Science.gov

Sample records for achievement motivation theory

  1. Atkinson's Theory of Achievement Motivation: First Step Toward a Theory of Academic Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Sjogren, Douglas D.

    1971-01-01

    Choice-preference and task persistence prediction studies support the theory. However, the results on performance data are less clear. Issues to be resolved are: better measurement instruments, identification of internal-external achievement motivated subjects, long-term achievement, and cross-cultural generalization. There are implications for…

  2. Goal theory, motivation, and school achievement: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Covington, M V

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to document the directions and recent progress in our understanding of the motivational dynamics of school achievement. Based on the accumulating research it is concluded that the quality of student learning as well as the will to continue learning depends closely on an interaction between the kinds of social and academic goals students bring to the classroom, the motivating properties of these goals and prevailing classroom reward structures. Implications for school reform that follow uniquely from a motivational and goal-theory perspective are also explored. PMID:10751969

  3. Interpersonal Relationships, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement: Yields for Theory, Current Issues, and Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…

  4. Applications of Achievement Goal Theory to Physical Education: Implications for Enhancing Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treasure, Darren C.; Roberts, Glyn C.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the basic tenets of achievement goal theory, analyzing research in physical education that focuses extensively on instructional practice and strategies that may improve the quality of students' motivation. Comments on the potential utility of adopting an achievement goal approach to understanding and enhancing motivation in physical…

  5. Motivational Climates, Achievement Goals, and Physical Education Outcomes: A Longitudinal Test of Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…

  6. Advancing Achievement Goal Theory: Using Goal Structures and Goal Orientations to Predict Students' Motivation, Cognition, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how different components of achievement goal theory were related to each other and to students' motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement in mathematics. Junior high school students (N=525) completed a self-report survey that assessed their perceived classroom goal structures; personal goal…

  7. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  8. Implicit Theories of Ability of Grade 6 Science Students: Relation to Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Motivation and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jason A.; Pajares, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We investigated: (a) the associations of implicit theories and epistemological beliefs and their effects on the academic motivation and achievement of students in Grade 6 science and (b) the mean differences of implicit theories, epistemological beliefs, and academic motivation and achievement as a function of gender and race/ethnicity (N=508).…

  9. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  10. A Comparison of Emotional-Motivational (A-R-D Theory) Personality Characteristics in Learning Disabled, Normal Achieving, and High Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufano, Linda D.

    The study examined emotional-motivational personality characteristics of 15 learning disabled, 15 normal achieving, and 15 high achieving students (grades 3-5). The study tested the hypothesis derived from the A-R-D (attitude-reinforcer-discriminative) theory of motivation that learning disabled (LD) children differ from normal and high achieving…

  11. The Pivotal Role of Effort Beliefs in Mediating Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Achievement Goals and Academic Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through…

  12. Standard Setting and Risk Preference: An Elaboration of the Theory of Achievement Motivation and an Empirical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Julius

    1978-01-01

    A formal elaboration of the original theory of achievement motivation (Atkinson, 1957; Atkinson & Feather, 1966) is proposed that includes personal standards as determinants of motivational tendencies. The results of an experiment are reported that examines the validity of some of the implications of the elaborated model proposed here. (Author/RK)

  13. Achievement Motivation and the Vocational Development of Adolescent Women: A Review and Application of Achievement Motivation Research to Vocational Development Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celkis, Ruta

    Achievement motivation research provides a basis for understanding the processes by which socialization into stereotypical feminine roles shapes the educational and vocational aspirations of adolescent women. Young women are socialized to be interested in pleasing others, motivated to achieve in traditionally feminine areas, and fearful of success…

  14. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  15. Positive Affect and Negative Affect as Modulators of Cognition and Motivation: The Rediscovery of Affect in Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornebekk, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that…

  16. A Model of Contextual Motivation in Physical Education: Using Constructs from Self-Determination and Achievement Goal Theories To Predict Physical Activity Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2003-01-01

    Examines a study of student motivation in physical education that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. Self-determined motivation was found to positively predict, whereas amotivation was a negative predictor of leisure-time physical activity intentions. (Contains 86 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  17. Testing Multiple Goals Theory in an Asian Context: Filipino University Students' Motivation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dela Rosa, Elmer D.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals research has focused on the importance of mastery relative to performance goals, but the multiple goals perspective asserts that performance goals also lead to positive outcomes and that learners adopt multiple goals in adaptive ways. However, this multiple-goals perspective has not been extensively studied in Asian students. The…

  18. Young Children's Motivational Frameworks and Math Achievement: Relation to Teacher-Reported Instructional Practices, but Not Teacher Theory of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Daeun; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Tsukayama, Eli; Levine, Susan C.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2016-01-01

    Although students' motivational frameworks (entity vs. incremental) have been linked to academic achievement, little is known about how early this link emerges and how motivational frameworks develop in the first place. In a year-long study (student N = 424, Teacher N = 58), we found that, as early as 1st and 2nd grade, children who endorsed an…

  19. Perceptions of competence, implicit theory of ability, perception of motivational climate, and achievement goals: a test of the trichotomous conceptualization of endorsement of achievement motivation in the physical education setting.

    PubMed

    Cury, F; Da Fonséca, D; Rufo, M; Sarrazin, P

    2002-08-01

    To test and extend the conceptualization of the endorsement of achievement goals in the physical education setting Mastery, Performance-approach, and Performance-approach goals, Perception of the physical education competence, Implicit theory about sport ability, and Perception of the motivational climate were assessed among 682 boys attending five French schools. Analysis indicated that (1) Performance-approach goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Entity beliefs about sport ability, the Performance dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability. (2) Mastery goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Incremental beliefs about sport ability, the Mastery dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with the Performance dimension of the motivational climate. Also, (3) Performance-avoidance goals were positively associated with Entity beliefs about sport ability and the Performance dimension of the motivational climate; these goals were negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability and perception of physical education Competence. These results clearly attested to the validity of the trichotomous model in the physical education setting.

  20. [Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation of female students].

    PubMed

    Doi, K

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the two dimensional theory of achievement motivation (Doi, 1982) in female students. Doi's motivation scale were administered to 81 female university students, 58 female students of school of nursing and 77 female students of school of English Language, and the Yatabe-Guilford personality inventory was also administered to the first and the second groups. Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation were extracted by principal component analyses and canonical correlation analyses. Non-affiliative achievement motivation was found to be related to personality type: emotional instability and introversion. These findings differ from achievement motivation concepts (Murray, 1938; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953), that include emotional stability and extraversion.

  1. Children's theories of motivation.

    PubMed

    Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation.

  2. Children's theories of motivation.

    PubMed

    Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. PMID:21513944

  3. Children's Theories of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  4. Striving for Success: A Qualitative Exploration of Competing Theories of High-Achieving Black College Students' Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    Research on the academic performance of Black students has focused on low-achievers, framing their academic motivation as maladaptive and driven by externally (e.g., competition or compliance) rather than internally (e.g., love of learning) generated forces. This qualitative study challenges this mono-dimensional deficit framework, examining the…

  5. Motivation in Theories of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique

    1986-01-01

    The fields of information processing, motivation, and metacognition are included in this review of research on student motivation. The multidisciplinary approach is discussed, as are the differences between achievement motivation and intrinsic motivation, and various learning models. (GDC)

  6. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    PubMed

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary. PMID:15683964

  7. A Study of Motivational Influences on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…

  8. Relationships among Projective and Direct Verbal Measures of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satvir

    1979-01-01

    The ways in which projective and nonprojective verbal measures of achievement motivation elicit comparable and dissimilar responses in a "Third World" sample of entrepreneurs and farmers were explored as a test of McClelland's theory of economic growth. Results were generally consistent with the theory of achievement motivation. (Author/JKS)

  9. The Relevance and Application of Goal Theory to Interpreting Indigenous Minority Group Motivation and Achievement in School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.; And Others

    The goal theory of achievement argues that the goals stressed by schools have dramatic consequences for whether children develop a sense of self-efficacy, or whether they avoid challenging tasks, giving up when faced with failure. It is commonly believed that the goals stressed by Western-oriented schools are inappropriate to indigenous minority…

  10. My Intelligence May Be More Malleable than Yours: The Revised Implicit Theories of Intelligence (Self-Theory) Scale Is a Better Predictor of Achievement, Motivation, and Student Disengagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Castella, Krista; Byrne, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The belief that intelligence is malleable has important consequences for achievement and motivation (Blackwell et al. "Child Development," v78, p246-263. 2007; Dweck, 1999; Robins & Pals, "Self and Identity," v1, p313-336, 2002). However, believing that it is possible to improve intelligence does not necessarily mean…

  11. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  12. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  13. The Intersection of Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbull, Elise; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background. The…

  14. Sex Differences in Adults' Motivation to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA) for ordered categorical data was used…

  15. College Students' Motivation and Learning Strategies Profiles and Academic Achievement: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Woon Chia; Wang, Chee Keng John; Kee, Ying Hwa; Koh, Caroline; Lim, Boon San Coral; Chua, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective self-regulated learning strategies is of interest to educationalists. In this paper, we examine inherent individual difference in self-regulated learning based on Motivated Learning for Learning Questionnaire (MLSQ) using the cluster analytic approach and examine cluster difference in terms of self-determination theory…

  16. Work Motivation: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzell, Raymond A.; Thompson, Donna E.

    1990-01-01

    Presents theories of motivation classified as those dealing either with exogenous causes or with endogenous processes. The following strategies for improving work motivation are discussed: (1) personal motives; (2) incentives and rewards; (3) reinforcement; (4) goal-setting techniques; (5) personal and material resources; (6) social and group…

  17. Motivation To Learn: From Theory to Practice. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipek, Deborah J.

    This book integrates theory, research, and practical issues related to achievement motivation, and provides an overview of current theories in the field, including reinforcement theory, intrinsic motivation, and cognitive theories. The text gives concrete examples and practical guidance for diagnosing and improving students' motivation, focuses on…

  18. Motivational theory applied to hospital pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Grace, M

    1980-12-01

    In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.

