactual?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarbatany, Lynne; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested notion that observed sex differences in children's altruistic reputations that favor girls are due to sex-biased items found in peer-assessment measures. Gender-fair assessment of altruistic reputation was attempted through the use of empirically derived examples of masculine, feminine, and gender-neutral prosocial behaviors. (Author/DST)

  7. Implicit attitudes in sexuality: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Geer, James H; Robertson, Gloria G

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the role of gender in both implicit and explicit attitudes toward sexuality. Implicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations of social objects that are automatically activated, often without the individual's conscious awareness of the causation. In contrast, explicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations that are well established in awareness. As described in Oliver and Hyde's (1993) meta-analysis of self-report (explicit) data, women report greater negative attitudes toward sexuality than do men. In the current study, we used the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) developed by Fisher, Byrne, White, and Kelley (1988) to index explicit attitudes and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) developed by Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998) to index implicit attitudes. Research has demonstrated that the IAT reveals attitudes that participants may be reluctant to express. Independent variables examined were participant gender, social acceptability of sexual words, and order of associated evaluations in the IAT (switching from positive to negative evaluations or the reverse). The IAT data revealed a significant Order x Gender interaction that showed that women had more negative implicit attitudes toward sexuality than did men. There was also a significant Order x Acceptability interaction, indicating that implicit attitudes were more strongly revealed when the sexual words used in the IAT were more socially unacceptable. As expected, on the SOS, women had more negative explicit attitudes toward sexuality. There was no significant correlation between explicit and implicit attitudes. These data suggest that at both automatic (implicit) and controlled (explicit) levels of attitudes, women harbor more negative feelings toward sex than do men.

  8. Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures. PMID:24341391

  9. Achievement, agency, gender, and socioeconomic background as predictors of postschool choices: a multicontext study.

    PubMed

    Parker, Philip D; Schoon, Ingrid; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Nagy, Gabriel; Trautwein, Ulrich; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2012-11-01

    In this article, the authors develop and test a differential effects model of university entry versus major selection using a set of common predictors, including background factors (gender and socioeconomic status), academic achievement, and academic self-concept. The research used data from 2 large longitudinal databases from Germany (N = 5,048) and England (N = 15,995) to explore the generalizability of the hypothesized model in 2 cultural contexts. For both countries, the results suggested that (a) socioeconomic status was a key predictor of university entry, whereas gender was a key predictor of major selection; (b) achievement and self-concept in both math and English were positive predictors of university entry; and (c) math achievement and self-concept predicted math-intensive major choice and lower likelihood of entering verbal-intensive majors (and vice versa). Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  10. Exercise intensity and gender difference of 3 different salsa dancing conditions.

    PubMed

    Emerenziani, G P; Guidetti, L; Gallotta, M C; Franciosi, E; Buzzachera, C F; Baldari, C

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the difference in exercise intensity (METs), energy cost (EE) and gender difference between a typical salsa lesson (TSL), rueda de casino lesson (RCL), and salsa dancing at a night club (SDN). Subjects performed 1 pre-testing session and 3 testing conditions. During the pre-testing session height, weight and V˙O2max were assessed. During the testing conditions all subjects performed 3 different kinds of salsa dance. Heart rate was assessed during each dance condition. The exercise intensity of the 3 salsa dancing conditions was moderate ranging from 3.9 to 5.5 METs. A significant difference between genders for HRpeak (P=0.01), max%HRR (P=0.006) and mean EE (P=0.02) were observed. Significant gender×condition interactions for HRpeak (P=0.03), mean %HRR (P=0.02), mean METs (P=0.02) and mean EE (P=0.02) were found. In addition, a significant main effect for each condition was found in all variables (P<0.01). Our results showed that the exercise intensities of all 3 salsa dancing conditions were moderate. Findings showed some significant differences in exercise intensity between males and females and within conditions. Salsa dancing could be useful in achieving a significant training effect in people who have a low level of fitness.

  11. The changing face of cognitive gender differences in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Daniela; Skirbekk, Vegard; Freund, Inga; Herlitz, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive gender differences and the reasons for their origins have fascinated researchers for decades. Using nationally representative data to investigate gender differences in cognitive performance in middle-aged and older populations across Europe, we show that the magnitude of these differences varies systematically across cognitive tasks, birth cohorts, and regions, but also that the living conditions and educational opportunities individuals are exposed to during their formative years are related to their later cognitive performance. Specifically, we demonstrate that improved living conditions and less gender-restricted educational opportunities are associated with increased gender differences favoring women in some cognitive functions (i.e., episodic memory) and decreases (i.e., numeracy) or elimination of differences in other cognitive abilities (i.e., category fluency). Our results suggest that these changes take place due to a general increase in women’s cognitive performance over time, associated with societal improvements in living conditions and educational opportunities. PMID:25071201

  12. The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender: From Gender Differences to Doing Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Dicicco, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…

  13. Spatial ability mediates the gender difference in middle school students' science performance.

    PubMed

    Ganley, Colleen M; Vasilyeva, Marina; Dulaney, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a male advantage in spatial skills and science achievement. The present research integrated these findings by testing the potential role of spatial skills in gender differences in the science performance of eighth-grade students (13-15 years old). In (N = 113), the findings showed that mental rotation ability mediated gender differences in physical science and technology/engineering test scores. In (N = 73,245), science performance was examined in a state population of eighth-grade students. As in , the results revealed larger gender differences on items that showed higher correlations with mental rotation. These findings underscore the importance of considering spatial training interventions aimed at reducing gender differences in the science performance of school-aged children.

  14. Achieving the Quality Difference: Making Customers Count

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-02

    the Conference. Welcome to the Conference Wednesday, May 31, 1989 Frank Hodsoll "The challenges are great, but -o are the creativity and dedication of...framework which will support this achievement. Mr. Hodsoll stressed that many challenges lie ahead in the pursuit of Total Quality; many changes w"".1 have to...problems faced by the organization are with these people, and it is important to involve them. His experience has also shown that by making oneself

  15. Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Empathy and Forgiveness

    PubMed Central

    TOUSSAINT, LOREN; WEBB, JON R.

    2007-01-01

    Much research has shown that women are more empathic than men. Yet, women and men are equally forgiving. However, it is not clear whether empathy is more important to forgiveness for men or for women. The purpose of the present study was to examine gender differences in levels of empathy and forgiveness and the extent to which the association of empathy and forgiveness differed by gender. Participants were 127 community residents who completed self-report measures of empathy and forgiveness. The present results showed that women were more empathic than men, but no gender difference for forgiveness was apparent. However, the association between empathy and forgiveness did differ by gender. Empathy was associated with forgiveness in men—but not in women. PMID:16334893

  16. Gender differences in pension wealth: estimates using provider data.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R W; Sambamoorthi, U; Crystal, S

    1999-06-01

    Information from pension providers was examined to investigate gender differences in pension wealth at midlife. For full-time wage and salary workers approaching retirement age who had pension coverage, median pension wealth on the current job was 76% greater for men than women. Differences in wages, years of job tenure, and industry between men and women accounted for most of the gender gap in pension wealth on the current job. Less than one third of the wealth difference could not be explained by gender differences in education, demographics, or job characteristics. The less-advantaged employment situation of working women currently in midlife carries over into worse retirement income prospects. However, the gender gap in pensions is likely to narrow in the future as married women's employment experiences increasingly resemble those of men.

  17. Gender differences in rumination: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel P; Whisman, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    Starting in adolescence and continuing through adulthood, women are twice as likely as men to experience depression. According to the response styles theory (RST), gender differences in depression result, in part, from women's tendency to ruminate more than men. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate gender differences in rumination in adults (k = 59; N = 14,321); additionally, an analysis of subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - was conducted (k = 23). Fixed effects analyses indicated that women scored higher than men in rumination (d = .24, p < .01, SEd = .02), brooding (d = .19, p < .01, SEd = .03) and reflection (d = .17, p < .01, SEd = .03); there was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias across studies for these effect sizes. Although statistically significant, the effect sizes for gender differences in rumination were small in magnitude. Results are discussed with respect to the RST and gender differences in depression.

  18. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  19. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  20. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: a gender differences in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Kishor

    2007-06-01

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  1. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Kishor . E-mail: k.atreya@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  2. Gender Differences in Boys' and Girls' Perception of Teaching and Learning Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Marcus; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Gender differences between boys and girls in the perception of the classroom setting, and their relationship to achievement in mathematics and aspects of self-regulated learning skills are the focus for this article. Throughout the component analysis of answers from 6758 Swedish students we found some differences in how boys and girls perceive…

  3. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  4. Suicide proneness in college students: relationships with gender, procrastination, and achievement motivation.

    PubMed

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was also examined for each gender. Participants included 475 (336 women, 139 men) undergraduates from a southeastern university. For both genders, procrastination and achievement motivation were significantly correlated at the univarate level with the suicide proneness indices. However, for college women, but not men, procrastination significantly accounted for unique amounts of variance in both suicide indices above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem. Implications for suicide intervention efforts directed toward college women and men are offered.

  5. Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-Does occupation matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Dimich-Ward, Helen . E-mail: hward@interchange.ubc.ca; Camp, Patricia G.; Kennedy, Susan M.

    2006-06-15

    Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

  6. Gender differences in justice evaluations: Evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Dulebohn, James H; Davison, Robert B; Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Conlon, Donald E; McNamara, Gerry; Sarinopoulos, Issidoros C

    2016-02-01

    Justice research examining gender differences has yielded contrasting findings. This study enlists advanced techniques in cognitive neuroscience (fMRI) to examine gender differences in brain activation patterns in response to procedural and distributive justice manipulations. We integrate social role, information processing, justice, and neuroscience literature to posit and test for gender differences in 2 neural subsystems known to be involved in the appraisal of self-relevant events. Results indicate that the relationship between justice information processing and neural activity in areas representing these subsystems is significantly influenced by gender, with greater activation for females than males during consideration of both procedural and distributive justice information. In addition, we find evidence that gender and distributive injustice interact to influence bargaining behavior, with females rejecting ultimatum game offers more frequently than males. Results also demonstrate activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and ventral striatum brain regions during procedural justice evaluation is associated with offer rejection in females, but not in males. Managerial implications based on the study's support for gender differences in justice perceptions are discussed.

  7. Gender differences in cardiovascular disease and comorbid depression.

    PubMed Central

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

    2007-01-01

    Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (eg, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity,) and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect la differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, The results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gensier aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depresion, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective. PMID:17506227

  8. Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-communicable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illustrates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to developing countries where tropical infectious diseases are more prevalent, the present paper demonstrates that gender has an important effect on the determinants and consequences of health and illness in industrialized countries as well. This paper reviews a large number of studies on the interaction between gender and the determinants and consequences of chronic diseases and shows how these interactions result in different approaches to prevention, treatment, and coping with illness. Specific examples of chronic diseases are discussed in each section with respect to both developing and industrialized countries. PMID:17615903

  9. The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same? Examining Gender Equality in Prior Achievement and Entry into STEM College Majors over Time

    PubMed Central

    King, Barbara; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the empirical basis for often-repeated arguments that gender differences in entrance into STEM majors are largely explained by disparities in prior achievement. Analyses use data from three national cohorts of college matriculates across three decades to consider differences across several indicators of high school math and science achievement at the mean and also at the top of the test distribution. Analyses also examine the different comparative advantages men and women enjoy in math/science vs. English/reading. Regardless of how prior achievement is measured, very little of the strong and persistent gender gap in physical science and engineering majors over time is explained. Findings highlight the limitations of theories focusing on gender differences in skills and suggest directions for future research. PMID:24371330

  10. Patterns and causes of gender differences in smoking.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I

    1991-01-01

    In the early twentieth century in the United States and other Western countries, women were much less likely than men to smoke cigarettes, due in part to widespread social disapproval of women's smoking. During the mid-twentieth century, growing social acceptance of women's smoking contributed to increased smoking adoption by women. Increased social acceptance of women's smoking was part of a general liberalization of norms concerning women's behavior, reflecting increasing equality between the sexes. These historical trends were due in part to increases in women's employment. However, in the contemporary period employment appears to have little or no effect on women's smoking. Sex role norms and general expectations concerning gender-appropriate behavior have had a variety of effects on gender differences in smoking. First, general characteristics of traditional sex roles, including men's greater social power and generally greater restrictions on women's behavior, contributed to widespread social pressures against women's smoking. Second, traditional sex role norms and expectations have fostered gender differences in personal characteristics and experiences which influence smoking adoption. For example, rebelliousness has been more expected and accepted for males, and greater rebelliousness among adolescent males has contributed to greater smoking adoption by males. Finally, certain aspects of sex roles have contributed to gender differences in appraisal of the costs and benefits of smoking. For example, physical attractiveness is emphasized more for females and the contemporary beauty ideal is very slender, so females are more likely to view weight control as a benefit of smoking. Several other hypotheses concerning the causes of gender differences in smoking are not supported by the available evidence. For example, it appears that women's generally greater concern with health has not contributed significantly to gender differences in the prevalence of smoking

  11. Gender differences in life expectancy among kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J

    1985-01-01

    A literature review of findings reveals that the life expectancy (LE) of females is longer than that of males and that a strong relationship exists between LE and gender differences in LE. The arguments of biological vs societal reasons for such gender differences are presented and the kibbutz society is offered as a setting to test the rivaling hypotheses. It is argued that the kibbutz society offers more similar roles for both genders than outside the kibbutz and therefore the gender differences in LE should be reduced in comparison to what is expected, given the very high LE of kibbutz members. Statistical data of the kibbutz population between the years 1975-1980 are analyzed and the results support the following conclusions: female members have higher LE but the difference is much less than expected on the basis of a regression analysis of data from 73 societies; the difference is smaller due to the relatively higher gain in LE by males; the gender differences are even smaller at age 50 compared to LE differences at birth. The Discussion section dwells upon interpretations of the findings and argues against alternative interpretations that assume selection processes for the kibbutz population. Suggestions for further studies are also made.

  12. Differences in students' perceived classroom experiences by instructor gender, student gender, and persistence in STEM courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowlkes, Carol

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are growing and have lucrative job opportunities for college graduates. However, the number of students in STEM majors and the number of those who persist in those majors is declining; there is also a growing gender gap in STEM graduates. This study investigated three perceived classroom experiences in STEM courses and the nature of differences in these experiences by student gender, instructor gender, and by those who persisted or did not persist in STEM majors. A factorial MANOVA was the statistical method by which the differences were explored. The statistical analysis revealed non-significant mean differences in three-way interaction, all two-way interactions, and all main effects. There were not gendered differences in students' perceptions of the opportunities for hands-on learning, the instructor cares about students' success, and the instructor encourages students' contributions. Further research is proposed to continue examination of this topic with a larger data set that is consistent with the literature regarding the population of STEM students and the number of STEM persisters, and the male-gendered nature of STEM fields.

  13. Who Gets Promoted? Gender Differences in Science and Engineering Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Kristen

    Using a nationally representative sample of doctoral academic scientists and engineers, this study examines gender differences in the likelihood of having tenure and senior faculty ranks after controlling for academic age, field, doctoral origins, employing educational institution, productivity, postdoctoral positions, work activities, and family characteristics. Logistic regressions show that many of these controls are significant; that biology and employment at comprehensive universities have a gender-specific advantage for women; and that postdoctoral positions, teaching instead of doing administrative work, and having children have a gender-specific disadvantage. Although the statistical methods employed here do not reveal the exact nature of how gender inequities in science and engineering careers arise, the author suggests that they exist.

  14. Religion and Education Gender Gap: Are Muslims Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…

  15. How Gender Differences in Academic Engagement Relate to Students' Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessels, Ursula; Heyder, Anke; Latsch, Martin; Hannover, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gender differences in educational outcomes encompass many different areas. For example, in some educational settings, boys lag behind girls on indicators of educational success, such as leaving certificates and type of school attended. In studies testing performance, boys typically show lower competence in reading compared with girls,…

  16. Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage  = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed.

  17. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender differences and gender similarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.

  18. Spatial Ability Mediates the Gender Difference in Middle School Students' Science Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina; Dulaney, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a male advantage in spatial skills and science achievement. The present research integrated these findings by testing the potential role of spatial skills in gender differences in the science performance of eighth-grade students (13-15 years old). In "Study 1" (N = 113), the findings showed that mental…

  19. Gender Differences in Mathematics Attitudes in Coeducational and Single Sex Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kester; Anderson, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Exploring why more boys than girls continue to study higher levels of mathematics in senior school when there appear to be no gender differences in achievement in earlier years is worthy of investigation. There are potentially many reasons why this occurs including career aspirations, interest, and attitudes. One factor explored in this study was…

  20. Early Adjustment, Gender Differences, and Classroom Organizational Climate in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined gender differences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured…

  1. Gender Differences in Beliefs on the Returns to Effort: Evidence from the World Values Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisman, Raymond; O'Neill, Maura

    2009-01-01

    We study gender differences in attitudes in the role of luck versus hard work in achieving success using data from the World Values Survey. Women are consistently more likely to report that success is a matter of luck. We consider several potential explanations: workplace discrimination, religion, household responsibilities, and political…

  2. Gender differences in anaerobic power tests.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J L; Salm, P C

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the differences in anaerobic power between males and females could be accounted for by differences in body composition, strength, and neuromuscular function. A total of 82 untrained men and 99 women took part in the study. Body composition, somatotype, isometric strength, neuromuscular function were measured, and four anaerobic power tests performed. The men were significantly different from the women on all strength, power, and neuromuscular measurements except reaction time and on all anthropometric and somatotype dimensions except ectomorphy. Strength and anthropometric dimensions were similarly related to anaerobic power values within each sex. Relative fat (%fat) exerted different degrees of influence on sprint and jump performances in each sex. Removing the influence of anthropometric, strength, and neuromuscular differences by analysis of covariance reduced, but did not remove, the significant differences between the sexes. Therefore, factors other than lean body mass, leg strength, and neuromuscular function may be operating in short-term, explosive power performances to account for the differences between the sexes. The task-specific nature of anaerobic power tests and the relatively large influence of anthropometric factors on power production were confirmed.

  3. Gender and Achievement in English Language Arts, Science and Mathematics in Secondary Schools in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etim, James S.; Etim, Alice S.; Heilman, George; Mathiyalakan, S.; Ntukidem, Eno

    2016-01-01

    The education of girls and women in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) has long been thought of as very crucial for national development. This study investigated whether gender differences might occur in scores attained by Nigerian students on standard subject matter examinations for English Language, Mathematics…

  4. Gender Differences in Emotional Response: Inconsistency between Experience and Expressivity

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception—women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence. PMID:27362361

  5. Differences in science students' view of ideal and actual role behavior according to success and gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauchak, Don; Peterson, Ken

    Information about how success and gender affect students' views of ideal and actual classroom role behavior can help both researchers and teachers better understand classroom components such as achievement and curriculum. A 20-item double Q sort was used to measure differences in perceptions of high school science students according to letter grades and gender. Individual Q sort item rankings of 160 students were tested for significant differences according to letter grade received; item ratings were compared according to gender for 215 students. Differences in perception according to success were found for both ideal and actual behavior; 8 and 5 items, respectively, out of each 20-item sort were found to be significant at the p = < 0.05 level. No such overall patterns of difference in view were found between boys and girls, although three ideal student items and one actual self-report item were found to be significantly different at the p = < 0.05 level.

