Diseth, Age; Martinsen, Øyvind
Theoretical and empirical relations between personality traits and motive dispositions were investigated by comparing scores of 315 undergraduate psychology students on the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Achievement Motives Scale. Analyses showed all NEO Personality Inventory-Revised factors except agreeableness were significantly correlated with the motive for success and the motive to avoid failure. A structural equation model showed that motive for success was predicted by Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism (negative relation), and motive to avoid failure was predicted by Neuroticism and Openness (negative relation). Although both achievement motives were predicted by several personality factors, motive for success was most strongly predicted by Openness, and motive to avoid failure was most strongly predicted by neuroticism. These findings extended previous research on the relations of personality traits and achievement motives and provided a basis for the discussion of motive dispositions in personality. The results also added to the construct validity of the Achievement Motives Scale.
Maehr, Martin L.
A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)
Helmreich, Robert L.
Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.
Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A
The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India.
Contractor, Noshir S.; DeChurch, Leslie A.
The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the “who” and the “how” of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373
Maehr, Martin L.
Presents a theoretical review of work on sociocultural influences on achievement, focusing on a critical evaluation of the work of David McClellan. Offers an alternative conception of achievement motivation which stresses the role of contextual and situational factors in addition to personality factors. Available from: Transaction Periodicals…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the two dimensional theory of achievement motivation (Doi, 1982) in female students. Doi's motivation scale were administered to 81 female university students, 58 female students of school of nursing and 77 female students of school of English Language, and the Yatabe-Guilford personality inventory was also administered to the first and the second groups. Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation were extracted by principal component analyses and canonical correlation analyses. Non-affiliative achievement motivation was found to be related to personality type: emotional instability and introversion. These findings differ from achievement motivation concepts (Murray, 1938; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953), that include emotional stability and extraversion.
Reiss ("The normal personality: a new way of thinking about people." Cambridge University Press, New York, 2008) empirically derived a reliable and valid taxonomy of 16 life motives ("psychological needs"). The model suggests six motivational reasons for low achievement in school. Low achievement may be motivated by fear of failure (high need for…
Trumbull, Elise; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie
Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background.…
Guszkowska, Monika; Rychta, Tadeusz
Study aim: To determine the relations between the general and physical education-specific achievement motivation, and physical fitness of adolescent girls. Material and methods: A group of 52 girls aged 15 years were studied by applying two questionnaires: P-O scale of Widerszal-Bazyl for evaluating the general achievement motivation and Nishida's…
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Onoe, Hirotaka; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
We have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the neural correlates of motivation, concentrating on the motivation to learn and gain monetary rewards. We compared the activation in the brain obtained during reported high states of motivation for learning, with the ones observed when the motivation was based on monetary reward. Our results show that motivation to learn correlates with bilateral activity in the putamen, and that the higher the reported motivation, as derived from a questionnaire that each subject filled prior to scanning, the greater the change in the BOLD signals within the putamen. Monetary motivation also activated the putamen bilaterally, though the intensity of activity was not related to the monetary reward. We conclude that the putamen is critical for motivation in different domains and the extent of activity of the putamen may be pivotal to the motivation that drives academic achievement and thus academic successes.
van der Sluis, Sophie; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle
Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA) for ordered categorical data was used…
Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.
This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…
Youssef, Anga A.
A study investigating the relationship between motivation, study time, and student achievement in second language courses has as subjects 97 tenth- and eleventh-grade English speakers in introductory French, German, and Spanish courses. Two surveys measured motivational factors and the amount of time spent studying the second language. Motivation…
Many low income, minority schools in California are within 100 points of closing the achievement gap, a prize worth working for no matter how inconvenient, uncomfortable, or risky. In this article, the author describes a better way to motivate educators to try new things that will accelerate student learning and close the achievement gap. The…
Sokolowski, K; Schmalt, H D; Langens, T A; Puca, R M
In this article, we introduce the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG), a new diagnostic tool to measure motives with respect to their hope and fear components. The MMG combines features of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with features of self-report questionnaires. Similar to the TAT, a set of 14 pictures representing a balanced set of achievement-arousing, affiliation-arousing, and power-arousing situations is presented together with a set of statements representing important motivational states. Six motive scores can be calculated: hope of success (HS) and fear of failure (FF) for the achievement motive, hope of affiliation (HA) and fear of rejection (FR) for the affiliation motive, and hope of power (HP) and fear of power (FP) for the power motive. Results of factor analyses suggest a 3-factor solution, with a general fear factor (FF, FR, FP), a factor combining the hope components of achievement and power (HS and HP), and a third factor representing HA, but the 6 a priori factors also reflect a sound structural model. Reliability data show that the internal consistency and retest reliability of the MMG scales satisfy traditional standards. External validity of the MMG has been established in all 3 motive domains. Three separate studies document that (a) individuals high in resultant achievement motivation perform better and report more flow experience, (b) individuals high in resultant power motivation profit more from a leadership training program, and (c) individuals high in resultant affiliation motivation recollect more highly memorable affiliative themes.
Tuckman, Bruce W.; Abry, Dennis
This study involves developing a motivational model of college achievement. The predictor variables, which were procrastination tendency, self-efficacy, self-regulation, intrinsic value, outcome value, cognitive strategy, test anxiety, students grade goals, parent grade goals, and grade point average, as well as the criterion variable exam…
This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…
De Castella, Krista; Byrne, Donald
The belief that intelligence is malleable has important consequences for achievement and motivation (Blackwell et al. "Child Development," v78, p246-263. 2007; Dweck, 1999; Robins & Pals, "Self and Identity," v1, p313-336, 2002). However, believing that it is possible to improve intelligence does not necessarily mean…
Furia, Andrea C.; Lee, Rebecca E.; Strother, Myra L.; Huang, Terry T-K.
Objectives: To develop and refine a scale of motivational factors related to healthy weight achievement and maintenance and to examine differences by gender and weight status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 300 university students aged 18-24 years. Results: Factor analysis yielded 6 factors--Intrinsic (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73): affective…
Zakaria, Effandi; Nordin, Norazah Mohd
The study investigated the effects of mathematics anxiety on matriculation students as related to motivation and achievement. Subjects included 88 students who were at the end of their second semester of study. Anxiety and motivation were measured using the Fennema-Sherman Math Anxiety Scale (MAS) and Effectance Motivation Scale (EMS)…
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.
The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…
This study assessed the relation between school-social motivation and student academic achievement. A factor analysis was performed on a set of school-social items selected a priori from three measures of school motivation: the Inventory of School Motivation, the General Achievement Goals Orientation Scale, and the Facilitating Conditions Scale. Three factors with fewer items represented Global Motivation, Peer Help, and Social Power. Hierarchical regression analysis showed social motivation measures were weak predictors of achievement scores in the various content areas. Findings are discussed in the context of Qatari education and culture.
McClelland, David C.
This pilot project sought to determine if instruction in achievement motivation would help potential dropouts to complete their schooling. Subjects were tenth grade students in a suburban Boston high school. A one-week residential course during winter and spring vacations was taken by one group of six boys and a second group of four. Equated…
Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy
Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…
Winter, David G
Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed.
Dweck, Carol S.
Almost everything educators say to their students sends a message. Some messages enhance students' motivation, but other messages undermine it. What should teachers say to students to send messages that motivate? In a survey given to parents, over 80% of them thought that it was necessary to praise their children's intelligence in order to give…
Payyanatt, Prasanth; Manichander, T.
The major purpose of this study is to find out the level of Achievement motivation of rural and urban secondary school students in Ernakulam district in Kerala state. The data was collected by means of Deo-Mohan Achievement Motivation (N-Ach) Scale on 200 samples of students in various schools in Thripunithura Sub-district selected through…
Fan, Weiqiao; Zhang, Li-Fang
The present study examined the relationships between thinking styles and achievement motivation among Chinese university students. The Thinking Styles Inventory--Revised (TSI-R; Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2003) and the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS; Gjesme & Nygard, 1970; Ye & Hagtvet, 1988) were administered to 238 Chinese…
McClelland, David C.; Alschuler, Alfred S.
The Achievement Motivation Development Project is described. The Project has culminated in the development of course materials designed explicitly to promote aspects of psychological growth. As such, it is viewed as but one thrust in an emerging psychological education movement. Achievement motivation is defined as a way of planning, a set of…
This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…
Chen, Su-Yen; Lu, Luo
This study explores how motivational factors are associated with Taiwanese college students' cognitive, personal, and social development by incorporating both relatively global, static self-attributes, such as social-oriented achievement motivation and individual-oriented achievement motivation, which are considered to be culturally balanced…
Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro
Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)
Accordino, Denise B.; Accordino, Michael P.; Slaney, Robert B.
Examines the relationship of perfectionism with measures of achievement and achievement motivation and mental health aspects of depression and self-esteem in high school students (N=123). Results indicate that students' personal standards were significant predictors of academic achievement and academic motivation. Also reveals that as students'…
Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese
Background: Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. Aims: To investigate the relationship between achievement motives,…
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Iizuka, Kunio; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Seishu; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta
Achievement motivation can be defined as a recurrent need to improve one's past performance. Despite previous functional imaging studies on motivation-related functional activation, the relationship between regional gray matter (rGM) morphology and achievement motivation has never been investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry and a questionnaire (achievement motivation scale) to measure individual achievement motivation and investigated the association between rGM density (rGMD) and achievement motivation [self-fulfillment achievement motivation (SFAM) and competitive achievement motivation (CAM) across the brain in healthy young adults (age 21.0 ± 1.8 years, men (n = 94), women (n = 91)]. SFAM and rGMD significantly and negatively correlated in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). CAM and rGMD significantly and positively correlated in the right putamen, insula, and precuneus. These results suggest that the brain areas that play central roles in externally modulated motivation (OFC and putamen) also contribute to SFAM and CAM, respectively, but in different ways. Furthermore, the brain areas in which rGMD correlated with CAM are related to cognitive processes associated with distressing emotions and social cognition, and these cognitive processes may characterize CAM.
Chow, Shean Jen; Yong, Bob Chui Seng
This study investigated students' motivation and achievement in combined science. A sample of 324 Year 11 students from eight government secondary schools in Brunei Darussalam participated in the study. Of the sample, 141 were boys and 183 were girls and their average age was 16.4 years. The motivation instrument used was adapted from the science…
Vega, Louis A.
This action research project developed and implemented a program to improve student motivation through use of multiple intelligences, authentic assessment, technology and positive teacher feedback to increase levels of student music achievement. The students of the targeted seventh grade music class exhibited low levels of motivation that hindered…
Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores
This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.
Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores
This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423
Hermans, Hubert J. M.; And Others
Results indicate that the achievement motivation and the debilitating anxiety of the child manifest themselves in the social interaction patterns both within the family and within the classroom. (Authors)
Elliot, Andrew J; Aldhobaiban, Nawal; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Gocłowska, Małgorzata A; Khyat, Aber
In this research, we investigate impression management (IM) as a substantive personality variable by linking it to differentiated achievement motivation constructs, namely achievement motives (workmastery, competitiveness, fear of failure) and achievement goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance). Study 1 revealed that IM was a positive predictor of workmastery and a negative predictor of competitiveness (with and without self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) controlled). Studies 2a and 2b revealed that IM was a positive predictor of mastery-approach goals and mastery-avoidance goals (without and, in Study 2b, with SDE controlled). These findings highlight the value of conceptualising and utilising IM as a personality variable in its own right and shed light on the nature of the achievement motive and achievement goal constructs.
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and academic achievement for the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada in comparison to their counterparts in India. Descriptive discriminant analysis indicated that the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada had higher intrinsic…
Yaman, Hakan; Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü
The aim of this study is to reveal whether there is relation between achievement motivations of teacher candidates according to their cognitive styles and motivation styles or not. This study was designed as a quantitative study due to collecting quantitative data and running statistical analyses. Both comparative and correlational survey methods…
Baker, Ahmad M.; Kanan, Hana M.; Al-Misnad, Sheikha A.
This study examined a host of variables the literature or focus groups showed to influence student motivation to achieve academically. Secondary school teachers in Doha, Qatar were asked to identify the five most and five least motivated students in their classrooms. They also were asked to estimate the degree of involvement the parents had in the…
Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil
The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…
Planchard, Matthew; Daniel, Kristy L.; Maroo, Jill; Mishra, Chandrani; McLean, Tim
We conducted a mixed methods study in an upper-level genetics course exploring the relationships between student motivation, homework completion, and academic achievement at the college level. We used data from an open-ended questionnaire, homework grades and completion reports, and exam scores. We used these data sources to measure self-perceived…
Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo
Focusing on the ethnic identity and achievement motivation of adolescents, this book reports on a study of Mexican-origin and Anglo American adolescents and sets it in sociopolitical, theoretical, ethnohistorical, and demographic contexts. The opening chapters examine public malaise over immigration and ethnic diversification in the United States…
Putwain, David W.; Kearsley, Rebecca; Symes, Wendy
Previous work has suggested that creativity self-beliefs show only small relations with academic achievement and may only be related to intrinsic, not extrinsic motivation. We set out to re-examine these relationships accounting for the multifaceted and process embedded nature of creativity self-beliefs and the full domain range of extrinsic…
McClelland, David C.
Essay focusing on how achievement motivation is developed in students and adults, with some discussion of how various dimensions of educational technology may contribute to this development. Paper written pursuant to contract 0-8-071231-1747 with the U.S. Office of Education, under provisions of the Cooperative Research Program. (LS)
Ricco, Robert; Pierce, Sara Schuyten; Medinilla, Connie
This study seeks to establish the relevance of middle school students' naive beliefs about knowledge and learning in science to their achievement motivation in this domain. A predominantly Hispanic and lower-income sample of 459 middle school students (sixth through eighth grades) completed measures of epistemic beliefs along with several measures…
Albrecht, Erik; Haapanen, Rebecca; Hall, Erin; Mantonya, Michelle
This report describes a program for increasing students' intrinsic motivation in an effort to increase academic achievement. The targeted population consisted of secondary level students in a middle to upper-middle class suburban area. The students of the targeted secondary level classes appeared to be disengaged from learning due to a lack of…
Maehr, Martin L.
Given the decline in birth rates, which will produce a steep decline in the youth population by 1990, this paper examines the possible effects such a population shift will have on the achievement motivation of children. It is reasoned the increased adult/child ratio could result in either of two possibilities: the greater attention paid to the…
Wuensch, Karl L.; Lao, Rosina C.
Nine groups of undergraduate students were formed on the basis of one-third splits of the distributions of their scores on an internality-externality measure and on an achievement motive measure. Academic performance was measured by obtaining grade point averages for all subjects. Analysis of variance showed that internal students made higher…
Li, Peipei; Pan, Guirong
The survey conducted in Qingdao Agricultural University reveals the relationship between motivation and achievement as follows: instrumental motivation influences both high achievers and low achiever; while high achievers have greater integrative motivation than lower ones; Interest plays an extremely important role in study and high achievers…
Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; Patrick, Rosan R.
The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships among achievement motivation orientations and academic achievement and interest and whether achievement goals mediate these relationships. A sample of 503 students aged 14-16 years from 8 secondary schools in two Australia cities responded to a questionnaire package, comprising measures…
Froiland, John Mark; Mayor, Päivi; Herlevi, Marjaana
Numerous studies indicate that intrinsic motivation predicts academic achievement. However, relatively few have examined various subtypes of intrinsic motivation that predict overall achievement, such as motivation for exercise and physical activity. Based upon the 16 basic desires theory of personality, the current study examined the motives of…
Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin; Sahin, Mehmet; Acikgoz, Kamile Un
This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers (n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…
Aim: This thesis discusses the relationship between college students' boredom tendency and attribution style as well as achievement motivation. Method: The author uses scale assessment on college students of boredom tendency scale, the inner-control scale, internality-powerful others scale and chance scale draw up by Leveson, as well as…
Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.
Wells, Harold C.
This pamphlet is concerned with achievement motivation. Motives refers to a fairly stable set of personality characteristics which constitute a disposition to strive for certain kinds of satisfaction. The achievement motive is the disposition to strive for success. Two other motives are discussed, affiliation and influence motives. Operant versus…
Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J
Little research has been conducted on achievement motivation and memory and, more specifically, on achievement goals and memory. In the present research, the authors conducted two experiments designed to examine the influence of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals on immediate and delayed remember-know recognition memory. The experiments revealed differential effects for achievement goals over time: Performance-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on an immediate recognition test, whereas mastery-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on a delayed recognition test. Achievement goals had no influence on overall recognition memory and no consistent influence on know responding across experiments. These findings indicate that it is important to consider quality, not just quantity, in both motivation and memory, when studying relations between these constructs.
Cecchini Estrada, José A; González González-Mesa, Carmen; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier
This study examined the relationship between achievement and social goals, and explored how both goals affect students' level of informed self-determination in Physical Education. Participants were 395 high school students. Three scales were used to assess achievement, social goals, and motivation. Several hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were the greatest contributors to the individuals' levels of self-determination. Achievement and social goals were found to be separate predictors of students' levels of self-determination, and this highlights the importance of separating mastery and performance goals into avoidance and approach profiles. Girls reported significantly higher values than boys on responsibility, relationship, and mastery-avoidance goals, whereas boys scored higher on performance-approach goals. Researchers could use achievement and social goals to study students' motivation and achievement in Physical Education settings.
Kelly, John F; Greene, M Claire
From an addiction treatment and recovery standpoint maladaptive motivational hierarchies lie at the core of the challenge in mobilizing salutary behavior change. Motivation has been conceptualized as dynamic, interactive and modifiable, as well as multidimensional. Measures of recovery motivation have been developed and validated, but are generally only modest and variable predictors of future behavior. A related, but potentially more potent, construct, is that of commitment to sobriety as it denotes a clearer re-ranking of motivational hierarchies such that the recovery task is now given a top priority potentially less susceptible to the risks associated with undulating future circumstance. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a novel commitment to sobriety scale (CSS). Results revealed a coherent, psychometrically valid, and reliable tool that outperformed an existing commitment to abstinence scale (ATAQ; J. Morgenstern, R.M. Frey, B.S. McCrady, E. Labouvie, & C.J. Neighbors, 1996) and a gold standard measure of motivation (SOCRATES; W.R. Miller & J.S. Tonigan, 1996). This study highlights commitment to sobriety as an important addiction construct. Researchers and theoreticians may find the CSS useful in helping to explain how individuals achieve recovery, and practitioners may find clinical utility in the CSS in helping identify patients in need of more intensive or alternative intervention.
Wartberg, Lutz; Sack, Peter-Michael; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Thomasius, Rainer
In Germany, the internet is used by 69.4% of the population or 49 million people, and 100% of adolescents (between 14 to 19 years of age) spend time in the internet at least occasionally. An excessive use of the internet may lead to negative psychosocial consequences and changes in behaviour. This phenomenon is named "pathological internet use". Until now, there are only few studies published that investigate mental well being in German adolescents with pathological internet use. 16 participants of an outpatient treatment program for pathological internet use and 16 healthy adolescents were compared on self-reported levels of psychopathology (SPS-J), achievement motivation (FLM 7-13) and personal experience of attention deficit (FEDA). There were no differences in age, gender, intelligence or education between the two groups. Pathological internet users exhibited significantly elevated scores on self-esteem problems and the summary score of the SPS-J and significantly lower scores on FLM 7-13-dimensions "achievement ambition" and "perseverance/diligence" compared to controls. The results revealed that adolescents with pathological internet use report a higher level of psychopathology and lower levels of achievement motivation and drive. These findings should be taken into account when conceptualizing treatments for pathological internet users.
Job, Veronika; Langens, Thomas A; Brandstätter, Veronika
This research is based on the theoretical conception of motives and goals as distinct motivational concepts. Previous research has demonstrated that discrepancies between implicit motives and goals have negative consequences for well-being. The authors have extended these findings to the explicit motive system, with four studies investigating the moderating role of the explicit achievement motive on the relationship between achievement goal striving and well-being. In line with their expectations, achievement goal striving was accompanied by high positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and a high number of positive affective experiences (Study 3) only when the explicit achievement motive was high. Longitudinal Study 4 showed that the interaction between the explicit achievement motive and achievement goal commitment predicts changes in subjective well-being and health measured over a 3-month period.
Lutzke, Steven Ronald
This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…
This study examined the relationships between academic motivation-intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation-and mathematics achievement among 363 Indian adolescents in India and 355 Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation were not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in India. In contrast, both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation were statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. While intrinsic motivation was a statistically significant positive predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada, extrinsic motivation was a statistically significant negative predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Amotivation was not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Implications of the findings for pedagogy and practice are discussed.
Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Muñiz, José
The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants' employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers' qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers' effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions.
Schatt, Matthew D.
Motivation plays a role in nearly all human decision-making processes. Regardless of the situation, little may be achieved without the appropriate harnessing of motivation. The same is true in the music classroom. Research appears to indicate that motivation plays a crucial role in human development and achievement. The achievement motivation…
The purpose of this study was to adapt the college version of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) into Turkish. The participants were 797 college students (437 men, 360 women) with a mean age of 20.1 yr. A seven-factor model of the scale, as well as alternative models (five-, three-, two-, and one-factor models) were investigated and compared through confirmatory factor analysis. The seven-factor model demonstrated adequate fit to the data. The fit indices obtained from the five-factor model were acceptable also. Hancock's coefficient H values and test-retest correlation coefficients of the subscales indicated that reliability of the scale was adequate except for the identified regulation subscale. The CFA conducted for the groups of men and women produced more acceptable fit indices values for men than women, but women obtained significantly higher scores from the AMS subscales. Correlations among the seven subscales partially supported the simplex pattern which claims that the neighboring subscales should have stronger positive correlations than the non-neighboring subscales and that the subscales which are the farthest apart should have the strongest negative relationships.
Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Nie, Youyan
This study examined how values related to achievement goals and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among secondary school students in China (N = 355) and Indonesia (N = 356). Statistical comparisons showed the Chinese students endorsed more strongly than the Indonesian students on self-direction and hedonism values, individual-oriented achievement motivation, and mastery-approach goals. Conversely, the Indonesian students endorsed more strongly than their Chinese counterparts on security, conformity, tradition, universalism and achievement values, social-oriented achievement motivation, and performance-approach and mastery-avoidance goals. Values explained a significant amount of the variance in almost all of the dimensions of motivation. Etic and emic relationships between values and achievement motivations were found.
Zhu, Yan; Leung, Frederick K. S.
The importance of motivation in learning has been widely recognized. However, due to its multidimensional and complex nature, it appears difficult to synthesize research findings on motivation across studies. Heated debates about the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on learning and their interaction have been going on since the terms…
Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.
With the belief that theoretical integration in motivation may help us better understand motivational behavior, we designed this study to explore adolescents' motivational profiles and their associations with knowledge acquisition, leisure-time exercise behaviors, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Middle school students from a large urban inner-city…
Karaguven, M. Hulya Unal
The current study evaluated the psychometric evidence of Turkish form of the Academic Motivation Scale. The scale was based on the tenets of self-determination theory. It was designed to assess an individual's academic motivation if intrinsically or extrinsically driven with 28 questions. University form of the scale was translated into Turkish…
Luna, Alberto D.
Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…
Unrau, Norman; Schlackman, Jonah
The authors investigated the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on reading achievement for urban middle school students. The authors initially developed a research-based theoretical model representing interrelationships among students' ethnicity, gender, grade level, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and reading achievement.…
Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Lam, Shui-fong
The motivational effects of mastery goals and performance goals have been widely documented in previous research on achievement motivation. However, recent studies have increasingly indicated a need to include social goals so as to gain a more comprehensive understanding of achievement motivation. The purpose of the present research was to examine…
Bozack, Amanda R.; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole
This study explores the relationship between academic achievement and reading motivation among adolescent boys. We seek to understand (1) if motivational construct scores change meaningfully over time, (2) what relationship exists between the achievement scores and reported reading motivation, and (3) if students who report higher reading…
Clayton, Karen E.; Zusho, Akane
Background: In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually based sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. Aim: This mixed-methods study examined why Jamaican undergraduate students are motivated or unmotivated and how this relates to the extant literature on achievement motivation. Sample(s): This…
Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.
Across 20 years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9-17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments…
Kizilgunes, Berna; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra
The authors proposed a model to explain how epistemological beliefs, achievement motivation, and learning approach related to achievement. The authors assumed that epistemological beliefs influence achievement indirectly through their effect on achievement motivation and learning approach. Participants were 1,041 6th-grade students. Results of the…
Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu
The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…
Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.
Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or…
Chen, Lung Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Kee, Ying Hwa; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Shui, Shang-Hsueh
In this study, the hierarchical model of achievement motivation [Elliot, A. J. (1997). Integrating the "classic" and "contemporary" approaches to achievement motivation: A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. In P. Pintrich & M. Maehr (Eds.), "Advances in motivation and achievement"…
Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.
The bicultural work motivations of Asian Americans have not yet been comprehensively captured by contemporary vocational constructs and scales. For this study, we conducted two studies on the initial reliability and validity of the Bicultural Work Motivation Scale (BWMS) by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. First, a pilot study was…
Tanaka, A; Yamauchi, H
This study investigated the effect of achievement motive on goal orientation, and that of goal orientation on intrinsic interest in learning and academic achievement, based on the model proposed by Elliot and Church (1997). A sample of 222 fifth and sixth grade students of an elementary school, and another of 307 seventh, eighth and ninth grade students of a junior high school participated in the study. The approach-avoidance framework of Elliot and Harackiewicz (1996) was used to classify goal orientations. With multiple-sample structural equation modeling, the paths in two causal models, one for each of the elementary and junior high school samples, were compared. A path was found from hope for success to mastery orientation, from both hope for success and fear of failure to performance-approach orientation, and from fear of failure to performance-avoidance orientation. Mastery and performance-approach orientations each had a positive effect on intrinsic interest in learning. For elementary school children, performance-approach orientation enhanced academic achievement, and for junior high school students, mastery orientation mainly facilitated it. Performance-avoidance orientation had a negative effect on both intrinsic interest and academic achievement.
Imhof, Margarete; Spaeth-Hilbert, Tatjana
Based on a cognitive motivational process model of learning, the impact of studying behavior on learning outcome is investigated. First-year students (N = 488) participated in the study. Two research questions were addressed: (1) Can cognitive-motivational variables and objective study behavior predict individual learning? (2) Which factors drive…
Ferrell, Brent; Phillips, Michael M.; Barbera, Jack
Student success in chemistry is inherently tied to motivational and other affective processes. We investigated three distinct constructs tied to motivation: self-efficacy, interest, and effort beliefs. These variables were measured twice over the course of a semester in three sections of a first-semester general chemistry course (n = 170). We…
Schoel, Christiane; Zimmer, Katharina; Stahlberg, Dagmar
We introduce a new nonverbal and unobtrusive measure to assess power motive activation, the Spatial Power Motivation Scale (SPMS). The unique features of this instrument are that it is (a) very simple and economical, (b) reliable and valid, and (c) sensitive to situational changes. Study 1 demonstrates the instrument's convergent and discriminant validity with explicit measures. Study 2 demonstrates the instrument's responsiveness to situational power motive salience: anticipating and winning competition versus losing competition and watching television. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrate that thoughts of competition result in higher power motivation specifically for individuals with a high dispositional power motive.
Bakadorova, Olga; Raufelder, Diana
Considering the essential role that socio-motivational relationships at school play with respect to achievement motivation, this study examined the differences between students with a low school self-concept and students with a high school self-concept in a large sample of 7th and 8th grade students (N= 1088; M[subscript Age]= 13.7) in secondary…
De Castella, Krista; Byrne, Don; Covington, Martin
A classic distinction in the literature on achievement and motivation is between fear of failure and success orientations. From the perspective of self-worth theory, these motives are not bipolar constructs but dimensions that interact in ways that make some students particularly vulnerable to underachievement and disengagement from school. The…
Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Guay, Frédéric; Kovas, Yulia; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Séguin, Jean R; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E
This study examined the associations between intrinsic motivation and achievement in mathematics in a sample of 1,478 Canadian school-age children followed from Grades 1 to 4 (ages 7-10). Children self-reported their intrinsic motivation toward mathematics, whereas achievement was measured through direct assessment of mathematics abilities. Cross-lagged models showed that achievement predicted intrinsic motivation from Grades 1 to 2, and from Grades 2 to 4. However, intrinsic motivation did not predict achievement at any time. This developmental pattern of association was gender invariant. Contrary to the hypothesis that motivation and achievement are reciprocally associated over time, our results point to a directional association from prior achievement to subsequent intrinsic motivation. Results are discussed in light of their theoretical and practical implications.
Schmidt, Charles P.
The purpose of this study was to (1) reexamine academic achievement motivation orientations within the context of instrumental music, and (2) examine relations among achievement motivation orientations, self-concept in instrumental music, and attitude to band in relation to teachers' ratings of performance achievement and effort, and students'…
Sewell, Trevor; And Others
Examined the relationship of cognitive and personality variables to achievement in 49 Black junior high school students. Results showed a higher achievement motivation for males. Neither personality nor social reinforcement showed much predictive value. The relationship between achievement motive and academic measures was not significant. (JAC)
Grove, Rachel; Roth, Ilona; Hoekstra, Rosa A
Clinical observations and first person accounts of living with autism suggest that individuals with autism are highly motivated to engage in special interests, and that these interests remain important throughout life. Previous research assessing special interests has mainly focused on parental reports of children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). To better understand the significance of and motivations for engaging in special interests it is essential to use self-report ratings. This paper aims to systematically explore the motivations for engagement in special interests, and whether these differ in adults with ASC, first-degree relatives and general population controls. The Special Interest Motivation Scale (SIMS) was developed to assess motivation to engage in special interests. The internal structure of this scale was evaluated using factor analysis, and mean scores on the SIMS factors were subsequently compared across individuals with autism, parents and general population controls. Factor analysis indicated a 20-item SIMS containing five factors assessing Personal life values and goals; Intrinsic interest and knowledge; Prestige; Engagement and "flow" and Achievement. Individuals with autism were more motivated by Intrinsic interest and knowledge and by Engagement and flow than controls. The 20-item SIMS is a quick to administer measure that provides a reliable description of motivation to engage in special interests. This study indicates that individuals with ASC are highly motivated to engage in their special interest, and are more motivated than controls by intrinsic motivational factors, some of which are associated with positive affect. This has implications for research and clinical practice. Autism Res 2016, 9: 677-688. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling
This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…
This study of adolescent boys' literacy builds on motivation theory and uses the Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield, Guthrie, & McGough, 1996) as a foundation. Survey and achievement data were collected from 330 students and eight teachers at a Catholic, all-boys high-school. Results suggest that the motivational constructs…
This article reports the findings of a controlled quasi-experimental study investigating the effects of motivational strategies on learner motivation and achievement in English language classes in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the most important motivational strategies were identified. In the second…
Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Lokken, K L; Morse, A; Boggiano, M M
The purpose of this study was to validate a new scale designed to measure individual motives for eating tasty foods and determine if any specific motive(s) are associated with obesity. The "Palatable Eating Motives Scale" (PEMS) is a self-report measure adapted from the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R). N=150 racially-diverse college students (mean age: 24.4, BMI: 16-51kg/m(2)) were administered the PEMS along with the Binge-Eating Scale (BES) and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to test for convergent and incremental validity and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) for discriminant validity. The PEMS identified four motives for eating tasty food, the same ones found with the DMQ-R for alcohol intake: Social, Conformity, Enhancement, and Coping motives. The scales had good convergent validity with BES and YFAS scores but discriminated from the broader motivational constructs of inhibition and activation measured by the SPSRQ. Of the PEMS motives, Coping (eating tasty food to deal with problems and negative feelings) accounted for unique variance in BMI, and added to variance in BMI contributed by BES scores, showing incremental validity. YFAS scores did not contribute to BMI after controlling for binge-eating. Coping subscale scores were also significantly higher (p<0.001) among the severely obese (BMI>40). Motives behind palatable food intake are not homogenous and should be considered in personalized weight-loss strategies in future studies. In normal weight individuals, knowing one's dominant motive for eating tasty foods may help promote healthier food choices in times and places where they are most vulnerable to do otherwise.
Berry, James J.; Plecha, Michelle D.
Three pilot studies are used to examine the relationships between academic performance, student ability, and motivation among community college students. The first study analyzed the association between motivation and academic performance in order to test the hypothesis that students who are highly motivated will earn higher grades. Results…
Lutz Klauda, Susan; Guthrie, John T
This longitudinal study examined the development of reading motivation, engagement, and achievement in early adolescence by comparing interrelations of these variables in struggling and advanced readers. Participants were 183 pairs of seventh grade students matched in gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school attended. They completed measures of reading motivations, engagement and comprehension for information text as well as measures of general reading comprehension and reading fluency twice during the school year. Advanced readers showed stronger relations of motivation and engagement with achievement than struggling readers. However, motivation predicted concurrent engagement and growth in engagement similarly for struggling and advanced readers. These results are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that cognitive challenges limit the relations of motivation and engagement to achievement for struggling readers. The discussion also considers the impact of the focus on the information text genre on the relations observed and implications of the findings for achievement motivation theories.
Lutz Klauda, Susan; Guthrie, John T.
This longitudinal study examined the development of reading motivation, engagement, and achievement in early adolescence by comparing interrelations of these variables in struggling and advanced readers. Participants were 183 pairs of seventh grade students matched in gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school attended. They completed measures of reading motivations, engagement and comprehension for information text as well as measures of general reading comprehension and reading fluency twice during the school year. Advanced readers showed stronger relations of motivation and engagement with achievement than struggling readers. However, motivation predicted concurrent engagement and growth in engagement similarly for struggling and advanced readers. These results are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that cognitive challenges limit the relations of motivation and engagement to achievement for struggling readers. The discussion also considers the impact of the focus on the information text genre on the relations observed and implications of the findings for achievement motivation theories. PMID:25663747
Book reading enhances the intellectual world of people. It is very important to know the factors that motivate children to read books as it will help to instill book reading habit in them. As such, the present study aims to develop a "Book Reading Motivation Scale" to determine elementary and secondary school students' reading…
Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.
Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through…
Kauffman, Douglas F.; Yilmaz Soylu, Meryem; Duke, Bryan
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report psychological instrument assessing pre-service teachers' relative intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to teach. One hundred forty seven undergraduate students taking Educational Psychology courses from a large US University participated in this study completed the 12 item MTS along…
McClelland, David C.
Author reviews studies to date and concludes achievement motivation training courses improve school learning by improving classroom and life management skills rather than by changing n Achievement levels directly.'' (Author/SP)
Wilde, Mathias; Urhahne, Detlef
According to Reinmann-Rothmeier and Mandl (2001), learning environments should provide an ideal balance between constructivist and instructive elements. Most interesting for constructivist learning processes is the combination of the cognitive and the motivational domain. In an empirical study with 207 fifth-graders of the highest stratification…
Fugate, C. Matthew; Gentry, Marcia
The manifestation of ADHD in girls who are gifted can place strains on motivation and academic performance as they enter their middle school years. The purpose of this collective case study research was to examine the lived experiences of five girls who are gifted with ADHD in order to gain an understanding of the array of coping mechanisms used…
Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen
This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…
Garcia-Celay, I. Montero; Tapia, J. Alonso
Three models of achievement motivation in the classroom are contrasted. Results with 155 high school students suggest that the model of C. S. Dweck and E. S. Elliott offers a better explanation of the relationships among achievement motivation, attributions, emotional reactions, expectancies, and performance than do the other models. (SLD)
Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb
Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…
Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin
In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…
Wilkins, Natalie J.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.
Elliot and McGregor's (2001) 2 x 2 model of achievement motivation (mastery approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance) was used among 143 Latino adolescents to examine how achievement motivation changes over time, and whether perception of academic climate influences eventual academic outcomes. A series of…
Bednar, Janet; Coughlin, Jane; Evans, Elizabeth; Sievers, Theresa
This action research project described strategies for improving student motivation and achievement in mathematics through multiple intelligences. The targeted population consisted of kindergarten, third, fourth, and fifth grade students located in two major Midwestern cities. Documentation proving low student motivation and achievement in…
Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David
Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…
Baruch, Rhoda Wasserman
Using 137 Radcliffe alumnae and a national sample of 763 women, this study tested two hypotheses: (1) the achievement motive of women is associated with age and family situation; (2) for those woman whose families are established, achievement motivation is associated with paid employment and return to work. The Radcliffe group wrote Thematic…
Kim, Jung-In; Chung, Hyewon
Informed by achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories, we explored the role of cultural/contextual factors on Korean students' achievement motivation. Specifically, we examined the role of the Korean middle school students' family orientation as a mediator between their perceptions of parent goals or motivating styles and their…
The aims of the present study were (1) to identify to what extent school motivation and school commitment contributed to the explanation of students' academic achievement in addition to the effect of students' cognitive capacities, (2) to find out whether school commitment mediated the relation between school motivation and academic achievement,…
Kebritchi, Mansureh; Hirumi, Atsusi; Bai, Haiyan
This study examined the effects of a computer game on students' mathematics achievement and motivation, and the role of prior mathematics knowledge, computer skill, and English language skill on their achievement and motivation as they played the game. A total of 193 students and 10 teachers participated in this study. The teachers were randomly…
Dja'far, Veri Hardinansyah; Cahyono, Bambang Yudi; Bashtomi, Yazid
This research aimed at examining Indonesian EFL Teachers' perception of students' motivation and English for Specific Purposes (ESP) learning achievement. It also explored the strategies applied by teachers based on their perception of students' motivation and ESP learning achievement. This research involved 204 students who took English for…
Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Guay, Frédéric; Kovas, Yulia; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Séguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
This study examined the associations between intrinsic motivation and achievement in mathematics in a sample of 1,478 Canadian school-age children followed from Grades 1 to 4 (ages 7-10). Children self-reported their intrinsic motivation toward mathematics, whereas achievement was measured through direct assessment of mathematics abilities.…
Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa; Peng, Yun; Lee, Nancy
Direct and mediating effects of homework worry anxiety on homework effort and homework achievement and the differences in the structural relations among homework motivation constructs and homework achievement across mathematics and English homework were examined in 268 tenth graders in China. Homework motivation included task value, homework…
Ory, John C.; Poggio, John P.
The construction of an objective, self-report, objectively-scored measure of achievement motivation is reported. Empirically keyed items were developed, reflecting empirical results found in a review of achievement motivation literature. An initial item pool consisting of 153 self-report items was administered using a matrix sampling approach to…
Gilbert, Melissa C.; Musu-Gillette, Lauren E.; Woolley, Michael E.; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Strutchens, Marilyn E.; Martin, W. Gary
This study examined the relationship of 979 middle school students' perceptions of their mathematics classroom environment to their motivation and achievement. Structural equation modeling indicated that motivational variables (utility, personal achievement goals, efficacy) mediated the influence of perceived teacher expectations, teacher…
Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Ertepinar, Hamide
This study examined the relationships among students' learning approaches, motivational goals, previous science grades, and their science achievement for the concepts related to atomic theory and explored the effects of gender and sociodemographic variables on students' learning approaches, motivational goals, and their science achievement for the…
A class of new wind speed scales is proposed in which the relevant scaling factors are derived from physical quantities like mass flux density, energy density (pressure), or energy flux density. Hence, they are called Energy- or E-scales, and can be applied to wind speeds of any intensity. It is shown that the Mach scale is a special case of an E-scale. Aside from its foundation in physical quantities which allow for a calibration of the scales, the E-scale concept can help to overcome the present plethora of scales for winds in the range from gale to hurricane intensity. A procedure to convert existing data based on the Fujita-scale or other scales (Saffir-Simpson, TORRO, Beaufort) to their corresponding E-scales is outlined. Even for the large US tornado record, the workload of conversion in case of an adoption of the E-scale would in principle remain manageable (if the necessary metadata to do so were available), as primarily the F5 events would have to be re-rated. Compared to damage scales like the "Enhanced Fujita" or EF-scale concept recently implemented in the USA, the E-scales are based on first principles. They can consistently be applied all over the world for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. To account for international variations in building characteristics, one should not adapt wind speed scale thresholds to certain national building characteristics. Instead, one worldwide applicable wind speed scale based on physical principles should rather be complemented by nationally-adapted damage descriptions. The E-scale concept can provide the basis for such a standardised wind speed scale.
Kelemen, Victor Paul, Jr.
For both males and females, age and education are important factors in the determination of achievement behavior. While results fail to resolve the achievement versus affiliation argument, they nevertheless support the lessening importance of sex-role stereotyping today. (Author)
Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.
In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…
Chambers, David W
Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.
Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C
Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or the original 4-factor structure. Some motivators appear to form a unidimensional construct: "to gain attention", "to gain a tangible object", and "to escape". There was evidence that sensory stimulation represents a different construct. Children with intellectual disability were more apt to be motivated by desire to gain a tangible item or attention. Children with the dual diagnoses were more apt to have sensory stimulation or escape from task demand as a motivator for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.
Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor
This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p < .05). Achievement motivation had a positive impact on academic performance (β = .38; p < .05). Also, achievement motivation significantly moderated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance (β = .10; p < .01). These findings suggest that university management should design appropriate psycho-educational interventions that would enhance students' achievement motivation.
Capa, Rémi L; Audiffren, Michel; Ragot, Stéphanie
The purpose of the study was to present experimental arguments evaluating the Humphreys and Revelle's model of effort. Two important factors were tested: achievement motivation and difficulty. Heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, facial electromyographic reactivity, and reaction time were measured as an index of effort expenditure. A 2x2x2 factorial design was used with two levels of resultant achievement motivation, two levels of task difficulty, and two levels of goal difficulty. As expected, the 16 participants high in resultant achievement motivation showed a better performance and had a larger decrease of the midfrequency band than the 16 participants low in resultant achievement motivation, especially during the difficult task. Results lend some support for the impact of resultant achievement motivation, task difficulty, and goal difficulty on effort mobilization.
Awan, Riffat-Un-Nisa; Noureen, Ghazala; Naz, Anjum
This study examined the achievement and its relationship with achievement motivation and self concept. The subjects consisted of 336 students (146 males and 172 females) from four public and four private schools of the Sargodha district at the secondary level. Intact groups of all eight schools enrolled in 9th grade were involved in the study. An…
Wolters, Christopher A.
The objective of this study was to investigate how different components of achievement goal theory were related to each other and to students' motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement in mathematics. Junior high school students (N=525) completed a self-report survey that assessed their perceived classroom goal structures; personal goal…
Lee, Christine S.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Seitz, Jeffery; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn
Middle school has been documented as the period in which a drop in students' science interest and achievement occurs. This trend indicates a lack of motivation for learning science; however, little is known about how different aspects of motivation interact with student engagement and science learning outcomes. This study examines the relationships among motivational factors, engagement, and achievement in middle school science (grades 6-8). Data were obtained from middle school students in the United States (N = 2094). The theoretical relationships among motivational constructs, including self-efficacy, and three types of goal orientations (mastery, performance approach, and performance avoid) were tested. The results showed that motivation is best modeled as distinct intrinsic and extrinsic factors; lending evidence that external, performance based goal orientations factor separately from self-efficacy and an internal, mastery based goal orientation. Second, a model was tested to examine how engagement mediated the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and science achievement. Engagement mediated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and science achievement, whereas extrinsic motivation had no relationship with engagement and science achievement. Implications for how classroom practice and educational policy emphasize different student motivations, and in turn, can support or hinder students' science learning are discussed.
Nunn, Gary D.; And Others
Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…
Datu, Jesus Alfonso D
Recent literature has recognized the advantageous role of low-arousal positive affect such as feelings of peacefulness and internal harmony in collectivist cultures. However, limited research has explored the benefits of low-arousal affective states in the educational setting. The current study examined the link of peace of mind (PoM) to academic motivation (i.e., amotivation, controlled motivation, and autonomous motivation) and academic achievement among 525 Filipino high school students. Findings revealed that PoM was positively associated with academic achievement β = .16, p < .05, autonomous motivation β = .48, p < .001, and controlled motivation β = .25, p < .01. As expected, PoM was negatively related to amotivation β = -.19, p < .05, and autonomous motivation was positively associated with academic achievement β = .52, p < .01. Furthermore, the results of bias-corrected bootstrap analyses at 95% confidence interval based on 5,000 bootstrapped resamples demonstrated that peace of mind had an indirect influence on academic achievement through the mediating effects of autonomous motivation. In terms of the effect sizes, the findings showed that PoM explained about 1% to 18% of the variance in academic achievement and motivation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are elucidated.
Randler, Christoph; Hummel, Eberhard; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter
There are a wide range of student emotions in academic settings, but apart from emotions such as interest and well-being, disgust is a negative emotion which might be relevant in biology education, for instance, during dissection or when encountering living animals. This paper addresses the issue of situational disgust during a course at the university using living animals and prepared mounts. The course covers a wide range of organisms from protists (e.g. Paramecium) through invertebrates to vertebrates and uses many methods (e.g. microscopy, dissection, and behavioral observations) and specific content (anatomy, structure, and behavior). The dissection of the trout was rated as most disgusting, followed by working with living woodlice, living earthworms, and living snails. The least disgusting lessons were those dealing with microscopy, mammalian skulls, honeybee dance, and bird flight. Based on animals, macro-invertebrates were rated as most disgusting and mammals as least disgusting. Concerning methods, observing through a microscope was perceived as being least disgusting, followed by experiments without animals, then followed by experiments with living animals and, most disgusting, dissection. Disgust was correlated negatively with interest, well-being, and competence but positively with pressure and boredom. Thus, low disgust is related to high interest, well-being, and competence, while higher disgust is related to higher pressure and boredom. The results show a need for measuring situational disgust in addition to survey studies. They also suggest that perceived disgust negatively affects intrinsic motivation. This has implications for biology teaching, because carrying out dissections or experiencing living animals in the classroom may have a detrimental effect on motivation.
Capa, Rémi L; Audiffren, Michel; Ragot, Stéphanie
The interactive effect of achievement motivation and task difficulty on invested mental effort, postulated by Humphreys and Revelle [Humphreys, M.S., Revelle, W., 1984. Personality, motivation, and performance: a theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing. Psychol. Rev. 91, 153-184], was examined using behavioral, subjective, and effort-related physiological measures. Eighteen approach-driven participants and 18 avoidance-driven participants were selected based on their motive to achieve success scores and their motive to avoid failure scores. A 2x3 factorial design was used, with three levels of task difficulty. As expected, approach-driven participants performed better and had a stronger decrease of midfrequency band of heart rate variability than avoidance-driven participants, especially during the difficult task. These results support the interactive effect of achievement motivation and task difficulty on invested mental effort.
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Ho, Amy N.
This study modeled the interrelationships of reading instruction, motivation, engagement, and achievement in two contexts, employing data from 1,159 seventh graders. In the traditional reading/language arts (R/LA) context, all students participated in traditional R/LA instruction. In the intervention R/LA context, 854 students from the full sample received Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) while the remainder continued to receive traditional R/LA. CORI emphasizes support for reading motivation, reading engagement, and cognitive strategies for reading informational text. Seven motivation constructs were included: four motivations that are usually positively associated with achievement (intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, valuing, and prosocial goals) and three motivations that are usually negatively associated with achievement (perceived difficulty, devaluing, and antisocial goals). Reading engagement was also represented by positive and negative constructs, namely dedication to and avoidance of reading. Gender, ethnicity, and income were statistically controlled in all analyses. In the traditional R/LA context, a total network model prevailed, in which motivation was associated with achievement both directly and indirectly through engagement. In contrast, in the intervention R/LA context, a dual-effects model prevailed, in which engagement and achievement were separate outcomes of instruction and motivation. The intervention R/LA context analyses revealed that CORI was associated with positive changes in motivation, engagement, and achievement relative to traditional R/LA instruction. The discussion explains why there were different relations in the two instructional contexts and demonstrates the importance of simultaneously examining both positive (affirming) and negative (undermining) forms of motivation and engagement. PMID:26412903
Iflazoglu, Ayten; Hong, Eunsook
Whether students' motivation, organizational approaches, physical needs, and environmental and interpersonal preferences during the homework process predict homework achievement and attitudes toward homework was examined in 1,776 Turkish students in Grades 5 through 8. The Homework Motivation and Preference Questionnaire was utilized to assess…
Gonzalez, Ana-Lisa; Wolters, Christopher A.
In this study, perceived parenting styles and parental involvement were examined to determine if they predicted student motivation. The two views of motivation examined included achievement goal theory and self-determination theory. Algebra I students (N = 140) in a Southeast Texas public high school completed self-report surveys. Multivariate…
Acat, M. Bahaddin; Dereli, Esra
The purpose of this study was to identify problems and motivation sources and strategies of decision-making of the students' attending preschool education teacher department, was to determine the relationship between learning motivation and strategies of decision-making, academic achievement of students, was to determine whether strategies of…
McCoy, Dana Charles; Wolf, Sharon; Godfrey, Erin B.