  19. Motives Emanating from Personality Associated with Achievement in a Finnish Senior High School: Physical Activity, Curiosity, and Family Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froiland, John Mark; Mayor, Päivi; Herlevi, Marjaana

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that intrinsic motivation predicts academic achievement. However, relatively few have examined various subtypes of intrinsic motivation that predict overall achievement, such as motivation for exercise and physical activity. Based upon the 16 basic desires theory of personality, the current study examined the motives of…

  20. Motivation and academic achievement in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Yousefy, Alireza; Ghassemi, Gholamreza; Firouznia, Samaneh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite their ascribed intellectual ability and achieved academic pursuits, medical students’ academic achievement is influenced by motivation. This study is an endeavor to examine the role of motivation in the academic achievement of medical students. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional correlational study, out of the total 422 medical students, from 4th to final year during the academic year 2007–2008, at School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 344 participated in completion of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM), comprising 43 items and measuring eight aspects of motivation. The gold standard for academic achievement was their average academic marks at pre-clinical and clinical levels. Data were computer analyzed by running a couple of descriptive and analytical tests including Pearson Correlation and Student's t-student. Results: Higher motivation scores in areas of competition, effort, social concern, and task were accompanied by higher average marks at pre-clinical as well as clinical levels. However, the latter ones showed greater motivation for social power as compared to the former group. Task and competition motivation for boys was higher than for girls. Conclusion: In view of our observations, students’ academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation. PMID:23555107

  1. Predicting High School Graduation for Latino Males Using Expectancy Value Theory of Motivation and Tenth Grade Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knape, Erin Oakley

    2010-01-01

    National education data indicate that young men of color and students living in poverty are not experiencing the same academic success as their female, White, or higher socioeconomic status peers, as evidenced by low reading achievement levels and high dropout rates. Of particular concern is the underachievement of Latino males, who currently have…

  2. A Better Way to Motivate Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Many low income, minority schools in California are within 100 points of closing the achievement gap, a prize worth working for no matter how inconvenient, uncomfortable, or risky. In this article, the author describes a better way to motivate educators to try new things that will accelerate student learning and close the achievement gap. The…

  3. [Achievement motivation in essential hypertension: an empirical study].

    PubMed

    Bühler, K E; Haltenhof, H; Kress, S

    1992-01-01

    The influence of achievement-motivation on hypertonia was investigated by a psychometric questionnaire for achievement-motivation with four scales: achievement-motivation, steadiness and diligence, positive examination-anxiety and negative examination-anxiety. The sample of 53 persons was drawn by chance out of an unbiased set of hypertonic patients. Mean by age: 45 years; part of female: 28 subjects; part of male: 25 subjects; vocational school: 16 subjects; high-school: 20 subjects; academics: 20 subjects. The sample of the hypertonic patients was compared with a matched sample of normotonics, concerning sex, age, and education and also with the sample for the construction of the questionnaire. There were significant differences (p = .05) of the hypertonics in the scales achievement-motivation, steadiness and diligence, and positive examination-anxiety but no difference in negative examination-anxiety. The results were discussed with regard to neurophysiological activation theory.

  4. Academic Underachievement: Relationship with Cognitive Motivation, Achievement Motivation, and Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz; Vock, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the role of need for cognition, achievement motivation, and conscientiousness on academic underachievement was investigated. Forty-seven male and 46 female students in Grades 7 to 10 participated in the study. Student attributes were assessed by self-report measures, school performance by academic grades, and intellectual abilities…

  5. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  6. Developing a Motivational Model of College Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Abry, Dennis

    This study involves developing a motivational model of college achievement. The predictor variables, which were procrastination tendency, self-efficacy, self-regulation, intrinsic value, outcome value, cognitive strategy, test anxiety, students grade goals, parent grade goals, and grade point average, as well as the criterion variable exam…

  7. Theories of Motivation--Borrowing the Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, David E.

    1979-01-01

    Five theories of motivation are discussed: Maslow's Need Hierarchy, Herzberg's dual-factor or motivation-hygiene theory, goal setting or task motivation, expectancy/valence-theory (also known as instrumentality theory, valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory, or expectancy theory), and reinforcement. (JH)

  8. Achievement Goals, Motivation, and Performance: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urdan, Tim; Pajares, Frank; Lapin, Amy Z.

    An achievement goal theory framework was used to examine the relations among goals and a number of other motivational constructs in a sample of middle school students. Participants were 189 eighth graders from a public school in the south. In one session students completed the attitude measures and in another session they completed a mathematics…

  9. Motivation.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed. PMID:18232579

  10. Motivation.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  11. Relationships among projective and direct verbal measures of achievement motivation.

    PubMed

    Singh, S

    1979-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore ways projective arid nonprojective verbal measures of achievement motivation elicit comparable and dissimilar responses in a "Third World" sample of entrepreneurs as a test of McClelland's theory of economic growth. Results were generally consistent with the theory of achievement motivation, and suggested that high scores on n Ach were associated with high rates of industrial and agricultural output; low scores were associated with static or declining business. TAT measurement was the best predictor in that it correlated 0.68 and 0.48 with agricultural and industrial production. Results further lend support to past findings: namely, that Various achievement measures appear to be measuring dissimilar constructs.

  12. The expression of achievement motives in interpersonal problems.

    PubMed

    Conroy, David E; Elliot, Andrew J; Pincus, Aaron L

    2009-04-01

    Achievement motivation influences self-regulatory strategies, affective processes, and achievement outcomes, but little is known about how individual differences in achievement motivation influence interpersonal behavior. Different forms of achievement motivation are likely to influence interpersonal behavior because achievement motives are grounded in social emotions. Two studies were conducted to examine relations between achievement motives and dispositional interpersonal problems. These studies linked deficits in pride-based need for achievement with self-reported submission-related interpersonal problems, and shame-based fear of failure (FF) with both self- and peer-reported interpersonal distress. The achievement motives were largely not associated with individuals' perceptions of their peers' interpersonal problems. These findings reinforce propositions that FF represents the commingling of achievement and relational concerns and suggest new mechanisms by which achievement motives may influence productivity, social success, and well-being.

  13. Self-Concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…

  14. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  15. Reading between the Lines: Motives, Beliefs, and Achievement in Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozack, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This study of adolescent boys' literacy builds on motivation theory and uses the Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield, Guthrie, & McGough, 1996) as a foundation. Survey and achievement data were collected from 330 students and eight teachers at a Catholic, all-boys high-school. Results suggest that the motivational constructs identified…

  16. Unmotivated or Motivated to Fail? A Cross-Cultural Study of Achievement Motivation, Fear of Failure, and Student Disengagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Castella, Krista; Byrne, Don; Covington, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A classic distinction in the literature on achievement and motivation is between fear of failure and success orientations. From the perspective of self-worth theory, these motives are not bipolar constructs but dimensions that interact in ways that make some students particularly vulnerable to underachievement and disengagement from school. The…

  17. Achievement motivation and competition: perceptions and responses.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, T K; Ragan, J T

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of achievement motivation (Nach) on how individuals perceive an evaluative competition situation, whether they prefer to perform in this type of setting, and whether they seek the inherent appraisal information regarding their motoric competence. Specifically, perceived threat to self esteem was examined as indicated by state anxiety responses and measured by the Competitive Short Form of the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. State anxiety was assessed at rest, while performing a motor task alone in a nonevaluative setting, and during competition against an equal ability opponent. Situation perference and information seeking behavior were assessed at the conclusion of the closely paced competition. Subjects were asked whether they had perferred performing in the noncompetition or competition situation and were given the opportunity to select the relative ability level of a future opponent. As predicted, the major findings indicated that high Nach males experienced less threat during competition than low Nach males. Further, more high than low Nach individuals perferred the competition situation to the noncompetition situation and sought the evaluative ability information to a greater extent by choosing opponents of equal or greater relative ability for a future hypothetical competition.