  6. Gender Differences during Recess in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twarek, Linda S.; George, Halley S.

    A study examined the differences in what boys and girls choose, or are free to choose, to do on the playground during recess. Given the apparent problem that boys dominate the playground area, leaving girls on the perimeter, it was hypothesized that girls engage in passive, non-competitive, small group activities, whereas boys engage in…

  7. Gender Differences within Perceptions of Virtual Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Vernon, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual communities are quickly becoming the standard mode of interaction in educational and professional contexts. However, the literature fails to accurately address the possibility of differences in the perceptions of these communities related to sex. Two-hundred and twenty-six students from a medium-sized university in the Mid-Atlantic United…

  8. Gender Differences in Resilience of Academic Deans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the difference in the levels of resilience characteristics between male and female deans within a state university system. Resilience is the ability to operate in a changing environment while consistently maintaining one's effectiveness. This quantitative study utilized the survey, Personal…

  9. Gender-Related Differences in Neonatal Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Emese; Kompagne, Hajnalka; Orvos, Hajnalka; Pal, Attila

    2007-01-01

    Socio-emotional behaviour is in part sex-related in humans, although the contribution of the biological and socio-cultural factors is not yet known. This study explores sex-related differences during the earliest communicative exchange, the neonatal imitation in 43 newborn infants (3-96 hours old) using an index finger extension imitative gesture.…

  10. Gender Differences in Cooperation: Experimental Evidence on High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Molina, J. Alberto; Giménez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Cuesta, José A.; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir; Sanchez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences. PMID:24367608

  11. Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents’ Sexual Prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents’ attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by social dominance orientation (SDO) and knowing a gay male. Gender differences in attitudes toward lesbians were partially mediated by SDO, while knowing a lesbian was not a mediating variable. Beyond their mediating roles, both SDO and knowing a member of the target group each significantly added to the prediction of attitudes toward each target group. Implications for policies to reduce victimization of sexual minorities in schools are discussed. PMID:20191095

  12. Dialectal and gender differences in nasalance for a Mandarin population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha-Kyung; Yu, Xiao-meng; Cao, Yan-jing; Liu, Xiao-ming; Huang, Zhao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are dialectal and gender related differences in nasalance of main Mandarin vowels and three sentences in 400 Chinese normal adults. The mean nasalance score difference for dialect and gender was significant (p < .001) in all speech materials. For different dialects, the average nasalance scores show that Chongqing > Beijing > Shanghai > Guangzhou for the nasal sentence, oro-nasal sentence, /a/, /i/ and /u/. In addition, the average nasalance scores of females were higher than those of males for all speech materials in all dialects. The clinical significance of this study can be helpful in making nasalance clinical decisions for Chinese people with cleft palate, hearing disorders and dysarthria with resonance disorders. It also shows the theoretical and socio-cultural features for linguists considering dialects and gender.

  13. Gender differences when touching something gross: unpleasant? No. Disgusting? Yes!

    PubMed

    Skolnick, Alexander J

    2013-01-01

    While many studies find women self-report higher disgust sensitivity than men, few studies have examined gender differences with behavioral tasks in senses other than vision. On a haptic task, we tested the hypothesis that women would report greater disgust but not greater unpleasantness than men. Forty-four undergraduates (29 women) touched 8 out-of-sight stimuli with sensory (unpleasantness) and emotional (disgust) responses recorded. The stimuli consisted of 2 neutral, 2 pleasant, and 4 unpleasant (3 disgust-evoking) objects. No gender differences were found for reporting stimuli unpleasantness. In contrast, women rated their disgust significantly higher than men when touching the high disgust-evoking objects. Unpleasantness of the stimuli correlated with disgust to the objects, but disgust sensitivity (Disgust Scale-Revised) was not a strong predictor of disgust responses. Besides differentiating unpleasantness from disgust, this was also the first study to show gender differences in a disgust-evoking haptic task.

  14. Gender Induced Differences in Naval Fitness Reports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    results required that fitness reports be matched as much as possible in rank, designator, and time inservice to ensure that any differ- ences found were...effect, with males in a feminine field (such as male nurse , male secrecary) being considered as having the fewest leadership qualities, being the...train officers in personnel management such as Surface Warfare Officers School and Leadership, Manager.mont, Education and Training School. Third

  15. Gender vs. Sex: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, John D.

    2012-01-01

    As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender…

  16. Is the Achievement Motive Gender-Biased? The Validity of TAT/PSE in Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    In picture story exercises like the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Heckhausen, 1963), different pictures are presented to a person with the instruction to create a story using the scenes portrayed in the image. It is assumed, that people identify themselves with the people in the images and project their unconscious motives (e.g., achievement motive) onto them. As the TAT shows only men in the pictures, critics claimed the test is gender-biased; assuming women cannot identify with men in pictures. However, it was not assessed, whether female protagonists of the picture really trigger the same achievement motive as men. Therefore, two studies were conducted to address the gender difference and validity of the TAT using a version with only men in the pictures (study 1) or only women in the pictures (study 2). The results shows that the original TAT of Heckhausen is a valid instrument for women and men, but the modified version with only women in the pictures cannot validly measure the achievement motive in the male sample.

  17. Is the Achievement Motive Gender-Biased? The Validity of TAT/PSE in Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    In picture story exercises like the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Heckhausen, 1963), different pictures are presented to a person with the instruction to create a story using the scenes portrayed in the image. It is assumed, that people identify themselves with the people in the images and project their unconscious motives (e.g., achievement motive) onto them. As the TAT shows only men in the pictures, critics claimed the test is gender-biased; assuming women cannot identify with men in pictures. However, it was not assessed, whether female protagonists of the picture really trigger the same achievement motive as men. Therefore, two studies were conducted to address the gender difference and validity of the TAT using a version with only men in the pictures (study 1) or only women in the pictures (study 2). The results shows that the original TAT of Heckhausen is a valid instrument for women and men, but the modified version with only women in the pictures cannot validly measure the achievement motive in the male sample. PMID:28261126

  18. Gender Differences in French Undergraduates' Academic Plans and Wage Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnard, Claire; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Gender differences in wage expectations may affect investment in human capital and increase inequalities in the labour market. Our research based on a survey of first-year students at a French university aims to focus on expectations at the beginning of the career. Our results show that anticipated earnings differ significantly between men and…

  19. Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

    2010-01-01

    Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

  20. Cultural and Gender Differences in Spatial Ability of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Alice Seok Hoon; Tan, Lee Choo

    This study reports on cultural and gender differences in the spatial abilities of children based on the Water Level Task. The Piagetian theory of age-related developmental differences in performance on the Water Level Task was explored with Chinese and Malay children living in Singapore. Results indicate that children in this study did not perform…

  1. Gender Differences in STEM Related Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between boys and girls in their performance on STEM related AP exams. Specifically, gender differences were examined for the following STEM related AP exams: Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Physics B, Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, Physics C: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Computer Science…

  2. Residual Wage Differences by Gender: Bounding the Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…

  3. Re/imagining Higher Education Pedagogies: Gender, Emotion and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Penny Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article explores work published in "Teaching in Higher Education" that critically engages complex questions of difference and emotion in higher education pedagogies. It considers the ways that difference is connected to gender and misrecognition, and is experienced at the level of emotion, often through symbolic forms of violence…

  4. Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

  5. Gender Differences in Burnout: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvanova, Radostina K.; Muros, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on male-female differences in burnout has produced inconsistent results regarding the strength and direction of this relationship. Lack of clarity on gender differences in organizationally relevant phenomena, such as work burnout, frequently generates ungrounded speculations that may (mis)inform organizational decisions. To address…

  6. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  7. Gender Differences in Expectations of Self and Future Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Investigated expectations that 131 single female and 103 male college students had for themselves and their future marital partners. Genders did not differ on expectations for personal success but did differ on expectations for success of future marital partner. Women expected more success for future husbands than men expected for wives.…

  8. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  9. Associations of Student Temperament and Educational Competence with Academic Achievement: The Role of Teacher Age and Teacher and Student Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullola, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Alatupa, Saija; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations of teacher-perceived student temperament and educational competence with school achievement, and how these associations were modified by students' gender and teachers' gender and age. Participants were 1063 Finnish ninth-graders (534 boys) and their 29 Mother Language teachers (all female) and 43 Mathematics teachers (17…

  10. Have Gender Gaps in Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, and Learning Behaviors across Two ECLS-K Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimpian, Joseph R.; Lubienski, Sarah T.; Timmer, Jennifer D.; Makowski, Martha B.; Miller, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K:1999) revealed gender gaps in mathematics achievement and teacher perceptions. However, recent evidence suggests that gender gaps have closed on state tests, raising the question of whether such gaps are absent in the ECLS-K:2011 cohort.…

  11. Gender and Bilingual Education: An Exploratory Study of the Academic Achievement of Latina and Latino English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapayese, Yvette; Huchting, Karen; Grimalt, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Although biliteracy plays a vital role in academic achievement, there has been little research on the unique needs of female and male English language learners. Becoming biliterate is a complex process, compounded by other variables such as 1st-language background, class, culture, and gender. Among these variables, gender has been the least…

  12. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  13. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety

  14. Cross-national variation in the size of sex differences in values: effects of gender equality.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H; Rubel-Lifschitz, Tammy

    2009-07-01

    How does gender equality relate to men's and women's value priorities? It is hypothesized that, for both sexes, the importance of benevolence, universalism, stimulation, hedonism, and self-direction values increases with greater gender equality, whereas the importance of power, achievement, security, and tradition values decreases. Of particular relevance to the present study, increased gender equality should also permit both sexes to pursue more freely the values they inherently care about more. Drawing on evolutionary and role theories, the authors postulate that women inherently value benevolence and universalism more than men do, whereas men inherently value power, achievement, and stimulation more than women do. Thus, as gender equality increases, sex differences in these values should increase, whereas sex differences in other values should not be affected by increases in gender equality. Studies of 25 representative national samples and of students from 68 countries confirmed the hypotheses except for tradition values. Implications for cross-cultural research on sex differences in values and traits are discussed.

  15. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  16. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-12-22

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth.

  17. Gender differences in neural correlates of stress-induced anxiety.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dongju; Ahluwalia, Aneesha; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-02

    Although gender differences have been identified as a crucial factor for understanding stress-related anxiety and associated clinical disorders, the neural mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear. To explore gender differences in the neural correlates of stress-induced anxiety, the current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain responses in 96 healthy men and women with commensurable levels of trait anxiety as they engaged in a personalized guided imagery paradigm to provoke stress and neutral-relaxing experiences. During the task, a significant gender main effect emerged, with men displaying greater responses in the caudate, cingulate gyrus, midbrain, thalamus, and cerebellum. In contrast, women showed greater responses in the posterior insula, temporal gyrus, and occipital lobe. Additionally, a significant anxiety ratings × gender interaction from whole-brain regression analyses was observed in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, left inferior parietal lobe, left temporal gyrus, occipital gyrus, and cerebellum (P < 0.05, whole-brain family-wise error corrected), with positive associations between activity in these regions and stress-induced anxiety in women, but negative associations in men, indicating that men and women differentially use neural resources when experiencing stress-induced anxiety. The findings suggest that in response to stress, there is a greater use of the medial prefrontal-parietal cortices in experiencing subjective anxiety in women, while decreased use of this circuit was associated with increased subjective anxiety states in men. The current study has implications for understanding gender-specific differences in stress-induced anxiety and vulnerability to stress-related clinical disorders, and for developing more effective treatment strategies tailored to each gender. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Gender differences in the disposition and toxicity of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Vahter, Marie . E-mail: Marie.Vahter@imm.ki.se; Akesson, Agneta; Liden, Carola; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Berglund, Marika

    2007-05-15

    There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future.

  19. Gender Issues in Gifted Achievement: Are Girls Making Inroads While Boys Fall Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm, Sylvia B.

    2015-01-01

    School and life achievement patterns for girls and women differ from those of boys and men. While girls have made dramatic progress in school, they need to be inspired to connect to lifelong achievement. Both research and clinical work at the Ohio-based Family Achievement Clinic find that more boys than girls underachieve in school. There is much…

  20. Putting It on the Table: A Mini-Course on Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croker, Denise L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a high school mini-course called "Gender Bender" (a survey course of the contemporary literature on gender differences) that studied gender issues that were troubling high school students. Describes how the course discussed gender and schooling; gender roles in society; images in the media; dating, marriage, and divorce; and…

  1. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  2. Status and Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Descriptions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Leanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",…

  3. Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

  4. Gender Differences in Faculty Development: A Faculty Needs Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seritan, Andreea L.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Hyvonen, Shelby; Lan, Mei-Fang; Boyum, Kathleen; Hilty, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated professional development needs of faculty in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of California (UC) Davis, while also exploring any existing differences according to gender and academic rank. Methods: An online survey was sent to 75 faculty members, and 41 responses (17 women,…

  5. College Student Beliefs about Women: Some Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeely, Andrea; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty

    2005-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-twenty six undergraduates at a large south-eastern university completed a confidential anonymous 74-item questionnaire designed to assess beliefs about men, women, and relationships held by university students. This study focused on the data regarding gender differences in beliefs about women. Men were significantly more likely…

  6. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  7. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  8. Street Children in Nairobi: Gender Differences in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aptekar, Lewis; Ciano-Federoff, Lynda M.

    1999-01-01

    Gender differences among street children in Nairobi suggest familial function, and development and mental-health outcomes. Male children are taught coping skills by their mothers early on to take up street life to support their family. Female children, expected to remain at home and learn to become women, turn to street life as the result of…

  9. Gender Differences in Academic Motivation of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo Rusillo, Maria Teresa; Casanova Arias, Pedro Felix

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The following study examines gender differences existing in various cognitive-motivational variables (causal attributions, academic goals, academic self-concept and use of significant learning strategies) and in performance attained in school subjects of Language Arts and Mathematics. Method: For this purpose, a sample of 521…

  10. Differences in Gender Performance on Competitive Physics Selection Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics,which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the…

  11. Developmental Changes and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Perceptions of Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys)…

  12. Gender Differences in Research Patterns among PhD Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a 1996 survey of PhD economists working in the academic and nonacademic sectors since 1989. Despite a raw gender difference in all types of research output, the male dummy variable proves statistically significant in predicting only one publication measure. In a full sample and faculty subsample, number of years since…

  13. Clinical gender differences among adult pathological gamblers seeking treatment.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, psychological functioning, and motivation for therapy in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Participants in this multisite study included 103 adult outpatients (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Logistic regression was used to examine if gender was related together to categorical and continuous independent variables. Female gamblers were older than men and more likely to be divorced or widowed and to have a lower annual income. Women became more dependent on bingo and men on slot machines. Gambling motivation and the course of illness for both sexes were also different. Female gamblers were more anxious and with a poorer self-esteem than male gamblers and more affected by depressive symptoms; in turn, men were more impulsive and higher sensation seekers than women and more affected by drug/alcohol abuse. The 68.6% of female gamblers reported being victims of intimate partner violence. There were no gender differences about the motivation for treatment. Future research should examine gambling behaviors and psychological functioning and suggest treatment approaches to address specific goals according to these gender-related differences.

  14. Solving Graphics Tasks: Gender Differences in Middle-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrie, Tom; Diezmann, Carmel M.

    2011-01-01

    The capacity to solve tasks that contain high concentrations of visual-spatial information, including graphs, maps and diagrams, is becoming increasingly important in educational contexts as well as everyday life. This research examined gender differences in the performance of students solving graphics tasks from the Graphical Languages in…

  15. Gender Differences in Mother-Neonate Twin Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…

  16. Gender Differences in Mental Well-Being: A Decomposition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David

    2010-01-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…

  17. Gender Differences in Processing Speed: A Review of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2011-01-01

    A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and…

  18. Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

  19. Explaining Gender Differences in Earnings in the Microenterprise Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Susana M.; Pagan, Jose A.

    Chapter 5 in "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," presents a study analyzed male-female differences in earnings in rural and urban microenterprises in Mexico. Data were gathered from surveys of 1,944 households in 54 rural communities and 11,461 microenterprise owners in 34 urban areas. Findings indicate that female-headed…

  20. Bedroom Design and Decoration: Gender Differences in Preference and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.; Taylor, Denise E.; Dick, Andrew J.; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social…

  1. Adolescents: Differences in Friendship Patterns Related to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan

    2016-01-01

    Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…

  2. Gender Differences in Game Behaviour in Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, David; Garcia-Lopez, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game…

  3. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  4. Gender Differences in the Socialization of Preschoolers' Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for…

  5. Gender Differences in High-School Students' Views about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Patricia H.; Slawinski Blessing, Jennifer; Schwartz, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in 79 high-school students' attitudes towards their science classes, their perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science. The study identified some of the subtleties underlying females' low participation in, and interest in, science documented in previous research. Four…

  6. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces--Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the…

  7. Gender Differences in Displacement Cost: Evidence and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Thomas F.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Canadian displaced worker data show that predisplacement wages rise at about the same rate, but women lose more from displacement than men and loss increases with tenure. Results do not support the hypothesis that women accumulate less job-specific human capital; gender differences in job search may be a cause. (SK)

  8. Examination of Preschool Teachers' Biased Perception on Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook; Tyler, Mike

    Using the theoretical framework of hermeneutics and guided by the conceptual framework of Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Practice, two studies examined how preschool teachers perceive young children's gender differences in relation to the pedagogical considerations. Participants in Study 1 were 121 early childhood educators attending…

  9. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  10. Development of Gender Differences in Children's Responses to Animated Entertainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary Beth; Green, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from action adventure and sad films and to animated previews of a prototypical male versus female movie. Girls were more likely than boys to report and express sadness regarding sad segments. Intensities of sadness increased with age. Emotional responses to action adventure…

  11. Gender Differences in Keeping Secrets from Parents in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J. T.; Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin; Meeus, Wim

    2010-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined adolescent gender differences in the developmental changes and relational correlates of secrecy from parents. For 4 successive years, starting in the second year of junior high (mean age at Time 1 = 13.2 years, SD = 0.51), 149 male and 160 female Dutch adolescents reported on secrecy from their parents and…

  12. Gender Differences and Styles in the Use of Digital Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanno, Philip; Kommers, P. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports work in progress investigating gender differences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology at advanced level. In this previous work the…

  13. Gender Differences in Positive Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Natalie; Ravitch, N. Kathryn; Tom, Karalyn; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Wesley, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated gender differences of children and adolescents on positive social and emotional competencies using a new strength-based measure of positive social-emotional attributes and resilience--the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) cross-informant system. Caregivers, teachers, and students in grades kindergarten through…

  14. Gender Differences in the Recall of Performance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia; Langenfeld, Kelly

    This study tested whether gender differences in recall of performance feedback exist. Participants were 88 female and 68 male undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology courses at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside. They were presented with eight comments each (evaluative feedback) for both an English paper and a computer…

  15. Gender differences in identity development: an examination of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Streitmatter, J

    1993-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 105 junior high school students were analyzed to examine the relationship between gender and identity development over time. Analysis of variance, t tests, and analysis of covariance were employed. Taken collectively, results indicated that patterns of change over time were similar for males and females; as the students aged, they grew in psychosocial maturity regardless of gender. These results are consistent with other work using Eriksonian-based assessment instruments. Gilligan, using ethnographic methodology and a framework at odds with Erikson's, has proposed a very different interpretation of development across gender. Perhaps the two methodologies and the concomitant findings should be considered in a complementary fashion in view of the complex societal forces imposed upon females as they progress in their identity development.