This study examined the role that Ghanaian caregivers' values toward education play in shaping students' intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for learning, and the ways these values and motivational orientations predict school attendance and achievement. Study participants included 88 students (M?=?11.63 years; 48% female) from two primary…
Hustinx, Paul W. J.; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.; Dijkstra, Pieternel
During recent decades, the classical one-dimensional concept of achievement motivation has become less popular among motivation researchers. This study aims to revive the concept by demonstrating its predictive power using longitudinal data from two cohort samples, each with 20,000 Dutch secondary school students. Two measures of achievement…
Su, C-H.; Cheng, C-H.
This paper aims to investigate how a gamified learning approach influences science learning, achievement and motivation, through a context-aware mobile learning environment, and explains the effects on motivation and student learning. A series of gamified learning activities, based on MGLS (Mobile Gamification Learning System), was developed and…
Day, Crystal A.; Burns, Barbara M.
Research Findings: The current study examined achievement motivation orientation in preschool-age children from low- and middle-income families. Participants were 126 children who were attending an urban Head Start site or a private preschool. Children's motivation orientation was assessed as being performance oriented or mastery oriented using a…
Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang
This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…
Afshar, Hassan Soodmand; Rahimi, Ali; Rahimi, Masoud
Among the factors influencing learners' learning, instrumental motivation, critical thinking and autonomy are thought to be of crucial importance. The present study, thus, set out to investigate relationships between instrumental motivation, critical thinking, autonomy and academic achievement of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 100 Iranian…
Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini
In this cross-sectional study we investigated to what extent autonomous and controlled motivation and social achievement goals are associated with students' emotional experiences at school. We found in a sample of 426 elementary school students, aged from 10 to 12 years, autonomous motivation (i.e. students' engagement in class activities because…
Lee, Pei-Ling; Pang, Vincent
This paper reports on a study of five motivational orientations in continuing education among working adults. The influence of motivational orientations on their academic achievement was identified. The study involved 159 working adults who enrolled into part-time programs in an Open University in Sabah. Boshier's Education Participation Scale…
Clayton, Karen Elizabeth
In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually-based, sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. With this in mind, this mixed method study examined Jamaican, of the West Indies, undergraduate students' perception of motivation. This study was conducted in two phases. First, a qualitative investigation…
Using in-depth interview data, this study explored perceptions of opportunity, ethnic identity beliefs, and motivation orientations among Latino students at a selective university. One profile is characterized by individualistic achievement motivations, feelings of exemption from social barriers, and a sense of alienation from other Latinos.…
Froiland, John Mark; Oros, Emily
This study investigated the effects of intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, classroom engagement and extrinsic motivation on reading development among youth. Using a nationally representative sample of students in the US, the researchers followed students longitudinally from fifth to eighth grade. Reading achievement was measured using…
Freiberger, Verena; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit
To study the role of students' competence beliefs and their perceived teachers' ability evaluations for intrinsic motivation and achievement in math, 459 second graders from 27 German classrooms were examined. Students provided self-reports on their intrinsic motivation, competence beliefs and perceived teachers' ability evaluations in math.…
Schwinger, Malte; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit
It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test.…
This research investigates two major aspects of homeschooling. Factors determining parental motivations to homeschool and the determinants of the student achievement of home-educated children are identified. Original survey data from an organized group of homeschoolers is analyzed. Regression models are employed to predict parents' motivations and…
Greene, Monica R.; Pasnak, Robert; Romero, Sandy L.
Research Findings: The present study employed a time lag design to assess temporal relationships between motivation, academic achievement, and cognitive development. Eighty-one children from 2 preschool programs were measured twice, with an 11-week time lag, on 2 measures of motivation (marble drop task, bean bag toss task), 2 measures of…
Lee, Christine S.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Seitz, Jeffery; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn
Middle school has been documented as the period in which a drop in students' science interest and achievement occurs. This trend indicates a lack of motivation for learning science; however, little is known about how different aspects of motivation interact with student engagement and science learning outcomes. This study examines the…
subjected to contrived group pressures toward erroneous perceptual judgments. An analysis of variance of frequencies of conforming behavior revealed (a... conformity to group pressures disappear when predispositional motivational factors are controlled. (Author)...Extending from the differentiation of normative and informational processes of social influence an investigation of interactions between two
de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs
The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their dominant achievement goals were linked to…
Smith, Laura Jeanne
Achieving native-like proficiency in a foreign language is a long-term process; therefore, designing and implementing a plan for long-term language achievement may help more learners achieve their long-term language goals of fluency as well as related career goals. This study presents recommendations that may be incorporated into the college…
Jones, Brett D.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Long, Margaret H.; Wang, Feihong
Blackwell et al. (Child Development 78(1):246-263, 2007) tested a motivational model of achievement in which an incremental theory of intelligence leads to learning goals and positive effort beliefs, which leads to fewer ability-based, helpless attributions, and more positive strategies, which leads to improved grades. In the present study, we…
Bakadorova, Olga; Raufelder, Diana
It is now well known that adolescence is frequently marked by a decline in students' achievement motivation, which in turn is often associated with a decline in individual school self-concept. Less is known about the mediating role of socio-motivational support in the association between individual school self-concept and achievement motivation.…
González-Cutre Coll, David; Sicilia Camacho, Alvaro; Moreno Murcia, Juan A
Our objective in this study was to test the new social-cognitive model of achievement motivation in a physical education setting. Research was conducted on a sample of 895 physical education students, ages 12 to 16 years. We measured perception of the motivational climate conveyed by the teacher, implicit beliefs of ability, perceived competence, 2 x 2 achievement goals and self-determined motivation. We carried out structural equation modeling to analyse the relationships among variables. Results showed that task climate positively predicted incremental belief, whereas ego climate positively predicted entity belief. Both climates positively predicted perceived competence. Incremental belief positively predicted mastery-approach goals, performance-approach goals and avoidance goals, whereas entity belief positively predicted performance-approach goals and avoidance goals. Perceived competence positively predicted mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Mastery-approach goal positively predicted self-determined motivation, whereas performance-approach goal and avoidance goals negatively predicted self-determined motivation.
Previous research has shown that matching person variables with achievement contexts can produce the best motivational outcomes. The current study examines whether this is also true when matching entity and incremental beliefs with the appropriate motivational climate. Participants were led to believe that a personal attribute was fixed (entity belief) or malleable (incremental belief). After thinking that they failed a test that assessed the attribute, participants performed a second (related) task in a context that facilitated the pursuit of either performance or learning goals. Participants were expected to exhibit greater effort on the second task in the congruent conditions (entity belief plus performance goal climate and incremental belief plus learning goal climate) than in the incongruent conditions. These results were obtained, but only for participants who either valued competence on the attribute or had high achievement motivation. Results are discussed in terms of developing strategies for optimizing motivation in achievement settings.
Deemer, Eric D.; Mahoney, Kevin T.; Ball, Jacqueline Hebert
The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Research Motivation Scale (RMS) in a sample of faculty members (N = 337) in university science departments. It was hypothesized that the RMS would evidence partial measurement invariance across tenure status and noninvariance across gender, given the different sociocultural factors (e.g.,…
Ho-Tang, Wu; Chin-Tang, Tu; Mei-Ju, Chou; Jing-Fang, Hou; Meng-Shan, Lei
This study aims to develop Taiwan undergraduates' volunteer service motivation scale. To begin with, item pool was proposed on the basis of literature. After discussing with three Taiwan undergraduates, item pool, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (N = 150) was proceeded, where three tests were conducted EFA: 1. Item analysis: comparisons of…
Canivez, Gary L.; Prichard, Karen K.
Developed and cross-validated motivational distortion scales (fake bad and fake good) for the Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ). Findings from 12-year-old seventh- and eighth-grade students (n=58) suggest that children are sophisticated enough to respond to the CPQ in a socially desirable and socially undesirable way when asked to do so.…
Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige
There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences on early achievement is by facilitating the processes by which children select, evoke, and attend to learning experiences that are consistent with genetically influenced individual differences in their motivation to learn. We examined this hypothesis in a nationally representative sample of approximately 650 pairs of four-year old identical and fraternal twins who were administered a measure of math achievement, and rated by their parents on a broad set of items assessing learning motivation. Results indicated a genetic link between learning motivation and math achievement that varied positively with family socioeconomic status: Genetic differences in learning motivation contributed to math achievement more strongly in more advantaged homes. Once this effect of learning motivation was controlled for, gene-by-socioeconomic status interaction on math achievement was reduced from previously significant levels, to nonsignificant levels.
Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; De Jong, Ton
This study examined how grouping arrangements affect students' achievement, social interaction, and motivation. Students of high, average and low ability were randomly assigned to homogeneous or heterogeneous ability groups. All groups attended the same plant biology course. The main results indicate that low-ability students achieve more and are…
Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif; Ahmed, Abdelrahman Mohammed
The study investigates the effect of Activity based Blended Learning strategy and Conventional Blended Learning strategy on students' achievement and motivation. Two groups namely, experimental and control group from Sultan Qaboos University were selected randomly for the study. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and…
Rotenberg, Mordechai; And Others
The impact of child rearing practices on achievement motivation, hypnotic susceptibility, and brain wave patterns of children from Israeli subcultures are examined. Of the four subgroups studied, although they differed in school performance, their need achievement scores were similiar. (Author/DEP)
AlZboon, Saleem Odeh
The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…
Dickie, Jane R.; Mast, Vicki A.
The development and interrelationship of various measures of independence in children ages 3-12 are examined. Subjects were scored on measures of locus of control and achievement motivation and were rated by teachers on independence and achievement. Subjects were also scored on reliance on adult evaluation and self-evaluation. The results showed…
Veroff, Joseph; And Others
The major goal of this research study was the identification and validation of measures of components of personal achievement orientations that can be used in the job training program context. The guiding conceptions for the research were based on Atkinson's theory of achievement motivation, Gurin's investigations of expectancies, and measurement…
Sutton, Jeannette Schur; And Others
A 3-year guidance program to increase achievement level and motivation admitted 73 low achieving 10th graders. Experimental subjects were assigned to seminar or non-seminar groups; controls remained in the usual slow track. Both experimental groups were divided into smaller groups for flexibly programed classes in English, social studies, and…
Carlson, Sibylle J.; Latta, R. Michael
One attributional model of achievement proposes that individuals attribute their own and others' performance outcomes to one or more of four causes, i.e., ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, and that such attributions have motivational significance for subsequent achievement-related behavior. The effects of gender, level of resultant…
Flynn, Tim M.; And Others
The purpose of this study was to determine whether motor inhibition, self-control, relationship with achievement model, dependency, self-concept, delay of gratification, and risk-taking constitute an achievement motivation construct for migrant preschool children. The subjects used to determine the relationship between the 7 traits and achievement…
Jang, Leong Yeok; Liu, Woon Chia
This study sought to better understand the adoption of multiple achievement goals at an intra-individual level, and its links to emotional well-being, learning, and academic achievement. Participants were 480 Secondary Two students (aged between 13 and 14 years) from two coeducational government schools. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed the…
Soemantri, Diantha; Jusuf, Anwar
Objectives This study applied self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the relationship between students’ autonomous motivation and tutors’ autonomy support in medical students’ academic achievement. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Out of 204 students in a fundamental medical science course, 199 participated in the study. Data was collected using two questionnaires: the Learning Self-Regulation and Learning Climate Questionnaires. The score of the course assessment was the measure of academic achievement. Data was analyzed and reported with descriptive and inferential statistics (mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis). Results Mean score (±standard deviation) of the autonomous motivation, tutors’ autonomy support, and academic achievement were 5.48±0.89, 5.22±0.92, and 5.22±0.92. Multiple regression results reported students’ autonomous motivation was associated with improvement of students’ academic achievement (β=15.2, p=0.004). However, augmentation of tutors’ autonomy support was not reflected in the improvement of students’ academic achievement (β = -12.6, p = 0.019). Both students’ autonomous motivation and tutors’ autonomy support had a contribution of about 4.2% students’ academic achievement (F = 4.343, p = 0.014, R2 = 0.042). Conclusions Due to the unique characteristic of our medical students’ educational background, our study shows that tutors’ autonomy support is inconsistent with students’ academic achievement. However, both autonomous motivation and support are essential to students’ academic achievement. Further study is needed to explore students’ educational background and self-regulated learning competence to improve students’ academic achievement. PMID:28035054
Ayundawati, Dyah; Setyosari, Punaji; Susilo, Herawati; Sihkabuden
This study aims for know influence of problem-based learning strategies and achievement motivation on learning achievement. The method used in this research is quantitative method. The instrument used in this study is two fold instruments to measure moderator variable (achievement motivation) and instruments to measure the dependent variable (the…
Gucciardi, Daniel F
The aims of this study were to identify the mental toughness profiles of adolescent Australian footballers and to explore the relations between the mental toughness clusters and achievement goals and sport motivation. A total of 214 non-elite, male Australian footballers aged 16-18 years (mean = 16.8, s = 0.7) provided self-reports of mental toughness, achievement goals, and sport motivation. Cluster analysis supported the presence of two-groups in which players evidenced moderate and high levels of all four mental toughness subscales. Significant multivariate effects were observed for achievement goals and sport motivation with the high mental toughness group favouring both mastery- and performance-approach goals and self-determined as well as extrinsic motivational tendencies. The results suggest that adolescent Australian footballers' self-perceptions of mental toughness fall within two clusters involving high and moderate forms of all four components, and that these profiles show varying relations with achievement goals (particularly mastery-approach) and sport motivation.
Cooper, Shanna; Lavaysse, Lindsey M; Gard, David E
Motivation deficits are common in several disorders including schizophrenia, and are an important factor in both functioning and treatment adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a leading macro-theory of motivation, has contributed a number of insights into how motivation is impaired in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, self-report measures of motivation appropriate for people with severe mental illness (including those that emphasize SDT) are generally lacking in the literature. To fill this gap, we adapted and abbreviated the well-validated General Causality Orientation Scale for use with people with schizophrenia and with other severe mental disorders (GCOS-clinical populations; GCOS-CP). In Study 1, we tested the similarity of our measure to the existing GCOS (using a college sample) and then validated this new measure in a schizophrenia and healthy control sample (Study 2). Results from Study 1 (N=360) indicated that the GCOS-CP was psychometrically similar to the original GCOS and provided good convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, the GCOS-CP was given to individuals with (N=44) and without schizophrenia (N=42). In line with both laboratory-based and observer-based research, people with schizophrenia showed lower motivational autonomy and higher impersonal/amotivated orientations. Additional applications of the GCOS-CP are discussed.
Cooper, Shanna; Lavaysse, Lindsey M.; Gard, David E.
Motivation deficits are common in several disorders including schizophrenia, and are an important factor in both functioning and treatment adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a leading macro-theory of motivation, has contributed a number of insights into how motivation is impaired in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, self-report measures of motivation appropriate for people with severe mental illness (including those that emphasize SDT) are generally lacking in literature. To fill this gap, we adapted and abbreviated the well-validated General Causality Orientation Scale for use with people with schizophrenia and with other severe mental disorders (GCOS-clinical populations; GCOS-CP). In Study 1, we tested the similarity of our measure to the existing GCOS (using a college sample) and then validated this new measure in a schizophrenia and healthy control sample (Study 2). Results from Study 1 (N=360) indicated that the GCOS-CP was psychometrically similar to the original GCOS and provided good convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, the GCOS-CP was given to individuals with (N=44) and without schizophrenia (N=42). In line with both laboratory-based and observer-based research, people with schizophrenia showed lower motivational autonomy and higher impersonal/amotivated orientations. Additional applications of the GCOS-CP are discussed. PMID:25454115
Busch, Holger; Hofer, Jan; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Campos, Domingo
Human behavior is directed by an implicit and an explicit motivational system. The intrinsic form of the implicit achievement motive has been demonstrated to predict the experience of flow. Thus, this achievement flow motive can be considered an integral component of the autotelic personality, posited in Flow Theory as dispositional difference in…
Abazaoglu, Ilkay; Aztekin, Serdar
Teacher motivation is one of the factors that affect the realization of the teaching objectives, motivation and academic achievement of student. This study aimed to answer to the question "How is the relation between the students' academic (sciences and mathematics) achievement and teachers' morale/motivation in Singapore, Japan, Finland and…
Achievement motivation is a consistent striving force of an individual to achieve success to a certain standard of excellence in competing situation. In this study an attempt was made to study the effect of achievement motivation on the academic achievement of the high school students of tribal and non tribal communities in relation to their sex…
Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others
The study investigated (a) relationships between measures on study habits and attitudes, locus of control, achieving tendency, and semester grade-point averages (SGPA), (b) differences between the sexes on the above mentioned variables, and (c) best predictor of SGPA. The subjects were 39 males and 81 females. There were a number of significant…
Gonida, Eleftheria N.; Cortina, Kai S.
Background: Parental involvement in homework is a home-based type of involvement in children's education. Research and theory suggest that it is beneficial for learning and achievement under certain conditions and for particular groups of individuals. Aims: The study examined whether different types of parents' involvement in homework…
Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.
The objective of the present study was to examine how motivation is related to academic achievement. The "Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ) was administered to 1,166 students at a polytechnic in Singapore as a measure for motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning strategies. In addition, students' prior…
Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Arslan, Yunus; Demirhan, Giyasettin
The Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale was developed by Agbuga and Xiang (2008) by including selected items from the scales of Duda and Nicholls (1992), Elliot (1999), and Elliot and Church (1997) and adapting them into Turkish. The scale consists of 18 items, and students rated each item on a 7-point Likert scale. To ascertain the validity and…
Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to assess work role motivation in school principals: the Work Role Motivation Scale for School Principals (WRMS-SP). The WRMS-SP is designed to measure intrinsic motivation, three types of extrinsic motivation (identified, introjected, and external), and amotivation with respect to…
Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Zvolensky, Michael J
Sexual motives refer to functions served by sexual behavior. The Sex Motivations Scale (SMS) has frequently been used to assess sexual motives. At its development, the SMS demonstrated good internal consistency; convergent, divergent, and criterion validity; and configural invariance across sex, age, and Caucasians and African Americans. Yet the metric and scalar invariance of the SMS has not been examined, nor has the measurement invariance of the SMS across Hispanic and Asian Americans, sexual minority status, and relationship status been tested. The criterion validity of the SMS also has yet to be examined for nonintercourse sexual behaviors, such as sexting. The present study aimed to address these gaps in a diverse sample of 2,201 college students (77.60% female; Mage = 22.06; 27.84% Caucasian). Results further affirmed the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the SMS. The convergent and divergent validity of the SMS was supported in relation to positive and negative affect and attachment patterns; and specific SMS subscales demonstrated associations with sexual intercourse behaviors and sexting, supporting the criterion validity of the SMS. These findings suggest the relevance of the SMS in assessing sexual motives across diverse populations and behaviors.
Estapa, Anne; Nadolny, Larysa
The purpose of the study was to assess student achievement and motivation during a high school augmented reality mathematics activity focused on dimensional analysis. Included in this article is a review of the literature on the use of augmented reality in mathematics and the combination of print with augmented reality, also known as interactive…
Barna, Jennifer S.; Brott, Pamelia E.
The researchers explored the relationship between elementary school counselors' motivational orientation, perceptions of importance and levels of implementation of Academic and Personal/Social Standards as a strategy for supporting academic achievement. Responses from 212 elementary school counselors confirm both types of Standards as being highly…
Bubulj, Milan; Arsenijevi, Olja; Simic, Jelena
The authors of this paper are engaged in studying the organizational culture and achievement motive, by carrying out their studies among the students of the Faculty of Management in Novi Sad, AP Vojvodina, Serbia. The problem of this paper's research was set by the question: is there a connection of a dominantly present organizational culture and…
Muola, J. M.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils. The study was carried out on 235 standard eight Kenyan pupils from six urban and rural primary schools randomly selected from Machakos district. Their age ranged between 13 and 17 years. Two…
Nicholls, John G.
The author replies to criticism of his interpretation of achievement motivation. A distinction between goals of demonstrating and developing ability cannot be made in task involvement. Attempts to extend the author's theory by adding this distinction suffer from a failure to predict when these different goals will predominate. (Author/LMO)
The aim of this study was to examine the role of motivational beliefs in mediating the relationship among perceived teacher support, learning strategy use, and student achievement. The author analyzed the Programme for International Student Assessment mathematics scores and questionnaire responses of 4,855 15-year-old students in Turkey via…
Trevino, Naomi Noel; DeFreitas, Stacie Craft
Hispanic students are pursuing higher education more than in previous years and they often represent their family as the first member to attend college (Strage in "Coll Stud J" 33:198-205, 1999). Past educational research has studied the influence of intrinsic motivation on academic achievement in various ethnically diverse elementary,…
Acar Güvendir, Meltem
This study focused on the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation levels of eighth grade students and its relationship with their mathematical achievement. The participants of the study included 6,829 students who took TIMSS in 2011 and 239 mathematics teachers. The data obtained from the student and teacher questionnaires that are included in the…
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
The contributions of academic achievement motivation and social status to peer-reported academic influence were explored in a sample of 322 children in grades three through five. Latent moderated structural equation modeling indicated that children who value academics are more likely to be rated by peers as academically influential. Social status…
Cheung, Cecilia Sin-Sze; Pomerantz, Eva M.
This research examined the idea that children's parent-oriented motivation underlies the benefits of parents' involvement on children's engagement and ultimately achievement in school. Beginning in the fall of 7th grade, 825 American and Chinese children (mean age = 12.73 years) reported on their parents' involvement in their learning as well as…
Stornes, Tor; Ommundsen, Yngvar
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and sportspersonship in a sample of young male Norwegian handball players. A cross-sectional study of 440 male handball players aged from 14 to 16 was conducted, in which the players responded to a questionnaire measuring…
Althoff, Sarah E.; Linde, Kristen J.; Mason, John D.; Nagel, Ninja M.; O'Reilly, Katie A.
This research project was conducted at a high school in a suburban metropolitan area in the Midwest from August 21, 2006 through October 26, 2006. The purpose of the research was to improve student achievement and motivation through the posting and communicating of daily learning objectives. The research participants included 150 students and five…
FARQUHAR, WILLIAM M.; CHRISTENSEN, EDWARD W.
THIS STUDY INVOLVED--(1) EXPLORING ACADEMIC MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN PUERTO RICAN 11TH-GRADE STUDENTS, (2) CREATING A MEASURE FOR THESE FACTORS WHICH MIGHT BE USABLE IN OTHER LATIN AMERICAN AREAS, AND (3) INVESTIGATING THE CHILD-REARING AND OTHER PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. THE METHOD INVOLVED THREE STAGES--(1)…
Portal, Jamie; Sampson, Lisa
This report describes a program for motivating students in mathematics in order to improve achievement at the high school level. The targeted population consisted of high school students in a middle class community located in a suburb of a large metropolitan area. The problems of underachievement were documented through data collected from surveys…
Guns, Ann; Richardson, Paul W.; Watt, Helen M. G.
Many international students aim beyond their country boundaries by moving away from home and studying abroad. This longitudinal design addressed a gap in current research, by linking together antecedent life goals and motivations on entry to students' studies, to predict exit achievement scores, to provide information concerning optimising…
Castro-Villarreal, Felicia; Guerra, Norma; Sass, Daniel; Hseih, Pei-Hsuan
Theoretical models were tested using structural equation modeling to evaluate the interrelations among cognitive motivational variables and academic achievement using a sample of 128 predominately Hispanic pre-service teachers enrolled in two undergraduate educational psychology classes. Data were gathered using: (1) a quantitative questionnaire…
Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.
This ethnographic study documents and interprets key school, work, and family life issues in the lives and experiences of a sampling of recent immigrants from the war-torn Central American nations; and suggests a psychocultural theory of achievement motivation. Information was gathered from observation in two urban high schools, interviews with 50…
Ali, Jinnat; McInerney, Dennis M.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; King, Ronnel B.
The authors examined the relations between two socially oriented dimensions of student motivation and academic achievement of Native (Navajo) American and Anglo American students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a multidimensional and hierarchical model was found to explain the relations between performance and social goals. Four first-order…
Zhang, Tao; Solmon, Melinda A.; Gu, Xiangli
Examining how teachers' beliefs and behaviors predict students' motivation and achievement outcomes in physical education is an area of increasing research interest. Guided by the expectancy-value model and self-determination theory, the major purpose of this study was to examine the predictive strength of teachers' autonomy, competence, and…
McEwan, Lynn; Goldenberg, Dolly
A study of 41 graduate nursing students found they had high achievement motivation and academic ability. Trait anxiety was the only valid predictor of academic success. Academic ability and inherent anxiety had greater potential for predicting students who would succeed. (Author/SK)
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…
Hariadi, Bambang; Wurijanto, Tutut
The research aimed at examining the effect of instructional strategy (web-based STAD and text-based STAD) and achiever motivation toward student learning outcomes. The research implied quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent control group factorial version. The subjects were undergraduate students of Information Systems of academic year…
This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…
Jacobson, Sheryl F.