  18. The Relation between Perceived Parenting Practices and Achievement Motivation in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ana-Lisa; Wolters, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, perceived parenting styles and parental involvement were examined to determine if they predicted student motivation. The two views of motivation examined included achievement goal theory and self-determination theory. Algebra I students (N = 140) in a Southeast Texas public high school completed self-report surveys. Multivariate…

  19. Motivational Systems Theory and the Academic Performance of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Michael M.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the validity of the Motivational Systems Theory (MST) as a measure of performance of college students pursuing business degrees and the level of academic performance attained across gender and race lines. This goal is achieved by investigating the relationships between motivational strategies, biological factors, responsive…

  20. Investigating Elementary Students' Learning Approaches, Motivational Goals, and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among students' learning approaches, motivational goals, previous science grades, and their science achievement for the concepts related to atomic theory and explored the effects of gender and sociodemographic variables on students' learning approaches, motivational goals, and their science achievement for the…

  1. The Role of Family Orientation in Predicting Korean Boys' and Girls' Achievement Motivation to Learn Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In; Chung, Hyewon

    2012-01-01

    Informed by achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories, we explored the role of cultural/contextual factors on Korean students' achievement motivation. Specifically, we examined the role of the Korean middle school students' family orientation as a mediator between their perceptions of parent goals or motivating styles and their…

  2. Achievement Motivation and Outcome in Social Work Field Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Anne E.; Lee, Mingun; Cavazos, Alonzo

    2005-01-01

    For this study, 188 students from 4 social work programs completed a questionnaire about their motivation and performance in field practicum. Achievement motivation included task value, intrinsic motivation, perception of task difficulty, confidence, and self-efficacy. Students were more satisfied with field education and rated their social work…

  3. Achievement Related Motives of Educationally Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyans, Leslie J.; And Others

    The motivational dynamics of educationally disadvantaged students in Title I education programs in Illinois were studied. Pretesting and posttesting for 450 students in grades 1 through 6 were conducted by using two test forms, the Mature Test Form for the older students and the Happy Face Form for the younger students. Ethnicity included Whites,…

  4. Achievement Motivation and Physical Fitness of 15-Year Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika; Rychta, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the relations between the general and physical education-specific achievement motivation, and physical fitness of adolescent girls. Material and methods: A group of 52 girls aged 15 years were studied by applying two questionnaires: P-O scale of Widerszal-Bazyl for evaluating the general achievement motivation and Nishida's…

  5. Career Motivation Achievement Planning: C-MAP. A User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Helen; And Others

    This user's guide provides materials on the Career Motivation and Achievement Planning (C-MAP) Inventory for use with ninth and twelfth grade students. Chapter 1 discusses the purpose and uses of this assessment of long-range career commitment, short-range motivation to achieve on a particular task, and level of education and career aspiration.…

  6. The Role of Achievement Motivations and Achievement Goals in Taiwanese College Students' Cognitive and Psychological Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen; Lu, Luo

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how motivational factors are associated with Taiwanese college students' cognitive, personal, and social development by incorporating both relatively global, static self-attributes, such as social-oriented achievement motivation and individual-oriented achievement motivation, which are considered to be culturally balanced…

  7. Comparing Relations of Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement among Struggling and Advanced Adolescent Readers

    PubMed Central

    Lutz Klauda, Susan; Guthrie, John T.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of reading motivation, engagement, and achievement in early adolescence by comparing interrelations of these variables in struggling and advanced readers. Participants were 183 pairs of seventh grade students matched in gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school attended. They completed measures of reading motivations, engagement and comprehension for information text as well as measures of general reading comprehension and reading fluency twice during the school year. Advanced readers showed stronger relations of motivation and engagement with achievement than struggling readers. However, motivation predicted concurrent engagement and growth in engagement similarly for struggling and advanced readers. These results are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that cognitive challenges limit the relations of motivation and engagement to achievement for struggling readers. The discussion also considers the impact of the focus on the information text genre on the relations observed and implications of the findings for achievement motivation theories. PMID:25663747

  8. The Achievement Flow Motive as an Element of the Autotelic Personality: Predicting Educational Attainment in Three Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Holger; Hofer, Jan; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Campos, Domingo

    2013-01-01

    Human behavior is directed by an implicit and an explicit motivational system. The intrinsic form of the implicit achievement motive has been demonstrated to predict the experience of flow. Thus, this achievement flow motive can be considered an integral component of the autotelic personality, posited in Flow Theory as dispositional difference in…

  9. A Mediation Analysis of Achievement Motives, Goals, Learning Strategies, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. Aims: To investigate the relationship between achievement motives,…

  10. Secondary School Students' Motivation and Achievement in Combined Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Shean Jen; Yong, Bob Chui Seng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated students' motivation and achievement in combined science. A sample of 324 Year 11 students from eight government secondary schools in Brunei Darussalam participated in the study. Of the sample, 141 were boys and 183 were girls and their average age was 16.4 years. The motivation instrument used was adapted from the science…

  11. Effects of Motivational and Situational Variables on Achievement Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, John R.; Games, Paul A.

    Problem-solving performance and goal-setting behavior were investigated in 156 undergraduates who, on Mehrabian's Achievement Scales, demonstrated either the motive to approach success or the motive to avoid failure. Different expectations of success or failure were induced by fictitious preperformance information. The degree of success or failure…

  12. Assessing achievement, affiliation, and power motives all at once: the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG).

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, K; Schmalt, H D; Langens, T A; Puca, R M

    2000-02-01

    In this article, we introduce the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG), a new diagnostic tool to measure motives with respect to their hope and fear components. The MMG combines features of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with features of self-report questionnaires. Similar to the TAT, a set of 14 pictures representing a balanced set of achievement-arousing, affiliation-arousing, and power-arousing situations is presented together with a set of statements representing important motivational states. Six motive scores can be calculated: hope of success (HS) and fear of failure (FF) for the achievement motive, hope of affiliation (HA) and fear of rejection (FR) for the affiliation motive, and hope of power (HP) and fear of power (FP) for the power motive. Results of factor analyses suggest a 3-factor solution, with a general fear factor (FF, FR, FP), a factor combining the hope components of achievement and power (HS and HP), and a third factor representing HA, but the 6 a priori factors also reflect a sound structural model. Reliability data show that the internal consistency and retest reliability of the MMG scales satisfy traditional standards. External validity of the MMG has been established in all 3 motive domains. Three separate studies document that (a) individuals high in resultant achievement motivation perform better and report more flow experience, (b) individuals high in resultant power motivation profit more from a leadership training program, and (c) individuals high in resultant affiliation motivation recollect more highly memorable affiliative themes.

  13. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  14. Motivation and social contexts: a crossnational pilot study of achievement, power, and affiliation motives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yangang; Mellor, David; Duan, Liqiong

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is a relationship between social contexts (e.g., economic growth, engagement in wars) and motives within populations. In particular, high achievement motive is associated with subsequent economic growth, which in turn increases power motive. Increased national achievement and power motives have been argued to precede social changes that lead to decreased affiliation motives, and engagement in wars. The present study aimed to examine differences in achievement, power, and affiliation motives between 266 college students in China (a nation with sustained high economic growth) and 255 college students in the USA (a nation with previously strong but now slowing economic growth, and engaged in war). Analysis of personal strivings suggested that Chinese college students showed significantly higher levels of achievement motive than the American college students, but American college students showed significantly higher levels of affiliation motive than Chinese college students. Overall, males exhibited higher achievement motivation than females. No significant interaction effects were found for gender by location for any of the three motives. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research.

  15. Montessori Elementary Philosophy Reflects Current Motivation Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Montessori's theories, developed more than 100 years ago, certainly resonate with current psychological research on improving education. Autonomy, interest, competence, and relatedness form the foundation for three contemporary efforts to organize the vast literature on motivation into a parsimonious theory. These four elements also comprise…

  16. Predicting Mathematics Achievement by Motivation and Self-Efficacy across Gender and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…

  17. The social motivation theory of autism.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, Coralie; Kohls, Gregor; Troiani, Vanessa; Brodkin, Edward S; Schultz, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The idea that social motivation deficits play a central role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has recently gained increased interest. This constitutes a shift in autism research, which has traditionally focused more intensely on cognitive impairments, such as theory-of-mind deficits or executive dysfunction, and has granted comparatively less attention to motivational factors. This review delineates the concept of social motivation and capitalizes on recent findings in several research areas to provide an integrated account of social motivation at the behavioral, biological and evolutionary levels. We conclude that ASD can be construed as an extreme case of diminished social motivation and, as such, provides a powerful model to understand humans' intrinsic drive to seek acceptance and avoid rejection.

  18. The Social Motivation Theory of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, C.; Kohls, G.; Troiani, V.; Brodkin, E.S.; Schultz, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that social motivation deficits play a central role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has recently gained increased interest. This constitutes a shift in autism research, which has traditionally focused more intensely on cognitive impairments, such as Theory of Mind deficits or executive dysfunction, while granting comparatively less attention to motivational factors. This review delineates the concept of social motivation and capitalizes on recent findings in several research areas to provide an integrated picture of social motivation at the behavioral, biological and evolutionary levels. We conclude that ASD can be construed as an extreme case of diminished social motivation and, as such, provides a powerful model to understand humans’ intrinsic drive to seek acceptance and avoid rejection. PMID:22425667

  19. Achievement Motivation in Adolescents: The Role of Peer Climate and Best Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, R. Michael; DeBacker, Teresa K.

    2007-01-01

    Using M. L. Maehr's (1984) theory of personal investment, the authors investigated associations among perceived peer relationships and achievement motivation during science class. Middle school and high school students (N = 253) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing peer classroom climate, achievement-related beliefs and values of a best…

  20. Achievement Motivation across Cultures: Some Puzzles and Their Implications for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufton, Neil; Elliott, Julian G.; Illushin, Leonid

    2002-01-01

    Discusses findings of a cross-cultural study of the relation between self-perception of academic competence and achievement, and attribution of achievement to effort or ability. Considers problems in fitting Anglo-American motivation theory with Russian schooling practice. Calls for culturally sensitive, multimethod approaches in which individual…

  1. The uncertainty processing theory of motivation.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Most theories describe motivation using basic terminology (drive, 'wanting', goal, pleasure, etc.) that fails to inform well about the psychological mechanisms controlling its expression. This leads to a conception of motivation as a mere psychological state 'emerging' from neurophysiological substrates. However, the involvement of motivation in a large number of behavioural parameters (triggering, intensity, duration, and directedness) and cognitive abilities (learning, memory, decision, etc.) suggest that it should be viewed as an information processing system. The uncertainty processing theory (UPT) presented here suggests that motivation is the set of cognitive processes allowing organisms to extract information from the environment by reducing uncertainty about the occurrence of psychologically significant events. This processing of information is shown to naturally result in the highlighting of specific stimuli. The UPT attempts to solve three major problems: (i) how motivations can affect behaviour and cognition so widely, (ii) how motivational specificity for objects and events can result from nonspecific neuropharmacological causal factors (such as mesolimbic dopamine), and (iii) how motivational interactions can be conceived in psychological terms, irrespective of their biological correlates. The UPT is in keeping with the conceptual tradition of the incentive salience hypothesis while trying to overcome the shortcomings inherent to this view.