  16. Differences in gender performance on competitive physics selection tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally in their penultimate year of school and selected by teachers as being high performing in physics. Together with the overall differences in facility, we have investigated how the content and presentation of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) affects the particular answers selected by male and female students. Differences in the patterns of responses by male and female students indicate that males and females might be modeling situations in different ways. Some strong patterns were found in the gender gaps when the questions were categorized in five broad dimensions: content, process required, difficulty, presentation, and context. Almost all questions saw male students performing better, although gender differences were relatively small for questions with a more abstract context. Male students performed significantly better on most questions with a concrete context, although notable exceptions were found, including two such questions where female students performed better. Other categories that showed consistently large gaps favoring male students include questions with projectile motion and other two-dimensional motion or forces content, and processes involving interpreting diagrams. Our results have important implications, suggesting that we should be able to reduce the gender gaps in performance on MCQ tests by changing the way information is presented and setting questions in contexts that are less likely to favor males over females. This is important as MCQ tests are

  17. Gender Differences in Motor Skills of the Overarm Throw

    PubMed Central

    Gromeier, Michael; Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the qualitative and quantitative throwing performance of male and female athletes (6 to 16 years of age) was analyzed. The goal of this study was to assess whether there were gender based qualitative and quantitative differences in throwing performance of young athletes, throughout three different age bands (childhood, pubescence, and adolescence). Furthermore, we explored whether all components of the throwing movement are equally affected by gender differences. Focus was placed on five essential components of action: trunk, forearm, humerus, stepping, and backswing. Therefore, children and adolescents (N = 96) were invited to throw three times from three different distances, while aiming at a target placed at shoulder height. The participants were aspiring athletes, competitive in the sport handball. For analyzing the quality of movement the component approach of Halverson and Roberton (1984) was used. The throwing accuracy was noted and used to evaluate the quantitative performance of the throwing movement. Throughout three different age bands, no statistically significant difference was found between genders in throwing accuracy, i.e., quantitative performance. Regarding the qualitative evaluation of the throwing movement, male and female athletes differed significantly. The component approach yielded higher scores for male than for female participants. As expected, with increasing age qualitative and quantitative performance of male and female athletes improved. These results suggest that there are gender-specific differences in qualitative throwing performance, but not necessarily in quantitative throwing performance. Exploration shows that differences in the qualitative throwing performance were seen in specific components of action. Male and female athletes demonstrated similar movement patterns in humerus and forearm actions, but differed in trunk, stepping, and backswing actions. PMID:28261142

  18. Evaluating the Geography of Gendered Achievement Using Large-Scale Assessment Data from the Primary School System of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lisle, Jerome; Smith, Peter; Jules, Vena

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the spatial distribution of gender differentials in Mathematics and Language Arts on national assessments of educational achievement in the primary school system of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The findings indicate statistically significant medium-sized differences favouring females on Language Arts primarily in the…

  19. The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same? Prior Achievement Fails to Explain Gender Inequality in Entry into Stem College Majors over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; King, Barbara; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the empirical basis for often-repeated arguments that gender differences in entrance into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors are largely explained by disparities in prior achievement. Analyses use data from three national cohorts of college matriculates across three decades to consider…

  20. Exploring Gender Differences across Elementary, Middle, and High School Students' Science and Math Attitudes and Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeGrand, Julie

    The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant gender differences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (p<.05), although these differences are not the same at each grade level or for each scientific discipline. Significant gender differences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.

  1. Gender Difference in Fatigue Index and its Related Physiology.

    PubMed

    Hanjabam, Barun; Kailashiya, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue index exhibits gender difference. This study was carried out to compare fatigue index of young, national level male and female field hockey players; and to explore physiological variables contributing to this difference. We measured running-based anaerobic sprint fatigue index and selected physiological parameters in male and female players matched for age, duration of training, diet, habitual physical activity, body weight and BMI. The male hockey players showed lower resistance to repeated sprints fatigue than the female players. Body weight, BMI and power variables positively correlated to fatigue index in both sexes; while lean body mass and age in males only, and body fat % in females only were found to be correlated to fatigue index. Difference in lean body mass, body fat %, strength and anaerobic power might be responsible for gender difference in intermittent & repeated sprints fatigue index observed in studied players.

  2. Coping strategies: gender differences and development throughout life span.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sancho, Patricia; Tomás, José Manuel

    2012-11-01

    Development during life-span implies to cope with stressful events, and this coping may be done with several strategies. It could be useful to know if these coping strategies differ as a consequence of personal characteristics. This work uses the Coping with Stress Questionnaire with this aim using a sample of 400 participants. Specifically, the effects of gender and age group (young people, middle age and elderly), as well as its interaction on coping strategies is studied. With regard to age, on one hand, it is hypothesised a decrement in the use of coping strategies centred in problem solving and social support seeking as age increases. On the other hand, the use of emotional coping is hypothesised to increase with age. With respect to gender, it is hypothesised a larger use of emotional coping and social support seeking within women, and a larger use of problem solving within men. A MANOVA found significant effects for the two main effects (gender and age) as well as several interactions. Separate ANOVAs allowed us to test for potential differences in each of the coping strategies measured in the CAE. These results partially supported the hypotheses. Results are discussed in relation to scientific literature on coping, age and gender.

  3. Israel 2000: immigration and gender differences in alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the association between immigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU) and gender and alcohol consumption among a representative sample of young adults in Israel 2000. Previous studies that were conducted on FSU immigrants to Israel indicate higher consumption than that of resident Israelis and immigrants of earlier periods. The current study aims to assess alcohol consumption among FSU and resident Israelis five years later to determine whether the discrepancy in alcohol consumption stays consistent or reduces. In addition, gender differences in alcohol consumption among the Israeli society were examined as well, as a special case of socio-culture differences. The data came from the 2000 national survey of drinking in Israel. Of 5,004 Jewish Israelis, 532 were immigrants from the FSU who arrived since 1989, and 4,472 were resident Israelis. The FSU group was compared with resident Israelis, and males were compared to females on several drinking variables. Logistic regression was the principal method of analysis. Demographics and cultural variables as main effects or in interaction with FSU and gender were controlled. The FSU group was significantly more likely to report drinking in the last twelve months plus drinking in the last thirty days than resident Israelis. Women's reported drinking in the last twelve months was one fourth of men's and during the past thirty days was one fifth of men's. Further investigation on the associations between the success of FSU acculturation in the Israeli society and drinking patterns as well as attitudes toward women and gender differences in alcohol consumption may provide explanations for gender and immigration gaps in alcohol consumption.

  4. Gender Differences in Scholarly Productivity Within Academic Gynecologic Oncology Departments

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Emily K.; Blake, Rachel A.; Emerson, Jenna B.; Svider, Peter; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Raker, Christina; Robison, Katina; Stuckey, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate whether there is a gender difference in scholarly productivity among academic gynecologic oncologists. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, the academic rank and gender of gynecologic oncology faculty in the United States were determined from online residency and fellowship directories and departmental web sites. Each individual’s h-index and years of publication were determined from Scopus (a citation database of peer-reviewed literature). The h-index is a quantification of an author’s scholarly productivity that combines the number of publications with the number of times the publications have been cited. We generated descriptive statistics and compared rank, gender, and productivity scores. RESULTS Five hundred seven academic faculty within 137 U.S. teaching programs were identified. Of these, 215 (42%) were female and 292 (58%) were male. Men had significantly higher median h-indices than women, 16 compared with 8, respectively (P<.001). Women were more likely to be of junior academic rank with 63% of assistant professors being female compared with 20% of full professors. When stratifying h-indices by gender and academic rank, men had significantly higher h-indices at the assistant professor level (7 compared with 5, P<.001); however, this difference disappeared at the higher ranks. Stratifying by the years of active publication, there was no significant difference between genders. CONCLUSION Female gynecologic oncologists at the assistant professor level had lower scholarly productivity than men; however, at higher academic ranks, they equaled their male counterparts. Women were more junior in rank, had published for fewer years, and were underrepresented in leadership positions. PMID:26551177

  5. Gender differences in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Caso, Valeria; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Alberti, Andrea; Lanari, Alessia; Micheli, Sara; Bertolani, Luca; Venti, Michele; Palmerini, Francesco; Billeci, Antonia M R; Comi, Giancarlo; Previdi, Paolo; Silvestrelli, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on women than men owing to the fact that women have more stroke events and are less likely to recover. Age-specific stroke rates are higher in men; however, because of women's longer life expectancy and the much higher incidence of stroke at older ages, women have more stroke events than men overall. The aims of this prospective study in consecutive patients were to assess whether there are gender differences in stroke risk factors, treatment or outcome. Consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were included in this prospective study at four study centers. Disability was assessed using a modified Rankin Scale score (>or=3 indicating disabling stroke) in both genders at 90 days. Outcomes and risk factors in both genders were compared using the chi(2) test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify any independent predictors of outcome. A total of 1136 patients were included in this study; of these, 494 (46%) were female. Women were statistically older compared with men: 76.02 (+/- 12.93) and 72.68 (+/- 13.27) median years of age, respectively. At admission, females had higher NIH Stroke Scale scores compared with males (9.4 [+/- 6.94] vs 7.6 [+/- 6.28] for men; p = 0.0018). Furthermore, females tended to have more cardioembolic strokes (153 [30%] vs 147 [23%] for men; p = 0.004). Males had lacunar and atherosclerotic strokes more often (146 [29%] vs 249 [39%] for men; p = 0.002, and 68 [13%] vs 123 [19%] for men; p = 0.01, respectively). The mean modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months was also significantly different between genders, at 2.5 (+/- 2.05) for women and 2.1 (+/- 2.02) for men (p = 0.003). However, at multivariate analysis, female gender was not an indicator for negative outcome. It was concluded that female gender was not an independent factor for negative outcome. In addition, both genders demonstrated different stroke pathophysiologies. These findings should be taken into account when diagnostic workup and

  6. Gender Differences in the Functional and Structural Neuroanatomy of Mathematical Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Katherine; Menon, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Despite ongoing debate about the nature of gender differences in mathematics achievement, little is known about gender similarities and differences in mathematical cognition at the neural level. We used fMRI to compare brain responses in 25 females and 24 males during a mental arithmetic task involving 3-operand addition and subtraction. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine gender differences in brain structure. Although females and males did not differ in accuracy or response times (effect size d < 0.3), significant gender differences in functional brain activation were observed in the right dorsal and ventral visuo-spatial information processing streams (d > 1.1). Males showed greater dorsal stream activation in right intra-parietal sulcus areas important for numerical cognition, and angular gyrus regions of the default mode network that are typically deactivated during complex cognitive tasks, as well as greater ventral stream activation in the right lingual and parahippocampal gyri. VBM revealed an opposite pattern of gender differences – compared to males, females had greater regional density and greater regional volume in dorsal and ventral stream regions where males showed greater fMRI activation. There were no brain areas where females showed greater functional activation than males, and no brain areas where males showed greater structural density or volume than females. Our findings provide evidence for gender differences in the functional and structural organization of right hemisphere brain areas involved in mathematical cognition. Together with the lack of behavioral differences, our results point to more efficient use of neural processing resources in females. PMID:19376239

  7. Bedroom design and decoration: gender differences in preference and activity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Randall M; Taylor, Denise E; Dick, Andrew J; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social institutions. Gender differences were identified for preference, activity, and influence in bedroom design and decoration. Girls and boys differed in the type of items contained in their bedrooms. Girls' rooms contained stuffed animals and pictures of people, including themselves, more frequently than the boys' rooms. In contrast, boys' rooms contained sports-related items, and things for building or that they had built themselves. Although bedroom design activity for both boys and girls was influenced by older teens, friends, media, and popular culture, boys (but not girls) were also influenced by their mothers, fathers, girlfriends, and activities such as sports, Boy or Girl Scouts, and music lessons.

  8. Gender differences in excessive daytime sleepiness among Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-02-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is serious concern in the workplace with respect to errors, accidents, absenteeism, reduced productivity and impaired personal or professional life. Previous community studies found a female preponderance of EDS, however, there is little research on EDS and gender in occupational settings. We examined the gender differences in prevalence and risk factors of EDS among employees working at a telecommunications company in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Our outcome measure of EDS was the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A self-administered questionnaire on health and sleep including ESS was distributed to 5,571 workers between December 1999 and January 2000, and 5,072 responses were returned (91.0%). A total of 4,722 full-time, non-manual and non-shift employees aged 20-59 were used for analysis (3,909 men and 813 women). Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied for examining the gender differences in the prevalence and risk factors of EDS. The prevalence rates of EDS were 13.3% for women and 7.2% for men (P<0.001). We identified that deprived nocturnal sleep, an irregular sleep-wake schedule and depression were the risk factors of EDS for both genders, and being married worked as a protective factor against EDS for men alone. It is obvious that a ban on overtime work and a provision of mental health hygiene are the general strategies for reducing EDS at worksites. In the case of women, we suggest the formation of effective strategies for improving women's status at home and in the workplace must also be a solution for the prevention of EDS (e.g. promoting gender equality in the division of labor at home and strengthening family care policies for working women).

  9. [Gender differences in resting EEG related to Eysenk's Personality Traits].

    PubMed

    Razumnikova, O M

    2004-01-01

    EEG mapping was used to study gender differences in hemispheric organization related to personality (40 male and 42 female subjects, the students 17-20 ages). The results showed, that each clearly defined personality trait (neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticizm and social conformity) characterized by special EEG pattern differenced on men and women groups. At the same time, more close interaction of gender and neuroticism was observed, but gender and extraversion were less connected. Neuroticism related patterns of coherence in the alpha2- and beta2-bands were associated with an activity changes in anterior cortex in men but posterior--in women, at that the positive correlations were observed in the beta2-band in the former case and negative ones in the second. There are two opposing tendencies of the interaction between extraversion and gender in a modulation of the resting theta-rhythm: an increase of cortex connections in men and decrease ones in women. The specificity of spatial-temporal EEG patterns in men associated mostly with a psychoticizm value but in women--with a social conformism. In either case these personality traits related to activity of frontal cortex in the left hemisphere.

  10. Individual Differences in Achievement Orientation and Use of Classroom Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Timothy A.; Hom, Harry L., Jr.

    Individual differences in achievement orientation are compared with differences in gifted students' use of feedback on a classroom exam. The achievement orientation of 57 seventh- and eighth-grade gifted students was measured using the Motivational Orientation Scale (MOS). There were 33 males and 24 females. As part of their regular classroom…

  11. Differences in Middle School Science Achievement by School District Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Matthew James; Maxwell, Gerri M.; Holland, Glenda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in Texas middle school student achievement in science by school district enrollment size. Quantitative research utilized analysis of variance to determine whether significant differences existed between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8th grade science results and four school…

  12. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area.

  13. Achievement Gaps: An Examination of Differences in Student Achievement and Growth. The Full Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Martha S.; Hauser, Carl; Cronin, John; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Houser, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The difference between the academic performance of poor students and wealthier students and between minority students and their non-minority peers is commonly known as the achievement gap. The current study examines the achievement gap using a large sample of students from a wide variety of school districts across the United States. It examines…

  14. Premarital sexual standards and sociosexuality: gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Susan; Treger, Stanislav; Sakaluk, John K

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present results from a "cohort-longitudinal" analysis of sexual attitudes and behaviors based on a large sample of young adults (N = 7,777) obtained from a university setting over a 23-year period. We investigated gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences in sexual permissiveness, endorsement of the double standard, and sociosexuality. Compared to women, men had more permissive attitudes, particularly about sex in casual relationships, endorsed the double standard to a greater degree, and had a more unrestricted sociosexuality. Black men were generally more permissive than White, Hispanic, and Asian men, whereas ethnic differences were not found among women. Participants from the 1995-1999 cohort were slightly less permissive than those from the 1990-1994 and 2005-2012 cohorts. Although prior meta-analytic studies (e.g., Petersen & Hyde, 2010) found reduced gender differences in sexuality over time, our cohort analyses suggest that gender differences in sexual permissiveness have not changed over the past two decades among college students.

  15. Teachers' perceptions of students' mathematics proficiency may exacerbate early gender gaps in achievement.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Cimpian, Joseph P; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Ganley, Colleen M; Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin

    2014-04-01

    A recent wave of research suggests that teachers overrate the performance of girls relative to boys and hold more positive attitudes toward girls' mathematics abilities. However, these prior estimates of teachers' supposed female bias are potentially misleading because these estimates (and teachers themselves) confound achievement with teachers' perceptions of behavior and effort. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), Study 1 demonstrates that teachers actually rate boys' mathematics proficiency higher than that of girls when conditioning on both teachers' ratings of behavior and approaches to learning as well as past and current test scores. In other words, on average girls are only perceived to be as mathematically competent as similarly achieving boys when the girls are also seen as working harder, behaving better, and being more eager to learn. Study 2 uses mediation analysis with an instrumental-variables approach, as well as a matching strategy, to explore the extent to which this conditional underrating of girls may explain the widening gender gap in mathematics in early elementary school. We find robust evidence suggesting that underrating girls' mathematics proficiency accounts for a substantial portion of the development of the mathematics achievement gap between similarly performing and behaving boys and girls in the early grades.

  16. Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

    2012-02-01

    We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

  17. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  18. Gender differences in colour naming performance for gender specific body shape images.

    PubMed

    Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K

    1998-03-01

    Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects.

  19. A multidimensional Rasch analysis of gender differences in PISA mathematics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Wilson, Mark; Paek, Insu

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, much attention has been devoted to the male advantage in standardized mathematics tests in the United States. Although girls are found to perform equally well as boys in math classes, they are consistently outperformed on standardized math tests. This study compared the males and females in the United States, all 15-year-olds, by their performance on the PISA 2003 mathematics assessment. A multidimensional Rasch model was used for item calibration and ability estimation on the basis of four math domains: Space and Shape, Change and Relationships, Quantity, and Uncertainty. Results showed that the effect sizes of performance differences are small, all below .20, but consistent, in favor of boys. Space and Shape displayed the largest gender gap, which supports the findings from many previous studies. Quantity showed the least amount of gender difference, which may be explained by the hypothesis that girls perform better on tasks that they are familiar with through classroom practice.