Data from a previous study concerning the relation between sex-role identity and sex-role attitudes and achievement motivation in females were reanalyzed using two new factor-based scores, Dominant/Assertive and Independent, and one new factor-based score, Caring, derived from the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) masculinity and femininity scores,…
Kesici, Sahin; Erdogan, Ahmet
The purpose of this study is to clarify whether middle school students' mathematics anxiety differentiates or not, according to their low and high achievement motivation and their level of self-esteem stemming from social comparison. This study also aims to clarify the effects of these two variables on mathematics anxiety. The study groups were…
Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle
This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was…
Uwameiye, B. E.; Osho, L. E.
This study investigated attitude and motivation as predictors of academic achievement of students in clothing and textiles. Three colleges of education in Edo and Delta States were randomly selected for use in this study. From each school, 40 students were selected from Year III using simple random technique yielding a total of 240 students. The…
Koukounas, Susan M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether high student accountability and formative assessment affected student motivation, learning and resource management strategies, and achievement in developmental algebra I. The setting was a fifteen-week semester at a community college in suburban New York. Two sections of developmental algebra I…
This study uses self-determination theory to explore the mechanisms of filial piety in the academic motivation of eight high-achieving secondary school seniors at an international school in South Korea, resulting in several findings. First, the students attributed their parents' values and expectations as a major source of the students'…
The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback condition…
Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.; Walser, Nancy, Ed.
Only when students feel engaged both socially and academically can schools and teachers lay the groundwork to motivate achievement. This volume, the fifth in the "Harvard Education Letter" Spotlight series, brings together fifteen seminal articles that examine research and practice on these complex and interrelated issues. Contributors include:…
Klauda, Susan Lutz; Guthrie, John T.
This longitudinal study examined the development of reading motivation, engagement, and achievement in early adolescence by comparing interrelations of these variables in struggling and advanced readers. Participants were 183 pairs of seventh grade students matched in gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school attended. They completed…
Mucherah, Winnie; Herendeen, Abbey
This study examined primary school students' reading motivation and performance on the standardized exam. Participants included 901 seventh and eighth grade students from Kenya. There were 468 females and 433 males. Contrary to previous studies, results showed reading challenge and aesthetics, but not efficacy, predicted reading achievement,…
With the increasing importance and rapid growth of online courses, diversification of the student population, and the growing concern over retention rates, exploration of learner online participation and possible relationships with motivation and achievement behaviour is becoming increasingly relevant in higher education. Previous studies (Gerber,…
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Ho, Amy N.
This study modeled the interrelationships of reading instruction, motivation, engagement, and achievement in two contexts, employing data from 1,159 seventh graders. In the traditional reading/language arts (R/LA) context, all students participated in traditional R/LA instruction. In the intervention R/LA context, 854 students from the full sample…
Martin, Larry G.
A study was conducted to identify psychosocial needs of Adult Basic Education (ABE)/Adult Secondary Education (ASE) students by using the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ). A second purpose was to test effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training (AMT) as a technique to counterbalance the negative impact of these students' former…
Schmidt, Charles P.; Zdzinski, Stephen F.; Ballard, Dennis L.
This study is an examination of motivation orientations (mastery, intrinsic, cooperative, individual, competition, ego, approach success, avoid failure, hypercompetition, personal development competition) and musical self-concept in relation to measures of academic achievement and career goals of preservice music teachers. The research questions…
Bland, Ronald B.
This study analyzed instructional achievement and intrinsic motivation among 21st century secondary students utilizing a video lecture incorporating both student reaction cutaway images and immediate content interaction within the lecture. Respondents (n = 155) were from multiple classes and grade levels at a suburban Texas high school. Four…
Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim
Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.
Lau, Shun; Roeser, Robert W.
Building on R. Snow's two pathways to achievement outcomes (1989), examined how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways respectively contributed to prediction of outcomes in science for 491 high school students. Results are consistent with Snow's conjecture that factors related to both pathways…
Hufano, Linda D.
The study examined emotional-motivational personality characteristics of 15 learning disabled, 15 normal achieving, and 15 high achieving students (grades 3-5). The study tested the hypothesis derived from the A-R-D (attitude-reinforcer-discriminative) theory of motivation that learning disabled (LD) children differ from normal and high achieving…
Ommundsen, Yngvar; Roberts, Glyn C; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Miller, Blake W
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived motivational climate, achievement goals, perfectionism and indices of peer relationships in a sample of young male and female Norwegian soccer players. The sample consisted of 1719 experienced soccer players (1231 males, 488 females) aged 12-19 years (mean = 14.9 years) participating in the Norway Cup international youth soccer competition. The players responded to a questionnaire measuring perceived peer acceptance and quality of friendship in soccer, perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism in soccer. Canonical correlation analyses revealed that young female players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly mastery oriented, and who were moderately task oriented and scored negatively on maladaptive perfectionism, reported better relations with their peers in soccer. Constructive peer relations were evident in that they scored positively on companionship with their best friend in soccer; they perceived this friend as being loyal and allowing of free discussion, and they reported being socially accepted by their peers in soccer. Mirroring these findings, young male players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly performance oriented, who had a moderately negative score on task orientation but a quite strong positive score on maladaptive perfectionism, reported negative relationships with peers in terms of these aspects. They also reported being in conflict with their best soccer friend. The findings suggest that the qualities of motivation have a systematic relationship with peer acceptance and the quality of friendship in male and female youth soccer.
Rouse, Kelly Elizabeth
Community colleges have become increasingly more important in America's higher education system. Part of this emphasis has been directly due to President Obama's 2010 directive to produce a competitive workforce in the United States by increasing the community college graduation rate by five million over the next decade (Madhani, 2010). Community colleges allow open admission for students which permits marginally prepared students to enter. These students may lack motivation, which contributes to student attrition (Williams, 2010). The focus of this study is to examine methods that may improve student learning and motivation, which could ultimately lead to higher graduation rates. This study investigates the relationship of gamification to motivation and achievement in a community college microbiology class. Gamification is defined as "the process of adding game mechanics to processes, programs, and platforms that would not traditionally use such concepts" (Swan, 2012). The goal of game-based learning is to increase student motivation and learning. The results of this investigation indicate that educational games increase motivation and achievement of students in a community college microbiology class.
Komarraju, Meera; Karau, Steven J.; Schmeck, Ronald R.
College students (308 undergraduates) completed the Five Factor Inventory and the Academic Motivations Scale, and reported their college grade point average (GPA). A correlation analysis revealed an interesting pattern of significant relationships. Further, regression analyses indicated that conscientiousness and openness explained 17% of the…
KAVOUSIPOUR, SOMAYEH; NOORAFSHAN, ALI; POURAHMAD, SAEEDEH; DEHGHANI-NAZHVANI, ALI
Introduction: Many studies have investigated the relationship between motivation and educational outcomes. The present study was conducted to determine whether the students’ motivation in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) decreases during educational years. Methods: 770 students in SUMS were selected by multi-stage stratified random sampling from each field and entrance year. The first questionnaire contained 57 questions on the effect of economic, social, educational, geographical and personality factors on the students’ motivation. The second one was based on 50 incomplete sentences. The validity and reliability of these questionnaires were approved by the experts and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (85% and 90%, respectively). In this cross-sectional study, ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square tests were applied for data analysis at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Six factors with the most effect on academic motivation were "family attitudes", "getting good jobs in future", "respect for themselves", " the ability to learn", "believing their role in victory and defeat" and "the tendency toward optimism about themselves". In addition, comparing professional doctorate and basic sciences’ results revealed no significant relationship between academic motivation and educational years (F=0.819, p=0.397). But comparing field by field showed that Dentistry and Hospital Management and Medical Information (HMMI) had a significant decrease in motivation score by increase in educational years (F=3.991, p=0.015). Conclusion: Achievement motivation level in SUMS students was higher than average and did not decrease during educational years. Also, the results showed that personal, social and educational related factors affected motivation level more than economic and environmental factors. PMID:25587552
Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine
The Academic Motivation Scale ( ams) is a comprehensive and widely used instrument for assessing motivation based on the self-determination theory. Currently, no such comprehensive instrument exists to assess the different domains of motivation (stipulated by the self-determination theory) in mathematics education at the pre-tertiary level (grades 11 and 12) in Asia. This study adapted the ams for this use and assessed the properties of the adapted instrument with 1610 students from Singapore. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a five-factor structure for the modified instrument (the three original ams intrinsic subscales collapsed into a single factor). Additionally, the modified instrument exhibited good internal consistency (mean α = .88), and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 1-month interval (mean r xx = .73). The validity of the modified ams was further demonstrated through correlational analyses among scores on its subscales, and with scores on other instruments measuring mathematics attitudes, anxiety and achievement.
Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C; Valle, Antonio; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rodríguez, Susana; Rosário, Pedro
This work examined whether combinations of academic and non-academic goals generated different motivational profiles in high school students. Besides, differences in homework behavioural engagement (i.e. amount of homework, time spent in homework, homework time management), homework emotional engagement (i.e. homework anxiety) and academic achievement were analysed. Participants were 714 high school students (43.4% boys and 56.6% girls). The study of potential motivational profiles was conducted by latent profile analysis, and the differences between the motivational profiles regarding homework variables and academic achievement were analysed using multivariate analysis. The results indicate the existence of five groups of motivational profiles: a group of students with multiple goals, a group of unmotivated students, two groups of students with a predominance of learning goals and, finally, a group comprising students with a high fear of failure. Both the group with multiple goals and the learning goals-oriented groups reported to do more homework, spending more time on homework, making better use of that time and having a higher academic achievement than counterparts. The avoidance-failure group and the group with multiple goals showed higher levels of homework anxiety. Globally, these results provide support for a person-centred approach.
Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård
This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE.
Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Sungur Vural, Semra
Background. There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose. This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables (personal relevance, uncertainty, shared control, critical voice, student negotiation), motivational beliefs (self-efficacy, intrinsic interest, goal orientation), self-regulation, and science achievement. Sample. The sample for this study comprised 802 Grade 8 students from 14 public middle schools in a district of Ankara in Turkey. Design and methods. Students were administered 4 instruments: Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, Goal Achievement Questionnaire, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and Science Achievement Test. LISREL 8.7 program with SIMPLIS programming language was used to test the conceptual model. Providing appropriate fit indices for the proposed model, the standardized path coefficients for direct effects were examined. Results. At least one dimension of the constructivist learning environment was associated with students' intrinsic interest, goal orientation, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and science achievement. Self-efficacy emerged as the strongest predictor of both mastery and performance avoidance goals rather than the approach goals. Intrinsic value was found to be significantly linked to science achievement through its effect on self-regulation. The relationships between self-efficacy and self-regulation and between goal orientation and science achievement were not significant. Conclusion. In a classroom environment supporting student autonomy and control, students tend to develop higher interest in tasks, use more self-regulatory strategies, and demonstrate higher academic performance. Science teachers are highly recommended to consider these findings when designing
Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J
In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.
Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf
This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…
The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found
Poondej, Chanut; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita
In the literature on motivational goals, there has been an increase on the interest of a concept of the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. However, evidences supporting the reliability and validity of this framework are still needed. The study reported in this paper was to validate the Thai version of the 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation scale by…
Engeser, Stefan; Langens, Thomas
Previous research has shown that explicit motives are meaningfully related to the five-factor model of personality. The present study extends this research by using different measures of the explicit social motives of achievement, power and affiliation, and by employing measures of both approach and avoidance of these motives. Correlational and factor analyses demonstrated that explicit motives of achievement, power, and affiliation, both approach and avoidance components of these motives, can be consistently mapped onto personality trait measures of the five-factor model. Implications of this general finding, along with some exceptions, are discussed with regard to further research.
van Evera, William C.
Formative assessment feedback is increasingly viewed as essential to learning. Yet, existing studies on feedback have focused heavily on knowledge of results (KR) feedback rather than information-rich formative assessment feedback that is more commonly used to encourage and guide learning. This study was designed to investigate the effects of information-rich formative assessment feedback on performance and motivation of middle school science students. Using a within subjects crossover design, treatment students received written formative assessment feedback on all homework and class-work assignments. Control students received completion scores for their work but no feedback. Dependent measures included two multiple-choice unit tests and a multipart motivation survey which assessed self-efficacy, goal orientation, affective responses, and preferences regarding feedback. Results indicated effects sizes of .7 for low achievers and .4 for middle level achievers on the performance measure as a result of the feedback intervention. These students also experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy. High achievers experienced reduced performance following the feedback intervention with an effect size of -.7. Survey analysis revealed no improvement in motivation-related variables for high achievers.
Allen, Justine; Taylor, John; Dimeo, Paul; Dixon, Sarah; Robinson, Leigh
Understanding athletes' attitudes to doping continues to be of interest for its potential to contribute to an international anti-doping system. However, little is known about the relationship between elite athletes' attitudes to drug use and potential explanatory factors, including achievement goals and the motivational climate. In addition, despite specific World Anti-Doping Agency Code relating to team sport athletes, little is known about whether sport type (team or individual) is a risk or protective factor in relation to doping. Elite athletes from Scotland (N = 177) completed a survey examining attitudes to performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Athletes were generally against doping for performance enhancement. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that task and ego goals and mastery motivational climate were predictors of attitudes to PED use (F (4, 171) = 15.81, P < .01). Compared with individual athletes, team athletes were significantly lower in attitude to PED use and ego orientation scores and significantly higher in perceptions of a mastery motivational climate (Wilks' lambda = .76, F = 10.89 (5, 170), P < .01). The study provides insight into how individual and situational factors may act as protective and risk factors in doping in sport.
Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Vom Hofe, Rudolf
This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; Mage = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies.
Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D; Marsh, Herbert W; Morin, Alexandre J S
Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes during the transition into early adulthood. Participants were from a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 15-year-old Australian youths (N = 10,370). The results suggest that (a) both math self-concept and intrinsic value interact in predicting advanced math course selection, matriculation results, entrance into university, and STEM fields of study; (b) prior reading achievement has negative effects on advanced math course selection and STEM fields through math motivational beliefs; and (c) gender differences in educational outcomes are mediated by gender differences in motivational beliefs and prior academic achievement, while the processes underlying choice of educational pathway were similar for males and females.
Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E; Bruene, April; Liu, Yuanlong
This study examined achievement goal orientation patterns and their impact on student motivation in physical education running programs. Participants included 533 fifth graders. They completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goal orientations, expectancy beliefs, task values, and intentions for future participation in running. They also completed a timed, 1-mile run. Data revealed 4 goal orientation patterns: low task/low ego, low task/high ego, high task/low ego, and high task/high ego. Students in the high-task/low-ego and high-task/high-ego groups demonstrated higher levels of motivation in running than those in the low-task/low-ego and low-task/high-ego groups.
Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle
This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was also examined for each gender. Participants included 475 (336 women, 139 men) undergraduates from a southeastern university. For both genders, procrastination and achievement motivation were significantly correlated at the univarate level with the suicide proneness indices. However, for college women, but not men, procrastination significantly accounted for unique amounts of variance in both suicide indices above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem. Implications for suicide intervention efforts directed toward college women and men are offered.
McManus, IC; Livingston, G; Katona, Cornelius
Background The motivational and other factors used by medical students in making their career choices for specific medical specialities have been looked at in a number of studies in the literature. There are however few studies that assess the generic factors which make medicine itself of interest to medical students and to potential medical students. This study describes a novel questionnaire that assesses the interests and attractions of different aspects of medical practice in a varied range of medical scenarios, and relates them to demographic, academic, personality and learning style measures in a large group of individuals considering applying to medical school. Methods A questionnaire study was conducted among those attending Medlink, a two-day conference for individuals considering applying to medical school for a career in medicine. The main outcome measure was the Medical Situations Questionnaire, in which individuals ranked the attraction of three different aspects of medical practise in each of nine detailed, realistic medical scenarios in a wide range of medical specialities. As well as requiring clear choices, the questionnaire was also designed so that all of the possible answers were attractive and positive, thereby helping to eliminate social demand characteristics. Factor analysis of the responses found four generic motivational dimensions, which we labelled Indispensability, Helping People, Respect and Science. Background factors assessed included sex, ethnicity, class, medical parents, GCSE academic achievement, the 'Big Five' personality factors, empathy, learning styles, and a social desirability scale. Results 2867 individuals, broadly representative of applicants to medical schools, completed the questionnaire. The four generic motivational factors correlated with a range of background factors. These correlations were explored by multiple regression, and by path analysis, using LISREL to assess direct and indirect effects upon the factors
Antwisle, Doris R.; Greenberger, Ellen
In a survey of ninth graders in and around Baltimore, Maryland, in the spring of 1968, several cognitive style variables were measured. The sample of students was divided by sex, IQ level, and residential locus. This report discusses achievement motivation and productivity (the number of words written in achievement motivation stories). The…
Su, Xiaoxia; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping
The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students' 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students' scores were fully…
Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander
Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…
Torchia, Sean P.
The focus of this study was to explore the relationship between the use of cooperative learning strategies and student achievement, and student perceptions of self-efficacy and motivation in mathematics. Teacher perceptions of the impact that cooperative learning strategies have on student achievement, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy were…
Hisama, Toshiaki; Hotchkiss, James
The study investigated achievement motivation of children with learning and behavior problems and examined effects of various types of verbal instruction on performance tasks and the resulting relationships of these verbal instructions to achievement motivation. The subjects were 48 third and fourth grade children diagnosed as having learning…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…
Chen, Jason A.; Pajares, Frank
We investigated: (a) the associations of implicit theories and epistemological beliefs and their effects on the academic motivation and achievement of students in Grade 6 science and (b) the mean differences of implicit theories, epistemological beliefs, and academic motivation and achievement as a function of gender and race/ethnicity (N=508).…
In our match towards scientific and technological advancement, we need nothing short of good performance in mathematics at all levels of schooling. In an effort to achieve this, this study investigated the impact of motivation on students' school academic achievement in mathematics in secondary schools using motivation for academic preference…
Metallidou, Panagiota; Vlachou, Anastasia
The contextual differences in the patterns of relations among various motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive components of self-regulated learning and performance in two key curriculum subject areas, language and mathematics, were examined in a sample of 263 Greek primary school children of fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms. Age and gender differences were also investigated. Students were asked to complete the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 ), which comprised five factors: (a) Self-efficacy, (b) Intrinsic Value, (c) Test Anxiety, (d) Cognitive Strategy Use, and (e) Self-regulation Strategies. They responded to the statements of the questionnaire on a 7-point Likert scale in terms of their behaviour in mathematics and language classes, respectively. Moreover, their teachers were asked to evaluate each of their students' academic achievement in Greek language and mathematics on a 1- to 20-point comparative scale in relation to the rest of the class. The results of the study indicated very few differences in the pattern of relations among self-regulated components within and across the two subject areas and at the same time revealed a context-specific character of self-regulated components at a mean level differences. Further, the current study (a) confirmed the mediatory role of strategies in the motivation-performance relation, (b) stressed the differential role of cognitive and regulatory strategies in predicting performance in subject areas that differ in their structural characteristics of the content, and (c) pointed out the key motivational role of self-efficacy. In fact, self-efficacy proved the most significant predictor not only of performance but of cognitive and regulatory strategy use as well. Gender differences in motivation and strategy use were not reported, while motivation was found to vary mainly with age. The usefulness of these findings for promoting greater clarity among motivational and
Tomik, Rajmund; Berber, Serkan; Düz, Burak; Çivak, Barış; Çalişkan, Uğur; Ogrodnik, Joanna
Abstract Motivation is an important phenomenon in the realm of education, particularly in the university fields connected with physical education and sport, where it is necessary to accommodate and balance intellectual abilities and physical fitness. The present study tested motivation levels among university students in the fields connected with physical education and sport in Poland and Turkey. It was based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985), namely intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation which impact human behaviour. The Academic Motivation Scale was used (Vallerand et al., 1992). The aims of the study were twofold, first, to crossculturally validate Polish and Turkish versions of the Academic Motivation Scale and second, to identify and compare the motivation to study depending on nationality and gender. Both Polish and Turkish versions of the questionnaire were validated and converted to a four-factorial structure. The findings indicated that Polish and Turkish students’ motivation especially differed in amotivation and intrinsic motivation to know and experience stimulation. Moreover, Turkish female students proved to be at the lowest estimate of amotivation. PMID:28031771
Ardeńska, Agnieszka; Tomik, Rajmund; Berber, Serkan; Düz, Burak; Çivak, Barış; Çalişkan, Uğur; Ogrodnik, Joanna
Motivation is an important phenomenon in the realm of education, particularly in the university fields connected with physical education and sport, where it is necessary to accommodate and balance intellectual abilities and physical fitness. The present study tested motivation levels among university students in the fields connected with physical education and sport in Poland and Turkey. It was based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985), namely intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation which impact human behaviour. The Academic Motivation Scale was used (Vallerand et al., 1992). The aims of the study were twofold, first, to crossculturally validate Polish and Turkish versions of the Academic Motivation Scale and second, to identify and compare the motivation to study depending on nationality and gender. Both Polish and Turkish versions of the questionnaire were validated and converted to a four-factorial structure. The findings indicated that Polish and Turkish students' motivation especially differed in amotivation and intrinsic motivation to know and experience stimulation. Moreover, Turkish female students proved to be at the lowest estimate of amotivation.
Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing
Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…
Haydel, Angela Michelle
The purpose of this dissertation was to advance theoretical understanding about fit between the personal resources of individuals and the characteristics of science achievement tasks. Testing continues to be pervasive in schools, yet we know little about how students perceive tests and what they think and feel while they are actually working on test items. This study focused on both the personal (cognitive and motivational) and situational factors that may contribute to individual differences in achievement-related outcomes. 387 eighth grade students first completed a survey including measures of science achievement goals, capability beliefs, efficacy related to multiple-choice items and performance assessments, validity beliefs about multiple-choice items and performance assessments, and other perceptions of these item formats. Students then completed science achievement tests including multiple-choice items and two performance assessments. A sample of students was asked to verbalize both thoughts and feelings as they worked through the test items. These think-alouds were transcribed and coded for evidence of cognitive, metacognitive and motivational engagement. Following each test, all students completed measures of effort, mood, energy level and strategy use during testing. Students reported that performance assessments were more challenging, authentic, interesting and valid than multiple-choice tests. They also believed that comparisons between students were easier using multiple-choice items. Overall, students tried harder, felt better, had higher levels of energy and used more strategies while working on performance assessments. Findings suggested that performance assessments might be more congruent with a mastery achievement goal orientation, while multiple-choice tests might be more congruent with a performance achievement goal orientation. A variable-centered analytic approach including regression analyses provided information about how students, on
Silvia, Paul J; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Eddington, Kari M; Kwapil, Thomas R
Executive approaches to creativity emphasize that generating creative ideas can be hard and requires mental effort. Few studies, however, have examined effort-related physiological activity during creativity tasks. Using motivational intensity theory as a framework, we examined predictors of effort-related cardiac activity during a creative challenge. A sample of 111 adults completed a divergent thinking task. Sympathetic (PEP and RZ) and parasympathetic (RSA and RMSSD) outcomes were assessed using impedance cardiography. As predicted, people with high creative achievement (measured with the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) showed significantly greater increases in sympathetic activity from baseline to task, reflecting higher effort. People with more creative achievements generated ideas that were significantly more creative, and creative performance correlated marginally with PEP and RZ. The results support the view that creative thought can be a mental challenge.
A problem facing science educators is determining the most effective means of science instruction so that students will meet or exceed the new rigorous standards. The theoretical framework for this study was based on reform and research efforts that have informed science teachers that using constructivism is the best method of science instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the constructivist method of science instruction affected student achievement and student motivation in a sixth grade science classroom. The guiding research question involved understanding which method of science instruction would be most effective at improving student achievement in science. Other sub-questions included the factors that contribute to student motivation in science and the method of science instruction students receive that affects motivation to learn science. Quantitative data were collected using a pre-test and post-test single group design. T-test and ANCOVA were used to test quantitative hypotheses. Qualitative data were collected using student reflective journals and classroom discussions. Students' perspectives were transcribed, coded and used to further inform quantitative findings. The findings of this study supported the recommendations made by science reformists that the best method of science instruction was a constructivist method. This study also found that participant comments favored constructivist taught classes. The implications for social change at the local level included potential increases in student achievement in science and possibly increased understanding that can facilitate similar changes at other schools. From a global perspective, constructivist-oriented methods might result in students becoming more interested in majoring in science at the college level and in becoming part of a scientifically literate work force.
Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.
Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.