  2. Secondary Student Motivation Orientations and Standards-Based Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; McClure, John; Walkey, Frank; Weir, Kirsty F.; McKenzie, Lynanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individual student characteristics such as competence motivation, achievement values, and goal orientations have been related in meaningful ways to task attainment. The standards-based National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) was developed in New Zealand with the intention of strengthening connections between student…

  3. Factors that Discriminate Best between Students Identified as Motivated or Not-Motivated to Achieve Academically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ahmad M.; Kanan, Hana M.; Al-Misnad, Sheikha A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined a host of variables the literature or focus groups showed to influence student motivation to achieve academically. Secondary school teachers in Doha, Qatar were asked to identify the five most and five least motivated students in their classrooms. They also were asked to estimate the degree of involvement the parents had in the…

  4. Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Academic Achievement among Indian Adolescents in Canada and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and academic achievement for the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada in comparison to their counterparts in India. Descriptive discriminant analysis indicated that the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada had higher intrinsic…

  5. Achievement Motivation of Primary Mathematics Education Teacher Candidates According to Their Cognitive Styles and Motivation Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Hakan; Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal whether there is relation between achievement motivations of teacher candidates according to their cognitive styles and motivation styles or not. This study was designed as a quantitative study due to collecting quantitative data and running statistical analyses. Both comparative and correlational survey methods…

  6. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education?

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  7. Supervision and Motivational Theory: Some Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Donald J.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests useful implications for supervisors offered by motivational theories, including the importance of serving as a source of reinforcement for teachers and the necessity of helping the teacher make appropriate instructional choices and gather evidence on the effectiveness of those choices. (Author/JM)

  8. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  9. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  10. Cognitive and motivational determinants of academic achievement and behaviour in third and fourth grade disadvantaged children.

    PubMed

    Kreitler, S; Zigler, E; Kagan, S; Olsen, D; Weissler, K; Kreitler, H

    1995-09-01

    While most studies on the determinants of learning deal with either cognition or motivation, there is a growing awareness that both should be considered. Our purpose was to examine the relative roles of cognitive and motivational factors for the scholastic achievement and behaviour of disadvantaged children. Cognition was conceptualised in terms of the psychosemantic theory that assesses cognitive processes by characteristics of the individual's meaning assignment (Kreitler & Kreitler, 1987a). Motivation was conceptualised in terms of the cognitive orientation (CO) theory which assumes that cognitive contents guide behaviour (Kreitler & Kreitler, 1982). Participants were 57 third and fourth graders of both genders, recommended for a remedial summer programme. They were administered the Meaning Test assessing cognitive abilities; the CO Questionnaire of Motivation for Learning assessing the disposition to learn; and the Metropolitan Achievement Test and the IOWA tests assessing verbal, mathematical and working skills. Teachers completed the Teacher-Child Rating Scale assessing six scholastic behaviours. Regression analyses showed that all dependent variables were predicted by the cognitive and motivational variables, better by specific than global predictors. Cognitive variables contributed more to the predictions, especially of academic achievements, and more in the case of verbal than mathematical abilities. In girls, motivational factors played a larger role than cognitive factors, absolutely and relative to boys. Implications for promoting scholastic achievements are discussed.

  11. Do Creativity Self-Beliefs Predict Literacy Achievement and Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Kearsley, Rebecca; Symes, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that creativity self-beliefs show only small relations with academic achievement and may only be related to intrinsic, not extrinsic motivation. We set out to re-examine these relationships accounting for the multifaceted and process embedded nature of creativity self-beliefs and the full domain range of extrinsic…

  12. College Students' Motivation to Achieve and Maintain a Healthy Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furia, Andrea C.; Lee, Rebecca E.; Strother, Myra L.; Huang, Terry T-K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and refine a scale of motivational factors related to healthy weight achievement and maintenance and to examine differences by gender and weight status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 300 university students aged 18-24 years. Results: Factor analysis yielded 6 factors--Intrinsic (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73): affective…

  13. Learning Environment, Motivation, and Achievement in High School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between high school students' perceptions of their science learning environments and their motivation, learning strategies, and achievement. Discusses the focus of shared perceptions and instruction and indicates that shared perceptions focused on understanding and independent thinking positively predicted students'…

  14. The Role of Educational Technology in Developing Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.

    1969-01-01

    Essay focusing on how achievement motivation is developed in students and adults, with some discussion of how various dimensions of educational technology may contribute to this development. Paper written pursuant to contract 0-8-071231-1747 with the U.S. Office of Education, under provisions of the Cooperative Research Program. (LS)

  15. Improving Secondary School Students' Achievement using Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Erik; Haapanen, Rebecca; Hall, Erin; Mantonya, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a program for increasing students' intrinsic motivation in an effort to increase academic achievement. The targeted population consisted of secondary level students in a middle to upper-middle class suburban area. The students of the targeted secondary level classes appeared to be disengaged from learning due to a lack of…

  16. Homework, Motivation, and Academic Achievement in a College Genetics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planchard, Matthew; Daniel, Kristy L.; Maroo, Jill; Mishra, Chandrani; McLean, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a mixed methods study in an upper-level genetics course exploring the relationships between student motivation, homework completion, and academic achievement at the college level. We used data from an open-ended questionnaire, homework grades and completion reports, and exam scores. We used these data sources to measure self-perceived…

  17. Students as Web Site Authors: Effects on Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Web site design project on students' motivation and achievement. Tenth-grade biology students worked together in teams on an ecology project that required them to locate relevant information on the Internet, decide which information should be included on their Web site, organize the information into Web pages,…

  18. The Role of Teachers' Support in Predicting Students' Motivation and Achievement Outcomes in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Solmon, Melinda A.; Gu, Xiangli

    2012-01-01

    Examining how teachers' beliefs and behaviors predict students' motivation and achievement outcomes in physical education is an area of increasing research interest. Guided by the expectancy-value model and self-determination theory, the major purpose of this study was to examine the predictive strength of teachers' autonomy, competence, and…

  19. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  20. The Effects of Learning Strategy Instruction on Achievement, Attitude, and Achievement Motivation in a Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin Selçuk, Gamze; Sahin, Mehmet; Açıkgöz, Kamile Ün

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers ( n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics course participated in the study. In the experimental group, questioning, summarizing, and graphic organizers were taught. The control group did not receive any presentation on strategy learning. Data were collected via the pre- and post-administration of the Physics Course Achievement Test, the Scale of Attitudes towards Physics, and the Achievement Motivation Scale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance on the data revealed no significant differences in the attitude and achievement motivation between the strategy and control groups. However, the strategy group students were observed to have a tendency of more positive attitude and motivation than the control group students. Results also showed that explicit learning strategy instruction was more effective than traditional instruction in improving physics achievement of the participating students. The implications of these results for physics education are discussed.

  1. Teacher Evaluation Policy and Conflicting Theories of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Current interest in teacher evaluation focuses disproportionately on measurement issues and performance-based pay without an overarching theory of how evaluation works. To develop such a theory, I contrast two motivation theories often used to guide thinking about teacher evaluation. External motivation theory relies on economics and extrinsic…

  2. The Application of Motivational Theories to Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Paul; Farrar, Lochia A.

    This workshop, designed to use motivational theories in understanding work behaviors and to increase job satisfaction and performance, deals with cognitive theories in motivation, need theories, and the Equity Theory within the Expectancy Valence Model. Counseling technique areas of communication skills and rational thinking that facilitate the…

  3. Toward a theory of motivational interviewing.

    PubMed

    Miller, William R; Rose, Gary S

    2009-09-01

    The widely disseminated clinical method of motivational interviewing (MI) arose through a convergence of science and practice. Beyond a large base of clinical trials, advances have been made toward "looking under the hood" of MI to understand the underlying mechanisms by which it affects behavior change. Such specification of outcome-relevant aspects of practice is vital to theory development and can inform both treatment delivery and clinical training. An emergent theory of MI is proposed that emphasizes two specific active components: a relational component focused on empathy and the interpersonal spirit of MI, and a technical component involving the differential evocation and reinforcement of client change talk. A resulting causal chain model links therapist training, therapist and client responses during treatment sessions, and posttreatment outcomes.