  20. Gender differences in patellofemoral load during the epee fencing lunge.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Bottoms, L

    2015-01-01

    Clinical analyses have shown that injuries and pain linked specifically to fencing training/competition were prevalent in 92.8% of fencers. Patellofemoral pain is the most common chronic injury in athletic populations and females are considered to be more susceptible to this pathology. This study aimed to examine gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces during the fencing lunge. Patellofemoral contact forces were obtained from eight male and eight female club level epee fencers using an eight-camera 3D motion capture system and force platform data as they completed simulated lunges. Independent t-tests were performed on the data to determine whether gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces were present. The results show that females were associated with significantly greater patellofemoral contact force parameters in comparison with males. This suggests that female fencers may be at greater risk from patellofemoral pathology as a function of fencing training/competition.

  1. Adversity Across the Life Course of Incarcerated Parents: Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents (N=357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed. PMID:26998189

  2. Gender differences in war-related disappearance: Croatian experiences, 2005.

    PubMed

    Jurcevic, Slavica; Allen, James; Dahl, Solveig

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess gender differences in disappeared persons and the circumstances of their disappearance. The method involved the completion of a semistructured interview and questionnaires by individuals searching for missing and disappeared persons in Croatia (1991-1995) as a part of the nationwide disappeared persons registry of the Croatian Commission for Detained and Missing Persons. A total of 6183 informants provided information on characteristics and circumstances of 2563 disappeared persons, 84% of the total number of 3052 disappeared persons. The results indicated an important gender difference in the patterns of disappearance in the Croatian war; most disappeared men were of combatant age, employed, and similar to the general population in terms of key demographic characteristics, whereas most disappeared women were rural, less educated, and elderly. This type of information was critical for guiding postconflict policy decisions, planning treatment and prevention efforts for the families of victims of human rights abuses, and holding perpetrators accountable.

  3. Maximal power at different percentages of one repetition maximum: influence of resistance and gender.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Spiering, Barry A; Volek, Jeff S; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-05-01

    National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes were tested to determine the load at which maximal mechanical output is achieved. Athletes performed power testing at 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70% of individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the squat jump, bench press, and hang pull exercises. Additionally, hang pull power testing was performed using free-form (i.e., barbell) and fixed-form (i.e., Smith machine) techniques. There were differences between genders in optimal power output during the squat jump (30-40% of 1RM for men; 30-50% of 1RM for women) and bench throw (30% of 1RM for men; 30-50% of 1RM for women) exercises. There were no gender or form interactions during the hang pull exercise; maximal power output during the hang pull occurred at 30-60% of 1RM. In conclusion, these results indicate that (a) gender differences exist in the load at which maximal power output occurs during the squat jump and bench throw; and (b) although no gender or form interactions occurred during the hang pull exercise, greater power could be generated during fixed-form exercise. In general, 30% of 1RM will elicit peak power outputs for both genders and all exercises used in this study, allowing this standard percentage to be used as a starting point in order to train maximal mechanical power output capabilities in these lifts in strength trained athletes.

  4. Gender Differences in Insulin Resistance, Body Composition, and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Eliza B.; Shen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Adipose tissue distribution, in particular the presence of elevated visceral and hepatic adiposity, plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related complications. Objective This review summarizes published data on gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance, to provide insight into novel gender-specific avenues of research as well as gender-tailored treatments of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, and obesity. Methods English-language articles were identified from searches of the PubMed database through November 2008, and by reviewing the references cited in these reports. Searches included combinations of the following terms: gender, sex, insulin resistance, body composition, energy balance, and hepatic adipose tissue. Results For a given body mass index, men were reported to have more lean mass, women to have higher adiposity. Men were also found to have more visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, whereas women had more peripheral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. These differences, as well as differences in sex hormones and adipokines, may contribute to a more insulin-sensitive environment in women than in men. When normalized to kilograms of lean body mass, men and women had similar resting energy expenditure, but physical energy expenditure was more closely related to percent body fat in men than in women. Conclusion Greater amounts of visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, in conjunction with the lack of a possible protective effect of estrogen, may be related to higher insulin resistance in men compared with women. PMID:19318219

  5. Recalled and current gender role behavior, gender identity and sexual orientation in adults with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development.

    PubMed

    Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B

    2016-11-01

    The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our

  6. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender

    PubMed Central

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) ─ the ability to understand other’s thoughts, intentions, and emotions ─ is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one’s ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males’ motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females’ motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure. PMID:26633171

  7. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender.

    PubMed

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM)--the ability to understand other's thoughts, intentions, and emotions--is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one's ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males' motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females' motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure.

  8. Gender-based differences in the cardiovascular response to standing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotshall, Robert W.; Tsai, Pai-Feng; Frey, Mary A. B.

    1991-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses of men and women to the stand test were compared by measuring respective values for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance during a 5-min supine and a 5-min standing test in ten subjects of each gender. It was found that, while the male and female subjects had similar heart rate values, all other responses exhibited greater changes in men than in women. While differences in the height of the subjects did not account for differences in cardiovascular responses, no mechanism responsible for these differences could be identified.

  9. Gender-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of opiates.

    PubMed

    Djurendic-Brenesel, Maja; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Pilija, Vladimir; Tasic, Milos

    2010-01-30

    Previous studies have documented gender-related differences in a number of aspects of the pharmacology of opiates, including their analgesic activity, stimulative properties and generation of physical dependence. The current experiments were carried out with the aim to examine whether male-female differences exist in the blood and brain levels of opiates attained after their intraperitoneal injection to male and female Wistar rats. The tests were performed 5, 15, 45 and 120 min after the animal treatment with seized heroin. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed to quantitatively determine opiate alkaloids in blood and brain regions (known for their high concentration of mu-opiate receptors): cortex, brainstem, amygdala and basal ganglia. Maximal contents of opiates in blood of animals of both genders were found in the second measurement time (15 min), the values measured in the males being significantly higher, which suggests a faster passage of the opiates from blood to brain tissue in female animals. The highest content of opiates in the brain tissue of female animals was measured 15 min and with male animals 45 min after the treatment, which also indicates faster distribution of opiates from blood to brain in the female compared to male rats. The highest proportion of opiates was found in the basal ganglia of the animals of both genders. The obtained results offer the possibility of selecting this part of the brain tissue of both males and females as a representative sample for identifying and assessing contents of opiates.

  10. Gender differences in the symptoms of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Romans, Sarah E; Tyas, Jeanette; Cohen, Marsha M; Silverstone, Trevor

    2007-11-01

    Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2 were used for a gender analysis of individual symptoms and overall rates of depression in the preceding 12 months. Major depressive disorder was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in this national, cross-sectional survey. The female to male ratio of major depressive disorder prevalence was 1.64:1, with n = 1766 having experienced depression (men 668, women 1098). Women reported statistically more depressive symptoms than men (p < 0.001). Depressed women were more likely to report "increased appetite" (15.5% vs. 10.7%), being "often in tears" (82.6% vs. 44.0%), "loss of interest" (86.9% vs. 81.1%), and "thoughts of death" (70.3% vs. 63.4%). No significant gender differences were found for the remaining symptoms. The data are interpreted against women's greater tendency to cry and to restrict food intake when not depressed. The question is raised whether these items preferentially bias assessment of gender differences in depression, particularly in nonclinic samples.

  11. Gender Differences in Behçet's Disease Associated Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Ucar-Comlekoglu, Didar; Sen, H. Nida

    2014-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, characterized by oral and genital ulceration, skin lesions, and uveitis as well as vascular, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal system involvement. It is prevalent in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and Eastern Asia. The aim of this review is to evaluate the gender differences in clinical manifestations of Behçet's disease, treatment responses, mortality, and morbidity. Behçet's disease has been reported to be more prevalent in males from certain geographic regions and particular ethnic groups; however, recent reports indicate more even gender distribution across the world. There are gender differences in clinical manifestations and severity of the disease. Ocular manifestations, vascular involvement, and neurologic symptoms are more frequently reported in male patients whereas oral and genital ulcers, skin lesions, and arthritis occur more frequently in female patients. The disease can have a more severe course in males, and overall mortality rate is significantly higher among young male patients. PMID:24864195

  12. Gender differences in math and science choices and preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhadrawi, Amamah A.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to discover how the myth of gender differences in STEM inform the lived experiences of male and female 12th graders in one high school in Northwest Ohio. Over the years, the observed gender gap favoring males over females in STEM ability has closed, and female students have even surpassed males in some measures. The fact that girls have met and exceeded boys in many measures of STEM ability over time suggests that the historical disparity was the result of social or psychological, and not biological, differences. Even though schools have changed throughout the years to accommodate and encourage female students in STEM, there is still a persistent disparity in participation at the highest levels of STEM in education and in careers. Males still outnumber females in the more mathematical and technical sciences, such as computer science and engineering. This study applied feminist socialization theory and phenomenology as its theoretical framework. The biggest themes that informed student"s choices and preferences were as follows: intended choices follow family influence, myth persists in subtle ways, teenagers have a limited future view, and the chicken and the egg issues of personal interests versus social influence. There are clearly more factors that contribute to this gender socialization, which may be a combination of socioeconomic status and the influence of family.

  13. Gender Differences in Psychopathy Links to Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Nicole; Murphy, Brett; Verona, Edelyn

    2015-01-01

    While the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and substance use has received some attention (Hart & Hare, 1989; Smith & Newman, 1990), gender differences have not been thoroughly assessed. The current study examined whether gender modified the relationship between two criminally-relevant constructs, a) psychopathy and its factors and b) drug use. A sample of 318 participants with criminal histories and recent substance use was assessed for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for illicit drug use using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. As expected, the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were positively related to a number of drug use characteristics (symptoms, age of drug initiation, extent of drug experimentation), whereas the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) showed a negative relationship with drug abuse symptoms and a positive relationship with age of first use. In terms of gender differences, analyses revealed that women showed a stronger association between Factor 1 traits and later age of initiation compared to men, and that Factor 2, and antisocial facet in particular, were more strongly related to drug abuse in women than men. These findings suggest that psychopathic traits serve as both protective (Factor 1) and risk (Factor 2) correlates of illicit drug use, and in women, Factor 1 may be especially protective in terms of initiation. These conclusions add to the growing literature on potential routes to substance use and incarceration in women. PMID:26571339

  14. Gender differences in sexual assault victimization among college students.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Armstrong, Jessica L; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Cameron, Amy Y

    2012-01-01

    College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research.

  15. Gender differences in knowledge and attitude towards biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    The relationship between gender, knowledge of biotechnology, attitudes toward biotechnology, and various socio-demographic variables was investigated using the Eurobarometer 52.1. It was found that neither socio-demographics, nor differing levels of scientific knowledge could explain females' greater probability of being pessimistic toward biotechnology. After running separate models for males and females, it was discovered that, for males, more knowledge of biotechnology decreased their probability of being pessimistic about science, but for females more knowledge of biotechnology actually lead to a greater probability of being pessimistic. Further, a gender-education interaction was discovered that revealed that, for males, education and knowledge of biotechnology have independent effects on attitudes, but for females education has no effect on attitudes towards biotechnology when knowledge is controlled. The results for females complicate the deficit model of social support for science, which posits that more knowledge of science always leads to more positive attitudes.

  16. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease: Hormonal and Biochemical Influences

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Larrad-Mur, Luis; Kallen, Amanda; Chedraui, Peter; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is a complex process characterized by an increase in vascular wall thickness owing to the accumulation of cells and extracellular matrix between the endothelium and the smooth muscle cell wall. There is evidence that females are at lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) as compared to males. This has led to an interest in examining the contribution of genetic background and sex hormones to the development of CVD. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of factors, including those related to gender, that influence CVD. Methods Evidence analysis from PubMed and individual searches concerning biochemical and endocrine influences and gender differences, which affect the origin and development of CVD. Results Although still controversial, evidence suggests that hormones including estradiol and androgens are responsible for subtle cardiovascular changes long before the development of overt atherosclerosis. Conclusion Exposure to sex hormones throughout an individual's lifespan modulates many endocrine factors involved in atherosclerosis. PMID:20460551

  17. Humor and gender roles: does age make a difference?

    PubMed

    Vitulli, William F

    2005-08-01

    Crawford's analysis in 2003 suggests that humor interacts with gender so that traditional social norms of femininity and masculinity may be reinforced or diinished. Yet age as a covariate was not considered. Assessment of the attitudes toward humor among 72 older women (M=72.0, SD=9.8, range=51-93 years) and 24 older men (M=69.8, SD=6.8, range=59-90 years) in 1996 by Vitulli and Parman suggest ratings on a Likert-type scale (anchored by 5: strongly agree and 1: strongly disagree) in which humor and gender interact. Moreover, a post hoc Scheffé test showed a significant sex effect on the female-oriented scale. Older women perceived humor as an important quality for women, whereas older men did not. Generational differences among studies on humor and sex underscore the need for contemporary research inclusive of age measures.

  18. Gender differences in prison-based drug treatment participation.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Houser, Kimberly A

    2012-08-01

    Prisons inmates have high rates of substance abuse and associated social and health problems, and a concomitant high need for drug treatment while incarcerated. Female inmates have an even greater treatment need, yet most inmates do not participate in treatment while incarcerated. Using data from a nationally representative sample of prison inmates, this article examines the impact of gender on prison treatment participation and gender differences in the factors associated with clinical treatment participation. Females were significantly more likely to participate in prison drug treatment than males, controlling for other factors. For both males and females, severity of drug problems predicted participation in treatment. For males but not females, race was associated with prison treatment participation, and among those with drug abuse or dependence, females with co-occurring mental health problems were more likely to participate in treatment. Implications for prison assessment and treatment policies, and future research, are discussed.

  19. Do gender differences in running performance disappear with distance?

    PubMed

    Coast, J Richard; Blevins, Jennifer S; Wilson, Brian A

    2004-04-01

    It has been suggested that gender differences in running should disappear as distances increase, particularly past the marathon. This suggestion is primarily based on differences in fuel utilization, muscle damage following exercise, relative improvements in performance over the past decades, and on the analysis of marathon vs. ultramarathon performances of men and women. We reasoned that the best comparison of the potential of a human is by the use of world best times, which should be reasonable indicators of the effect of distance on relative performance of women and men. We compared current world best running performances at distances from 100 m to 200 km. Records as of December 2002 were obtained. T-tests analyzed speed differences between genders, and regression analysis tested the percent differences between men and women across distance. Speeds were different, with the average difference being 12.4% faster for men. There was a significant slope to the speed difference across distances in that longer distances were associated with greater differences. These results may be confounded by the reduced number of women in longer distance events. Furthermore, the proposed metabolic advantage for women because of increased fat metabolism may be masked by regular feeding during endurance races.

  20. Biosocial Influences on Sex Differences in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Siv

    Biosocial influences on sex differences, found for school achievement test results in grades 3 and 6, have been studied by means of opposite-sex twin pairs and singleton controls, attending the same classes as the twins. As expected the opposite-sex twin pairs tend to be more similar in achievement test results in Swedish and mathematics than…

  1. Women Physicists of Color Achieving at the Intersection of Race and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, K. Renee

    2006-03-01

    As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African and Hispanic descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter and Scott Page remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important since most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences however. While American women are 15 percent of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60 percent of all black scientists and engineers. Yet less than 3 black women and 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S." Donna Nelson's study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors at all. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40 percent of bachelor's degrees to women, 7 are Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Black women are earning degrees from HBCUs at rates above equity, and many singles and firsts at predominantly white institutions continue to persevere despite the obstacles. Prudence Carter. 2005. Intersectional Matters and Meanings: Ethnicity, Gender, and Resistance to ``Acting White

  2. Gender differences in social support in persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Kendel, Friederike; Kiep, Henriette; Holtkamp, Martin; Gaus, Verena

    2015-05-01

    The present study focused on social support as a key feature of the enhancement and maintenance of mental health. So far, literature on gender differences in social support and its effects on the experience of stress in individuals with epilepsy is scarce. We hypothesized that in individuals with epilepsy, social support buffers detrimental effects of stressors (e.g., unpredictable occurrence of seizures) on mental health. Additionally, we explored the role of gender in this process. In 299 individuals with epilepsy, data from validated questionnaires on seizures in the last 3months, perceived support, social network size, and depressive symptoms were analyzed. Women reported higher depressive symptoms (t=2.51, p<.01) and higher perceived support (t=2.50, p<.01) than men. Women and men did not differ in social network size (t=-0.46, p=64), nor in experiencing seizures (χ(2)=0.07, p=.82). Regression analyses revealed no buffer effects. Perceived support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (B=-0.49, p<.001, 95% CI [-0.67; -0.32]). With regard to depressive symptoms, social integration was slightly more beneficial for women (Bcond.=-0.06, p<.001; 95% CI [-0.09; -0.03]) than for men (Bcond.=-0.02, p=.09; 95% CI [-0.04; 0.01]). Findings present perceived support and social integration as general health resources in individuals with epilepsy regardless of previously experienced seizures. They also encourage further research on gender-specific effects in individuals with epilepsy and move towards recommendations for practitioners and gender-specific interventions. Future aims will be to enhance social integration in order to support adjustment to the chronic condition of epilepsy and to improve individuals' confidence in support interactions.

  3. MECCA (Making Equity Count for Classroom Achievement). Utah Gender Equity Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This gender equity trainer's guide has three purposes: to raise awareness in Utah's preservice and inservice teachers of harmful, often unconscious, behaviors; to encourage gender fairness; and to help teachers develop strategies that result in gender fairness in schools. The guide contains 12 modules of instruction that cover the following…

  4. Friendship networks and achievement goals: an examination of selection and influence processes and variations by gender.

    PubMed

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M

    2014-09-01

    Interactions with friends are a salient part of students' experience at school. Thus, friends are likely to be an important source of influence on achievement goals. This study investigated processes within early adolescent friendships (selection and influence) with regard to achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals) among sixth graders (N = 587, 50% girls at wave 1, N = 576, 52% girls at wave 2) followed from fall to spring within one academic year. Students' gender was examined as a moderator in these processes. Longitudinal social network analysis found that friends were similar to each other in mastery goals and that this similarity was due to both selection and influence effects. Influence but not selection effects were found for performance-approach goals. Influence effects for performance-approach goals were stronger for boys compared to girls in the classroom. Neither selection, nor influence, effects were found in relation to performance-avoidance goals. However, the higher a student was in performance-avoidance goals, the less likely they were to be named as a friend by classmates. Implications for early adolescents' classroom adjustment are discussed.