Kim, ChanMin; Keller, John M.
This study investigated what kind of supportive information can be effective in improving the situation where there were severe motivational challenges. Motivational and volitional email messages (MVEM) were constructed based on an integrated model of four theories and methods, which are Keller's ARCS model, Kuhl's action control theory,…
Drieschner, Klaus H.; Boomsma, Anne
The Treatment Motivation Scales for forensic outpatient treatment (TMS-F) is a Dutch 85-item self-report questionnaire for the motivation of forensic outpatients to engage in their treatment and six cognitive and affective determinants of this motivation. Following descriptions of the conceptual basis and construction, the psychometric properties…
Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine
The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) is a comprehensive and widely used instrument for assessing motivation based on the self-determination theory. Currently, no such comprehensive instrument exists to assess the different domains of motivation (stipulated by the self-determination theory) in mathematics education at the pre-tertiary level (grades…
Lambert, Matthew C.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Tomlinson, M. Michele Athay; Stevens, Amy L.
Background: A client's motivation to receive services is significantly related to seeking services, remaining in services, and improved outcomes. The Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale (MYTS) is one of the few brief measures used to assess motivation for mental health treatment. Objective: To investigate if the psychometric properties of the…
Zhang, Bo; Li, Yi Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Ye; Zhang, Houcan
Self-determination theory (SDT) has contributed greatly to our understanding of human motivation. Based on SDT, the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was developed to assess students' motivation to learn. AMS has been successfully applied to the educational context in Western cultures. However, no psychometrically validated version is available in…
Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L.
This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a motivational interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban, low-income minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of workshop training in MI. Additionally, two 2-hour…
Komarraju, Meera; Musulkin, Sergey; Bhattacharya, Gargi
Student-faculty interactions can be crucial in developing students' academic self-concept and enhancing their motivation and achievement. Although most interactions with faculty tend to occur within the formal classroom setting, students who experience informal interactions tend to be more motivated, engaged, and actively involved in the learning…
Park, Daeun; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Tsukayama, Eli; Levine, Susan C.; Beilock, Sian L.
Although students' motivational frameworks (entity vs. incremental) have been linked to academic achievement, little is known about how early this link emerges and how motivational frameworks develop in the first place. In a year-long study (student N = 424, Teacher N = 58), we found that, as early as 1st and 2nd grade, children who endorsed an…
Martin, Andrew J.; Elliot, Andrew J.
This study assessed the role of prior personal best goals in predicting subsequent academic motivation and engagement. A total of 1160 high school students participated in a longitudinal survey study exploring the extent to which personal best and mastery and performance (dichotomous) achievement goals predict students' academic motivation and…
A formal elaboration of the original theory of achievement motivation (Atkinson, 1957; Atkinson & Feather, 1966) is proposed that includes personal standards as determinants of motivational tendencies. The results of an experiment are reported that examines the validity of some of the implications of the elaborated model proposed here. (Author/RK)
Feng, Sung-Lin; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin
The purposes of this study are: to apply the ARCS model in designing an acid and bases unit, and to assess a single class of 11th graders for motivation and achievement outcomes before and after ARCS instruction. Four essential strategies for designing motivation instruction in the ARCS model were: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and…
Mega, Carolina; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana
The authors propose a theoretical model linking emotions, self-regulated learning, and motivation to academic achievement. This model was tested with 5,805 undergraduate students. They completed the Self-Regulated Learning, Emotions, and Motivation Computerized Battery (LEM-B) composed of 3 self-report questionnaires: the Self-Regulated Learning…
Liou, Pey-Yan; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng
The purpose of this study is to examine the issues of students' motivational beliefs in science learning and their relations with science achievement. Data of Taiwanese fourth and eighth graders from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2011 were examined. Students' self-concept and intrinsic interest as motivational beliefs,…
Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Williams, Terrinieka T; Chavous, Tabbye M
The persistent underachievement among African American boys has led to increased empirical inquiry, yet little research considers within-group variation in achievement nor positive youth characteristics that help explain positive achievement outcomes. This study conceptualized culturally-based factors (racial pride and religiosity) as adolescent assets that would promote African American boys' achievement and also enhance positive effects of other youth assets (positive educational utility beliefs) on achievement. Our sample included 158 adolescent boys (M = 17.08) from a large, socioeconomically diverse suburban community context. Accounting for demographic background variables, educational utility beliefs were positively associated with academic grade performance. A significant educational utility beliefs and racial pride interaction indicated a stronger, positive association of educational utility beliefs with grade performance among boys with higher racial pride relative to those with lower racial pride. Also, there was a stronger positive association between educational utility beliefs and grades for boys reporting lower religious importance, but boys endorsing both lower educational utility beliefs and religious importance were at highest risk for low grade performance. Overall results suggest the importance of considering culturally-based factors in studying achievement motivation processes among ethnic minority adolescents.
The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping and achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from 14 to 20 (M = 16.08), adolescence students…
Hogrebe, Jaclyn M.
This dissertation examined self-regulated learning (SRL) and motivation beliefs (i.e., self-efficacy, perceived responsibility) across ability (i.e., gifted, advanced, average) and achievement groups (i.e., high achievers, low achievers) in a sample of 135 suburban middle school students (i.e., fifth and sixth grade). In order to expand upon…
Cleary, Timothy J; Chen, Peggy P
The current study examined grade level, achievement group, and math-course-type differences in student self-regulation and motivation in a sample of 880 suburban middle-school students. Analysis of variance was utilized to assess group differences in student self-regulation and motivation, and linear regression analysis was used to identify variables that best predicted students' use of regulatory strategies. A key finding was that although seventh graders exhibited a more maladaptive self-regulation and motivation profile than sixth graders, achievement groups in seventh grade (high, moderate, low) were more clearly differentiated across both self-regulation and motivation than achievement groups in sixth grade. The pattern of achievement group differences also varied across math course type, as self-regulation and motivation processes more consistently differentiated achievement groups in advanced classes than regular math courses. Finally, task interest was shown to be the primary motivational predictor of students' use of regulatory strategies during math learning. The study highlights the importance of identifying shifting student motivation and self-regulation during the early middle school years and the potential role that context may have on these processes.
Simzar, Rahila M; Martinez, Marcela; Rutherford, Teomara; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M
This study uses data from an urban school district to examine the relation between students' motivational beliefs about mathematics and high- versus low-stakes math test performance. We use ordinary least squares and quantile regression analyses and find that the association between students' motivation and test performance differs based on the stakes of the exam. Students' math self-efficacy and performance avoidance goal orientation were the strongest predictors for both exams; however, students' math self-efficacy was more strongly related to achievement on the low-stakes exam. Students' motivational beliefs had a stronger association at the low-stakes exam proficiency cutoff than they did at the high-stakes passing cutoff. Lastly, the negative association between performance avoidance goals and high-stakes performance showed a decreasing trend across the achievement distribution, suggesting that performance avoidance goals are more detrimental for lower achieving students. These findings help parse out the ways motivation influences achievement under different stakes.
Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one’s goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model’s statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044–0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one’s goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives. PMID:26835188
Sano, Nobuyuki; Kyougoku, Makoto
Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one's goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model's statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044-0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one's goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives.
Abrahamsen, F E; Roberts, G C; Pensgaard, A M; Ronglan, L T
The present study is founded on achievement goal theory (AGT) and examines the relationship between motivation, social support and performance anxiety with team handball players (n=143) from 10 elite teams. Based on these theories and previous findings, the study has three purposes. First, it was predicted that the female athletes (n=69) would report more performance worries and more social support use than males (n=74). The findings support the hypothesis for anxiety, but not for social support use. However, females report that they felt social support was more available than males. Second, we predicted and found a positive relationship between the interaction of ego orientation and perceptions of a performance climate on performance anxiety, but only for females. As predicted, perceived ability mediated this relationship. Finally, we predicted that perceptions of a performance climate were related to the view that social support was less available especially for the male athletes. Simple correlation supports this prediction, but the regression analyses did not reach significance. Thus, we could not test for mediation of social support between motivational variables and anxiety. The results illustrate that fostering a mastery climate helps elite athletes tackle competitive pressure.
Brunstein, Joachim C; Maier, Günter W
This research examined how implicit and self-attributed needs to achieve (labeled as n Ach and san Ach, respectively) combine with self-referenced and norm-referenced feedback to predict effort-related (task performance) and choice-related (task continuation) indexes of students' engagement in a mental concentration task. In Experiment 1 the authors found that in a task-focused setting, task performance was predicted by the joint effect of self-referenced feedback and n Ach, whereas task continuation was predicted by the joint effect of norm-referenced feedback and san Ach. In Experiment 2 the authors found that in an ego-focused setting, n Ach and san Ach interacted in the prediction of task performance but not of task continuation. In Experiment 3 the authors found that the effects of n Ach and san Ach on students' performance were mediated by the anticipated affective value of achievement outcomes. These findings are discussed in relation to a 2-system approach to achievement motivation.
Ward, Lawrence M.; Baumann, Michael; Moffat, Graeme; Roberts, Larry E.; Mori, Shuji; Rutledge-Taylor, Matthew; West, Robert L.
It is well known that, although psychophysical scaling produces good qualitative agreement between experiments, precise quantitative agreement between experimental results, such as that routinely achieved in physics or biology, is rarely or never attained. A particularly galling example of this is the fact that power function exponents for the same psychological continuum, measured in different laboratories but ostensibly using the same scaling method, magnitude estimation, can vary by a factor of three. Constrained scaling (CS), in which observers first learn a standardized meaning for a set of numerical responses relative to a standard sensory continuum and then make magnitude judgments of other sensations using the learned response scale, has produced excellent quantitative agreement between individual observers’ psychophysical functions. Theoretically it could do the same for across-laboratory comparisons, although this needs to be tested directly. We compared nine different experiments from four different laboratories as an example of the level of across experiment and across-laboratory agreement achievable using CS. In general, we found across experiment and across-laboratory agreement using CS to be significantly superior to that typically obtained with conventional magnitude estimation techniques, although some of its potential remains to be realized. PMID:26191019
Orsini, Cesar; Binnie, Vivian; Evans, Phillip; Ledezma, Priscilla; Fuentes, Fernando; Villegas, Maria J
The Academic Motivation Scale is one of the most frequently used instruments to assess academic motivation. It relies on the self-determination theory of human motivation. However, motivation has been understudied in dental education. Therefore, to address the lack of valid instruments to assess academic motivation in dental education and contribute to future research in the field, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of this instrument in a sample of dental students. Participants were 989 Chilean undergraduate dental students (86% response rate) who completed a survey containing a Chilean face-valid version of the Spanish Academic Motivation Scale and three other motivation-related instruments to assess the survey's construct and criterion validity. Later, 76 of the students (out of 100 invited) took the survey again to assess its test-retest stability. The instrument's construct validity was supported by the superior goodness of fit of the seven-subscale Academic Motivation Scale over competing models through confirmatory factor analysis and by the expected correlations among its subscales. The concurrent criterion validity was supported by the confirmation of correlations between its subscales and external criteria. Adequate internal consistency and test-retest correlations were also found. The evidence from this study suggests that the Academic Motivation Scale is a preliminarily valid and reliable instrument to assess motivation in the predoctoral dental context. Future research in this area is needed to confirm or refute these results.
The purpose of this study was to investigate non-cognitive motivational factors as indicators of academic achievement of male athletes and male non-athletes as measured by a secondary data analysis of the College Student Inventory (CSI) from Fall 2003 to Fall 2005. Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory provided the conceptual framework…
Fadlelmula, Fatma Kayan; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Sungur, Semra
This study examines the interrelationships among students' motivational beliefs (i.e. achievement goal orientations, perception of classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy), use of self-regulated learning strategies (i.e. elaboration, organization, and metacognitive self-regulation strategies), and achievement in mathematics, by proposing and…
Seo, Daeryong; Taherbhai, Husein
The relations among students' motivational beliefs, cognitive processes, and academic achievement were investigated. A 51-item questionnaire together with a mathematics achievement test was administered to 459 fifth graders in Korean elementary school mathematics classrooms. Results indicated that, in general, students' cognitive processes related…
Acar, Ömer; Türkmen, Lütfullah; Bilgin, Ahmet
We examined the influence of several students' cognitive and motivational factors on 8th graders' science achievement and also gender differences on factors that significantly contribute to the science achievement model. A total of 99 girls and 83 boys responded all the instruments used in this study. Results showed that girls outperformed boys on…
Informative tutoring feedback (ITF) provides assisted multiple response tries by offering strategically useful information for task completion as opposed to simply offering the solution. Previous studies on ITF focused on its effects on achievement. The present studies examine the assumption that ITF affects not only achievement, but also motivational variables such as task engagement, effort, persistence, and satisfaction with performance. In two experiments, students differing in self efficacy (SE) for identifying concepts worked on concept identification tasks. In cases of incorrect hypothesis about the concept, they received either outcome feedback or ITF. Results reveal that motivation and achievement depend on both SE and type of feedback. Future research should examine in more detail how ITF affects the self-enhancing processes between on-task motivation, achievement, and self-evaluation.
Burtscher, Johannes; Furtner, Marco; Sachse, Pierre; Burtscher, Martin
This study validated a German version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS28) and investigated the sex-specific and age-related differences in motivation of competitive mountain runners. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SMS28 was based on translation and back-translation methodology. Acceptable validity of the German version of the SMS28 was indicated by the high correlations (.81 to .98) of scores on the seven subscales for the English and German versions completed by 15 subjects. Motivation analysis was performed with 127 competitive male and female mountain runners. The seven subscales of the German version showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient alphas .70 to .85). Findings on motivation of competitive mountain runners were a decline across age groups of Intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment for both sexes and an age-related decline of External regulation only for females. These motivational changes might well be associated with the observed diminishing numbers of older participants in mountain running competitions.
Wang, Ming-Te; Chow, Angela; Degol, Jessica Lauren; Eccles, Jacquelynne Sue
Students' motivational beliefs about learning physical science are critical for achieving positive educational outcomes. In this study, we incorporated expectancy-value theory to capture the heterogeneity of adolescents' motivational trajectories in physics and chemistry from seventh to twelfth grade and linked these trajectories to science-related outcomes. We used a cross-sequential design based on three different cohorts of adolescents (N = 699; 51.5 % female; 95 % European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave = 13.2, 14.1, and 15.3 years) coming from ten public secondary schools. Although many studies claim that physical science motivation declines on average over time, we identified seven differential motivational trajectories of ability self-concept and task values, and found associations of these trajectories with science achievement, advanced science course taking, and science career aspirations. Adolescents' ability self-concept and task values in physics and chemistry were also positively related and interlinked over time. Examining how students' motivational beliefs about physical science develop in secondary school offers insight into the capacity of different groups of students to successfully adapt to their changing educational environments.
Helmreich, Robert L.; Spence, Janet T.; Pred, Robert S.
In a study by Matthews et al. (1980), responses by academic psychologists to the Jenkins Activity Survey for Health Prediction, a measure of the Type A construct, were found to be significantly, positively correlated with two measures of attainment, citations by others to published work and number of publications. In the present study, JAS responses from the Matthews et al. sample were subjected to a factor analysis with oblique rotation and two new subscales were developed on the basis of this analysis. The first, Achievement Strivings (AS) was found to be significantly correlated with both the publication and citation measures. The second scale, Impatience and Irritability (I/I), was uncorrelated with the achievement criteria. Data from other samples indicate that I/I is related to a number of health symptoms. The results suggest that the current formulation of the Type A construct may contain two components, one associated with positive achievement and the other with poor health.
Helmreich, R. L.; Spence, J. T.; Pred, R. S.
In a study by Matthews, Helmreich, Beane, and Lucker (1980), responses by academic psychologists to the Jenkins Activity Survey for Health Prediction (JAS), a measure of the Type A construct, were found to be significantly, positively correlated with two measures of attainment, citations by others to published work and number of publications. In the present study, JAS responses from the Matthews et al. sample were subjected to a factor analysis with oblique rotation and two new subscales were developed on the basis of this analysis. The first, Achievement Strivings (AS) was found to be significantly correlated with both the publication and citation measures. The second scale, Impatience and Irritability (I/I), was uncorrelated with the achievement criteria. Data from other samples indicate that I/I is related to a number of health symptoms. The results suggest that the current formulation of the Type A construct may contain two components, one associated with positive achievement and the other with poor health.
Lee, Ying Li; Chien, Tsai Feng; Kuo, Ming Chuan; Chang, Polun
This study aims to understand the relationship between participating nurses' motivation, achievement and satisfaction before and after they learned to program in Excel Visual Basic for Applications (Excel VBA). We held a workshop to train nurses in developing simple Excel VBA information systems to support their clinical or administrative practices. Before and after the workshop, the participants were evaluated on their knowledge of Excel VBA, and a questionnaire was given to survey their learning motivation and satisfaction. Statistics softwares Winsteps and SPSS were used for data analysis. Results show that the participants are more knowledgeable about VBA as well as more motivated in learning VBA after the workshop. Participants were highly satisfied with the overall arrangement of the workshop and instructors, but didn't have enough confidence in promoting the application of Excel VBA themselves. In addition, we were unable to predict the participants' achievement by their demographic characteristics or pre-test motivation level.
Price, Kelly Rae
Women remain under-represented in science career fields and this is especially evident in the physical sciences. Female students maintain equal science interest and achievement to male students in elementary school but by middle and high school they fall behind their male peers. Reasons cited for girls' declining interest in science include battling traditional gender stereotypes, lack of encouragement, and lack of female role models. Four main science concerns related to girls/women as indicated by research literature were science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation. In Georgia, some girls have made a break from the research trends by demonstrating their fervor for science through participation in the academic activity, Science Olympiad. The purpose of this study was to examine the science perceptions of girls who demonstrated science success by their participation in Science Olympiad. Utilizing phenomenological and feminist perspectives, the qualitative research method of focus group interviewing was used to address the research questions comprising the four science concerns of female science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation. The study participants were all girls/women who participated in Science Olympiad. A total of five focus groups were studied. One of the focus groups had current college undergraduates, former Science Olympians, in it while the others were composed of high school girls. Through the description of their science experiences, the participants shared their perceptions of the four science concerns. When addressing these science concerns, the participants revealed four factors that had most affected their science perceptions: the importance of support, science needs Serious Fun, teachers matter, and the bonuses of extracurricular involvement. In their experiences, the participants found success in science because they had teachers, parents, and peers who supported their academic interests, including science, and
Tuckman, Bruce W.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching students the use of specific learning and motivation strategies and substrategies to meet the cognitive and motivational demands of college. Findings indicate that training in learning and motivation strategy use contributed to GPA improvement. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)
Boiche, Julie C. S.; Sarrazin, Philippe G.; Pelletier, Luc G.; Grouzet, Frederick M. E.; Chanal, Julien P.
Previous studies in education have inspected the relations between students' autonomous versus controlled motivation and relevant outcomes. In most of those studies a global index of self-determined motivation was created. The purpose of this article was to examine (a) how the different types of motivation proposed by Self-Determination Theory…
Hickey, Daniel T.
Argues that it is worthwhile for motivational theorists to consider the implications of social perspective theories and to explore the motivational implications of nuances within these theories. Explores the motivational implications of sociocultural assumptions about knowing and learning, as they have been defined by situative cognitive…
Bryan, Robert R.; Glynn, Shawn M.; Kittleson, Julie M.
Within the framework of social cognitive theory, we examined the motivation of students (14-16 years old) to learn science in their introductory science courses. The students responded to a questionnaire about their intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, and self-determination. The students also wrote essays about their motivation, and individual…
Arbabi, Talat; Vollmer, Christian; Dörfler, Tobias; Randler, Christoph
Individuals differ in their timing of sleep (bed times, rise times) and in their preference for morning or evening hours. Previous work focused on the relationship between academic achievement and these variables in secondary school students. The main aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between chronotype and academic achievement in 10-year-old children (n = 1125) attending 4th grade of primary school. They filled a cognitive test (Culture Fair Intelligence Test, CFT 20-R) and questions about rise times and bed times, academic achievement, conscientiousness and motivation. We used the "scales for the assessment of learning and performance motivation" (SELLMO; Skalen zur Erfassung der Lern- und Leistungsmotivation for motivation), the short version of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory Children (FFPI-C) to measure conscientiousness, and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) to assess morningness-eveningness. Mean CSM score was 37.84 ± 6.66, midpoint of sleep was 1:36 ± 00:25 and average sleep duration (time in bed) was 10:15 ± 0:48. Morningness orientation was positively related to intelligence, conscientiousness and learning objectives. Eveningness orientation was related to avoidance performance objectives and work avoidance. Early midpoint of sleep, conscientiousness and intelligence were associated with better grades. The multivariate model showed that intelligence was the strongest predictor of good grades. Conscientiousness, motivation, younger age and an earlier midpoint of sleep were positively related to good grades. This is the first study in primary school pupils, and it shows that the relationship between evening orientation and academic achievement is already prevalent at this age even when controlling for important predictors of achievement.
A new scale "motivation for return to work" has been constructed to measure depressive patients' motivation to start working again in a stepwise process. The scale showed in 46 patients of a first case management (CM) sample with depressive employees a good correlation with the final social status of the CM. Only the motivated patients were successful returning to work and could be, separated clearly from the most demotivated one. Second, the scale correlated with the duration of sick leave and third showed an inverse correlation with the complete time of CM, suggesting that a successful stepwise return to work requires time. These first results need further examination.
Drieschner, Klaus H; Boomsma, Anne
The validity of the Treatment Motivation Scales for outpatient offender treatment (TMS-F), a self-report questionnaire with scales for the motivation of patients to engage in the treatment and six cognitive and emotional determinants of this motivation, is evaluated in two studies. In Study 1 (N = 620), the construct validity of the TMS-F is investigated applying a multitrait-multimethod design with a therapist-rating instrument as the criterion method. All scales were found to have adequate convergent validity and acceptable discriminant validity. In Study 2 (N = 328), the criterion validity of the TMS-F is addressed. Applying covariance structure analysis, the instrument is found to predict therapist ratings of the treatment engagement of patients to a substantial degree. Treatment engagement is best predicted by the scales for Motivation to Engage in the Treatment and Perception of the Suitability of the Treatment and not by the scales for Distress and the Perceived Legal Pressure.
Theodosiou, Anastasia A.; Johnson, Martin H.
This article reports a historical study of factors influencing the achievement of clinical preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in 1990, 22 years after its first demonstration in animals. During the 1970s, research on PGD continued in large farm animals, but serious interest in human PGD was not evident until 1986. First, interest in PGD during the 1970s waned with the advent of prenatal testing, which for gynaecologists was clinically more familiar, technically simpler and ethically less challenging than IVF. Indeed, IVF was viewed with widespread suspicion until the first IVF births in 1978. Second, interest in clinical PGD was stimulated by the UK Parliamentary reaction against human embryo research that greeted the Warnock Report in 1984. This hostility led scientists to initiate a pro-research campaign, further galvanized in 1985 by MP Enoch Powell’s bid to ban such research. However, while Powell abhorred embryo research, he approved of PGD, a stance that divided the anti-research lobby. Accordingly, the campaigners for research emphasized that it was needed to achieve PGD. Powell demanded evidence of such projects and PGD research increased from 1986. It is concluded that UK political debates on embryo research played a critical role in stimulating the achievement of clinical PGD. Human pregnancies following preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for embryo sex were announced in 1990, 22 years after the technique was pioneered in animals. PGD in humans required not only technological advances, such as IVF and sensitive diagnostic tests, but also the motivation to develop and apply them. Our historical analysis shows that, although research on PGD continued in large farm animals during the 1970s, and techniques of the required sensitivity were developed on mouse embryo models, interest in clinical PGD was not evident until 1986. Two factors stimulated this sudden change in motivation. First, interest in PGD was depressed during the 1970s by the advent
Deemer, Eric D.; Martens, Matthew P.; Buboltz, Walter C.
An instrument designed to measure a 3-factor model of research motivation was developed and psychometrically examined in the present research. Participants were 437 graduate students in biology, chemistry/biochemistry, physics/astronomy, and psychology. A principal components analysis supported the retention of 20 items representing the 3-factor…
Liao, Hsiang-Ann; Ferdenzi, Anita Cuttita; Edlin, Margot
This study is designed to examine how intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning efficacy influence academic achievement of international and domestic community college students. Results show that for both international and domestic students, motivation did not directly affect academic achievement. Self-regulated…
Smith, Kenneth J.; Davy, Jeanette A.; Rosenberg, Donald L.