  4. Toward a Theory of Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Miller, William R.; Rose, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    The widely-disseminated clinical method of motivational interviewing (MI) arose through a convergence of science and practice. Beyond a large base of clinical trials, advances have been made toward “looking under the hood” of MI to understand the underlying mechanisms by which it affects behavior change. Such specification of outcome-relevant aspects of practice is vital to theory development, and can inform both treatment delivery and clinical training. An emergent theory of MI is proposed, emphasizing two specific active components: a relational component focused on empathy and the interpersonal spirit of MI, and a technical component involving the differential evocation and reinforcement of client change talk A resulting causal chain model links therapist training, therapist and client responses during treatment sessions, and post-treatment outcomes. PMID:19739882

  5. Motivation Theories and Motivation Systems. The Gulf between Theory and Practice. Coombe Lodge Working Paper. Information Bank Number 1937.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Colin

    Managers have an obvious interest in motivation, yet there are few connections between the needs of the manager and research on motivation theory and system building. Motivation can be defined as the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specified behaviors. This definition assumes that motivation is an individual…

  6. Wanting, having, and needing: integrating motive disposition theory and self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Schüler, Julia

    2011-11-01

    Four studies explored the motivational and experiential dynamics of psychological needs, applying both self-determination theory and motive disposition theory. In all 4 studies, motive dispositions toward achievement and affiliation ("wanting" particular experiences) predicted corresponding feelings of competence and relatedness ("having" those experiences). Competence and relatedness in turn predicted well-being, again indicating that these 2 experiences may really be "needed." Illuminating how wanting gets to having, in Studies 2 and 3, participants reported greater self-concordance for motive-congruent goals, which, in longitudinal Study 3, predicted greater attainment of those goals and thus enhanced well-being. Study 4 replicated selected earlier results using an implicit as well as an explicit motive disposition measure. Supporting the presumed universality of competence and relatedness needs, in no studies did motive dispositions moderate the effects of corresponding need-satisfaction on well-being. Discussion focuses on a "sequential process" model of psychological needs that views needs as both motives that instigate and outcomes that reward behavior. PMID:21875226

  7. Wanting, having, and needing: integrating motive disposition theory and self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Schüler, Julia

    2011-11-01

    Four studies explored the motivational and experiential dynamics of psychological needs, applying both self-determination theory and motive disposition theory. In all 4 studies, motive dispositions toward achievement and affiliation ("wanting" particular experiences) predicted corresponding feelings of competence and relatedness ("having" those experiences). Competence and relatedness in turn predicted well-being, again indicating that these 2 experiences may really be "needed." Illuminating how wanting gets to having, in Studies 2 and 3, participants reported greater self-concordance for motive-congruent goals, which, in longitudinal Study 3, predicted greater attainment of those goals and thus enhanced well-being. Study 4 replicated selected earlier results using an implicit as well as an explicit motive disposition measure. Supporting the presumed universality of competence and relatedness needs, in no studies did motive dispositions moderate the effects of corresponding need-satisfaction on well-being. Discussion focuses on a "sequential process" model of psychological needs that views needs as both motives that instigate and outcomes that reward behavior.

  8. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  9. Learning environment, motivation, and achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbitt Nolen, Susan

    2003-04-01

    In a study of the relationship between high school students' perceptions of their science learning environments and their motivation, learning strategies, and achievement, 377 students in 22 introductory science classrooms completed surveys in the fall and spring of their ninth-grade year. Hierarchical linear regression was used to model the effects of variables at both the classroom and individual level simultaneously. High intraclass agreement (indicated by high parameter reliability) on all classroom environment measures indicated that students shared perceptions of the classroom learning environment. Controlling for other factors, shared perceptions that only the most able could succeed in science classrooms and that instruction was fast-paced and focused on correct answers negatively predicted science achievement, as measured on a districtwide curriculum-linked test. Shared perceptions that classrooms focused on understanding and independent thinking positively predicted students' self-reported satisfaction with learning. Implications of these results for both teaching and research into classroom environments are discussed.

  10. Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

  11. Achievement motivation, anxiety and academic success in first year Master of Nursing students.

    PubMed

    McEwan, L; Goldenberg, D

    1999-07-01

    Forty-one first semester master level nursing students from three Canadian universities participated in this descriptive correlational study to identify the influence of achievement motivation and anxiety on their academic success. Academic success was determined by their first semester grade point average (GPA). Participants had high achieving tendencies (M = 73.5) and academic ability (M = 81.9), supporting Atkinson's (1957, 1964) achievement motivation theory which was used as the framework. While state anxiety was negatively correlated, trait anxiety was the only valid predictor of academic success. Academic ability and inherent anxiety had a greater potential for predicting students who would succeed, which has implications for nurse educators, administrators and researchers. However, the need to assess both cognitive and non-cognitive variables to determine master level nursing students' ability to succeed is recommended.

  12. Longitudinal Test of Self-Determination Theory's Motivation Mediation Model in a Naturally Occurring Classroom Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hyungshim; Kim, Eun Joo; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2012-01-01

    This study provides the first longitudinally designed, classroom-based empirical test of self-determination theory's motivation mediation model. Measures of perceived autonomy support, motivation (autonomy need satisfaction), engagement, and achievement were collected from 500 (257 females, 243 males) 8th-grade students in Korea in a 3-wave…

  13. Relationship between academic motivation and mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in Canada and India.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between academic motivation-intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation-and mathematics achievement among 363 Indian adolescents in India and 355 Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation were not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in India. In contrast, both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation were statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. While intrinsic motivation was a statistically significant positive predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada, extrinsic motivation was a statistically significant negative predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Amotivation was not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Implications of the findings for pedagogy and practice are discussed.

  14. An Integrative Cultural View of Achievement Motivation: Parental and Classroom Predictors of Children's Goal Orientations when Learning Mathematics in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In; Schallert, Diane L.; Kim, Myoungsook

    2010-01-01

    Our goal was to identify how students' perceptions of their parents shape the kind and degree of motivational goal orientations that they adopt in their mathematics classroom, broadening the application of achievement goal orientation theory and self-determination theory to students in Korea. Two groups of students participated, one from a middle…

  15. A Survey Study of Achievement Motivation, Enrollment Status, and Ethnicity on Traditional and Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Ebony D.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement motivation has played an integral part in the psychology and educational fields. Since achievement motivation made its debut in education and psychology fields, there continues to be some discrepancy in the studies that focused on achievement motivation based on traditional students and adult students. This study investigated the…

  16. Achievement Motivation and the Adolescent Musician: A Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatt, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation plays a role in nearly all human decision-making processes. Regardless of the situation, little may be achieved without the appropriate harnessing of motivation. The same is true in the music classroom. Research appears to indicate that motivation plays a crucial role in human development and achievement. The achievement motivation…

  17. Effects of Motivational and Volitional Email Messages (MVEM) with Personal Messages on Undergraduate Students' Motivation, Study Habits and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin; Keller, John M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated what kind of supportive information can be effective in improving the situation where there were severe motivational challenges. Motivational and volitional email messages (MVEM) were constructed based on an integrated model of four theories and methods, which are Keller's ARCS model, Kuhl's action control theory,…

  18. College Seniors' Theory of Their Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Etten, Shawn; Pressley, Michael; McInerney, Dennis M.; Liem, Arief Darmanegara

    2008-01-01

    College seniors participated in an ethnographic interview study about their academic motivations. It was found that grades and graduation are 2 primary distal target goals that motivate their academic efforts during the senior year. A variety of proximal factors were also reported to affect the seniors' motivation. These factors can be divided…

  19. Motivation--Hygiene Theory Adapted for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmreck, Thomas C.

    1977-01-01

    As educators, are we stifling learning by using non-motivating, dissatisfying factors and concepts to try to motivate our students? According to the work of Dr. Frederick Herzberg, many teachers may be doing the wrong thing for the right reason. Considers what motivates students to enjoy their educational surroundings and to learn. (Author/RK)

  20. Principals' Leadership and Teachers' Motivation: Self-Determination Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyal, Ori; Roth, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between educational leadership and teacher's motivation. The research described here was anchored in the convergence of two fundamental theories of leadership and motivation: the full range model of leadership and self-determination theory. The central hypotheses were that…

  1. Motivational Profiles and Their Associations with Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2009-01-01

    With the belief that theoretical integration in motivation may help us better understand motivational behavior, we designed this study to explore adolescents' motivational profiles and their associations with knowledge acquisition, leisure-time exercise behaviors, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Middle school students from a large urban inner-city…

  2. Motivation and Achievement: Is There an East Asian Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yan; Leung, Frederick K. S.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of motivation in learning has been widely recognized. However, due to its multidimensional and complex nature, it appears difficult to synthesize research findings on motivation across studies. Heated debates about the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on learning and their interaction have been going on since the terms…

  3. Antecedents and Trajectories of Achievement Goals: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciani, Keith D.; Sheldon, Kennon M.; Hilpert, Jonathan C.; Easter, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that both achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (SDT) are quite useful in explaining student motivation and success in academic contexts. However, little is known about how the two theories relate to each other. Aim: The current research used SDT as a framework to understand why students enter classes…

  4. Motivation Factors as Indicators of Academic Achievement: A Comparative Study of Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes Academic and Social Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedescleaux, Jonell

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate non-cognitive motivational factors as indicators of academic achievement of male athletes and male non-athletes as measured by a secondary data analysis of the College Student Inventory (CSI) from Fall 2003 to Fall 2005. Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory provided the conceptual framework…

  5. Why achievement motivation predicts success in business but failure in politics: the importance of personal control.

    PubMed

    Winter, David G

    2010-12-01

    Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed.