  5. Influence of Gender, Single-Sex and Co-Educational Schooling on Students' Enjoyment and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)…

  6. An exploration of gender differences in tertiary mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jane M.

    1989-02-01

    Data from 400 students in a tertiary mathematics course were analysed to explore gender differences on a number of variables associated with learning mathematics. It was concluded that while differences did occur on variables associated with confidence, self-concept, test anxiety and quantitative ability indicating a detrimental effect for women, compensating behaviour by women, including increased assignment work and tutorial attendance, resulted in comparable final course performance for women and men. These findings are discussed in light of participation rates of women in mathematics.

  7. Gender differences in the socialization of preschoolers' emotional competence.

    PubMed

    Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M

    2010-01-01

    Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for sons and daughters. They also found several themes in the prediction of preschoolers' emotion knowledge and regulation. For example, sometimes mother-father differences in emotional style actually seem to promote such competence, and girls seem particularly susceptible to parental socialization of emotion.

  8. Gender differences in juvenile gang members: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hayward, R Anna; Honegger, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, gang membership within the United States has continued to rise and has spread from urban centers to suburban and rural areas. Juvenile gang membership is of particular concern because of the relationship between early gang involvement and later adolescent and adult criminal behavior and incarceration. Female gang membership and affiliation are receiving increased attention as female crime and incarceration rates outpace those of their male counterparts. This study explores gender differences between male and female juveniles who have verified gang membership in one suburban jurisdiction. Findings suggest important differences between males and females, and implications for research and practice are discussed.

  9. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Otto K-W; Cheng, Alfred S-L

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose, and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management.

  10. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Otto K.-W.; Cheng, Alfred S.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose, and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management. PMID:27703473

  11. Persistent gender inequities in mathematics achievement and expectations in Australia, Canada and the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Leder, Gilah C.

    2017-02-01

    We report the general public's perceptions and those of 15-year-old school students, about aspects of mathematics learning. For the adult sample, survey data were gathered from pedestrians and Facebook users in Australia, Canada and the UK—countries in which English is the dominant language spoken. Participants responded to items about the teaching and learning of mathematics, the gender stereotyping of mathematics and the perceived importance of studying mathematics for future careers. Collection of the data from the pedestrian samples partially overlapped with the period of data gathering via Facebook and coincided loosely with the administration of the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2012 in the three countries of interest. We examined participants' views/beliefs by country and by respondent age. We also compared the results of the adult samples with student responses to four PISA 2012 attitudinal items for which the foci were comparable to items administered to the general public. Thus, we were able to compare the responses of three different age groups. While participants considered mathematics to be important for everyone to study, and important for employment, vestiges of traditional gender stereotyped beliefs and expectations were evident, more so among the younger than older respondents.

  12. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease: clinical characteristics and cognition.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ivy N; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2010-12-15

    More men than women are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD), and a number of gender differences have been documented in this disorder. Examples of clinical characteristics that appear in men more often than women include rigidity and rapid eye movement behavior disorder, whereas more women than men exhibit dyskinesias and depression. Differences between men and women in cognition have not been extensively examined, though there are reports of deficits in men in aspects of cognition that contribute to activities of daily living, in verbal fluency, and in the recognition of facial emotion, and deficits in women in visuospatial cognition. Side of disease onset may interact with gender to affect cognitive abilities. One possible source of male-female differences in the clinical and cognitive characteristics of PD is the effect of estrogen on dopaminergic neurons and pathways in the brain. This effect is not yet understood, as insight into how the fluctuation of estrogen over the lifetime affects the brain is currently limited. Further attention to this area of research will be important for accurate assessment and better management of PD. Attention should also be directed to multiple covariates that may affect clinical characteristics and cognition. Knowledge about differences in the presentation of PD symptoms in men and women and about the pathophysiology underlying those differences may enhance the accuracy and effectiveness of clinical assessment and treatment of the disease.

  13. Gender differences in personal values of national and local Italian politicians, activists and voters.

    PubMed

    Francescato, Donata; Mebane, Minou E; Vecchione, Michele

    2015-11-27

    Theorists of politics of presence postulate that women elected to political office would still hold values similar to ordinary women and therefore represent them better than male politicians. Gender differences in personal values, which underline and give coherence to core political values, have been found among voters: males score higher on self-enhancement values (power and achievement) and females higher on self-transcendence values (universalism and benevolence). Our study aims to explore if gender differences in personal values are still present among activists, local and national politicians. We administer a shortened version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire to 233 Italian national politicians (46% females), 425 local politicians (56% females), 626 political activists (44% females), and 3249 ordinary citizens (49% females). Our results confirm only partially politics of presence theory: females at all levels of political involvement score higher in self-transcendent values that emphasise concern for the welfare of others, but no significant gender differences emerge for self-enhancement, which favour the pursuit of self-interest. Our findings support ethical struggles for more balanced gender representation: a higher proportion of women in politics could strengthen the political representation of self-transcendence values.

  14. Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Jessica J.; Sanchez, Diana T.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n= 226; men, n= 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity ("private…

  15. Gender and Gender Role Differences in Student-Teachers' Commitment to Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Ikupa; Admiraal, Wilfried F.; Berry, Amanda K.

    2016-01-01

    Low commitment to teaching amongst teachers is a problem facing the teaching profession in many countries. Gender might be an important factor in explaining what kinds of prospective teachers are attracted to teaching. This empirical study examined the relationship between student-teachers' gender, gender roles and commitment to teaching within…

  16. Demystifying Gender Differences in Mentoring: Theoretical Perspectives and Challenges for Future Research on Gender and Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Angela M.; Cady, Steven; Foxon, Marguerite J.

    2006-01-01

    Issues of gender and mentoring are explored through several theoretical lenses--similarity-attraction paradigm, power dependence, social exchange, biological, and psychological theories--to provide a more comprehensive view of mentoring from a gender-based perspective. Issues related to gender and mentoring presented in past mentoring research and…

  17. Multidimensional assessment of empathic abilities: neural correlates and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Derntl, Birgit; Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Eickhoff, Simon; Kellermann, Thilo; Falkenberg, Dania I; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct and comprises the ability to perceive, understand and feel the emotional states of others. Gender differences have been reported for various aspects of emotional and cognitive behaviors including theory of mind. However, although empathy is not a single ability but a complex behavioral competency including different components, most studies relied on single aspects of empathy, such as perspective taking or emotion perception. To extend those findings we developed three paradigms to assess all three core components of empathy (emotion recognition, perspective taking and affective responsiveness) and clarify to which extent gender affects the neural correlates of empathic abilities. A functional MRI study was performed with 12 females (6 during their follicular phase, 6 during their luteal phase) and 12 males, measuring these tasks as well as self-report empathy questionnaires. Data analyses revealed no significant gender differences in behavioral performance, but females rated themselves as more empathic than males in the self-report questionnaires. Analyses of functional data revealed distinct neural networks in females and males, and females showed stronger neural activation across all three empathy tasks in emotion-related areas, including the amygdala. Exploratory analysis of possible hormonal effects indicated stronger amygdala activation in females during their follicular phase supporting previous data suggesting higher social sensitivity and thus facilitated socio-emotional behavior. Hence, our data support the assumption that females and males rely on divergent processing strategies when solving emotional tasks: while females seem to recruit more emotion and self-related regions, males activate more cortical, rather cognitive-related areas.

  18. Minority American Women Physicists Achieving at the Intersection of Race and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, K. Renee

    2005-10-01

    As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African, Hispanic, and Asian descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, friends and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter (2005 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association) and Scott Page (``The Logic of Diversity,'' private communication, 2004) remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important because most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences, however. While American women are 15% of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60% of all black scientists and engineers. Yet an average of less than 3 black women and less than 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs in the U.S. each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out in AIP Publication R-430.02, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S.'' Donna Nelson's (University of Oklahoma) study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that (with the exception of one black woman in astronomy) there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40% of bachelors degrees to women, 7 are in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Black women are

  19. Gender Differences in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Christine M.; Davidson, Terence M.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common cause of daytime sleepiness for millions of Americans. It is also a disease associated with an increased likelihood of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, daytime sleepiness, motor vehicle accidents, and diminished quality of life. A number of population based studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnea is more common in men than in women and this discrepancy is often evident in the clinical setting. There are a number of pathophysiological differences to suggest why men are more prone to the disease than women. Although the exact mechanisms are unknown, differences in obesity, upper airway anatomy, breathing control, hormones, and aging are all thought to play a role. The purpose of this review was to examine the literature on gender differences in obstructive sleep apnea and to analyze whether or not these differences in pathogenic mechanisms affect diagnosis or treatment. PMID:18951050

  20. Gender Differences in Treatment-Seeking British Pathological Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Gambling is a widespread recreational activity in the UK. A significant percentage of gamblers develop subclinical or clinically relevant problem gambling issues, but only a low percentage of them seek treatment. Although characteristics of pathological gamblers from treatment-seeking population have been examined in some research, only a few studies have explored the differences between females and males. This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, and clinical variables in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Methods A total of 1,178 treatment-seeking individuals with gambling disorder were assessed at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables, and gambling behavior habits were obtained during the assessment evaluation. Of the total sample, 92.5% were males and 7.5% were females. Results Males were more likely to be younger, white, and employed than females. In addition, compared to women, men showed a lower PGSI score, an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, a higher gambling involvement, and preferred specific forms gambling. Female gamblers were more anxious and depressed, while men were more likely to use alcohol and illicit drugs. Conclusions Our findings support the importance of gender differences in a treatment-seeking population of pathological gamblers both in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling behavior variables, and clinical variables. Males and females might benefit from group-specific treatment. PMID:27348561

  1. Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Aberrant Prescription Opioid Use

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Robert N.; Butler, Stephen F.; Budman, Simon H.; Edwards, Robert R.; Wasan, Ajay D.

    2009-01-01

    This is a longitudinal predictive study to examine gender differences in the clinical correlates of risk for opioid misuse among chronic pain patients prescribed opioids for pain. Two hundred seventy five male and 335 female patients prescribed opioids for chronic noncancer pain were asked to complete a series of baseline questionnaires, including the revised Screener and Opioid Assessment for Pain Patients (SOAPP-R). After five months the subjects were administered a structured prescription drug use interview (Prescription Drug Use Questionnaire; PDUQ), and submitted a urine sample for toxicology assessment. Their treating physicians also completed a substance misuse behavior checklist (Prescription Opioid Therapy Questionnaire; POTQ). At 5-month follow-up, women showed higher scores on the PDUQ (p<0.05), while men had a higher incidence of physician-rated aberrant drug behavior on the POTQ (p<0.05). An item analysis of the SOAPP-R, PDUQ and POTQ showed that women tended to score higher on items relating to psychological distress, while the male patients tended to report having more legal and behavioral problems. These results suggest that risk factors associated with prescription opioid misuse may differ between men and women. Perspective Understanding gender differences in substance abuse risk among chronic pain patients is important for clinical assessment and treatment. This study suggests that women are at greater risk to misuse opioids due to emotional issues and affective distress, while men tend to misuse opioids due to legal and problematic behavioral issues. PMID:19944648

  2. Gender differences in brain serotonin transporter availability in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Maron, Eduard; Tõru, Innar; Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Lumme, Ville; Vasar, Veiko; Shlik, Jakov; Nutt, David J; Helin, Semi; Någren, Kjell; Tiihonen, Jari; Hietala, Jarmo

    2011-07-01

    The role of the serotonin (5-HT) system in the neurobiology and treatment of panic disorder (PD) remains unproven. Previously we detected lower brain 5-HT transporter (SERT) availability in PD, but the findings were preliminary and mainly limited to female patients. The aim of this study was to assess non-displaceable brain SERT binding potential (BP (ND)) in male and female patients with PD. The SERT BP (ND) was measured in groups of patients with PD (five males and six females) and matched healthy control subjects (12 males and 12 females) using positron emission tomography (PET) and [¹¹C]MADAM tracer. SERT BP (ND) were significantly higher in 13 of 20 studied brain regions, including several cortical and raphe areas, but lower in the hippocampus in males with PD as compared with healthy males. No significant differences in SERT BP (ND) were observed between female patients and controls. The results suggest gender-dependent regional differences in brain SERT availability and converge with previous PET findings of reduced 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in similar brain areas in PD. Distinctive functioning of the 5-HT system in males and females may underlie certain gender-dependent differences in expressions of PD.

  3. The Development of Sex-Related Differences in Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.

    Although sex differences in research have received considerable attention, few researchers have examined the bias, social context, and process of that research. In analyzing sex differences in academic achievement over the past 10 years, three areas (mathematics, spatial ability, and verbal ability) would appear to establish consistent sex…

  4. Teacher Effectiveness: Making "The" Difference to Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines shifts in emphasis in Australian education from expectations and belief that teachers not only make a difference to student achievement, but they are the difference. In moving from social class relations accounts to self-managing school accounts, latest shifts (teacher effectiveness accounts) over-emphasize teacher…

  5. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  6. Gender Differences in Child and Adolescent Social Withdrawal: A Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Barstead, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    In a manuscript entitled, “Bashful boys and coy girls: A review of gender differences in childhood shyness” Doey et al. (2013) suggest that shyness and its related constructs pose a greater developmental risk for boys compared to girls. They support this claim by citing empirical evidence suggesting that shy and anxiously withdrawn boys are responded to more negatively by important others (i.e., parents, peers, and teachers) and that the relationship between internalizing problems and anxious withdrawal is stronger for boys compared to girls. The principal aim of our commentary is to provide a critical examination of Doey et al.’s conclusions vis-à-vis gender differences in child and adolescent shyness. In this response, we begin by providing important theoretical background regarding shyness and its related constructs. Next, we critically examine the two main arguments the authors use in support of their conclusion through a review of existing empirical and theoretical work as well as the presentation of data from The Friendship Project. These data were analyzed with the specific purpose of providing an empirical test of the hypotheses implicit in Doey et al.’s primary arguments: 1) shy and anxiously withdrawn boys are responded to more negatively than girls and 2) the association between anxious withdrawal and internalizing problems is stronger for boys compared to girls. Our results indicate mixed support for these two claims. Finally, we conclude by suggesting new directions for future researchers interested in clarifying the relationship between gender and both the correlates and outcomes of childhood shyness. PMID:25709144

  7. Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378

  8. Gender differences in the occurrence of farm related injuries

    PubMed Central

    Dimich-Ward, H; Guernsey, J; Pickett, W; Rennie, D; Hartling, L; Brison, R

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To use national surveillance data in Canada to describe gender differences in the pattern of farm fatalities and severe injuries (those requiring hospitalisation). Methods: Data from the Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program (CAISP) included farm work related fatalities from 1990 to 1996 for all Canadian provinces and abstracted information from hospital discharge records from eight provinces for the five fiscal years of 1990 to 1994. Gender differences in fatalities and injuries were examined by comparison of proportions and stratified by sex, injury class (machinery, non-machinery), and age group. Results: Over the six year period of 1990 to 1996 there were approximately 11 times as many agriculture related fatalities for males compared to females (655 and 61, respectively). The most common machinery mechanisms of fatal injuries were roll-over (32%) for males and run-over (45%) for females. Agricultural machinery injuries requiring hospitalisation showed similar patterns, with proportionally more males over age 60 injured. The male:female ratio for non-machinery hospitalisations averaged 3:1. A greater percentage of males were struck by or caught against an object, whereas for females, animal related injuries predominated. Conclusions: Gender is an important factor to consider in the interpretation of fatal and non-fatal farm injuries. A greater number of males were injured, regardless of how the occurrence of injury was categorised, particularly when farm machinery was involved. As women increasingly participate in all aspects of agricultural production, there is a need to collect, interpret, and disseminate information on agricultural injury that is relevant for both sexes. PMID:14691273

  9. Gender Differences in Baroreflex Sensitivity after Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, M. B.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Two potential contributing factors to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance are decreases in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and sympathetic nervous system response. The purpose of this study was to examine the shape of the BRS curve and sympathetic response to a wide range of blood pressures (BP) before and during 6 head-down bed rest (BR). METHODS: Normal volunteers were tested one day before BR (20M, 1 0F) and near BR days 30 (20M, 10F), 60 (16M, 8F), and 90 (1 0M, 5F). BP was pharmacologically manipulated by 10-min infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 3 increasing concentrations with a 20-min rest between PE and SNP. Electrocardiogram and continuous finger blood pressure were recorded. A blood sample was drawn at the end of each infusion to measure plasma norepinephrine levels. The spontaneous baroreflex slope (SBS), a measure of BRS, was calculated as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP (SBP) and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. The data included saturated responses at the upper but not the lower end of the BP range. Mean response curves were constructed using second-order mixed model analysis. Results are based on term significance in the models. RESULTS RR: RR was lower during BR than pre BR (p<0.001). Pre BR males were modeled by a linear RR response to SBP (p=0.000) while females had a quadratic response which saturated at high SBP (p=0.019). By day 30, both genders were modeled by a linear response; compared to males, females had an attenuated (lower slope) RR response to changes in SBP (p=0.031). SBS: SBS vs SBP analysis showed a lower SBS during BR (p<0.001) when compared to pre BR. Females had a higher SBS than males pre BR (p=0.006). Females exhibited saturating SBS at higher SBP (p=0.016) on day 30, while males were modeled by a linear SBS response to SBP (p=0.035). NE: Females had different NE response to diastolic BP than males pre BR (p=0.035) and on day 30 (p=0

  10. Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

  11. Perceived Career Barriers and Coping among Youth in Israel: Ethnic and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipshits-Braziler, Yuliya; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender and ethnic differences in the perception of different types of career barriers among young adults in relation to their views of themselves as individuals (Personal Career Barriers) and their views of their gender and ethnic group (Group Career Barriers). This study also explored gender and ethnic differences in the…

  12. Spatial Visualisation and Cognitive Style: How Do Gender Differences Play Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramful, Ajay; Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated potential gender differences in a sample of 807 Year 6 Singaporean students in relation to two variables: spatial visualisation ability and cognitive style. In contrast to the general trend, overall there were no significant gender differences on spatial visualisation ability. However, gender differences were prevalent…

  13. Behavioral and Physiological Findings of Gender Differences in Global-Local Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roalf, David; Lowery, Natasha; Turetsky, Bruce I.

    2006-01-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries in global-local visual processing are well-established, as are gender differences in cognition. Although hemispheric asymmetry presumably underlies gender differences in cognition, the literature on gender differences in global-local processing is sparse. We employed event related brain potential (ERP) recordings during…

  14. Cyberbullying experience and gender differences among adolescents in different educational settings.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying refers to a negative activity aimed at deliberate and repeated harm through the use of a variety of electronic media. This study examined the Internet behavior patterns and gender differences among students with learning disabilities who attended general education and special education classes, their involvement in cyberbullying, and the relationships among being cyberbullied, their responses, and their coping strategies. The sample consisted of 149 students with learning disabilities (LD) attending general education classes, 116 students with comorbid LD attending special education classes, and 242 typically achieving students. All the students, studying in middle and high schools, completed a self-report cyberbullying questionnaire. Findings indicate that although no significant differences emerged in the amount of surfing hours and students' expertise in the use of the Internet, students attending special education classes are more likely to be cybervictims and cyberperpetrators; girls are more likely to be cybervictims, whereas boys are more likely to be cyberperpetrators. These results contribute to our understanding of students' involvement in cyberbullying and can serve as a basis for developing preventive programs as well as intervention programs for students and for educational school teams.