The purpose of this study was to examine an alternative configuration of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), a psychometric instrument used as a measure of academic motivation in various academic environments. The analyses utilised data from a convenience sample of 2354 business students, broken into two random subsamples of 1177 cases.…
During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry, physics, and engineering. This study used quantitative data to investigate the correlation between female students' motivation, self-esteem, and standards-based state science achievement tests combined with a qualitative survey of student's perceptions of parents' attitudes toward science. The Children's Science Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) determined students' levels of motivation toward science. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI) ascertained female students' overall self-esteem. The ISTEP+ exam given in the 6th grade measured the students' academic achievement in science. Trained examiners who interviewed students comprised the qualitative component of the study. Each examiner elaborated on selected questions from the CSEI and CAIMI to determine the students' perceptions of parental attitudes toward science. A multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between self-esteem, motivation, and achievement in science. The correlation was strongest between motivation. Interviews revealed parents and teachers had the most influence on students' perception of science. In understanding the correlation between female students' motivation, achievement, and self-esteem, schools will gain further knowledge into how students relate to the academic field of science and can thus promote females' participation in more science courses in high school. This then will provide females the necessary background knowledge to pursue a greater number of science majors in college.
Simpkins, Sandra D
Parents believe what they do matters. But, how does it matter? How do parents' beliefs about their children early on translate into the choices those children make as adolescents? The Eccles' expectancy–value model asserts that parents' beliefs about their children during childhood predict adolescents' achievement-related choices through a sequence of processes that operate in a cumulative, cascading fashion over time. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors that predict their children's motivational beliefs. Those beliefs predict children's subsequent choices. Using data from the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723), we tested these predictions in the activity domains of sports, instrumental music, mathematics, and reading across a 12-year period. In testing these predictions, we looked closely at the idea of reciprocal influences and at the role of child gender as a moderator. The cross-lagged models generally supported the bidirectional influences described in Eccles' expectancy-value model. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that: (a) these relations were stronger in the leisure domains than in the academic domains, (b) these relations did not consistently vary based on youth gender, (c) parents were stronger predictors of their children's beliefs than vice versa, and (d) adolescents' beliefs were stronger predictors of their behaviors than the reverse. The findings presented in this monograph extend our understanding of the complexity of families, developmental processes that unfold over time, and the extent to which these processes are universal across domains and child gender.
Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.; Klusmann, Uta; Kunter, Mareike; Beyer, Beate; Trautwein, Ulrich; Baumert, Jurgen
Motivations for preservice teachers' choice of teaching as a career were investigated using the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice scale (FIT-Choice scale; Watt & Richardson, 2007). This scale was initially developed and validated in the Australian context; our study applied it across international samples from Australia, the United States,…
Cromley, Jennifer G.; Perez, Tony; Kaplan, Avi
Student cognition and motivation, as well as institutional policies, determine student course grades and retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Regarding cognition, study skills relate to course grades, and grades relate to retention in STEM. Several aspects of motivation are related to both grades and…
Young, Adena; Johnson, Gail; Hawthorne, Melissa; Pugh, Jeremy
College retention and graduation rates are significantly lower for African American and Hispanic American students. Limited research has been conducted on the relationship between academic motivation and perceived social support. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of social support as a predictor of academic motivation and…
Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Vural, Semra Sungur
Background: There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose: This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables…
Smith, Jessi L.; Sansone, Carol; White, Paul H.
Competence-based stereotypes can negatively affect women's performance in math and science (referred to as stereotype threat), presumably leading to lower motivation. The authors examined the effects of stereotype threat on interest, a motivational path not necessarily mediated by performance. They predicted that working on a computer science task…
McMillan, James H.; Hearn, Jessica
In the current era of standards-based education, student self-assessment stands alone in its promise of improved student motivation and engagement, and learning. Correctly implemented, student self-assessment can promote intrinsic motivation, internally controlled effort, a mastery goal orientation, and more meaningful learning. Its powerful…
Hornstra, Lisette; van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea; Volman, Monique
To gain insight in developmental trajectories of motivation during upper primary school, the present study focused on how different aspects of students' motivation, i.e., task-orientation, self-efficacy, and school investment develop from grade three to six of primary school and how these developments differ for boys and girls, and students with…
Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…
Stephenson, Donald John
Sixty students were categorized into a stratified four-group design to ascertain the predictive value of achievement motivation as it relates to: (1) diagnostic problem solving ability, (2) diagnostic problem solving knowledge, and (3) student attitude toward the course. Each of the four groups represented varying strengths of achievement…
Shannon, David; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shores, Melanie
The purpose of this study was to explore the learning strategies used by ethnically diverse learners and to investigate the relationships among the constructs of classroom goal structure, achievement goal orientation, motivation and self-regulated learning in an ethnically diverse population of fourth and fifth grade learners (n = 396). Goal…
Matthews, Sharon Elizabeth
This study investigated the extent to which there were statistically significant relationships between school administrators' systemic implementation of student voice work and student perceptions (i.e. achievement, motivation, attachment and school climate) and PLAN performance. Student voice was defined as students being equal partners in school…
In this research, an experimental study was carried out in social studies 4th grade students to develop students' conceptual achievement and motivation to succeed academically. The study aims to investigate the effectiveness of project-based learning (PBL) in social studies. A quasi-experimental research design (pre- and posttest) was used in the…
Research speculates that high-achieving college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may demonstrate a set of compensatory strategies and experience areas of difficulty and motivational factors that differ from the general ADHD populace. This Practice Brief used informal surveys with seven undergraduates with ADHD who had…
Ocak, Gurbuz; Yamac, Ahmet
The aim of current study was to examine predictor and explanatory relationships between fifth graders' self-regulated learning strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics, and academic achievement. The study was conducted on a sample of 204 students studying in the primary schools of Afyonkarahisar province. Motivated…
The mixed-method explanatory research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the Accelerated Reader (AR) program on middle school students' reading achievement and motivation. A total of 211 sixth to eighth-grade students provided quantitative data by completing an AR Survey. Thirty of the 211 students were randomly selected to…
Based on the premise that children need to be motivated to learn in school to achieve success, this guide is intended for parents who want to help their children realize the benefits of learning and knowledge. The guide offers effective methods for challenging and supporting children at school and throughout their lives, provide insights into how…
Saeid, Nasim; Eslaminejad, Tahere
Self-directed learning readiness to expand and enhance learning, This is an important goal of higher education, Besides his academic self-efficacy can be improved efficiency and Achievement Motivation, so understanding how to use these strategies by students is very important. Because the purpose this study is determination of relationship between…
Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab
The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…
Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.
We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…
Jalongo, Mary Renck
There is little question that the fundamental purpose of education--what the ancient Greeks referred to as the "telos"--is to promote student learning. For decades, both experts and the general public have agreed that any effort to improve the education system must focus squarely on optimizing student learning, motivating students to achieve, and…
Rahimi, Mehrak; Karkami, Fatemeh Hosseini
This study investigated the role of EFL teachers' classroom discipline strategies in their teaching effectiveness and their students' motivation and achievement in learning English as a foreign language. 1408 junior high-school students expressed their perceptions of the strategies their English teachers used (punishment, recognition/reward,…
Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
In this study, an augmented reality-based mobile learning system is proposed for conducting inquiry-based learning activities. An experiment has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of learning achievements and motivations. The subjects were 57 fourth graders from two classes taught by the same teacher in…
Yu, Kai; Martin, Andrew J.
Prior research has shown personal best (PB) goals to be significantly related to students' motivation, engagement and achievement. However, research thus far has investigated PB goals only among Western samples and it is unclear to what extent PB goals hold academic merit in the Asian context. It is also unclear whether PB goals explain variance…
Kim, Jung-In; Schallert, Diane L.; Kim, Myoungsook
Our goal was to identify how students' perceptions of their parents shape the kind and degree of motivational goal orientations that they adopt in their mathematics classroom, broadening the application of achievement goal orientation theory and self-determination theory to students in Korea. Two groups of students participated, one from a middle…
Middleton, James A.; Leavy, Aisling; Leader, Lars
This study investigated the relationship among critical motivational variables and mathematics achievement as middle grades students engaged in a reform-oriented curriculum, "Mathematics in Context." We tested 327 students in fifth, sixth, and seventh grade before and after two years of implementation. We performed a path analysis with…
Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi
This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…
Nordstrom, Donna E.
The purpose of this study was to address the gap in the current literature on community college students in basic math courses by examining motivational, parental and cultural factors as predictors of achievement and persistence of students enrolled in basic skills mathematics courses at a community college. More specifically, this study…
Guadalupe, Deana R.
Dropout Reduction through Education, Achievement, and Motivation (Project DREAM) was designed to serve the needs of Latino immigrants who had scored at or below the 40th percentile on the Language Assessment Battery. The design-incorporating plans for group and individual guidance sessions to help students improve their interpersonal skills. It…
Ozdemir, Muzaffer; Izmirli, Serkan; Sahin-Izmirli, Ozden
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of captioned vs. non-captioned instructional videos on the motivation and achievement. To this end, a pre-test and post-test experimental design was used on 109 sophomores from a Turkish state university. Videos with and without captions of the unit in question were prepared by the…
Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Wu, Wan-Chi I.
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of Digital storytelling (DST) on the academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation of senior high school students learning English as a foreign language. The one-year study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design involving 110 10th grade students in two English…
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.
The study examined the self-reported academic achievement, academic self-concept, and academic motivation of 573 immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) secondary schools. Descriptive Discriminant Analyses indicated that the immigrant adolescents had higher performance in mathematics, higher math and school…
Chu, Hui-Chun; Hung, Chun-Ming
In this study, the game-based development approach is proposed for improving the learning motivation, problem solving skills, and learning achievement of students. An experiment was conducted on a learning activity of an elementary school science course to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. A total of 59 sixth graders from two…
Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hung, Chun-Ming; Chen, Nian-Shing
In this study, a peer assessment-based game development approach is proposed for improving students' learning achievements, motivations and problem-solving skills. An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in a science course at an elementary school. A total of 167 sixth graders participated in…
Carpenter, Serena; Grant, August E.; Hoag, Anne
Scientific knowledge should reflect valid, consistent measurement. It is argued research on scale development needs to be more systematic and prevalent. The intent of this article is to address scale development by creating and validating a construct that measures the underlying reasons why undergraduate students seek a degree in journalism, the…
In picture story exercises like the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Heckhausen, 1963), different pictures are presented to a person with the instruction to create a story using the scenes portrayed in the image. It is assumed, that people identify themselves with the people in the images and project their unconscious motives (e.g., achievement motive) onto them. As the TAT shows only men in the pictures, critics claimed the test is gender-biased; assuming women cannot identify with men in pictures. However, it was not assessed, whether female protagonists of the picture really trigger the same achievement motive as men. Therefore, two studies were conducted to address the gender difference and validity of the TAT using a version with only men in the pictures (study 1) or only women in the pictures (study 2). The results shows that the original TAT of Heckhausen is a valid instrument for women and men, but the modified version with only women in the pictures cannot validly measure the achievement motive in the male sample.
In picture story exercises like the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Heckhausen, 1963), different pictures are presented to a person with the instruction to create a story using the scenes portrayed in the image. It is assumed, that people identify themselves with the people in the images and project their unconscious motives (e.g., achievement motive) onto them. As the TAT shows only men in the pictures, critics claimed the test is gender-biased; assuming women cannot identify with men in pictures. However, it was not assessed, whether female protagonists of the picture really trigger the same achievement motive as men. Therefore, two studies were conducted to address the gender difference and validity of the TAT using a version with only men in the pictures (study 1) or only women in the pictures (study 2). The results shows that the original TAT of Heckhausen is a valid instrument for women and men, but the modified version with only women in the pictures cannot validly measure the achievement motive in the male sample. PMID:28261126
Wu, Anise M S; Tang, Catherine So-Kum
The French items of the Gambling Motivation Scale (GMS) were first developed and validated by Chantal and colleagues in 1994. The scale then became one of the most widely used motivational scales in the gambling literature of the West. The present study recruited 932 Chinese university students in order to validate the Chinese version of the Gambling Motivation Scale (C-GMS). The results of a confirmatory factor analysis of the Chinese data supported the 7-factor model as proposed by Chantal et al. (Soc Leis 17:189-212, 1994). This study also found a second-order model with three major factors, which corresponded to three types of gambling motivation including self-determined motivation (for knowledge, for accomplishment, for stimulation, and due to identified regulation), non self-determined motivation (due to introjected regulation and external regulation), and amotivation. All subscales demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, and showed significant correlations with gambling correlates such as problem gambling symptoms and gambling intention. In sum, the C-GMS showed adequate psychometric properties and can be extended for use with Chinese populations.
Gerstenberg, Friederike X. R.; Imhoff, Roland; Banse, Rainer; Schmitt, Manfred
Previous research has shown that different configurations of the implicit self-concept of intelligence (iSCI) and the explicit self-concept of intelligence (eSCI) are consistently related to individuals’ performance on different intelligence tests (Dislich etal., 2012). The results indicated that any discrepant configuration between the iSCI and the eSCI impairs performance. In the present study, how correspondence between the iSCI and the eSCI is related to intelligence test performance as well as personality traits of modesty (low eSCI, high iSCI), narcissism (high eSCI, low iSCI), and achievement motivation was investigated. Furthermore, a moderated mediation analysis showed that the relation between the iSCI–eSCI configurations and intelligence test performance was mediated by achievement motivation for modest individuals. PMID:24575063
Whitten, Lary D.
This qualitative study was designed to determine if the teaching population in the state of Arkansas had a more favorable attitude toward specific motivational theories and practices; and to determine if that attitude significantly affected the teacher retention rate and the quality of work produced. The literature reviewed included the role of…
Moskovsky, Christo; Assulaimani, Turki; Racheva, Silvia; Harkins, Jean
The research reported in this article explores the relationship between Dörnyei's (2005, 2009) Second Language Motivational Self System (L2MSS) and the L2 proficiency level of Saudi learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Male and female participants (N = 360) responded to a questionnaire relating to the main components of L2MSS, the…
Nuances in how adults talk about ability may have important consequences for children's sustained involvement and success in an activity. In this study, I tested the hypothesis that children would be less motivated while performing a novel activity if they were told that boys or girls in general are good at this activity (generic language) than if…
Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man
We investigated the effect of participating in two domains of extracurricular activities (sports and performance arts/clubs) in Grades 7 and 8 on Grade 9 academic motivation and letter grades, above baseline performance. Participants were 483 students (55% male; 33% Euro-American, 25% African American, and 39% Latino). Propensity score weighting…
Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Patrick, Helen; Samarapungavan, Ala
We examined science learning and motivation outcomes as a function of children's participation in the classroom and classroom-plus-home components of the Scientific Literacy Project (SLP). The sample was comprised of kindergarten children in 4 low income, neighboring schools. Children in Schools 1 and 2 (n = 120) participated in the SLP science…
Kokkonen, Juha A.; Kokkonen, Marja T.; Telama, Risto K.; Liukkonen, Jarmo O.
The present two-wave longitudinal study examined the extent to which physical education (PE) teachers' democratic and socially supportive behavior, pupils' goal orientations, and the perceived motivational climate in PE explained differences in pupils' intended helping behavior by gender in PE classes. The results of 105 boys and 109 girls based…
Despite the great value of student learning outcome assessment (SLOA), faculty have not fully embraced the assessment movement, and many remain locked in debates on its merits. To gain faculty buy-in and explain why many faculty were motivated to engage in outcome assessment, the modified CANE (Commitment And Necessary Effort) model was used to…
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects on motivation and success within the application of blended learning environments in the foreign language class. The research sample is formed by third grade students studying in the tourism and hotel management programs of the faculty for tourism and the faculty of economics and administrative…
Huie, Faye C.; Winsler, Adam; Kitsantas, Anastasia
Students often work in order to meet monetary requirements for college. However, employment reduces the time students can devote to their studies, which can hinder performance. This study examined whether motivation (self-efficacy goal orientation) and self-regulated learning (help-seeking, metacognitive self-regulation, time management and effort…
Reeder, Matthew C.; Schmitt, Neal
In this study we investigated whether African American students at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) differ from African American students at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) in academic motivation and judgment, and whether type of academic institution (HBCU, PWI) moderates relationships between these differences and…
Aktas, Elif; Yurt, Serap Uzuner
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the learning environment where digital stories are used as a learning material on the motivation, academic success, retention, and students' opinions. The study was carried out with mixed method which is a combination of quantitative and qualitative research approach. The study was implemented…
The purpose of this study was to determine whether academic motivation and academic self-regulated learning predicted students' GPAs in the Early Childhood Education Department. The study participants consisted of 166 early childhood education majors enrolled in the 2014 spring semester at Georgia Southern University, USA. Data were gathered using…
Kover, David J.; Worrell, Frank C.
For many students, school is a forward-looking endeavor, with implications for future educational opportunity, job prospects, and financial success. How does believing that school is linked to a desired future outcome--known as an instrumentality belief--influence motivation? A number of studies have indicated that rewards, or other concerns that…
Froiland, John Mark; Worrell, Frank C.
Using structural equation models, with gender, parent education, and prior grade point average (GPA) as control variables, we examined the relationships among intrinsic motivation to learn, learning goals, behavioral engagement at school, and academic performance (measured by GPA) in 1,575 students in an ethnically and racially diverse high…
Bates, Catherine Marie Fraser
During the Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Conference 2014, a workshop was held three consecutive times as part of the Pedagogical Speed Dating sessions to introduce experienced college/university faculty and instructional designers to an approach to instructional design that is based on increasing motivation. The purpose of…
This article presents an interview with Allan Wigfield, professor and chair of the Department of Human Development and distinguished scholar-teacher at the University of Maryland. He has authored more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on children's motivation and other topics. He is a fellow of Division 15 (Educational…
Liu, Woon Chia; Wang, Chee Keng John; Kee, Ying Hwa; Koh, Caroline; Lim, Boon San Coral; Chua, Lilian
The development of effective self-regulated learning strategies is of interest to educationalists. In this paper, we examine inherent individual difference in self-regulated learning based on Motivated Learning for Learning Questionnaire (MLSQ) using the cluster analytic approach and examine cluster difference in terms of self-determination theory…
Lay, Yoon Fah; Chandrasegaran, A. L.
TIMSS routinely presents very powerful evidence showing that students with more positive motivation toward learning science have substantially higher achievement. The results from TIMSS 2011 are consistent with previous assessments. This study explored the predictive effects of motivation toward learning science on science achievement among…
Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Schim van der Loeff, Sybrand; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.
The question of subject-specificity of achievement motivations is important, both for educational psychology, as well as for educational policy. This study contributes to the investigation of the heterogeneity in achievement motivations in the context of the expectancy-value model. Whereas existing research deals with middle and high school…
Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel
The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…
Raufelder, Diana; Drury, Kate; Jagenow, Danilo; Hoferichter, Frances; Bukowski, William
Factor analyses of a newly developed measure designed to measure early adolescents' perceptions of peers and teachers as sources of scholastic motivation were conducted with a diverse sample of 7th and 8th grade students (N = 1088) in secondary schools. The Relationship and Motivation (REMO) scales measure perceptions of peers (P-REMO) and…
Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances
The current study presents a newly developed measurement: the TEMO (Teacher and Motivation) scale, which assesses adolescent students' perception of liked and disliked teachers and the resulting impact on their academic motivation. A total of 1,088 students from secondary schools in Germany participated in this study. To explore the underlying…
Johnson, Richard W.
The predictive validities of various SVIB academic interest scales were assessed with first semester freshman males at the University of Massachusetts. Both the Rust and Ryan and the Campbell and Johansson scales contributed significantly, albeit modestly, to a multiple correlation coefficient consisting of high school rank and scholastic aptitude…
Liu, Yujuan; Ferrell, Brent; Barbera, Jack; Lewis, Jennifer E.
Fundamentally concerned with motivation, self-determination theory (SDT) represents a framework of several mini-theories to explore how social context interacts with people's motivational types categorized by degree of regulation internalization. This paper aims to modify an existing theory-based instrument (Academic Motivation Scale, or AMS) and…
Nozari, Ali Yazdanpanah; Siamian, Hasan
Background: Traditional education classes are no more effective because they are tied to a particular place and time. Podcast complete the defection of other educational resources. In this study we aimed to address whether utilizing podcast multimedia training system has an effect on the motivational achievement and students learning of the Arabic course in high school. Methods: In this practical-purposed, descriptive and quasi-experimental study, pre- and post-test method in control and experiment groups was used. Researchers used simple random sampling method to form the groups. Results: The results showed the normal distribution of data according to the value of z (0.09) in the pre- and post-tests in both control and experiment groups. Therefore, the data distribution was normal (P>0.925). Significant differences between experimental and control groups in terms of academic level were not observed in the pre-test. There was no significant difference between the motivational achievement of education in post-test of control and experiment group (p>0.89). Conclusion: The results showed that teaching with podcast multimedia systems significantly increased learning of Arabic in the high school level. But of motivation reinforcement between traditional method and system for multimedia podcasts, showed no significant differences. Each variety of multimedia techniques can be beneficial for a specific course. Therefore, more studies on the effectiveness of podcast method in different courses to determine its effects are necessary. PMID:25870488
Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Clements, Nicolle
Introduction Research supports the efficacy of both a remedial consent procedure (corrected feedback) and a motivational consent procedure (incentives) for improving recall of informed consent to research. Although these strategies were statistically superior to standard consent, effects were modest and not clinically significant. This study examines a combined incentivized consent and corrected feedback that simplifies the cognitive task and increases motivation to learn consent information. Methods We randomly assigned 104 individuals consenting to an unrelated host study to a consent as usual (CAU) condition (n = 52) or an incentivized corrected feedback (ICF) condition (n = 52). All participants were told they would be quizzed on their consent recall following their baseline assessment and at 4 monthly follow-ups. ICF participants were also informed that they would earn $5.00 for each correct answer and receive corrected feedback as needed. Results Quiz scores in the two conditions did not differ at the first administration (p = 0.39, d = 0.2), however ICF scores were significantly higher at each subsequent administration (second : p = 0.003, Cohen’s d = 0.6; third: p < 0.0001, d = 1.4; fourth: p < 0.0001, d = 1.6; fifth: p < 0.0001, d = 1.8.) Conclusions The ICF procedure increased consent recall from 72% to 83%, compared to the CAU condition in which recall decreased from 69% to 59%. This supports the statistical and clinical utility of a combined remedial and motivational consent procedure for enhancing recall of study information and human research protections. PMID:23557912
Vásquez-Colina, María D.; Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa R.; Furner, Joseph M.
This paper reports findings of a pilot study examining the feasibility of a research design to investigate how achievement goals relate to the construct of math anxiety. In addition, we also consider how other important achievement-related behaviors, like self-efficacy, help-seeking, and self-regulation, might also relate to students' math…
Introduction: Students are daily exposed to a variety of assessment tasks in the classroom. It has long been recognized that students' perceptions of the assessment tasks may influence student academic achievement. The present study aimed at predicting academic achievement in mathematics from perceptions of the assessment tasks after controlling…
Bong, Mimi; Cho, Catherine; Ahn, Hyun Seon; Kim, Hye Jin
The authors examined whether self-concept, self-efficacy, and self-esteem show differential predictive utility for academic achievement across age groups and domains. More specifically, the relationships of 3 self-constructs with achievement were examined in mathematics for elementary school students and mathematics and language arts for middle…
Guthrie, John T.; And Others
A study examined the relationships of reading achievement and constructs about student literacy activities for four ethnic-gender groups. A secondary analysis of nearly 3,000 9-, 13-, and 17-year-olds' reading achievement and student questionnaire data from the 1986 National Assessment of Educational Progress was undertaken. The constructs varied…
Wilson, Travis M.; Zheng, Chanjin; Lemoine, Katherine A.; Martin, Caroline P.; Tang, Yue
Person-centered analyses of achievement goals have been scarce in studies of elementary school children. In this investigation, the authors examined the natural combinations of achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, performance-avoidance) among 3rd grade students (N = 195) and how clusters differed in self-, teacher-, and peer-reported…
You, Chenjing; Dörnyei, Zoltán
This article reports on the findings of a large-scale cross-sectional survey of the motivational disposition of English language learners in secondary schools and universities in China. The total sample involved over 10,000 students and was stratified according to geographical region and teaching contexts, selecting participants both from urban…
The factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was examined with a sample of 578 Black college students. A confirmatory factor analysis of the AMS was conducted. Results indicated that the hypothesized seven-factor model did not fit the data. Implications for future research with the AMS are discussed.