  6. Parental Involvement in Homework: Relations with Parent and Student Achievement-Related Motivational Beliefs and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonida, Eleftheria N.; Cortina, Kai S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental involvement in homework is a home-based type of involvement in children's education. Research and theory suggest that it is beneficial for learning and achievement under certain conditions and for particular groups of individuals. Aims: The study examined whether different types of parents' involvement in homework…

  7. Achievement Motivation among Urban Adolescents: Work Hope, Autonomy Support, and Achievement-Related Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Walsh-Blair, Lynn Y.; Blustein, David L.; Bempechat, Janine; Seltzer, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon expectancy value, hope, and self-determination theories, this study explores the contributions of work-based beliefs and autonomy support as predictors of adaptive achievement-related beliefs. Two hundred and one urban high school students who were enrolled in a work-based learning program completed measures of work hope, autonomy…

  8. A Cultural Heuristic Approach to the Study of Jamaican Undergraduate Students' Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Karen E.; Zusho, Akane

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually based sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. Aim: This mixed-methods study examined why Jamaican undergraduate students are motivated or unmotivated and how this relates to the extant literature on achievement motivation. Sample(s): This…

  9. Relational Effects of Reading Motivation and Academic Achievement among Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozack, Amanda R.; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between academic achievement and reading motivation among adolescent boys. We seek to understand (1) if motivational construct scores change meaningfully over time, (2) what relationship exists between the achievement scores and reported reading motivation, and (3) if students who report higher reading…

  10. Occupational Achievement Motivation as a Function of Biological Sex, Sex-Linked Personality, and Occupation Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Howard; Smith, Gail Berwick

    1981-01-01

    Examined predicted sex differences in occupational achievement motivation. Significant sex by occupation stereotype interactions were found supporting the prediction of highest achievement motivation toward sex appropriate occupations. Females did not show significantly lower motivation toward high prestige masculine occupations--inconsistent with…

  11. Development of a measure of work motivation for a meta-theory of motivation.

    PubMed

    Ryan, James C

    2011-06-01

    This study presents a measure of work motivation designed to assess the motivational concepts of the meta-theory of motivation. These concepts include intrinsic process motivation, goal internalization motivation, instrumental motivation, external self-concept motivation, and internal self-concept motivation. Following a process of statement development and identification, six statements for each concept were presented to a sample of working professionals (N = 330) via a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Parallel analysis supported a 5-factor solution, with a varimax rotation identifying 5 factors accounting for 48.9% of total variance. All 5 scales had Cronbach alpha coefficients above .70. Limitations of the newly proposed questionnaire and suggestions for its further development and use are discussed.

  12. Culture's Consequences on Student Motivation: Capturing Cross-Cultural Universality and Variability through Personal Investment Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…

  13. Toward a Theory of Exercise Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E.; St. Clair, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Examines motivational foundations of exercise behavior, presenting a theoretical model in which motivation is the proximal precursor of exercise, which is determined by perceived constraints and situational facilitators. The paper explores the role of cognition versus automaticity in exercise behavior and examines habit versus routine, presenting…

  14. Autonomy, Competence, and Intrinsic Motivation in Science Education: A Self- Determination Theory Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, Jason

    The purpose of this study was to examine a proposed motivational model of science achievement based on self-determination theory. The study relied on U.S. eighth-grade science data from the 2007 Third International Mathematics and Science Study to examine a structural model that hypothesized how perceived autonomy support, perceived competence in science, intrinsic motivation, and science achievement related to each other. Mother's education and student gender were used as controls. Findings showed that the hypothesized model provided a good fit to the data. The strongest direct effect on science achievement was students' perceived competence in science. Student intrinsic motivation was shown to have a surprisingly negative effect on science achievement. Autonomy support had positive direct effects on students' perceived competence in science and intrinsic motivation and had indirect positive effects to science achievement. Results and implications for science education are discussed.

  15. Students' Achievement Goals in Relation to Academic Motivation, Competence Expectancy, and Classroom Environment Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…

  16. Connecting Achievement Motivation to Performance in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Brent; Phillips, Michael M.; Barbera, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Student success in chemistry is inherently tied to motivational and other affective processes. We investigated three distinct constructs tied to motivation: self-efficacy, interest, and effort beliefs. These variables were measured twice over the course of a semester in three sections of a first-semester general chemistry course (n = 170). We…

  17. The Role of Motivation, Cognition, and Conscientiousness for Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhof, Margarete; Spaeth-Hilbert, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Based on a cognitive motivational process model of learning, the impact of studying behavior on learning outcome is investigated. First-year students (N = 488) participated in the study. Two research questions were addressed: (1) Can cognitive-motivational variables and objective study behavior predict individual learning? (2) Which factors drive…

  18. Fear of Failure, 2x2 Achievement Goal and Self-Handicapping: An Examination of the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Kee, Ying Hwa; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Shui, Shang-Hsueh

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the hierarchical model of achievement motivation [Elliot, A. J. (1997). Integrating the "classic" and "contemporary" approaches to achievement motivation: A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. In P. Pintrich & M. Maehr (Eds.), "Advances in motivation and achievement" (Vol. 10, pp. 143-179).…

  19. Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Investigation of Their Association.

    PubMed

    Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Guay, Frédéric; Kovas, Yulia; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Séguin, Jean R; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between intrinsic motivation and achievement in mathematics in a sample of 1,478 Canadian school-age children followed from Grades 1 to 4 (ages 7-10). Children self-reported their intrinsic motivation toward mathematics, whereas achievement was measured through direct assessment of mathematics abilities. Cross-lagged models showed that achievement predicted intrinsic motivation from Grades 1 to 2, and from Grades 2 to 4. However, intrinsic motivation did not predict achievement at any time. This developmental pattern of association was gender invariant. Contrary to the hypothesis that motivation and achievement are reciprocally associated over time, our results point to a directional association from prior achievement to subsequent intrinsic motivation. Results are discussed in light of their theoretical and practical implications.

  20. Motivations of Baby Boomer Doctoral Learners: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julia J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a substantive theory of the motivations of Baby Boomer doctoral learners, using the grounded theory approach. These Baby Boomers possess a wealth of wisdom. Their experiences, coupled with educational credentials, could take their leadership abilities to the next level. The grounded theory method developed by…

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS UNDERLYING ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEVENTH-GRADE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, WILLIAM W.

    ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION WAS STUDIED BETWEEN OVER- AND UNDER-ACHIEVING STUDENTS IN THE ELEVENTH-GRADE TO DEVELOP AN OBJECTIVE MEASURE OF MOTIVATION FOR USE IN PREDICTING ACADEMIC SUCCESS OR FAILURE. APPROXIMATELY 800 STUDENTS IN PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS WERE SELECTED FOR VALIDATION AND CROSS-VALIDATION SAMPLES. THEY WERE DIVIDED BY SEX AND ACHIEVEMENT.…

  2. What Makes Learners Learn? Motivational Learning Theory in Home Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feingold, S. Norman

    1979-01-01

    Motivation is vital to all learning with the possible exception of incidental learning. Home study may adapt motivational learning theory to its goals by considering basic concepts with related examples. First, the more advance reasons an individual has to believe in the value of home study, the more likely will be the success of educational…

  3. Relationships Among Test Anxiety, Evaluative Experiences, and Achievement Motivation of Children in Grades 2 Through 6. Final Report and Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kennedy T.; And Others

    This research seeks to develop a theory of children's achievement motivation and to move research in the direction of greater educational application. Five studies demonstrate that: (1) high anxious children function very poorly on basic arithmetic skills in conditions involving time pressure and some failure but do almost as well as low anxious…

  4. Motivation, Achievement, and Advanced Placement Intent of High School Students Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Robert R.; Glynn, Shawn M.; Kittleson, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of social cognitive theory, we examined the motivation of students (14-16 years old) to learn science in their introductory science courses. The students responded to a questionnaire about their intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, and self-determination. The students also wrote essays about their motivation, and individual…

  5. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    PubMed

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education.

  6. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    PubMed Central

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people’s choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. PMID:25995656

  7. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research.

  8. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. PMID:26177950

  9. The Effects of Mathematics Anxiety on Matriculation Students as Related to Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaria, Effandi; Nordin, Norazah Mohd

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of mathematics anxiety on matriculation students as related to motivation and achievement. Subjects included 88 students who were at the end of their second semester of study. Anxiety and motivation were measured using the Fennema-Sherman Math Anxiety Scale (MAS) and Effectance Motivation Scale (EMS)…

  10. The Effects of Teachers' In-Class Motivational Intervention on Learners' EFL Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrabai, Fakieh

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a controlled quasi-experimental study investigating the effects of motivational strategies on learner motivation and achievement in English language classes in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the most important motivational strategies were identified. In the second…

  11. Reading Recovery: Exploring the Effects on First-Graders' Reading Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…

  12. Achievement Motivation among Chinese and Australian School Students: Assessing Differences of Kind and Differences of Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored motivation and engagement among Chinese and Australian school students. Based on a sample of 528 Hong Kong Chinese 12-13 year olds and an archive sample of 6,366 Australian 12-13 year olds, achievement motivation was assessed using the Motivation and Engagement Scale-High School (MES-HS). Confirmatory factor analysis and…

  13. Toward a Theory of Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William R.; Rose, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    The widely disseminated clinical method of motivational interviewing (MI) arose through a convergence of science and practice. Beyond a large base of clinical trials, advances have been made toward "looking under the hood" of MI to understand the underlying mechanisms by which it affects behavior change. Such specification of outcome-relevant…

  14. Toward a hierarchical goal theory model of school motivation.

    PubMed

    McInerney, Dennis M; Marsh, Herbert W; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2003-01-01

    Instead of concentrating on mastery and performance goal orientations, recent research on school motivation has suggested a multidimensional structure of achievement goal orientations. Students in Australian high schools (N =774) responded to 35 survey items on 10 goal orientation constructs (effort, task, sense of purpose, praise, competition, power, token, social concern, social dependence, and affiliation) and 14 items on general mastery, general performance, general social, and global motivation constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported a hierarchical, multidimensional school motivation construct. The hierarchical, multidimensional model has provided a strong theoretical structure for further school motivation research.