  15. Individual Differences in Achievement Goals: A Longitudinal Study of Cognitive, Emotional, and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Newall, Nancy E.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Within achievement goal theory debate remains regarding the adaptiveness of certain combinations of goals. Assuming a multiple-goals perspective, we used cluster analysis to classify 1002 undergraduate students according to their mastery and performance-approach goals. Four clusters emerged, representing different goal combinations: high…

  16. The effect of gender and age differences on media selection in small and medium tourism enterprises.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, Majid A; Zarei, Behrouz; Dehkordi, Shabnam A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that gender and age differences have on the communication media selection within the context of small and medium tourism enterprises (SMEs). Media Richness Theory (MRT) was used to assess media preferences in the firms. Using a mail questionnaire, data from 78 firms were collected on seven popular media in use. Historical data of the firms, media characteristics, and other firm-specific factors were included in the analysis. The results indicated that there are substantial gender and age differences in term of communication media selection. This is consistent with MRT and highlights the importance of choosing the appropriate media in SMEs, according with the employee's behaviors, in order to achieve better outcomes and to smooth the path towards good performance in the future.

  17. An Investigation of Students' Meaningful Causal Thinking Abilities in Terms of Academic Achievement, Reading Comprehension and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkant, Hasan Guner

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether students' meaningful causal thinking abilities vary with their academic achievement levels, reading comprehension abilities, and gender. The sample of the study consisted of 124 ninth grade students attending a secondary school in Adana City Seyhan District during 2008-2009 academic year.…

  18. The Relationship between Gender, Ethnicity, and Technology on the Impact of Mathematics Achievement in an After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xudong; Craig, Scotty D.; Xie, Jun; Graesser, Arthur C.; Okwumabua, Theresa; Cheney, Kyle R.; Hu, Xiangen

    2013-01-01

    The gap among ethnicities and gender in mathematics achievement is a well-known problem. While the gap has been shrinking over the past three decades, it has not completely diminished (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; McGraw, Lubienski, & Strutchens, 2006). The ALEKS, Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces, tutoring system is one promising…

  19. Teaching Strategies and Gender Based Learning Environments: How They Relate to Self-Efficacy, Participatory Behaviors, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This mixed method participatory action research study investigated the relationships of effective teaching strategies and gender based learning environments to pre-adolescent females' self-efficacy of mathematical ability, classroom participatory behaviors, and academic achievement in the area of mathematics. Research-based teaching…

  20. The Influence of Gender, School Location and Socio-Economic Status on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alordiah, Caroline Ochuko; Akpadaka, Grace; Oviogbodu, Christy Oritseweyimi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, school location, and socio-economic status (SES) on students' academic achievement in mathematics. The study was an ex-post factor design in which the variables were not manipulated nor controlled. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The stratified random…

  1. Investigating the Relationship among Test Anxiety, Gender, Academic Achievement and Years of Study: A Case of Iranian EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one's life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done…

  2. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

  3. Gender-Based Motivational Differences in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Sonja; Räikkönen, Eija; Ikonen, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    Because of a deeply gendered history of craft education in Finland, technology education has a strong gender-related dependence. In order to motivate girls into pursuing technological studies and to enable them to see their own potential in technology, gender sensitive approaches should be developed in technology education. This study explores…

  4. Gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power: a multivariate explanation

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power for society than are men. The irrationality explanation holds that women are less favorable toward nuclear power because they are less knowledgeable about this technology than are men. The lay-rationality explanation argues that people form attitudes toward nuclear power which are consistent with their relevant beliefs, attitudes and values; thus, this explanation suggests that women's unfavorable attitudes toward nuclear power stem from greater concern about environmental protection, exposing society to risk, and lower faith in science and technology. Data for this study were collected via a mail questionnaire administered to a state wide sample of Washington residents (n= 696).

  5. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method.

  6. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  7. Gender Differences in Perception of Romance in Chinese College Students

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X.; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

    2013-01-01

    Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

  8. Gender differences in perception of romance in Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

    2013-01-01

    Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes.

  9. Gender differences in recommendation letters for postdoctoral fellowships in geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Kuheli; Pfaff, Danielle L.; Bernstein, Ariel F.; Dillard, Joseph S.; Block, Caryn J.

    2016-11-01

    Gender disparities in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, including the geosciences, are well documented and widely discussed. In the geosciences, despite receiving 40% of doctoral degrees, women hold less than 10% of full professorial positions. A significant leak in the pipeline occurs during postdoctoral years, so biases embedded in postdoctoral processes, such as biases in recommendation letters, may be deterrents to careers in geoscience for women. Here we present an analysis of an international data set of 1,224 recommendation letters, submitted by recommenders from 54 countries, for postdoctoral fellowships in the geosciences over the period 2007-2012. We examine the relationship between applicant gender and two outcomes of interest: letter length and letter tone. Our results reveal that female applicants are only half as likely to receive excellent letters versus good letters compared to male applicants. We also find no evidence that male and female recommenders differ in their likelihood to write stronger letters for male applicants over female applicants. Our analysis also reveals significant regional differences in letter length, with letters from the Americas being significantly longer than any other region, whereas letter tone appears to be distributed equivalently across all world regions. These results suggest that women are significantly less likely to receive excellent recommendation letters than their male counterparts at a critical juncture in their career.

  10. Gender differences in prognostic factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Honorato, J; Rebelo, M S; Dias, F L; Camisasca, D R; Faria, P A; Azevedo e Silva, G; Lourenço, S Q C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in prognostic factors among patients treated surgically for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The medical records of 477 eligible patients (345 males, 132 females) obtained from the Brazilian Cancer Institute were reviewed. Survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression models were used to obtain adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for males and females. Multivariate analysis showed that past tobacco use (aHR 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-0.7) and regional metastasis (aHR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5) in males, and regional metastasis (aHR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.3), distant metastasis (aHR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3-32.7), and hard palate tumours (aHR 11.8, 95% CI 3.3-47.7) in females, were associated with a higher risk of death. There were no differences in survival between males and females. Regional metastasis was found to be a negative prognostic factor in OSCC for both genders. Past tobacco use was an independent prognostic factor for worse survival among males, while distant metastasis and hard palate tumours were independent prognostic factors for worse survival among females. Further studies are necessary to corroborate the relationships found in this study.

  11. Sex and Gender Differences in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Gwang Ha

    2016-01-01

    It is important to understand sex and gender-related differences in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) because gender-related biologic factors might lead to better prevention and therapy. Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) affects more women than men. GERD symptoms are more frequent in patients with NERD than in those with reflux esophagitis. However, men suffer pathologic diseases such as reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) more frequently than women. The prevalence of reflux esophagitis is significantly increased with age in women, especially after their 50s. The mean age of EAC incidence in women is higher than in men, suggesting a role of estrogen in delaying the onset of BE and EAC. In a chronic rat reflux esophagitis model, nitric oxide was found to be an aggravating factor of esophageal injury in a male-predominant way. In addition, the expression of esophageal occludin, a tight junction protein that plays an important role in the esophageal defense mechanism, was up-regulated in women. This explains the male predominance of reflux esophagitis and delayed incidence of BE or EAC in women. Moreover, the symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation, and extra-esophageal symptoms have been more frequently reported by women than by men, suggesting that sex and gender play a role in symptom perception. Differential sensitivity with augmented symptoms in women might have diagnostic and therapeutic influence. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that hormone replacement therapy has a protective effect against esophageal cancer. However, an anti-inflammatory role of estrogen remains compelling, which means further study is necessary in this area. PMID:27703114

  12. Brain Switches Utilitarian Behavior: Does Gender Make the Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Fumagalli, Manuela; Vergari, Maurizio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Marceglia, Sara; Mameli, Francesca; Ferrucci, Roberta; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Zago, Stefano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Barbieri, Sergio; Cappa, Stefano; Priori, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Decision often implies a utilitarian choice based on personal gain, even at the expense of damaging others. Despite the social implications of utilitarian behavior, its neurophysiological bases remain largely unknown. To assess how the human brain controls utilitarian behavior, we delivered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPC) and over the occipital cortex (OC) in 78 healthy subjects. Utilitarian judgment was assessed with the moral judgment task before and after tDCS. At baseline, females provided fewer utilitarian answers than males for personal moral dilemmas (p = .007). In males, VPC-tDCS failed to induce changes and in both genders OC-tDCS left utilitarian judgments unchanged. In females, cathodal VPC-tDCS tended to decrease whereas anodal VPC-tDCS significantly increased utilitarian responses (p = .005). In males and females, reaction times for utilitarian responses significantly decreased after cathodal (p<.001) but not after anodal (p = .735) VPC-tDCS. We conclude that ventral prefrontal tDCS interferes with utilitarian decisions, influencing the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of each option in both sexes, but does so more strongly in females. Whereas cathodal tDCS alters the time for utilitarian reasoning in both sexes, anodal stimulation interferes more incisively in women, modifying utilitarian reasoning and the possible consequent actions. The gender-related tDCS-induced changes suggest that the VPC differentially controls utilitarian reasoning in females and in males. The gender-specific functional organization of the brain areas involved in utilitarian behavior could be a correlate of the moral and social behavioral differences between the two sexes. PMID:20111608

  13. Gender differences, polypharmacy, and potential pharmacological interactions in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Venturini, Carina Duarte; Engroff, Paula; Ely, Luísa Scheer; de Araújo Zago, Luísa Faria; Schroeter, Guilherme; Gomes, Irenio; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze pharmacological interactions among drugs taken by elderly patients and their age and gender differences in a population from Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the database provided by the Institute of Geriatric and Gerontology, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The database was composed of 438 elderly and includes information about the patients' disease, therapy regimens, utilized drugs. All drugs reported by the elderly patients were classified using the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical Classification System. The drug-drug interactions and their severity were assessed using the Micromedex® Healthcare Series. RESULTS: Of the 438 elderly patients in the data base, 376 (85.8%) used pharmacotherapy, 274 were female, and 90.4% of females used drugs. The average number of drugs used by each individual younger than 80 years was 3.2±2.6. Women younger than 80 years old used more drugs than men in the same age group whereas men older than 80 years increased their use of drugs in relation to other age groups. Therefore, 32.6% of men and 49.2% of women described at least one interaction, and 8.1% of men and 10.6% of women described four or more potential drug-drug interactions. Two-thirds of drug-drug interactions were moderate in both genders, and most of them involved angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, loop and thiazide diuretics, and β-blockers. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients should be closely monitored, based on drug class, gender, age group and nutritional status. PMID:22086515

  14. The Gender and Science Digital Library: Affecting Student Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Sarita

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Gender and Science Digital Library (GSDL), an online collection of high-quality, interactive science resources that are gender-fair, inclusive, and engaging to students. Considers use by teachers and school library media specialists to encourage girls to enter careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). (LRW)

  15. Gender, Self-Efficacy and Achievement among South African Technology Teacher Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, James; Parkinson, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between gender and self-efficacy in teacher trainees engaged in an electricity-related design and construction task. Quantitative data (examination scores, task assessment, and questionnaire) and qualitative data (interviews and written student reflections) were collected. There is a gender bias in student…

  16. America's progress in achieving the legalization of same-gender adoption: analysis of public opinion, 1994 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Montero, Darrel M

    2014-10-01

    The struggle to achieve the legalization of same-gender adoption is ongoing. Notably, not until 2011 was adoption by a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individual legalized in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and adoption by same-gender couples is still illegal in many states. Anti-adoption forces are ever-present: From 2011 to 2013, at least five states passed laws granting faith-based agencies the right to refuse service to same-gender couples or to give preference to heterosexual couples. The aim of this article is, first, to examine the challenges confronting the legalization of same-gender adoption; second, to report the current legal status of same-gender adoption for each state; third, to report on Americans' attitudes toward the legalization of same-gender adoption from 1994 to 2012, drawing from previously published surveys of a cross section of Americans; and, fourth, to explore the implications for social work practice, including social advocacy and social policy implementation.

  17. Gender Difference Does Not Mean Genetic Difference: Externalizing Improves Performance in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica

    2012-01-01

    The fear of underperforming owing to stereotype threat affects women's performance in tasks such as mathematics, chess, and spatial reasoning. The present research considered mental rotation and explored effects on performance and on regulatory focus of instructions pointing to different explanations for gender differences. Two hundred and one…

  18. Negotiating gender roles: gender differences in assertive negotiating are mediated by women's fear of backlash and attenuated when negotiating on behalf of others.

    PubMed

    Amanatullah, Emily T; Morris, Michael W

    2010-02-01

    The authors propose that gender differences in negotiations reflect women's contextually contingent impression management strategies. They argue that the same behavior, bargaining assertively, is construed as congruent with female gender roles in some contexts yet incongruent in other contexts. Further, women take this contextual variation into account, adjusting their bargaining behavior to manage social impressions. A particularly important contextual variable is advocacy-whether bargaining on one's own behalf versus on another's behalf. In self-advocacy contexts, women anticipate that assertiveness will evoke incongruity evaluations, negative attributions, and subsequent "backlash"; hence, women hedge their assertiveness, using fewer competing tactics and obtaining lower outcomes. However, in other-advocacy contexts, women achieve better outcomes as they do not expect incongruity evaluations or engage in hedging. In a controlled laboratory experiment, the authors found that gender interacts with advocacy context in this way to determine negotiation style and outcomes. Additionally, process measures of anticipated attributions and backlash statistically mediated this interaction effect.

  19. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: The Contributions of Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence…

  20. A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Gender Differences in Sexuality, 1993-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2010-01-01

    In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We…

  1. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  2. Gender Differences in Time Use among Adolescents in Developing Countries: Implications of Rising School Enrollment Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Grant, Monica; Ritchie, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    This comparative analysis of gender differences in time use among adolescents uses surveys from five developing countries and is motivated by an interest in gender role socialization and gendered patterns of behavior during adolescence. Exploring differences in work (both noneconomic household work and labor market work) and leisure time among…

  3. Gender Differences in Students' and Parents' Evaluative Criteria when Selecting a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phylis M.; Warwick, Jacquelyn

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of gender differences between students and between parents based on the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with college selection. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant gender differences as well as for their level of importance by gender in the…

  4. Gender Differences in Verbal Communication between Popular and Unpopular Children during an Interactive Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Suzanne M.; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in communication effectiveness between popular and unpopular 5- to 7-year-old children. Because previous research suggests that there may be gender differences in how popular and unpopular children communicate with each other, 24 same-gender pairs (each containing a popular and an unpopular child) were…

  5. Gender differences in recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2015-01-15

    This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies.

  6. Gender differences in detecting unanticipated stimuli: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Yan, Ke; Zhang, Yuhe; Jiang, Yijie; Tao, Ran; Zheng, Xifu

    2013-03-22

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the gender differences during an emotional anticipation task. Sixteen females and sixteen males participated in the experiment. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured in a modified cue-target paradigm and were recorded following stimuli that differed in two dimensions: (1) predictable vs. unpredictable pictures and (2) negative vs. neutral pictures. Cue-induced ERP results demonstrated that females had enhanced positive component (P2) compared to males. Moreover, results showed that during the unpredictable condition, females displayed larger P2 amplitudes in negative and neutral anticipation than males. This study demonstrates that females have greater sensitivity to the unanticipated stimuli, which may contribute to evolution.

  7. Gender Differences in Risk Aversion Among Chinese University Students.

    PubMed

    Lam, Desmond

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines gender differences in risk aversion among Chinese university students. Chinese females are proposed to be more risk averse and require a higher risk premium when faced with a gamble option in the gain-domain frame as compared to Chinese males. Two groups of 100 participants each (male = 100 and female = 100 in total) were recruited to fill up questionnaires that included items relating to objective probability lotteries. Within each group, it was found that Chinese males and females did not differ in their risk aversion. However, results show that Chinese males tend to react more readily to rising risk premium by taking up options with higher expected values when compared to Chinese females. Current findings will have useful implications to marketers (particularly, promoters of gambling products) and problem gambling counselors.

  8. Gender Differences in Recreational Sports Participation among Taiwanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374

  9. Gender differences in cardiac autonomic modulation during medical internship.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Ching-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Liu, Chun-Hao; Weng, Wei-Hung; Kuo, Terry B J; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2013-06-01

    Medical internship is known to be a time of high stress and long working hours, which increases the risk of depression and cardiovascular disease. Gender differences in medical interns' cardiovascular risk have not been reported previously. Thirty-eight medical interns (29 males) were repeatedly tested for depressive symptoms using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and 5-min spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) at 3-month intervals during their internship. Among the male interns, the variance of the heart rate decreased at 6, 9, 12 months, and a reduced high frequency, which suggests reduced cardiac parasympathetic modulation, was found at 9 and 12 months into their internship. Increased depressive symptoms were also identified at 12 months in the male group. No significant differences in depression or any of the HRV indices were identified among the female interns during their internship.

  10. Gender differences in teacher-student interactions in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. Gail; Wheatley, Jack

    1990-12-01

    Thirty physical science and 30 chemistry classes, which contained a total of 1332 students, were observed using the Brophy-Good Teacher-Child Dyadic Interaction System. Classroom interactions were examined for gender differences that may contribute to the underrepresentation of women in physics and engineering courses and subsequent careers. The Brophy-Good coding process allows for examination of patterns of interactions for individuals and groups of pupils. An analysis of variance of the data yielded a significant main effect for teacher praise, call outs, procedural questions, and behavioral warnings based on the sex of the student and a significant teacher-sex main effect for direct questions. Significant two-way interactions were found for the behavioral warning variable for teacher sex and subject by student sex. Female teachers warned male students significantly more than female students. Male teachers warned both genders with similar frequency. Male students also received significantly more behavioral warnings in physical science classes than female students. In chemistry classes, both male and female students received approximately the same number of behavioral warnings.

  11. Gender difference in anaerobic capacity: role of aerobic contribution.

    PubMed

    Hill, D W; Smith, J C

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of gender on anaerobic and aerobic contributions to high-intensity exercise. A group of 38 subjects (22 women, 16 men) performed modified Wingate tests against resistances of 0.086 kg kg-1 body mass (0.844 N kg-1) for women and 0.095 kg kg-1 body mass (0.932 N kg-1) for men. The aerobic contribution to total work performed was determined from breath-by-breath analyses of expired gases during each test. Total work in 30 s was 30% lower (Student's t test; P < 0.01) in women than men (211 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 299 +/- 14 J kg-1). Aerobic contribution was only 7% lower (P = 0.12) in women than men (53 +/- 1 J kg-1 versus 57 +/- 2 J kg-1). The anaerobic component of the work performed, determined by subtraction of the aerobic component from total work in 30 s, was 35% lower (P < 0.01) in women than men (158 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 242 +/- 15 J kg-1). It is concluded that, because women provide a relatively higher (P < 0.01) portion of the energy for a 30-s test aerobically than men (25% versus 20%), total work during a Wingate test actually underestimates the gender difference in anaerobic capacity between women and men.