McGee, Carl Dean
The purposes of this mixed method study were to examine the relationship between student motivation and performance on large-scale, low- and high-stakes examinations and identify the types of incentive programs used by principals to promote test performance among high school students. The study took take place in California's Southern San Joaquin…
Garst, William C.; Ried, L. Douglas
Evaluated the Education Participation Scale (EPS) in determining motivational orientations of nontraditional doctor of pharmacy students (n=17) compared to continuing education pharmacists (n=83). Nontraditional pharmacy students were significantly different from the continuing education pharmacists on the "professional advancement" and…
Guay, Frédéric; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Litalien, David; Valois, Pierre; Vallerand, Robert J.
In this research, the authors examined the construct validity of scores of the Academic Motivation Scale using exploratory structural equation modeling. Study 1 and Study 2 involved 1,416 college students and 4,498 high school students, respectively. First, results of both studies indicated that the factor structure tested with exploratory…
Bruni, Coral M.; Chance, Randie C.; Schultz, P. Wesley
The Environmental Motives Scale (EMS) was developed to measure an individual's concerns about environmental issues. The measure provides subscale scores for egoistic, social-altruistic, and biospheric concerns. Prior studies have shown a good fit for the 3-factor structure, but the measure has yet to be used with children. In this paper we report…
The World Wide Web (WWW) is the latest in a long line of educational technologies, and the list of courses on it is growing daily. Formative evaluations would help educators enhance teaching and learning in Web-based courses. This study analyzed the relationships between student achievement and the following variables: attitudes, motivation, learning strategies, patterns of learning, learning styles, and selected demographics. It was a population study that included 99 students taking two non-major introductory biology courses offered over the WWW by Iowa State University in the fall of 1997. Seventy-four (75%) students completed a learning style test, an on-line questionnaire, and received a grade by the end of the semester. The learning style test was the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), which classified students as either field-dependent or field-independent. The on-line questionnaire consisted of four scales (attitude, motivation, learning strategies, and patterns of learning), whose pilot-test reliabilities ranged from .71 to .91. The selected demographic variables were gender, class level, previous experience in subject area, hours per week studying and working, computer access, and types of students as off-campus, on-campus, or adult students. Over two-thirds of the students taking the Web-based courses were field-independent learners; however, there were no significant differences (.05 level) in achievement by learning style. Also, different backgrounds of students with different learning styles learned equally well in Web-based courses. The students enjoyed the convenience and self-controlled learning pace and were motivated by competition and high expectations in Web-based learning. They used most the learning strategies of finding important ideas from lectures and memorizing key words of important concepts and least the learning strategy of making charts or tables to organize the material. They seemed more interested in checking their grades than in
McHale, Peter; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert
Morphogens are proteins, often produced in a localized region, whose concentrations spatially demarcate regions of differing gene expression in developing embryos. The boundaries of gene expression are typically sharp and the genes can be viewed as abruptly switching from on to off or vice versa upon crossing the boundary. To ensure the viability of the organism these boundaries must be set at certain fractional positions within the corresponding developing field. Remarkably this can be done with high precision despite the fact that the size of the developing field itself can vary widely from embryo to embryo. How this scaling is accomplished is unknown but it is clear that a single morphogen gradient is insufficient. Here we show how a pair of morphogens A and B, produced at opposite ends of a one-dimensional developing field, can solve the pattern-scaling problem. In the most promising scenario the morphogens interact via an effective annihilation reaction A + B --> slashed circle and the switch occurs according to the absolute concentration of A or B. We define a scaling criterion and show that morphogens coupled in this way can set embryonic markers across the entire developing field in proportion to the field size. This scaling occurs at developing-field sizes of a few times the morphogen decay length. The scaling criterion is not met if instead the gradients couple combinatorially such that downstream genes are regulated by the ratio A/B of the morphogen concentrations.
"The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the
van de Pol P, K C; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher
This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals' achievement motivation.
Resnick, B; Zimmerman, S I; Magaziner, J; Adelman, A
Motivation plays an important part in an elderly individual's ability to recover from a disabling event. On the other hand, apathy is a lack of motivation. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is an 18-item instrument that rates a person's thoughts, actions, and emotions over the previous 4 weeks. The purpose of this study was to use the AES with 102 patients in a geriatric rehabilitation program to determine if it predicted improved function after rehabilitation. In addition, a short 7-item version of the AES was tested. A strong correlation was demonstrated between the 18-item AES and the 7-item AES, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Geriatric Depression Scale. In separate regression analyses, we found that admission function and both the 18-item and 7-item AES were significant predictors of discharge function, and that functional level at admission to rehabilitation accounted for 31% of the variance in function after rehabilitation. The findings suggest that the AES might be an appropriate measure of motivation in older adults and might predict success in rehabilitation. Moreover, the ability to identify patients with low motivation can alert healthcare providers to develop interventions to improve older adults' motivation and help them attain and maintain their highest functional level.
Gray, DeLeon L
Education researchers have consistently linked students' perceptions of "fitting in" at school with patterns of motivation and positive emotions. This study proposes that "standing out" is also helpful for producing these outcomes, and that standing out works in concert with perceptions of fitting in. In a sample of 702 high school students nested within 33 classrooms, principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were each conducted on half of the sample. Results support the proposed structure of measures of standing out and fitting in. Multilevel latent profile analysis was then used to classify students into four profiles of standing out while fitting in (SOFI): Unfulfilled, Somewhat Fulfilled, Nearly Fulfilled, and Fulfilled. A multinomial logistic regression revealed that students of color and those on who paid free/reduced prices lunch were overrepresented in the Unfulfilled and Somewhat Fulfilled profiles. A multilevel path analysis was then performed to assess the direct and indirect associations of profile membership with measures of task value and achievement emotions. Relative to the other profiles, students in the Fulfilled SOFI Profile express greater psychological membership in their classrooms and, in turn, express higher valuing of academic material (i.e., intrinsic value, utility value, and attainment value) and more positive achievement emotions (i.e., more enjoyment and pride; less boredom, hopelessness, and shame). This investigation provides critical insights on the potential benefits of structuring academic learning environments to foster feelings of distinctiveness among adolescents; and has implications for cultivating identities and achievement motivation in academic settings.
Chamorro, José L; Torregrosa, Miquel; Sánchez Oliva, David; García Calvo, Tomás; León, Benito
Within the context of the transition from junior-to-senior sport, this study aims in first place to explore differences in young Spanish elite soccer players based on the importance given to getting different achievements in their future (including sport, studies and private life) and, in second place, to explore differences among those players in levels of passion, motivation and basic psychological need. 478 elite youth soccer filled out a questionnaire based on the presented theoretical models. A cluster analysis shows a sport oriented group (N = 98) only interested in becoming a professional, a life spheres balance group (N = 288) characterized by balancing the importance of achievements in the sport sphere, as well as in education and a private life and a group (N = 91) only interested in private life achievements. The life spheres balance group shows higher levels of harmonious passion (η2 = .06, F(2, 475) = 9.990, p < .001) than the players of the other groups. The life spheres balance group shows higher levels of autonomous motivation (η2 = .10, F(2, 475) = 13.597, p < .001), autonomy (η2 = .07, F(2, 475) = 6.592, p < .01) and relatedness satisfaction (η2 = .07, F(2, 475) = 5.603, p < .01) than the sport oriented group as well as lower levels of amotivation (η2 = .04, F(2, 475) = 6.665, p < .01) than the private life oriented group. This study suggests players who perceive equal future importance in their life spheres appear to be more resourceful than the other two groups regarding athletes' internal resources, such as passion and motivation, to cope with the transition to professional soccer.
This article presents a history of the study of motivation from approximately 1900-1975, focusing on achievement strivings and containing little-known and often surprising facts about the main contributors to this field. Four theorists are highlighted: David McClelland, Kurt Lewin, John Atkinson, and Fritz Heider, each associated with a different theoretical approach (respectively and in order of historical emergence: trait, Gestalt, expectancy/value, and attribution theory). A fifth conception, drive theory, is also represented. In addition, a number of individuals who influenced these theorists and others who followed them are discussed. The article emphasizes the interrelations between the theorists and the interaction between personal and scientific life.
Ellwood, Robin; Abrams, Eleanor
This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged 13-14 years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on 46 % of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. Implications for science teaching and future research include shifting the current focus in inquiry-based science from a continuum that progresses from teacher-directed to open inquiry experiences to a
Núñez, Juan L; Martín-Albo, José; Navarro, José G; González, Víctor M
The Sport Motivation Scale was developed in French and later translated into English and validated by Pelletier, et al. in 1995. It is based on the principles of self-determination theory. In this study the scale was translated into Spanish to assess and validate it for a sample of 275 athletes (78 women and 197 men) whose mean age was 21.3 yr. (SD=3.8) and who represented eight sports (track and field, tennis, swimming, waterpolo, soccer, basketball, handball, and volleyball). The Spanish version showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach alpha of .70 to .80) and temporal stability (test-retest r = .69 to .74) over a 4-wk. period. A confirmatory factor analysis partially supported the seven-factor structure. Correlations among the subscales indicated a simplex pattern supporting the construct validity of the scale. Sex differences were found. Taken together, these findings support use of the Spanish version for assessment of motivation in sport.
Gareau, Alexandre; Gaudreau, Patrick
In previous research, autonomous motivation (AM) has been found to be associated with school achievement, but the relation has been largely heterogeneous across studies. AM has typically been assessed with explicit measures such as self-report questionnaires. Recent self-determination theory (SDT) research has suggested that converging implicit and explicit measures can be taken to characterize the integrative process in SDT. Drawing from dual-process theories, we contended that explicit AM is likely to promote school achievement when it is part of an integrated cognitive system that combines easily accessible mental representations (i.e., implicit AM) and efficient executive functioning. A sample of 272 university students completed a questionnaire and a lexical decision task to assess their explicit and implicit AM, respectively, and they also completed working memory capacity measures. Grades were obtained at the end of the semester to examine the short-term prospective effect of implicit and explicit AM, working memory, and their interaction. Results of moderation analyses have provided support for a synergistic interaction in which the association between explicit AM and academic achievement was positive and significant only for individuals with high level of implicit AM. Moreover, working memory was moderating the synergistic effect of explicit and implicit AM. Explicit AM was positively associated with academic achievement for students with average-to-high levels of working memory capacity, but only if their motivation operated synergistically with high implicit AM. The integrative process thus seems to hold better proprieties for achievement than the sole effect of explicit AM. Implications for SDT are outlined.
Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L
This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a Motivational Interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban low-income and minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of training in MI. Two, two-hour booster sessions plus five, two- hour weekly group supervision sessions were conducted with lay advisors over a period of seven months. One-hundred percent of lay advisors (n =17) participated in all training, booster sessions and assessments. Seventy-one percent of lay advisors (n=12) completed all group supervision sessions and submitted tapes for review. MI training was associated with increased knowledge of MI principles among lay service providers; increased proficiency in responding to simulated clients in an MI consistent style; increased use of MI adherent behaviors in sessions with real clients and maintenance of high motivation to use MI from pretest to posttest. Although lay advisors increased their knowledge of MI, further training is required for advisors to increase competence in delivering MI. Overall, Implications for using MI in the context of school-based settings is discussed.
Yovich, John L
The idea that biomedical research can be influenced by political events implies a teleological basis indicating that scientific achievements occur because there is a political need. Such a concept appears to have been the reason PGD was fast-tracked to emerge as a biomedical achievement well before its due date, occurring at a time when human embryology was still struggling to reach a reasonable level of efficiency and become adopted as a clinically relevant advance around the world. One story underlying the historical achievement of the HFE Act 1990, enabling regulated embryo research, steps outside the firm ground of biomedical science and encourages the idea that Reproductive BioMedicine Online should embrace a further section enabling articles dealing with 'History, politics and personalities' where these influence biomedical research.
Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent
The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level. PMID:25390942
Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent
The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level.
Heck, DeAnn M.
This mixed methods action study examines the relationship of students' three psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness and competence as presented in the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) to the level of achievement of high school seniors at Litchfield High School. In the quantitative phase of the study, the quantitative…
Harris, Jennifer L.; Al-Bataineh, Mohammed T.; Al-Bataineh, Adel
This research was a quantitative study using 4th grade participants from a Title 1 elementary school in Central Illinois. This study set out to determine whether one to one technology (1:1 will be used hereafter) truly impacts and effects the academic achievement of students. This study's second goal was to determine whether 1:1 Technology also…
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between observed practice behaviors consistent with conceptions of deliberate practice (Lehmann & Ericsson, 1997) and the performance achievement of collegiate wind players (N = 55). The secondary purpose of this study was to explore relationships among observed practice…
Nicholls, John G.
Achievement behavior is defined as behavior directed at demonstrating high ability. Ability is conceived as relative to one's own past performance, or relative to that of others. Conditions under which these conceptions of ability function as individual's goals and the nature of subjective experience in each case are specified. (Author/BW)
Lüftenegger, Marko; Kollmayer, Marlene; Bergsmann, Evelyn; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara
One of the most intriguing questions for those who study intellectually gifted students is why some of them reach peak performances at school and others don't. Moderator theories of giftedness assume that domain-specific gifts are transformed into achievement in a process influenced by non-cognitive and environmental variables. Thus, the current…
Baker, Linda, Ed.; Dreher, Mariam Jean, Ed.; Guthrie, John T., Ed.
Blending research evidence with practical recommendations, this book demonstrates how promoting children's engagement with reading can greatly enhance reading achievement. A collection of articles from leading literacy researchers and educators, the book illuminates what a child needs to become an engaged reader and presents a set of instructional…
Dela Rosa, Elmer D.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.
Achievement goals research has focused on the importance of mastery relative to performance goals, but the multiple goals perspective asserts that performance goals also lead to positive outcomes and that learners adopt multiple goals in adaptive ways. However, this multiple-goals perspective has not been extensively studied in Asian students. The…
Song, Juyeon; Bong, Mimi; Lee, Kyehyoung; Kim, Sung-il
We examined (a) the relative importance of perceived social support from parents, peers, and teachers; (b) the consequences associated with different types of perceived social support; and (c) the mediation by achievement goals in the relationship between perceived social support and academic outcomes. We analyzed the first 3 waves of the Korean…
Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage
This study examined the utility of response time-based analyses in understanding the behavior of unmotivated test takers. For the data from an adaptive achievement test, patterns of observed rapid-guessing behavior and item response accuracy were compared to the behavior expected under several types of models that have been proposed to represent…
Programs linking college aid to academic achievement could work either by lowering the cost of college or by inducing additional student effort. I examine the PROMISE program in West Virginia, which offers free tuition to students who maintain a minimum GPA and course load. Using administrative data, I exploit discontinuities in the eligibility…
Gonzalez-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Gonzalez-Pumariega, Soledad; Alvarez, Luis; Roces, Cristina; Garcia, Marta
Used the structural equation model approach to test a model hypothesizing the influence of parental involvement on students' academic aptitudes, self-concept, and causal attributions, as well as the influence of these variables on academic achievement. Results for 261 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years suggest that cognitive-affective variables are…
Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige
There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences…
Sturm, Heike; Bogner, Franz X.
The study investigated cognitive and motivational effects of two educational interventions, a conventional versus a student-oriented approach. We monitored the impact on the cognitive achievement outcome and the motivation of students. Both approaches dealt with the subject of birds and bird flight; the student-oriented approach consisted of a…
Cunningham, Carlton A.
Technology enhancements of the past two decades have not successfully overcome the problem of low motivation in Kindergarten through Grade 12 (K-12). Motivation and math achievement have been identified as major factors contributing to the high school dropout problem (30-50% in traditional/online programs). The impact of extrinsic rewards on…
Johnson, Carolyn H.
There is little literature comparing personality differences between traditional (under age 25) and reentry women students (aged 25 and older). The purpose of the present study is to examine these differences. A background questionnaire and five additional scales: (1) the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire (WOFO-3); (2) the…
Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John
Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups. PMID:24391731
Tops, Mattie; Quirin, Markus; Boksem, Maarten A S; Koole, Sander L
Several lines of research in animals and humans converge on the distinction between two basic large-scale brain networks of self-regulation, giving rise to predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS). Predictive (internally-driven) and reactive (externally-guided) control are supported by dorsal versus ventral corticolimbic systems, respectively. Based on extant empirical evidence, we demonstrate how the PARCS produce frontal laterality effects in emotion and motivation. In addition, we explain how this framework gives rise to individual differences in appraising and coping with challenges. PARCS theory integrates separate fields of research, such as research on the motivational correlates of affect, EEG frontal alpha power asymmetry and implicit affective priming effects on cardiovascular indicators of effort during cognitive task performance. Across these different paradigms, converging evidence points to a qualitative motivational division between, on the one hand, angry and happy emotions, and, on the other hand, sad and fearful emotions. PARCS suggests that those two pairs of emotions are associated with predictive and reactive control, respectively. PARCS theory may thus generate important new insights on the motivational and emotional dynamics that drive autonomic and homeostatic control processes.
Milner-Bolotin, Marina M.; Moll, R.; Kotlicki, A.; Bates, F.; Rieger, G.; Nashon, S.
Interactive Lecture Experiments (ILE) have been used in the introductory physics course at the University of British Columbia for over two years. During the Fall of 2006 a systematic study was conducted using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS), Force Concept Inventory (FCI), physics open-ended exam problems and focus group interviews to determine the impact of ILE on student academic achievement, motivation and attitudes towards physics. Three sections of students (750 students) experienced four ILE experiments. FCI and CLASS were administered twice and academic results for students who experienced the ILE for a particular topic were compared to students, from a different section, who did not complete the ILE for that topic. Qualitative data on students’ attitudes was also collected using open ended survey questions and interviews. Preliminary results will be presented with conclusions about the impact of using ILE as an effective pedagogy in large introductory physics courses.
Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Abraldes, J. Arturo
The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor) provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor structure of each model using confirmatory factor analysis and also assessed internal consistency and convergent validity. The results showed that all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model (χ2/gl = 2.73; ECVI = 1.38) as it produces better values when adapted to physical education, that five-factor model (χ2/gl = 2.82; ECVI = 1.44) and three-factor model (χ2/gl = 3.02; ECVI = 1.53). Key Points Physical education research conducted in Spain has used the version of SMS designed to assess motivation in sport, but validity reliability and validity results in physical education have not been reported. Results of the present study lend support to the factorial validity and internal reliability of three alternative factor structures (3, 5, and 7 factors) of SMS adapted to Physical Education in Spanish. Although all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model. PMID:25435772
Linking Perceptions of School Belonging to Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement amongst Student Athletes: A Comparative Study between High-Revenue Student Athletes and Non-Revenue Student Athletes
Anderson, Christine Marie
In this study, I examined the relationship that exists among school belonging, achievement motivation, and academic achievement in a sample of student-athletes at UC Berkeley. The goal of the study was to achieve a deeper understanding of how and why achievement motivation and academic achievement is often discrepant between revenue and…
Martín-Albo, José; Núñez, Juan L; Navarro, José G
The purpose of the present research was to translate into Spanish and analyze the psychometricA properties of the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). The participants were 373 undergraduate students (126 males and 247 females). Factor validity was tested via confirmatory factor analysis. Based on factor loadings and modification indexes, the SIMS was reduced to a 14-item model. This respecification showed adequate internal consistency and construct validity. The multistep analysis of invariance revealed that the factor structure of the SIMS is invariant across gender. Likewise, MANOVA revealed that amotivation was the only significant variable across gender. Predictive validity was assessed through path analysis. The results support the preliminary use of the Spanish version of the SIMS for the assessment of situational motivation in education.
Gambrari, Isiaka Amosa; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Thomas, David Akpa
This study examined the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) and Learning Together Model (LTM) cooperative learning strategies on Nigerian secondary students' achievement and motivation in physics. The efficacy of Authors developed computer assisted instructional package (CAI) for teaching…
Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Thomas, David Akpa
This study examined the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) and Learning Together (LT) cooperative learning strategies on Nigerian secondary students' achievement and motivation in physics. The effectiveness of computer assisted instructional package (CAI) for teaching physics concepts in…
Smith, Kenneth J; Davy, Jeanette A; Rosenberg, Donald L
This study examined alternative seven-, five-, and three-factor structures for the Academic Motivation Scale, with data from a large convenience sample of 2,078 students matriculating in various business courses at three AACSB-accredited regional comprehensive universities. In addition, the invariance of the scale's factor structure between male and female students and between undergraduate and Master's of Business Administration students was investigated. Finally, the internal consistency of the items loading on each of the seven AMS subscales was assessed as well as whether the correlations among the subscales supported a continuum of self-determination. Results for the full sample as well as the targeted subpopulations supported the seven factor configuration of the scale with adequate model fit achieved for all but the MBA student group. The data also generated acceptable internal consistency statistics for all of the subscales. However, in line with a number of previous studies, the correlations between subscales failed to fully support the scale's simplex structure as proposed by self-determination theory.
Sterner, Anne G.; McCallum, R. Steve
Administered the Gesell Development Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) to kindergarten graduates (N=80). Found the BBCS may be a better predictor of achievement from a current state of readiness. (Author/ABL)
Stover, Juliana Beatriz; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Boubeta, Antonio Rial; Liporace, Mercedes Fernández
The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), supported in Self-Determination Theory, has been applied in recent decades as well in high school as in college education. Although several versions in Spanish are available, the underlying linguistic and cultural differences raise important issues when they are applied to Latin-American population. Consequently an adapted version of the AMS was developed, and its construct validity was analyzed in Argentine students. Results obtained on a sample that included 723 students from Buenos Aires (393 high school and 330 college students) verified adequate psychometric properties in this new version, solving some controversies regarded to its dimensionality. PMID:22888280
Klusmann, Uta; Richter, Dirk; Lüdtke, Oliver
Prior research has demonstrated that teachers' professional knowledge and motivation are strongly related to students' learning and motivation. Symptoms of teachers' stress and burnout (e.g., emotional exhaustion) are also thought to influence students' achievement, but no empirical study has tested this prediction. Using multilevel analyses and a…
Zhao, Yanhua; Zhu, Xiangru; Zhao, Guoxiang
This study examined the validity of a Chinese version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (C-SAGOS), a measure testing the trichotomous framework of achievement goal orientations in a social domain. A total of 208 college students (51% female) aged 18 to 23 participated in the study. Factor analyses showed that the three-factor model…
The call for standards-based reform and educational accountability has led to increased attention to large-scale assessments. Over the past two decades, large-scale assessments have been providing policymakers and educators with timely information about student learning and achievement to facilitate their decisions regarding schools, teachers and…
Zhang, James J.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Smith, Dennis W.; Fleming, David S.; Connaughton, Dan P.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Scale for Program Facilitators (SPF) to assess the effectiveness of after school achievement programs through four steps: (a) identification of a theoretical framework, (b) formulation of the initial scale, (c) test of content validity, and (d) conducting confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). A…
Socio-motivational moderators—two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students
Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael
The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12–15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12–16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher–student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student–student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role. PMID:26583000
King, Melissa Digennaro
Goals 2000 set forth a bold vision for U.S. students: they would be "first in the world in science and mathematics" by the year 2000. Performance indicators such as the TIMSS-R (1999) and NAEP (2000) reports suggest that U.S. students have not yet reached that goal. This study intended to learn how specific assessment strategies might contribute to improved student performance in science. This quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of formative assessment with reflection on students' motivational beliefs, self-regulatory skills, and achievement in elementary science. The study aimed to find out whether and how classroom applications of formative assessment during science instruction might influence fifth-grade students' attitudes and self-perceptions about science learning, self-regulatory learning behaviors, and achievement. To explore the effects of the assessment intervention, the study utilized a mixed methods approach involving quantitative and qualitative investigations of treatment and control groups during a four-week intervention period. Quantitative measures included student self-report surveys administered pre- and post-treatment and an end-of-unit science test. Qualitative measures included classroom observations, student interviews (post-treatment), and a teacher interview (post-treatment). Findings indicated that the fifth-grade students in this study had positive attitudes toward science and high levels of self-efficacy for science. Results suggested that these elementary students employed a wide variety of cognitive and metacognitive strategies to support science learning. Findings revealed that these fifth graders believed formative assessment with reflection was beneficial for science learning outcomes. Research results did not show that the formative assessment intervention contributed to significant differences between treatment and control groups. However, the data revealed different levels of academic achievement and self
Boggiano, Mary M; Wenger, Lowell E; Turan, Bulent; Tatum, Mindy M; Sylvester, Maria D; Morgan, Phillip R; Morse, Kathryn E; Burgess, Emilee E
Highly palatable foods play a salient role in obesity and binge-eating, and if habitually eaten to deal with intrinsic and extrinsic factors unrelated to metabolic need, may compromise adaptive coping and interpersonal skills. This study used event sampling methodology (ESM) to examine whether individuals who report eating palatable foods primarily to cope, to enhance reward, to be social, or to conform, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), actually eat these foods primarily for the motive(s) they report on the PEMS. Secondly this study examined if the previously reported ability of the PEMS Coping motive to predict BMI would replicate if the real-time (ESM-reported) coping motive was used to predict BMI. A total of 1691 palatable eating events were collected from 169 college students over 4 days. Each event included the day, time, and types of tasty foods or drinks consumed followed by a survey that included an abbreviated version of the PEMS, hunger as an additional possible motive, and a question assessing general perceived stress during the eating event. Two-levels mixed modeling confirmed that ESM-reported motives correlated most strongly with their respective PEMS motives and that all were negatively associated with eating for hunger. While stress surrounding the eating event was strongly associated with the ESM-coping motive, its inclusion in the model as a predictor of this motive did not abolish the significant association between ESM and PEMS Coping scores. Regression models confirmed that scores on the ESM-coping motive predicted BMI. These findings provide ecological validity for the PEMS to identify true-to-life motives for consuming palatable foods. This further adds to the utility of the PEMS in individualizing, and hence improving, treatment strategies for obesity, binge-eating, dietary nutrition, coping, reward acquisition, and psychosocial skills.