  15. Motivational profiles in physical education and their relation to the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; Hernández, Elisa Huéscar; Pedreño, Noelia Belan-do; Rodríguez Marín, Jesús Jesus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R) and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP). Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a "self-determined "profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a "non self- determined "profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to "non self-determined "profile. Key PointsA "self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for the four types of intrinsic motivations (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement) and identified regulation than for introjected and external regulation.A "non self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for external, introjected regulation and amotivation than for the four types of intrinsic motivation (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement).In the context of the "non self-determined profile "we could encourage programs that adapt to these needs in such a way that they contribute to increasing the rates of doing physical activity in the population.

  16. Motivational Profiles in Physical Education and Their Relation to the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; Hernández, Elisa Huéscar; Pedreño, Noelia Belan-do; Rodríguez Marín, Jesús Jesus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R) and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP). Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a “self-determined ”profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a “non self- determined ”profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to “non self-determined ”profile. Key Points A “self-determined ”profile was found with higher scores for the four types of intrinsic motivations (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement) and identified regulation than for introjected and external regulation. A “non self-determined ”profile was found with higher scores for external, introjected regulation and amotivation than for the four types of intrinsic motivation (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement). In the context of the “non self-determined profile ”we could encourage programs that adapt to these needs in such a way that they contribute to increasing the rates of doing physical activity in the population. PMID:24149164

  17. The Effects of Competition on Achievement Motivation in Chinese Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, S-f.; Yim, P-s.; Law, J. S. F.; Cheung, R. W. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Laboratory studies have consistently found that competition induces performance goals and affects learning motivation. However, the ecological validity of these results is yet to be established. There is a need for investigation of whether the results hold in both the classroom context and non-Western culture. Aim: The study…

  18. The Effects of Classroom Competition on Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Law, Josephine S. F.; Cheung, Rebecca W. Y.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of competition on learning motivation among Chinese students in a classroom setting. The participants (N=52) were 7th-grade students from 2 Hong Kong secondary schools in a middle-lower class neighborhood. The students were randomly assigned to either competitive or non-competitive…

  19. Andragogy and Motivation: An Examination of the Principles of Andragogy through Two Motivation Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houde, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Andragogy, originally proposed by Malcolm Knowles, has been criticized as an atheoretical model. Validation of andragogy has been advocated by scholars, and this paper explores one method for that process. Current motivation theory, specifically socioemotional selectivity and self-determination theory correspond with aspects of andragogy. In…

  20. Effects of Homework Motivation and Worry Anxiety on Homework Achievement in Mathematics and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa; Peng, Yun; Lee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Direct and mediating effects of homework worry anxiety on homework effort and homework achievement and the differences in the structural relations among homework motivation constructs and homework achievement across mathematics and English homework were examined in 268 tenth graders in China. Homework motivation included task value, homework…

  1. Achievement Motivation in High School: Contrasting Theoretical Models in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Celay, I. Montero; Tapia, J. Alonso

    1992-01-01

    Three models of achievement motivation in the classroom are contrasted. Results with 155 high school students suggest that the model of C. S. Dweck and E. S. Elliott offers a better explanation of the relationships among achievement motivation, attributions, emotional reactions, expectancies, and performance than do the other models. (SLD)

  2. Cost Perception and the Expectancy-Value Model of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Patricia N.

    The expectancy-value model of achievement motivation, first described by J. Atkinson (1957) and refined by J. Eccles and her colleagues (1983, 1992, 1994) predicts achievement motivation based on expectancy for success and perceived task value. Cost has been explored very little. To explore the possibility that cost is different from expectancy…

  3. Achievement Motivation among Secondary School Students in Ernakulam District--A Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payyanatt, Prasanth; Manichander, T.

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study is to find out the level of Achievement motivation of rural and urban secondary school students in Ernakulam district in Kerala state. The data was collected by means of Deo-Mohan Achievement Motivation (N-Ach) Scale on 200 samples of students in various schools in Thripunithura Sub-district selected through…

  4. The Causal Ordering of Self-Concept and Academic Motivation and Its Effect on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb

    2006-01-01

    Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…

  5. Are Achievement Motivation and Thinking Styles Related? A Visit among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weiqiao; Zhang, Li-Fang

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between thinking styles and achievement motivation among Chinese university students. The Thinking Styles Inventory--Revised (TSI-R; Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2003) and the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS; Gjesme & Nygard, 1970; Ye & Hagtvet, 1988) were administered to 238 Chinese university students…

  6. Student Perceptions of the Classroom Environment: Relations to Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Melissa C.; Musu-Gillette, Lauren E.; Woolley, Michael E.; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Strutchens, Marilyn E.; Martin, W. Gary

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of 979 middle school students' perceptions of their mathematics classroom environment to their motivation and achievement. Structural equation modeling indicated that motivational variables (utility, personal achievement goals, efficacy) mediated the influence of perceived teacher expectations, teacher…

  7. EFL Teachers' Perception of University Students' Motivation and ESP Learning Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dja'far, Veri Hardinansyah; Cahyono, Bambang Yudi; Bashtomi, Yazid

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed at examining Indonesian EFL Teachers' perception of students' motivation and English for Specific Purposes (ESP) learning achievement. It also explored the strategies applied by teachers based on their perception of students' motivation and ESP learning achievement. This research involved 204 students who took English for…

  8. Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Investigation of Their Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Guay, Frédéric; Kovas, Yulia; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Séguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between intrinsic motivation and achievement in mathematics in a sample of 1,478 Canadian school-age children followed from Grades 1 to 4 (ages 7-10). Children self-reported their intrinsic motivation toward mathematics, whereas achievement was measured through direct assessment of mathematics abilities.…

  9. Relationships among Motivation, Commitment, Cognitive Capacities, and Achievement in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korpershoek, Hanke

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to identify to what extent school motivation and school commitment contributed to the explanation of students' academic achievement in addition to the effect of students' cognitive capacities, (2) to find out whether school commitment mediated the relation between school motivation and academic achievement,…

  10. Achievement Motivation as a Case of Re-Socialization in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna

    The question of achievement motivation in relation to developing countries is explored. A foundation for the study is achieved through discussion of the socialization processes as they are affected by education and economic growth. It is suggested that the societal system determines motivation and values which in turn cause and determine the…

  11. Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

  12. Why Try? Achievement Motivation and Perceived Academic Climate among Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Natalie J.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2010-01-01

    Elliot and McGregor's (2001) 2 x 2 model of achievement motivation (mastery approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance) was used among 143 Latino adolescents to examine how achievement motivation changes over time, and whether perception of academic climate influences eventual academic outcomes. A series of…

  13. Relationship between Uric Acid Level and Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.

    In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…

  14. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the…

  15. Using Student Interviews to Understand Theories of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanich, Laurie B.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction and development of a course assignment that uses student interviews as an instructional tool to bridge the gap between theory and practice in a graduate educational psychology course. The first part of the article describes the student interview assignment used to examine theories of motivation. The second…

  16. Motivational Profiles of Gambling Behavior: Self-determination Theory, Gambling Motives, and Gambling Behavior.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton; Rinker, Dipali V; Tackett, Jennifer L

    2015-12-01

    Gambling among young adults occurs at a higher rate than in the general population and is associated with a host of negative consequences. Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that individuals develop general motivational orientations which predict a range of behavioral outcomes. An autonomy orientation portrays a choiceful perspective facilitating personal growth, whereas a controlled orientation represents a chronic proclivity toward external pressures and a general lack of choice. Further, an impersonal orientation is characterized by alack of intention and feeling despondent and ineffective. Controlled orientation has previously been associated with more frequent and problematic gambling. This research was designed to examine gambling motives as mediators of associations between motivational orientations and gambling behaviors. Undergraduates (N = 252) who met 2+ criteria on the South Oaks Gambling Screen participated in a laboratory survey assessing their motivational orientations, gambling motives, and gambling behavior (quantity, frequency, and problems). Mediation analyses suggested that autonomy was negatively associated with gambling problems through lower levels of chasing and escape motives. Further, controlled orientation was associated with more problems through higher levels of chasing and interest motives. Finally, impersonal orientation was negatively associated with amount won through escape motives. Overall, results support exploring gambling behavior and motives using a SDT framework.

  17. Using self-determination theory to understand motivation deficits in schizophrenia: the 'why' of motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness.

  18. Using self-determination theory to understand motivation deficits in schizophrenia: the 'why' of motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. PMID:24853060

  19. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    PubMed Central

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the action-phase model of developmental regulation with their original life-span theory of control to present a comprehensive theory of development. Third, they reviewed the relevant empirical literature testing key propositions of the Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. Finally, because the conceptual reach of their theory goes far beyond the current empirical base, they pointed out areas that deserve further and more focused empirical inquiry. PMID:20063963

  20. Towards a clinically and empirically sound theory of motivation.

    PubMed

    Westen, D

    1997-06-01

    The author outlines a theory of motivation that attempts to integrate psychoanalytic theory with current psychological thinking and research. Emotions and other sensory feeling states are evolved mechanisms for channelling behaviour in directions that foster adaptation. The avoidance of unpleasant states and pursuit of pleasant ones leads to goal-directed mental and behavioural processes, including defences and compromise formations. Affects provide a flexible motivational mechanism in humans, as they become associated with representations of perceived, feared, wished-for, or otherwise valued states through the interaction of environmental events and highly specific naturally-selected biological proclivities. This reconceptualisation of motivation points towards a resolution of a contradiction in Freud's models of affect and motivation between a theory of drive-reduction and a theory of affect regulation, and of the apparent contradiction between motivational models that emphasise either sexual desire or relational needs. The model also has implications for the theory of transference, since it suggests that neutrality is not the feature of the analytic situation that evokes meaningful transferential processes.