  12. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    SciTech Connect

    Fucic, A.; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L.; Aerts, D.; Biot, P.; Katsonouri, A.; Cerna, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Castano, A.; Rudnai, P.; Gutleb, A.; Ligocka, D.; Lupsa, I-R.; Berglund, M.; Horvat, M.; Halzlova, K.; Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G.; Hadjipanayis, A.; Krskova, A.; and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  13. Gender Differences in Bed Rest: Preliminary Analysis of Vascular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Martin, David S.; Freeman-Perez, Sondra A.; Phillips, Tiffany; Ribeiro, L. Christine

    2008-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a recognized consequence of spaceflight. Numerous studies have shown that women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight as well as bed rest, the most commonly used ground-based analog for spaceflight. One of the possible mechanisms proposed to account for this is a difference in vascular responsiveness between genders. We hypothesized that women and men would have differing vascular responses to 90 days of 6-degree head down tilt bed rest. Additionally, we hypothesized that vessels in the upper and lower body would respond differently, as has been shown in the animal literature. Thirteen subjects were placed in bedrest for 90 days (8 men, 5 women) at the Flight Analogs Unit, UTMB. Direct arterial and venous measurements were made with ultrasound to evaluate changes in vascular structure and function. Arterial function was assessed, in the arm and leg, during a reactive hyperemia protocol and during sublingual nitroglycerin administration to gauge the contributions of endothelial dependent and independent dilator function respectively. Venous function was assessed in dorsal hand and foot veins during the administration of pharmaceuticals to assess constrictor and dilator function. Both gender and day effects are seen in arterial dilator function to reactive hyperemia, but none are seen with nitroglycerin. There are also differences in the wall thickness in the arm vs the leg during bed rest, which return toward pre-bed rest levels by day 90. More subjects are required, especially females as there is not sufficient power to properly analyze venous function. Day 90 data are most underpowered.

  14. Sex Differences in Realization of Individual Potential for Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Josefina Jayme; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Women had higher high school grades and academic ability test scores in Grade 9. By 11 years after high school, men had more education and were earning more money. Sex differences in realization of achievement potential were found across all socioeconomic levels, and found to be partially due to role conflict. (Author/JAC)

  15. Video gaming and gender differences in digital and printed reading performance among 15-year-olds students in 26 countries.

    PubMed

    Borgonovi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Video games are a favorite leisure-time activity among teenagers worldwide. This study examines cross-national gender differences in reading achievement and video gaming and whether video gaming explains gender differences in reading achievement and differences in performance between paper-based and computer-based reading. We use data from a representative sample of 145,953 students from 26 countries who sat the PISA 2012 assessments and provided self-reports on use of video games. Although boys tend to have poorer results in both the computer-based and the paper-based reading assessments, boys' under achievement is smaller when the assessment is delivered on computer than when it is delivered on paper. Boys underperformance compared to girls in the two reading assessments is particularly pronounced among low-achieving students. Among both boys and girls moderate use of single-player games is associated with a performance advantage. However, frequent engagement with collaborative online games is generally associated with a steep reduction in achievement, particularly in the paper-based test and particularly among low-achieving students. Excessive gaming may hinder academic achievement, but moderate gaming can promote positive student outcomes. In many countries video gaming explains the difference in the gender gap in reading between the paper-based and the computer-based assessments.

  16. A research synthesis of student achievement in high school Chemistry: Effect of Algebra 1, English 1, gender, and teacher perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abusalih, Lula H.

    This study investigated the effect of prior enrollment in Algebra 1 and freshman English 1 on student performance in College Preparatory Chemistry. It further examined the effects of gender on student achievement in chemistry. The chemistry teachers' perceptions of student success in Chemistry as it relate to Algebra 1, English 1, and gender was explored. A sample of 200 students from within Littleton Unified School District was used, of whom 100 were females and 100 were males. This explanatory mixed-design study has a quantitative phase examining student success in Chemistry in relation to freshman English, Algebra 1, and gender and a qualitative phase focusing on teachers' perceptions. In the quantitative phase, data for four consecutive school years was used. In the qualitative phase, four teachers from three school districts located in Northern California were interviewed. The results signified a moderate relationship between chemistry achievement and the predictor-criterion achievement in Algebra 1 and English 1. Gender had no effect on student performance in Chemistry. The findings will offer school districts suggestions to place students in appropriate science courses, which will help school districts', incorporate core curriculum as illustrated in the neo essentialism theory. Furthermore, this study can provide school districts with an effective approach to design individual programs of study that suit each student. The researcher's goal is to provide the school districts with the needed resources to strengthen science education nationally and internationally, specifically in chemistry.

  17. Differences in gender and performance in off-road triathlon.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine performance trends and compare elite male and female athletes at the off-road triathlon (1.5-km swim, 30-km mountain biking, and 11-km trail running) world championships since its inception in 1996, and (2) to compare gender-related differences between off-road triathlon and conventional road-based triathlon. Linear regression analyses and ANOVA were used to examine performance trends and differences between the sexes. Elite male performance times stabilized over the 2005-2009 period, whereas elite female performance times continued to improve, especially for the run leg. Differences in performance times between the sexes were less marked in swimming than in mountain biking and running, whereas differences in power output were more marked for mountain biking than for swimming and running. In addition, differences in cycling between the sexes were greater for off-road than conventional on-road triathlon. The specific aspects of mountain biking (e.g. level and terrain) may partly explain the significant differences between the sexes recorded in cycling for off-road triathlon. Future studies will need to focus on the physiological bases of off-road triathlon and how they differ from conventional triathlon.

  18. Backstroke swimming: exploring gender differences in passive drag and instantaneous net drag force.

    PubMed

    Formosa, Danielle P; Sayers, Mark Gregory Leigh; Burkett, Brendan

    2013-12-01

    This study explored and quantified gender differences in passive drag and instantaneous net drag force profile for elite backstroke swimmers (FINA points 938 ± 71). Nine female and ten male backstroke swimmers completed eight maximum speed trials. During the passive drag condition participants were towed at the speed achieved within the maximum effort backstroke swimming trials, while holding a supine stationary streamline position. The remaining trials, swimmers performed their natural swimming stroke, while attached to an assisted towing device. Male participant's passive (P < .001) and mean net drag force (P < .001) were significantly higher compared with female participants. In addition, there were no significant differences by gender between either the minimum or maximum net drag forces produced during the left and right arm strokes. Instantaneous net drag force profiles demonstrated differences within and between individuals and genders. The swimmers who recorded the fastest speed also recorded the smallest difference in net drag force fluctuations. The instantaneous net drag force profile within elite backstroke swimming provides further insight into stroke technique of this sport.

  19. The association between Internet addiction and belief of frustration intolerance: the gender difference.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Chung-Sheng; Wang, Shing-Yaw

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance, the gender difference of frustration intolerance, and the gender differences of the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance. Participants were 2,114 students (1,204 male and 910 female) who were recruited to complete the Chen Internet Addiction Scale and Frustration Discomfort scale. Females had higher scores on the subscale of entitlement and emotional intolerance and the total scale of the frustration intolerance. There was a significant gender difference on the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance. The association was higher in male adolescents. Regression analysis revealed male adolescents with Internet addiction had higher intolerance to frustration of entitlement and emotional discomfort, and female adolescents with it had higher intolerance to emotional discomfort and lower tolerance to frustration of achievement. Frustration intolerance should be evaluated for adolescents with Internet addiction, especially for males. Rational emotive behavior therapy focusing on different irrational beliefs should be provided to male and female adolescents with Internet addiction.

  20. Neural Correlates of Sex/Gender Differences in Humor Processing for Different Joke Types

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the ‘tri-component theory of humor,’ which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing. Three types of verbal jokes, bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs), were used as stimuli. The findings revealed differences in brain activity for an interaction between sex/gender and joke type. For BJs, women displayed greater activation in the temporoparietal–mesocortical-motor network than men, demonstrating the importance of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) presumably for ‘theory of mind’ processing, the orbitofrontal cortex for motivational functions and reward coding, and the supplementary motor area for laughter. Women also showed greater activation than men in the frontal-mesolimbic network associated with EJs, including the anterior (frontopolar) prefrontal cortex (aPFC, BA 10) for executive control processes, and the amygdala and midbrain for reward anticipation and salience processes. Conversely, AJs elicited greater activation in men than women in the frontal-paralimbic network, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus. All joke types elicited greater activation in the aPFC of women than of men, whereas men showed greater activation than women in the dPFC. To confirm the findings related to sex/gender differences, random group analysis and within group variance analysis were also performed. These findings help further establish the mechanisms underlying the processing of different

  1. Neural Correlates of Sex/Gender Differences in Humor Processing for Different Joke Types.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the 'tri-component theory of humor,' which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing. Three types of verbal jokes, bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs), were used as stimuli. The findings revealed differences in brain activity for an interaction between sex/gender and joke type. For BJs, women displayed greater activation in the temporoparietal-mesocortical-motor network than men, demonstrating the importance of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) presumably for 'theory of mind' processing, the orbitofrontal cortex for motivational functions and reward coding, and the supplementary motor area for laughter. Women also showed greater activation than men in the frontal-mesolimbic network associated with EJs, including the anterior (frontopolar) prefrontal cortex (aPFC, BA 10) for executive control processes, and the amygdala and midbrain for reward anticipation and salience processes. Conversely, AJs elicited greater activation in men than women in the frontal-paralimbic network, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus. All joke types elicited greater activation in the aPFC of women than of men, whereas men showed greater activation than women in the dPFC. To confirm the findings related to sex/gender differences, random group analysis and within group variance analysis were also performed. These findings help further establish the mechanisms underlying the processing of different joke types

  2. Estrogen Contributes to Gender Differences in Mouse Ventricular Repolarization

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Tomoaki; Ciobotaru, Andrea; Bopassa, Jean Chrisostome; Toro, Ligia; Stefani, Enrico; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Fast-transient outward K+ (Ito,f) and ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K+ currents (IKur or IK,slow) contribute to mouse cardiac repolarization. Gender studies on these currents have reported conflicting results. Objective One key missing piece information in these studies is the animals’ estral stage. We decided to revisit gender-related differences in K+ currents, taking into consideration the females’ estral stage. Methods and Results We hypothesized that changes in estrogen levels during the estral cycle could play a role in determining the densities of K+ currents underlying ventricular repolarization. Peak total K+ current (IK,total) densities (pA/pF, at +40 mV) were much higher in males (48.6±3.0) than in females at estrus (27.2±2.3) but not at diestrus-2 (39.1±3.4). Underlying this change, Ito,f and IK,slow were lower in females at estrus vs males and diestrus-2 (IK,slow: male 21.9±1.8, estrus 14.6±0.6, diestrus-2 20.3±1.4; Ito,f: male 26.8±1.9, estrus 14.9±1.6, diestrus-2 22.1±2.1). The lower IK,slow in estrus was only due to IK,slow1 reduction without changes of IK,slow2. Estrogen treatment of ovariectomized mice decreased IK,total (46.4±3.0 to 28.4±1.6), Ito,f (26.6±1.6 to 12.8±1.0) and IK,slow (22.2±1.6 to 17.2±1.4). Transcript levels of Kv4.3 and Kv1.5 (underlying Ito,f and IK,slow, respectively) were lower in estrus vs. diestrus-2 and male. In ovariectomized mice, estrogen treatment resulted in downregulation of Kv4.3 and Kv1.5, but not Kv4.2, KChIP2 and Kv2.1 transcripts. K+ current reduction in high estrogenic conditions were associated with prolongation of the action potential duration and corrected QT interval. Conclusion Downregulation of Kv4.3 and Kv1.5 transcripts by estrogen are one mechanism defining gender-related differences in mouse ventricular repolarization. PMID:19608983

  3. Gender differences in Chinese immigrants: predictors for antihypertensive medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Wen; Froelicher, Erika S

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe gender differences in predictors for antihypertensive medication adherence in Chinese immigrants. A cross-sectional design was used with recruitment with a convenience sample of 100 men and 100 women with hypertension. Measurements for demographics, cultural factors, clinical factors, and medication adherence were self-administered by the participants. Blood pressure was checked twice. A multivariate logistic regression was used to establish a parsimonious prediction model for medication adherence. It was found that in men, longer length of stay in the United States was a predictor for nonadherence. The predictor of nonadherence in women was lower perceived benefits of antihypertensive medications. To increase adherence in women, the benefits of antihypertensive medications should be emphasized. For men who have lived in the United States for 12 years or more, their adherence should be closely monitored.

  4. Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Science and Technology Among Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

    2015-08-01

    In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the major factors in students' choice of majors. As a result, attitudes toward S&T are issues with longstanding attention and interest in education research. Retention of female students in S&T majors remains a major concern. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes toward S&T including attitudes toward female participation in S&T, among S&T majors, and examine differences by gender and class standing. Such an investigation would provide deeper insights to help devise strategies to retain women in S&T majors.

  5. Gender Differences in High-school Students' Views about Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Patricia H.; Slawinski Blessing, Jennifer; Schwartz, Stephanie

    2006-03-01

    This study examined gender differences in 79 high-school students’ attitudes towards their science classes, their perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science. The study identified some of the subtleties underlying females’ low participation in, and interest in, science documented in previous research. Four themes emerged from responses on the rating scales and questionnaire. First, even when females planned to major in science, they were more interested than males in the people-oriented aspects of their planned majors. Second, biology was the one exception to females’ low interest in science. Third, females often planned a science major mainly because they needed a science background in order to enter a health profession such as medicine or physical therapy. Fourth, females generally found science uninteresting and the scientific lifestyle (as perceived by them) unattractive. Implications for teaching science were discussed.

  6. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Marina A; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing.

  7. Gender Difference in Students' Academic Performance in Colleges of Education in Borno State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goni, Umar; wali S. B., Yagana; Ali, Hajja Kaltum; Bularafa, Mohammed Waziri

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the differences between students' gender and academic achievement in Colleges of Education in Borno State. The study set one research objective, one research question and tested one research hypothesis. the population of this study include all the NCE students from three NCE awarding institutions in the state that were…

  8. Socioeconomic and Gender Group Differences in Early Literacy Skills: A Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…

  9. Gender Differences in the Influence of Parental Class on Young Adults' Participation in Postsecondary Education in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Felix; Scholten, Mirte M. M.

    2014-01-01

    As with earlier social disparities in educational achievement, re-enrolment in college education can depend on parental social background. We link this finding with gender differences using data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Youth 79 and ask if the decision to re-enrol in college is influenced by parental social class in a…

  10. Neural correlates of gender differences in reputation building.

    PubMed

    Garbarini, Francesca; Boero, Riccardo; D'Agata, Federico; Bravo, Giangiacomo; Mosso, Cristina; Cauda, Franco; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences in cooperative choices and their neural correlates were investigated in a situation where reputation represented a crucial issue. Males and females were involved in an economic exchange (trust game) where economic and reputational payoffs had to be balanced in order to increase personal welfare. At the behavioral level, females showed a stronger reaction to negative reputation judgments that led to higher cooperation than males, measured by back transfers in the game. The neuroanatomical counterpart of this gender difference was found within the reward network (engaged in producing expectations of positive results) and reputation-related brain networks, such as the self-control network (engaged in strategically resisting the temptation to defect) and the mentalizing network (engaged in thinking about how one is viewed by others), in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the medial (M)PFC respectively play a crucial role. Furthermore, both DLPFC and MPFC activity correlated with the amount of back transfer, as well as with the personality dimensions assessed with the Big-Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2). Males, according to their greater DLPFC recruitment and their higher level of the BFQ-2 subscale of Dominance, were more focused on implementing a profit-maximizing strategy, pursuing this target irrespectively of others' judgments. On the contrary, females, according to their greater MPFC activity and their lower level of Dominance, were more focused on the reputation per se and not on the strategic component of reputation building. These findings shed light on the sexual dimorphism related to cooperative behavior and its neural correlates.

  11. Gender differences in alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and brain damage.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Pascual, María; Guerri, Consuelo

    2013-09-06

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated that women are more vulnerable than men to the toxic effects of alcohol, although the results as to whether gender differences exist in ethanol-induced brain damage are contradictory. We have reported that ethanol, by activating the neuroimmune system and Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4), can cause neuroinflammation and brain injury. However, whether there are gender differences in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation and brain injury are currently controversial. Using the brains of TLR4(+/+) and TLR4(-/-) (TLR4-KO) mice, we report that chronic ethanol treatment induces inflammatory mediators (iNOS and COX-2), cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α), gliosis processes, caspase-3 activation and neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex of both female and male mice. Conversely, the levels of these parameters tend to be higher in female than in male mice. Using an in vivo imaging technique, our results further evidence that ethanol treatment triggers higher GFAP levels and lower MAP-2 levels in female than in male mice, suggesting a greater effect of ethanol-induced astrogliosis and less MAP-2(+) neurons in female than in male mice. Our results further confirm the pivotal role of TLR4 in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation and brain damage since the elimination of TLR4 protects the brain of males and females against the deleterious effects of ethanol. In short, the present findings demonstrate that, during the same period of ethanol treatment, females are more vulnerable than males to the neurotoxic/neuroinflammatory effects of ethanol, thus supporting the view that women are more susceptible than men to the medical consequences of alcohol abuse.

  12. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  13. The effect of playing a science center-based mobile game: Affective outcomes and gender differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood-Blaine, Dana

    Situated in a hands-on science center, The Great STEM Caper was a collaborative mobile game built on the ARIS platform that was designed to engage 5th-9th grade players in NGSS science and engineering practices while they interacted with various exhibits. Same gender partners sharing one iPad would search for QR codes placed at specific exhibits; scanning a code within the game would launch a challenge for that exhibit. The primary hypothesis was that in- game victories would be equivalent to "mastery experiences" as described by Bandura (1997) and would result in increased science self-efficacy. Gender differences in gameplay behaviors and perceptions were also studied. The study included two groups, one that played the game during their visit and one that explored the science center in the traditional way. The Motivation to Learn Science Questionnaire was administered to participants in both groups both before and after their visit to the science center. Participants wore head-mounted GoPro cameras to record their interactions within the physical and social environment. No differences in affective outcomes were found between the game and comparison groups or between boys and girls in the game group. The MLSQ was unable to measure any significant change in science self-efficacy, interest and enjoyment of science, or overall motivation to learn science in either group. However, girls outperformed boys on every measure of game achievement. Lazzaro's (2004) four types of fun were found to be a good fit for describing the gender differences in game perceptions and behaviors. Girls tended to enjoy hard fun and collaborative people fun while boys enjoyed easy fun and competitive people fun. While boys associated game achievement with enjoyment and victory, girls perceived their game achievement as difficult, rather than enjoyable or victorious.