Kosovich, Jeff J.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Getty, Steve
We present validity evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost (EVC) Scale of student motivation. Using a brief, 10-item scale, we measured middle school students' expectancy, value, and cost for their math and science classes in the Fall and Winter of the same academic year. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor structure of the EVC…
Geier, Robert R.
This work examines the effects on achievement of a multifaceted reform supporting standards based science teaching in urban middle schools. Several project-based inquiry science curriculum units were introduced to the Detroit public schools, supported by aligned professional development, learning technologies, and administrative policy. The units scaled to over 20,000 students in 26 schools over 6 years, producing unique large-scale longitudinal achievement data on curriculum reform. Chapters include a review of achievement studies on scaling reforms, an examination of the impact of the inquiry curriculum units on state standardized test results, and an investigation of the effect of scaling and teacher experience on student learning. Two cohorts of 7th and 8th graders that participated in the curricula are compared with the remainder of the district population using state standardized test results. Both the initial (n = 760) and scaled up (n = 1,043) cohorts show higher science content understanding and process skills, and significantly higher pass rates. The effect does not attenuate with scaling, is greater for students who experience an inquiry curriculum in both 7th and 8th grade, and reduces the gender gap in achievement for urban African-American boys. Scaling effects as the curriculum innovation matured over 4--6 years are examined using pretest/posttest assessments for two curricula involving 6,396 and 5,043 students respectively. There is no attenuation in student achievement as the innovation scales and outside support fades. Student achievement shows significant gains in the first two years of curriculum enactment, before reaching a stable plateau. By contrast, individual teachers show yearly improvement in student achievement on average as they gain experience with curricula. The absence of a plateau suggests that stability of teacher staffing and administrative support for reform are important for maintaining and improving achievement. Together, the
Engqvist, Jonas; Wallin, Mathias; Ristinmaa, Matti; Hall, Stephen A.; Plivelic, Tomás S.
Novel experimental data, obtained recently using advanced multi-scale experiments, have been used to develop a micro-mechanically motivated constitutive model for amorphous glassy polymers. Taking advantage of the experiments, the model makes use of a microstructural deformation gradient to incorporate the experimentally obtained deformation of the microstructure, as well as its evolving orientation. By comparing results from the model to experimental data, it is shown that the proposed approach is able to accurately predict glassy polymer deformation over a wide range of length-scales, from the macroscopic response (mm range) down to the deformation of the microstructure (nm range). The proposed model is evaluated by comparing the numerical response to experimental results on multiple scales from an inhomogeneous cold drawing experiment of glassy polycarbonate. Besides the macroscopic force-displacement response, a qualitative comparison of the deformation field at the surface of the specimen is performed. Furthermore, the predicted evolution of the fabric orientation is compared to experimental results obtained from X-ray scattering experiments. The model shows very good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of length scales.
Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim
Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p < .0001) and post-MotScl (ES = 0.32; p < .05) scores. According to data obtained from the questionnaire, the application of the 4MAT model increases student motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.
Osborne, Jason W.; Jones, Brett D.
Authors since William James ("1892/1968") have implied that the structure of the self-concept can influence motivation and outcomes in particular domains. The value or importance an individual places on a domain influences how motivated that individual is to expend effort in that domain, ultimately influencing the positivity or negativity of the…
Harlan, Joan C.
This book provides teachers with strategies for maintaining and increasing appropriate behaviors as well as for preventing and remediating inappropriate behaviors. The 15 chapters provide suggestions and approaches to managing, motivating, and teaching students of all ability and motivational levels. The first three chapters address goals for…
A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that…
Among 4th-6th-grade students (165 girls, 150 boys) in the Netherlands, the author examined ethnic differences in two aspects of teacher-oriented academic motivation: working in order to please the teacher and dependence on the teacher for academic help. Given higher levels of power distance in Turkish and Moroccan versus Dutch culture, both measures and their correlates were compared for 132 Turkish- and Moroccan-Dutch students, and 183 ethnic Dutch students. Analyses showed that Turkish- and Moroccan-Dutch students scored higher on pleasing the teacher and dependence on the teacher. For them, but not for the ethnic Dutch students, teacher-oriented motivation was positively related to intrinsic motivation and perceived academic competence. Also, students from all groups reported more dependence on the teacher and more intrinsic motivation the more they appreciated their teachers. Results support the notion that teacher-oriented extrinsic motivation is autonomous, rather than controlled for students from power-distant cultures.
Norozi, Ensiyeh; Miri, Mohammad Reza; Soltani, Raheleh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Harivandi, Ali Reza; Dastjerdi, Reza
Background Treatment motivation has always been an important issue in substance abuse treatment. In recent decades, several instruments have been developed to measure this concept. Objectives In this study, cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the circumstances, motivation and readiness scale (CMR) are illustrated in a sample of Iranian addicts. Materials and Methods The translation process followed Beaton et al.’s (2000) guideline for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-administered questionnaires, including the steps of translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee review, and pre-testing. The final version of the Persian CMR was assessed for internal consistency and construct validity (n = 203). Results There was one eliminated item in the cross-cultural adaptation process. Also, four items that had low correlation with the total score were excluded from the questionnaire during the initial analysis. Using the remaining items, Principle axis factoring with Promax rotation was performed and three factors, circumstance, motivation, and readiness, were identified. The secondary order three factor model provided a good statistical and conceptual fit for the data. Internal consistency met the criterion for a reliable measure (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.840). The α range for these identified factors was 0.597 to 0.837. Conclusions Although the CMR was originally designed for use in TC treatment, this study suggests that it is also applicable, with some modifications, in short-term residential camps. Also, it is concluded that the Persian translation of the CMR can be applied for studies among Persian addicts. PMID:27622165
Background Behavioral interventions such as psychotherapy are leading, evidence-based practices for a variety of problems (e.g., substance abuse), but the evaluation of provider fidelity to behavioral interventions is limited by the need for human judgment. The current study evaluated the accuracy of statistical text classification in replicating human-based judgments of provider fidelity in one specific psychotherapy—motivational interviewing (MI). Method Participants (n = 148) came from five previously conducted randomized trials and were either primary care patients at a safety-net hospital or university students. To be eligible for the original studies, participants met criteria for either problematic drug or alcohol use. All participants received a type of brief motivational interview, an evidence-based intervention for alcohol and substance use disorders. The Motivational Interviewing Skills Code is a standard measure of MI provider fidelity based on human ratings that was used to evaluate all therapy sessions. A text classification approach called a labeled topic model was used to learn associations between human-based fidelity ratings and MI session transcripts. It was then used to generate codes for new sessions. The primary comparison was the accuracy of model-based codes with human-based codes. Results Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of model-based codes showed reasonably strong sensitivity and specificity with those from human raters (range of area under ROC curve (AUC) scores: 0.62 – 0.81; average AUC: 0.72). Agreement with human raters was evaluated based on talk turns as well as code tallies for an entire session. Generated codes had higher reliability with human codes for session tallies and also varied strongly by individual code. Conclusion To scale up the evaluation of behavioral interventions, technological solutions will be required. The current study demonstrated preliminary, encouraging findings regarding the utility
Supriadi, Eddi; Yusof, Hj. Abdul Raheem Bin Mohamad
The study aimed to investigate the relationship between the instructional leadership of the headmaster and the work discipline of teachers and the work motivation and the academic achievement of primary school students from Special Province of Central Jakarta. The research method will be done with quantitative research methods. The study uses data…
Hornstra, Lisette; van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea; Volman, Monique
The present study investigated the effects of socioeconomic and ethnic classroom composition on developments in students' motivation, sense of classroom belonging, and achievement. A sample of 722 primary school students completed questionnaires from 3rd to 6th grade. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that the reading comprehension scores of…
Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Pekrun, Reinhard; Kleine, Michael
This article investigates gender differences in 181 gifted and 181 average-ability sixth graders in achievement, academic self-concept, interest, and motivation in mathematics. Giftedness was conceptualized as nonverbal reasoning ability and defined by a rank of at least 95% on a nonverbal reasoning subscale of the German Cognitive Abilities Test.…
Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Lee, Kuan-Hsien
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the integration of concept maps and tablet PCs in anti-phishing education for enhancing students' learning motivation and achievement. The subjects were 155 students from grades 8 and 9. They were divided into an experimental group (77 students) and a control group (78 students). To begin…
Meriläinen, Matti; Kuittinen, Matti
This study examined the relation between university students' perceived level of study-related burnout (SRB) and their perceptions of the teaching-learning environment (TLE), as well as their perceived achievement motivation (AM). The data are based on a survey of nine Finnish universities in the spring of 2009. Altogether, 3035 university…
The present study examined the mediational role of academic motivation in the association between school self-concept and school achievement among 355 Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada and 363 Indian adolescents in India. Surveys were administered among Grades 9-12 students in Canada and India to assess their academic self-concepts, academic…
This research was conducted to determine the effects of high scientific literacy, self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on teachers' ability to compose effective tests. It was conducted among junior high school science teachers in Manado, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, from April to September 2011, using a cross-sectional survey design.…
Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.; Worrell, Frank C.
Among 110 Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, teacher autonomy support in 9th grade significantly predicted intrinsic motivation for math in 9th grade as well as math course-taking over the next 2 years, both of which in turn significantly predicted math achievement by 11th grade. In a second model, teacher autonomy support was positively…
Wu, Ejean; Yang, Shu Ching
This study examines the differential impact of tutor labeling vs. non-labeling approaches on the performance; motivation beliefs; and cognitive, social, and teaching presence of low-achieving students. Two interactive tutoring strategy patterns are investigated based on the taxonomical e-moderating model of Salmon. In addition, the tutees' online…
Houts, Peter S.; Scott, Robert A.
A project sought to identify how the strategies used in training programs for the development of achievement motivation could be applied to the field of mental health. In addition to using goal planning in all its aspects, if focused on the patients' strengths rather than their problems. It also trained the staff who worked with the patients…
Aida, Misako; Watanabe, Satoshi P.
Universities throughout the world are trending toward more performance based methods to capture their strengths, weaknesses and productivity. Hiroshima University has developed an integrated objective measure for quantifying multifaceted faculty activities, namely the "Achievement-Motivated Key Performance Indicator" (A-KPI), in order to…
Keaney, Minako; Mundia, Lawrence
An increasing number of students at the University of Brunei Darussalam are studying the Japanese language. However, research on the relationship between learners' motivation and their achievement has not been given sufficient attention in Japanese foreign language education compared to English in Brunei. The present study, which utilized a…
"Problem-based learning" (PBL) is one of an innovative learning model which can provide an active learning to student, include the motivation to achieve showed by student when the learning is in progress. This research is aimed to know: (1) differences of physic learning result for student group which taught by PBL versus expository…
Ebadi, Setareh; Shakoorzadeh, Reza
The present study was carried out with the aim of Investigation of academic procrastination prevalence and its relationship with academic self-regulation and achievement motivation among high-school students in Tehran city. The sample included 624 high school students (312 Boys & 312 Girls) from different areas and regions that selected using…
Jurisevic, Mojca; Vrtacnik, Margareta; Kwiatkowski, Marek; Gros, Natasa
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between students' motivational orientations and their chemistry achievements and perception of learning within the original case of the hands-on approach to visible spectrometry. A total of 295 students from Polish and Slovenian vocational and technical high schools participated in the…
This study of a large sample (n = 3035) examined relationships between study-related burnout and components of the teaching-learning environment, achievement motivation and the perceived meaning of life. The overall model, tested with structural equation modelling, revealed that the factor of the teaching-learning environment correlated with both…
Tan, Ser Hong; Pang, Joyce S.
This study investigates the processes through which achievement motivation guides the selection of coping strategies which in turn affects environmental mastery post-failure feedback. Seventy-six college students received failure feedback after completing a professional aptitude test. Findings showed that gender moderated the relationship between…
Ellwood, Robin B.
This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants…
Chen, Wei-Wen; Wong, Yi-Lee
Chinese students are well-known for their academic excellence. However, studies that explore the underlying mechanism of how cultural factors relate to the motivational process and academic achievement of Chinese students have been limited. This study aimed to examine the role of filial piety in shaping Chinese students' theories of intelligence so as to obtain a clearer understanding of the process by which parent-child connectedness is linked to Chinese students' academic achievement. A sample of 312 university students in Hong Kong were assessed concerning their filial piety beliefs, theories of intelligence and academic achievement. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results indicated that different filial piety beliefs relate to students' academic achievement by shaping different theories of intelligence. Reciprocal filial piety beliefs were found to facilitate an incremental view of intelligence, which in turn contributes to students' academic achievement. Authoritarian filial piety beliefs were shown to be associated with an entity view of intelligence, which consequently deteriorates students' academic achievement. Cultural views of motivational processes can shed light on how motivational beliefs are developed as a product of cultural or socialization processes, which, in turn, contribute to students' academic success.
Wang, Kenneth T
An increasing number of perfectionism studies have been conducted across different countries outside of the Western framework. Using an international egalitarian approach that adopts indigenous frameworks and concepts from the cultural context of the population studied is imperative. This study examines different groups of perfectionists with a sample of 348 Taiwanese college students, emphasizing the collectivistic culture. In particular, this is a follow-up study to further explore characteristics of a group with low standards/high discrepancy--a feeling that they are not good enough despite having low standards--found in a previous study with Taiwanese students. More specifically, this study investigates whether the source of the high discrepancy scores among this group is related to having higher perfectionistic standards from their family. Perfectionism was examined not only from a personal/individualistic perspective, but also from a familistic dimension to reflect Taiwanese collectivistic cultural values. Results partially supported the hypotheses--this group reported having higher family discrepancy, but not family standards, than nonperfectionists. However, this group of participants reported lower academic grades, which implies the possibility of their discrepancy being associated with poorer performance. Four cluster groups--adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, nonperfectionists, and those with low standards/high discrepancy--were compared on their levels of depression, self-esteem, achievement motivation, and academic grades. Maladaptive perfectionists reported the highest depression level, while adaptive perfectionists reported the highest self-esteem. Results also show that aspects of personal perfectionism and family perfectionism related to self-esteem differently among this sample. Findings and implications are discussed with consideration of the collectivistic cultural context in Taiwan.
Soyez, Veerle; De Leon, George; Rosseel, Yves; Broekaert, Eric
There is empirical evidence that treatment motivation and readiness are closely linked to retention. Several instruments have been developed to measure these concepts; such instruments can reliably assess the stages of motivation and readiness, and predict treatment retention and outcome. However, limited efforts have been undertaken in Europe to translate those instruments and to determine their reliability and validity. In this study, the psychometric properties of a Dutch translation of the Circumstances, Motivation, Readiness, and Suitability (CMRS) scales by De Leon and Jainchill and the shortened CMR Intake Version are illustrated in a Flemish sample of therapeutic community residents (n = 207). Exploratory factor analyses confirm three CMR subscales, although confirmatory factor analysis reveals only a moderate fit for both the CMRS and the CMR. In contrast, the predictive power of the instrument is strong, specifically for 1-year retention. Significant correlations were found between CMRS measures and age, drug severity, legal referral, and social problems. It is concluded that the Dutch translation of the CMRS and the CMR can be employed as a valid indicator of treatment motivation and readiness, although additional research concerning factorial structures is needed.
Man, Rita Li Yi
Environmental health-related land use planning conditions can enhance the environment in Hong Kong. Previous research by others has shown, however, that a lack of compliance with planning conditions often occurs. And as no direct enforcement of planning conditions exists in Hong Kong, it is of interest to understand possible ways in which to increase the motivation of land developers and property owners to comply with planning conditions. The author looked at motivation from the perspective of three traditional motivation theories: Theory X, Theory Y, and incentive theory. While the majority of this article focuses on the enforcement and the legal tests in land use planning conditions, it also presents the results of the first study of the motivations behind Hong Kong land developers to comply with land use planning conditions.
You, Sukkyung; Dang, Myley; Lim, Sun Ah
Background: In the Korean educational system, academic achievement is one of the crucial factors in assessing a student's academic ability for postsecondary education. Thus, many researchers have been studying ways to improve students' academic achievement. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between students'…
Background Lifestyle is one of the main determinants of people’s health. It is essential to find the most effective prevention strategies to be used to encourage behavioral changes in their patients. Many theories are available that explain change or adherence to specific health behaviors in subjects. In this sense the named Motivational Interviewing has increasingly gained relevance. Few well-validated instruments are available for measuring doctors’ communication skills, and more specifically the Motivational Interviewing. Methods/Design The hypothesis of this study is that the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills (EVEM questionnaire) is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals skills to get behavior change in patients. To test the hypothesis we have designed a prospective, observational, multi-center study to validate a measuring instrument. –Scope: Thirty-two primary care centers in Spain. -Sampling and Size: a) face and consensual validity: A group composed of 15 experts in Motivational Interviewing. b) Assessment of the psychometric properties of the scale; 50 physician- patient encounters will be videoed; a total of 162 interviews will be conducted with six standardized patients, and another 200 interviews will be conducted with 50 real patients (n=362). Four physicians will be specially trained to assess 30 interviews randomly selected to test the scale reproducibility. -Measurements for to test the hypothesis: a) Face validity: development of a draft questionnaire based on a theoretical model, by using Delphi-type methodology with experts. b) Scale psychometric properties: intraobservers will evaluate video recorded interviews: content-scalability validity (Exploratory Factor Analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), intra-/inter-observer reliability (Kappa index, intraclass correlation coefficient, Bland & Altman methodology), generalizability, construct validity and sensitivity to change
Bates, Samantha; Ball, Annahita; Wilks, Scott
Objective: Psychometric details of the Parental Press for Academic Achievement and Postsecondary Planning Scale (PPS), developed by Chicago Consortium of Chicago School Research, are scarce. The purpose of this study was to reexamine the properties of this 7-item measure. Method: The study utilized cross-sectional, self-reported data from 100…
This paper describes how characteristics of complex educational change can hinder efforts to achieve equity. It reports that factors beyond the control of educational leaders may hamper their wish of equality. The article is based on an investigation of large-scale local education areas (LEAs) and how initiatives to reorganize schools were managed…
Gallagher, Mary Jean; Malloy, John; Ryerson, Rachel
This paper offers an insiders' perspective on the large-scale, system-wide educational change undertaken in Ontario, Canada from 2003 to the present. The authors, Ministry and school system leaders intimately involved in this change process, explore how Ontario has come to be internationally recognized as an equitable, high-achieving, and…
Alkhateeb, Haitham M
The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
Davis, Kelly D; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael
In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N= 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for students' grades were common at all levels of schooling. Reward history related significantly to students' motivational orientation and performance in college, and these relations were generally stronger for boys than for girls. The authors discuss implications of these findings.
Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D
A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called "game addiction"). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty). Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes toward the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players' evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use.
Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.
A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called “game addiction”). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty). Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes toward the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players' evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use. PMID:24058355
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei
Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei
Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.
Pruett, Steven R.; Deiches, Jon; Pfaller, Joseph; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong
Objective: To determine the factorial validity of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward People with Disabilities Scale (D-IMS/EMS). Design: A quantitative descriptive design using factor analysis. Participants: 233 rehabilitation counseling and rehabilitation services students. Results: Both exploratory and…
Wang, C K John; Liu, Woon Chia; Lochbaum, Marc R; Stevenson, Sarah J
We examined whether perceived competence moderated the relationships between implicit theories, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation for sports and physical activity. We placed 309 university students into high and moderate perceived competence groups. When perceived competence was high, entity beliefs did not predict the performance-avoidance goal; yet when perceived competence was moderately low, entity beliefs did predict this goal. The mastery-avoidance goal had no relationship with intrinsic motivation when perceived competence was high, but had a significant negative relationship when perceived competence was moderately low. Our findings highlight the importance of reexamining the role of perceived competence when studying implicit beliefs and the 2 x 2 achievement goals.
During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry,…
Montero-Hernandez, Virginia; Levin, John; Diaz-Castillo, Maribel
This study uses narrative analysis to understand the ways in which Mexican university faculty members used their self-motivational resources to persist in an instructional technology training program within adverse work conditions. The methodology included interviews and participant observation. Findings suggest that faculty's academic resilience…
Leana-Tascilar, Marilena Z.
The Actiotope Model of Giftedness (AMG) focuses on person-environment interactions instead of on the personality traits associated with actions. Motivation is a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic forces that are fundamental to the production of actions. Therefore, the resources provided by the environment or person are important for the…
The aim of this study is to determine if approaches to learning and academic motivation together predict grade point averages (GPAs) of students who study at Primary School Education and Preschool Education in Turkey and of students who study at Early Childhood Education in the US. The first group of participants included 166 third- and…
Davis, Kelly D.; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael
In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N = 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for…
Stevens, Tara; Olivarez, Arturo, Jr.; Hamman, Doug
The authors investigated the relationships between cognitive, motivational, and emotional variables across Hispanic and White students to predict mathematics performance. A theoretically based structural model fit a total sample of 666 4th- to 10th-grade students well, supporting that self-efficacy, sources of self-efficacy, and emotional feedback…
Yang, C.; Chang, Y. -S.
Blogs have been increasingly used to supplement traditional classroom lectures in higher education. This paper explores the use of blogs, and how student attitudes towards online peer interaction and peer learning, as well as motivation to learn from peers, may differ when using the blog comments feature, and when students are encouraged to read…
Levpuscek, Melita Puklek; Zupancic, Maja
Contributions of parental involvement in educational pursuits as well as math teachers' classroom behavior to students' motivation and performance in math were investigated. By the end of the first school term, 365 Slovene eighth graders reported on their parents' academic involvement (pressure, support, and help) and their math teachers' behavior…
Eighty-six Negro and Mexican-American children were divided into experimental and control groups in a study designed to learn the effects of an 8-week summer Head Start program on the achievement motive of these children. The study was based on McClelland's theory of achievement motive and the models of Atkinson and Aronson. Children were…
Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia R.; van der Ploeg, Arie; Li, Wei
We use data from a large-scale, school-level randomized experiment conducted in 2010-2011 in public schools in Indiana. Our sample includes more than 30,000 students in 70 schools. We examine the impact of two interim assessment programs (i.e., mCLASS in Grades K-2 and Acuity in Grades 3--8) on mathematics and reading achievement. Two-level models…
Ellwood, Robin B.
This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged thirteen to fourteen years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on forty-six percent of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. This research also illustrates the positive gains in motivation and achievement outcomes that emerge from student experiences with extended time in isolated areas referred to
Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Dengah, H J Francois; Lacy, Michael G; Fagan, Jesse
Yee (2006) found three motivational factors-achievement, social, and immersion-underlying play in massively multiplayer online role-playing games ("MMORPGs" or "MMOs" for short). Subsequent work has suggested that these factors foster problematic or addictive forms of play in online worlds. In the current study, we used an online survey of respondents (N = 252), constructed and also interpreted in reference to ethnography and interviews, to examine problematic play in the World of Warcraft (WoW; Blizzard Entertainment, 2004-2013). We relied on tools from psychological anthropology to reconceptualize each of Yee's three motivational factors in order to test for the possible role of culture in problematic MMO play: (a) For achievement, we examined how "cultural consonance" with normative understandings of success might structure problematic forms of play; (b) for social, we analyzed the possibility that developing overvalued virtual relationships that are cutoff from offline social interactions might further exacerbate problematic play; and (c) in relation to immersion, we examined how "dissociative" blurring of actual- and virtual-world identities and experiences might contribute to problematic patterns. Our results confirmed that compared to Yee's original motivational factors, these culturally sensitive measures better predict problematic forms of play, pointing to the important role of sociocultural factors in structuring online play.