  14. The Development of Students' Mathematics Self-Concept in Relation to Gender: Different Countries, Different Trajectories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Gabriel; Watt, Helen M. G.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Baumert, Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in the development of children's and adolescents' academic self-perceptions have received increasing attention in recent years. This study extends previous research by examining the development of mathematics self-concept across grades 7-12 in three cultural settings: Australia (Sydney; N = 1,333), the United States (Michigan; N…

  15. Gender Differences in Reading Ability and Attitudes: Examining where These Differences Lie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the relationship between reading ability, frequency of reading and attitudes and beliefs relating to reading and school. Two hundred and thirty-two 10-year-old children (117 male) completed a reading comprehension test and a questionnaire exploring the following areas: frequency of…

  16. Cyberbullying Experience and Gender Differences among Adolescents in Different Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying refers to a negative activity aimed at deliberate and repeated harm through the use of a variety of electronic media. This study examined the Internet behavior patterns and gender differences among students with learning disabilities who attended general education and special education classes, their involvement in cyberbullying, and…

  17. Gender Differences in the Use and Benefit of Advanced Learning Technologies for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Ivon; Burleson, Winslow; Tai, Minghui; Muldner, Kasia; Woolf, Beverly Park

    2013-01-01

    We provide evidence of persistent gender effects for students using advanced adaptive technology while learning mathematics. This technology improves each gender's learning and affective predispositions toward mathematics, but specific features in the software help either female or male students. Gender differences were seen in the students' style…

  18. A meta-analytic review of research on gender differences in sexuality, 1993-2007.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jennifer L; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2010-01-01

    In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We analyzed gender differences in 30 reported sexual behaviors and attitudes for 834 individual samples uncovered in literature searches and 7 large national data sets. In support of evolutionary psychology, results from both the individual studies and the large data sets indicated that men reported slightly more sexual experience and more permissive attitudes than women for most of the variables. However, as predicted by the gender similarities hypothesis, most gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors were small. Exceptions were masturbation incidence, pornography use, casual sex, and attitudes toward casual sex, which all yielded medium effect sizes in which male participants reported more sexual behavior or permissive attitudes than female participants. Most effect sizes reported in the current study were comparable to those reported in Oliver and Hyde's study. In support of cognitive social learning theory, year of publication moderated the magnitude of effect sizes, with gender differences for some aspects of sexuality increasing over time and others decreasing. As predicted by social structural theory, nations and ethnic groups with greater gender equity had smaller gender differences for some reported sexual behaviors than nations and ethnic groups with less gender equity. Gender differences decreased with age of the sample for some sexual behaviors and attitudes.

  19. Gender Differences in C - reactive protein and Muscle Strengthening Activity

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Michael R.; Johnson, Tammie M.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Ford, Earl S.; Boyer, William R.; Churilla, James R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We sought to examine the gender differences between C-reactive protein (CRP) and muscle strengthening activity (MSA) in U.S. adults (≥20 years of age). METHODS The sample (n=9,135) included participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Three categories of reported MSA participation were created: no MSA (referent group), some MSA (≥1 to <2 days/week), and meeting the 2008 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) recommendation (≥2 days/week). The dependent variable was elevated CRP (>3 to 10 mg/L). RESULTS Gender stratified analysis revealed significantly lower odds of having elevated CRP for women reporting some MSA (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.45–0.83, P=0.0023), or volumes of MSA meeting the DHHS recommendation (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.54–0.82, P=0.0004). Significantly lower odds of men having elevated CRP was observed in those reporting MSA volumes meeting the recommendation (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.61–0.88, P=0.0011). Following adjustment for WC these odds remained significant in men but not women. CONCLUSIONS Women reporting any MSA were found to have lower odds of having elevated CRP when compared to those reporting no MSA prior to adjustment for WC. Significantly lower odds in men were only observed in those meeting the recommendation. These results suggest that WC may mediate the associations between MSA and CRP and this relationship may be stronger in women. PMID:26963135

  20. Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

  1. Prevalence of Dating Violence and Victimization: Regional and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquart, Beverly S.; Nannini, Dawn K.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Stanley, Linda R.; Wayman, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    This report examines (1) the prevalence of dating violence victimization from a national sample of rural adolescents and (2) patterns by gender and region. Analyses are based on 20,274 adolescents who reported violence victimization using the Community Drug and Alcohol Survey. The relationship of dating violence with gender and region was assessed…

  2. Threading "Stitches" to Approach Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Connie E.

    2010-01-01

    As LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex) issues become increasingly integrated into multicultural education discourses, we as educators need to examine the implications of our pedagogies for teaching about gender and sexual identities. This article explores my teaching of non-conforming gender identities in…

  3. Toward an Understanding of Gender Differences in Inferring Sexual Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Maurice J.; Nave, Christopher S.; Lowe, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that, after brief opposite-gender interactions, men perceive women more sexually than women perceive men (e.g., Abbey, 1982). This study examined interpersonal perceptions following dyadic cross-gender interactions between unacquainted individuals. Of particular concern were perceptions of sexual traits, interaction qualities,…

  4. Beliefs about Smoking among Adolescents--Gender and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Wendell C.; Ayars, Candace L.; Gladney, Alicia P.; Peters, Ron J., Jr.; Roy, Jacquilin R.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    1999-01-01

    Study identifies gender and ethnic beliefs about cigarette smoking and abstention from smoking. The development of the moral/ethical theme is discussed along with the study results. Recommendations are presented for future research to clarify influences for smoking and not smoking by gender and ethnic group among adolescents. (Author/GCP)

  5. An examination of gender differences in the American Fisheries Society peer-review process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Grace; Frantz, Cynthia M; Kocovsky, Patrick; DeVries, Dennis R.; Cooke, Steven J.; Claussen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of gender differences in outcomes throughout the peer review process of American Fisheries Society (AFS) journals. For each manuscript submitted to four AFS journals between January 2003 and December 2010, we collated information regarding the gender and nationality of authors, gender of associate editor, gender of reviewers, reviewer recommendations, associate editor's decision, and publication status of the manuscript. We used hierarchical linear modeling to test for differences in manuscript decision outcomes associated with author, reviewer, and associate editor gender. Gender differences were present at some but not every stage of the review process and were not equal among the four journals. Although there was a small gender difference in decision outcomes, we found no evidence of bias in editors’ and reviewers’ recommendations. Our results support the conclusion that the current single-blind review system does not result in bias against female authors within AFS journals.

  6. Gender differences in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David; Johnston, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Certain characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children have long been known to differ by gender. What has not been as widely studied is whether gender is similarly associated with ADHD differences in adults. In this review, the relation between gender and adult ADHD prevalence, persistence, impairment, comorbidity, cognitive functioning, and treatment response was examined across 73 studies. Although gender was related to several characteristics and correlates of adult ADHD, it appeared that many of these gender differences may be at least be partially attributed to methodological artifacts or social and cultural influences, rather than fundamental differences in the expression of ADHD in men and women. We highlight how understanding the nature of the relation between gender and ADHD across the lifespan is complicated by a number of methodological difficulties, and offer recommendations for how emerging research and clinical practice can better incorporate gender into the conceptualization of ADHD in adulthood.

  7. Sexual orientation differences in attitudes about sexuality, race, and gender.

    PubMed

    Grollman, Eric Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have extensively documented sociodemographic predictors of race and gender attitudes, and the mechanisms through which such attitudes are formed and change. Despite its growing recognition as an important status characteristic, sexual orientation has received little attention as a predictor of Americans' race and gender attitudes. Using nationally representative data from the American National Election Survey 2012 Time Series Study, I compare heterosexuals' and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people's attitudes about sexuality, race, and gender. For most attitudes, LGB people hold significantly more liberal attitudes about sexuality, race, and gender than do heterosexuals, even upon controlling for other powerful sociodemographic determinants of social attitudes. However, a substantial proportion of these sexual orientation gaps in attitudes - especially about race and gender - are explained by LGB people's relatively liberal political ideology. The findings provide evidence for the necessity of incorporating sexual orientation in future assessments of Americans' social and political attitudes.

  8. Parental Resources, Schooling Achievements, and Gender Schooling Gaps: Evidence of Change over 25 years in Rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Maluccio, John A.; Behrman, Jere R.; Hoddinott, John; Murphy, Alexis; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2013-01-01

    We use village census data and linear regression models to examine changes between 1975 and 2002 in the associations of parental resources with boys' and girls' schooling in four rural Guatemalan villages. Levels of schooling in 1975 were universally low for children 7–17 years. Large increases in schooling achievements occurred between 1975 and 2002. By 2002, schooling levels were comparable for younger boys and girls (7–12 years, N = 3,525) and favored older boys compared to older girls (13–17 years, N = 2,440) by about 0.5 grades. The associations of household standard of living and maternal schooling with schooling among girls diminished over time and became more comparable with these associations among boys, and the associations of household standard of living with schooling among older boys declined and became more comparable with these associations among girls. Thus, as increased social investments reduce the costs of schooling or increase the supply and quality of schooling to families, the magnitudes of the associations between parental resources and children's schooling decline and become more gender equitable at all ages. However, our results show that older boys may benefit more than older girls from social investments in schooling. These changes suggest potential needs to monitor gender gaps in schooling retention among older children, to insure gender equitable access to social investments in schooling, and to encourage parents to invest in schooling as joint measures to achieve greater schooling achievements of girls and boys. PMID:23888089

  9. Differences in Collaboration Patterns across Discipline, Career Stage, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Duch, Jordi; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in promoting research productivity and impact. What remains unclear is whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,980 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at select U.S. research universities. We find that female faculty have significantly fewer distinct co-authors over their careers than males, but that this difference can be fully accounted for by females’ lower publication rate and shorter career lengths. Next, we find that female scientists have a lower probability of repeating previous co-authors than males, an intriguing result because prior research shows that teams involving new collaborations produce work with higher impact. Finally, we find evidence for gender segregation in some sub-disciplines in molecular biology, in particular in genomics where we find female faculty to be clearly under-represented. PMID:27814355

  10. SVM Method used to Study Gender Differences Based on Microelement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Yang; Yuan, Liu; Jun, Du; Bin, Tang

    [objective] Intelligent Algorithm of SVM is used for studying gender differences based on microelement data, which provide reference For the application of Microelement in healthy people, such as providing technical support for the investigation of cases.[Method] Our Long-term test results on hair microelement of health people were consolidated. Support vector machine (SVM) is used to classified model of male and female based on microelement data. The radical basis function (RBF) is adopted as a kernel function of SVM, and the model adjusts C and σ to build the optimization classifier, [Result] Healthy population of men and women of manganese, cadmium and nickel are quite different, The classified model of Microelement based on SVM can classifies the male and female, the correct classification ratio set to be 81.71% and 66.47% by SVM based on 7 test date and 3 test data selection. [conclusion] The classified model of microelement data based on SVM can classifies male and female.

  11. Gender differences in treatment progress of drug-addicted patients.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Azanza, Paula; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl

    2017-03-01

    The authors of this study explored the differences in treatment progress between men and women who were addicted to drugs. The differential rate of completion of/dropout from treatment in men and women with substance dependence was established. Moreover, comparisons between completers and dropouts, accounting for gender, were carried out for several variables related to treatment progress and clinical profile. A sample of 183 addicted patients (96 male and 87 female) who sought outpatient treatment between 2002 and 2006 was assessed. Information on socio-demographic, consumption, and associated characteristics was collected. A detailed tracking of each patient's progress was maintained for a minimum period of 8 years to assess treatment progression. The treatment dropout rate in the whole sample was 38.8%, with statistically significant differences between women (47.1%) and men (31.3%). Women who dropped out of treatment presented a more severe profile in most of the psychopathologic variables than women who completed it. Moreover, women who dropped out from treatment presented a more severe profile than men who dropped out. According to these results, drug-addicted women showed worse therapeutic progress than men with similar histories. Thus, women must be provided with additional targeted intervention to promote better treatment outcomes.

  12. Feature selection gait-based gender classification under different circumstances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabir, Azhin; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a gender classification based on human gait features and investigates the problem of two variations: clothing (wearing coats) and carrying bag condition as addition to the normal gait sequence. The feature vectors in the proposed system are constructed after applying wavelet transform. Three different sets of feature are proposed in this method. First, Spatio-temporal distance that is dealing with the distance of different parts of the human body (like feet, knees, hand, Human Height and shoulder) during one gait cycle. The second and third feature sets are constructed from approximation and non-approximation coefficient of human body respectively. To extract these two sets of feature we divided the human body into two parts, upper and lower body part, based on the golden ratio proportion. In this paper, we have adopted a statistical method for constructing the feature vector from the above sets. The dimension of the constructed feature vector is reduced based on the Fisher score as a feature selection method to optimize their discriminating significance. Finally k-Nearest Neighbor is applied as a classification method. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is providing more realistic scenario and relatively better performance compared with the existing approaches.

  13. Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Eisner, R L; Tamas, M J; Cloninger, K; Shonkoff, D; Oates, J A; Gober, A M; Dunn, D W; Malko, J A; Churchwell, A L; Patterson, R E

    1988-12-01

    The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic 201TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the 201TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic 201TI images requires gender-matched normal files.

  14. Savvy Sellers: Dealing Drugs, Doing Gender, and Doing Difference.

    PubMed

    Ludwick, Micheline D; Murphy, Sheigla; Sales, Paloma

    2015-05-01

    We present findings from two exploratory studies of San Francisco Bay Area women involved in illicit drug sales who saw both advantages and disadvantages to being women in traditionally male-dominated drug economies. We interviewed 160 sellers of street drugs and 50 sellers of prescription drugs during 2006-2009. Women perceived gender as a cover and managed their vulnerabilities by performing gendered actions and at times going against traditional gender expectations to protect themselves in harsh drug markets. The intersecting factors of race and type of drug sold played a crucial role, revealing the complex nature of women's social location in their drug-selling worlds. Study limitations are noted.

  15. Gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Dongjun; Zou, Feng; Li, Hao; Luo, Yanyan; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Yijun

    2016-04-01

    According to embodied emotion theory, facial manipulations should modulate and initiate particular emotions. However, whether there are gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations is not clear. Therefore, we conducted two behavioral experiments to examine gender differences in emotional perception in response to facial expressions (sad, neutral, and happy) under three conditions: (1) holding a pen using only the teeth (HPT), which facilitates the muscles typically associated with smiling; (2) holding a pen using only the lips (HPL), which inhibits the muscles typically associated with smiling; and (3) a control condition--hold no pen (HNP). We found that HPT made the emotional feelings more positive, and that the change degree of female's ratings of sad facial expressions between conditions (HPL to HPT) was larger than males'. These results suggested cognition can be affected by the interaction of the stimuli and the body, especially the female.

  16. Socioeconomic and gender group differences in early literacy skills: a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Otaiba, Stephanie Al

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL. Data on kindergarteners (N = 462) were analysed using multiple-group confirmatory factory analysis. Early literacy skill differences between boys and girls are more nuanced than previously reported; subsidy status and gender interact. Both boys and girls from high-poverty households performed significantly lower than the girls from low-poverty households in alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and spelling. There were gender gaps, with a female advantage, among children from high-poverty households in alphabet knowledge and spelling and among children from low-poverty households in alphabet knowledge. These results highlight the importance of employing methodologically sound techniques to ascertain group differences in componential early literacy skills. PMID:25750582

  17. Gender identity and recalled gender related childhood play-behaviour in adult individuals with different forms of intersexuality.

    PubMed

    Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Discher, Christine; Gedrose, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    The concept of intersexuality subsumes a wide variety of phenomena with very specific underlying causes. In all these cases, an untypical development takes place during the prenatal sex differentiation process becoming clinically manifest, either at, or soon after birth or at the time of puberty. It subsumes conditions in which biological sexual characteristics (e.g. chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, hormonal sex, morphological sex) differ from each other and one person cannot easily be assigned to one sex. One of the main goals of medical treatment of persons with intersex-syndroms is the development of a stable gender identity. Over the last few years, sex (and gender) assignment of persons with different forms of intersexuality has become a much discussed topic. An interesting--and very obviously observable--variable that was brought in connection with sex assignment is gender related childhood play behaviour. The purpose of the presented study is to examine 37 persons with different forms of intersexuality (disturbances of androgen biosynthesis, partial and complete androgen insensitivity, gonadal dysgenesis with 46,XY and congenital adrenal hyperplasia with 46,XX) with regard to gender identity and gender role behaviour in childhood. Not all subjects in the study group had developed a clear female or male gender identity. In contrast to previous studies, some persons with CAIS did not recall distinguished female childhood play behaviour and these persons did not show a clear female gender identity. In contrast to results from other studies, the CAH-affected girls in this study did not seem to recall masculinized behaviour. Further research is needed to guarantee better psychosexual development with good quality of life in individuals with intersexuality.

  18. On difference and capital: gender and the globalization of production.

    PubMed

    Bair, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article is both a review of, and an intervention in, the literature on gender and the globalization of production. Via a discussion of six key texts analyzing export-oriented manufacturing, ranging from Maria Mies's Lace Makers of Narsapur to Melissa Wright's Disposable Women and Other Myths of Global Capitalism, I show that, over time, the focus has shifted from an emphasis on the feminization of manufacturing as a defining feature of globalization to an appreciation of the diverse and contingent ways in which gender matters for offshore production. While this recent scholarship highlights variability in gendered labor regimes at the global-local nexus, I argue that it is also critically important to ask what is similar about the many locations on the global assembly line that have been studied. Specifically, we must look to how gender, as a set of context-specific meanings and practices, works within the macrostructure of the global economy and its systemic logic of capital accumulation. In other words, while capitalism does not determine the concrete modalities of gender that exist in a given locale, it is essential for explaining the gendered dimension of transnational production as a patterned regularity of contemporary globalization.

  19. Gender differences in reported AIDS-indicative diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Fleming, P L; Ciesielski, C A; Byers, R H; Castro, K G; Berkelman, R L

    1993-07-01

    To compare AIDS-defining conditions in women and men, US adult AIDS cases diagnosed between January 1988 and June 1991 and reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through June 1992 were examined. For most AIDS-defining conditions, the prevalence was similar for women and men when differences in race/ethnicity and mode of transmission were accounted for. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was the most prevalent condition (> 50%) regardless of gender, race/ethnicity, or mode of transmission. By logistic regression analysis, among injection drug users, conditions reported significantly more frequently in women than in men include esophageal candidiasis (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-1.62), herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease (OR, 1.68; CI, 1.46-1.94), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease (OR, 1.43; CI, 1.18-1.73). More knowledge of the interrelationships in women between HIV infection and secondary opportunistic infections, including candidiasis and sexually transmitted disease (e.g., HSV and CMV) is needed.

  20. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing. PMID:26154177