  1. Understanding motivational structures that differentially predict engagement and achievement in middle school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Christine S.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Seitz, Jeffery; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Middle school has been documented as the period in which a drop in students' science interest and achievement occurs. This trend indicates a lack of motivation for learning science; however, little is known about how different aspects of motivation interact with student engagement and science learning outcomes. This study examines the relationships among motivational factors, engagement, and achievement in middle school science (grades 6-8). Data were obtained from middle school students in the United States (N = 2094). The theoretical relationships among motivational constructs, including self-efficacy, and three types of goal orientations (mastery, performance approach, and performance avoid) were tested. The results showed that motivation is best modeled as distinct intrinsic and extrinsic factors; lending evidence that external, performance based goal orientations factor separately from self-efficacy and an internal, mastery based goal orientation. Second, a model was tested to examine how engagement mediated the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and science achievement. Engagement mediated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and science achievement, whereas extrinsic motivation had no relationship with engagement and science achievement. Implications for how classroom practice and educational policy emphasize different student motivations, and in turn, can support or hinder students' science learning are discussed.

  2. Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development. Essays in Social Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol S.

    Based on extensive research with children and young adults, this book examines adaptive and maladaptive cognitive-motivational patterns and shows how these patterns originate in people's self theories; their consequences for one's achievement, social relationships, and emotional well-being; their consequences for society; and the experiences that…

  3. Autonomy, Competence, and Intrinsic Motivation in Science Education: A Self- Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a proposed motivational model of science achievement based on self-determination theory. The study relied on U.S. eighth-grade science data from the 2007 Third International Mathematics and Science Study to examine a structural model that hypothesized how perceived autonomy support, perceived competence in…

  4. Improving Primary Student Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami-Bunyard, Eppy; Gummow, Mary; Milazzo-Licklider, Nicole

    This report describes a program for increasing student readiness for and achievement in mathematics. The targeted population consists of third grade students in an expanding suburban community and kindergarten students in a culturally diverse urban community, both located in Northern Illinois. The problems of achievement in and attitudes towards…

  5. The Motivation-Facilitation Theory of Prenatal Care Access.

    PubMed

    Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care.

  6. Motivational Measure of the Instruction Compared: Instruction Based on the ARCS Motivation Theory vs Traditional Instruction in Blended Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur

    2012-01-01

    The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…

  7. The Influence of Perceived Disgust on Students' Motivation and Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph; Hummel, Eberhard; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter

    2013-11-01

    There are a wide range of student emotions in academic settings, but apart from emotions such as interest and well-being, disgust is a negative emotion which might be relevant in biology education, for instance, during dissection or when encountering living animals. This paper addresses the issue of situational disgust during a course at the university using living animals and prepared mounts. The course covers a wide range of organisms from protists (e.g. Paramecium) through invertebrates to vertebrates and uses many methods (e.g. microscopy, dissection, and behavioral observations) and specific content (anatomy, structure, and behavior). The dissection of the trout was rated as most disgusting, followed by working with living woodlice, living earthworms, and living snails. The least disgusting lessons were those dealing with microscopy, mammalian skulls, honeybee dance, and bird flight. Based on animals, macro-invertebrates were rated as most disgusting and mammals as least disgusting. Concerning methods, observing through a microscope was perceived as being least disgusting, followed by experiments without animals, then followed by experiments with living animals and, most disgusting, dissection. Disgust was correlated negatively with interest, well-being, and competence but positively with pressure and boredom. Thus, low disgust is related to high interest, well-being, and competence, while higher disgust is related to higher pressure and boredom. The results show a need for measuring situational disgust in addition to survey studies. They also suggest that perceived disgust negatively affects intrinsic motivation. This has implications for biology teaching, because carrying out dissections or experiencing living animals in the classroom may have a detrimental effect on motivation.

  8. Modeling the Relationships Among Reading Instruction, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Ho, Amy N.

    2015-01-01

    This study modeled the interrelationships of reading instruction, motivation, engagement, and achievement in two contexts, employing data from 1,159 seventh graders. In the traditional reading/language arts (R/LA) context, all students participated in traditional R/LA instruction. In the intervention R/LA context, 854 students from the full sample received Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) while the remainder continued to receive traditional R/LA. CORI emphasizes support for reading motivation, reading engagement, and cognitive strategies for reading informational text. Seven motivation constructs were included: four motivations that are usually positively associated with achievement (intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, valuing, and prosocial goals) and three motivations that are usually negatively associated with achievement (perceived difficulty, devaluing, and antisocial goals). Reading engagement was also represented by positive and negative constructs, namely dedication to and avoidance of reading. Gender, ethnicity, and income were statistically controlled in all analyses. In the traditional R/LA context, a total network model prevailed, in which motivation was associated with achievement both directly and indirectly through engagement. In contrast, in the intervention R/LA context, a dual-effects model prevailed, in which engagement and achievement were separate outcomes of instruction and motivation. The intervention R/LA context analyses revealed that CORI was associated with positive changes in motivation, engagement, and achievement relative to traditional R/LA instruction. The discussion explains why there were different relations in the two instructional contexts and demonstrates the importance of simultaneously examining both positive (affirming) and negative (undermining) forms of motivation and engagement. PMID:26412903

  9. Socially oriented achievement goals of Chinese university students in Singapore: structure and relationships with achievement motives, goals and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weining C; Wong, Kaishi

    2008-10-01

    Contemporary literature on culture, self, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) suggests that in collectivistic cultures, individual achievement is interdependent of one's social others. We proposed that this cultural characteristic could be exemplified in the achievement goal orientation and tested the notion with university students in a collectivistic community-Singapore. A socially oriented achievement goal construct was developed by taking into consideration the significant social others in the students' lives. A measuring instrument was established with a sample of Singaporean Chinese university students (N = 196; 144 females and 52 males); its relationships to achievement motives, goals, and consequences were examined. Although the socially oriented achievement goal items were originally constructed from four categories of social others, confirmatory factor analysis suggested a unifactor structure. Results showed that the socially oriented goal was related positively with students' performance goal, mastery goal, and competitive motive; it bore no relationship to mastery motive, work ethic, and interest in learning; and it predicted negatively future engagement. After the effects of mastery and performance goals were controlled for, the socially oriented goal did not predict test anxiety. PMID:22022792

  10. Socially oriented achievement goals of Chinese university students in Singapore: structure and relationships with achievement motives, goals and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weining C; Wong, Kaishi

    2008-10-01

    Contemporary literature on culture, self, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) suggests that in collectivistic cultures, individual achievement is interdependent of one's social others. We proposed that this cultural characteristic could be exemplified in the achievement goal orientation and tested the notion with university students in a collectivistic community-Singapore. A socially oriented achievement goal construct was developed by taking into consideration the significant social others in the students' lives. A measuring instrument was established with a sample of Singaporean Chinese university students (N = 196; 144 females and 52 males); its relationships to achievement motives, goals, and consequences were examined. Although the socially oriented achievement goal items were originally constructed from four categories of social others, confirmatory factor analysis suggested a unifactor structure. Results showed that the socially oriented goal was related positively with students' performance goal, mastery goal, and competitive motive; it bore no relationship to mastery motive, work ethic, and interest in learning; and it predicted negatively future engagement. After the effects of mastery and performance goals were controlled for, the socially oriented goal did not predict test anxiety.

  11. A Time Lag Analysis of Temporal Relations between Motivation, Academic Achievement, and Two Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Monica R.; Pasnak, Robert; Romero, Sandy L.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study employed a time lag design to assess temporal relationships between motivation, academic achievement, and cognitive development. Eighty-one children from 2 preschool programs were measured twice, with an 11-week time lag, on 2 measures of motivation (marble drop task, bean bag toss task), 2 measures of…

  12. Understanding Motivational Structures That Differentially Predict Engagement and Achievement in Middle School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christine S.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Seitz, Jeffery; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Middle school has been documented as the period in which a drop in students' science interest and achievement occurs. This trend indicates a lack of motivation for learning science; however, little is known about how different aspects of motivation interact with student engagement and science learning outcomes. This study examines the…

  13. Instrumental Motivation, Critical Thinking, Autonomy and Academic Achievement of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshar, Hassan Soodmand; Rahimi, Ali; Rahimi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Among the factors influencing learners' learning, instrumental motivation, critical thinking and autonomy are thought to be of crucial importance. The present study, thus, set out to investigate relationships between instrumental motivation, critical thinking, autonomy and academic achievement of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 100 Iranian…

  14. Intrinsic Motivation, Perceived Competence and Classroom Engagement as Longitudinal Predictors of Adolescent Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froiland, John Mark; Oros, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, classroom engagement and extrinsic motivation on reading development among youth. Using a nationally representative sample of students in the US, the researchers followed students longitudinally from fifth to eighth grade. Reading achievement was measured using…

  15. A Mobile Gamification Learning System for Improving the Learning Motivation and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, C-H.; Cheng, C-H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate how a gamified learning approach influences science learning, achievement and motivation, through a context-aware mobile learning environment, and explains the effects on motivation and student learning. A series of gamified learning activities, based on MGLS (Mobile Gamification Learning System), was developed and…

  16. Adolescent Expectancy-Value Motivation, Achievement in Physical Education, and Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…

  17. Characterizing the Achievement Motivation Orientation of Children from Low- and Middle-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Crystal A.; Burns, Barbara M.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined achievement motivation orientation in preschool-age children from low- and middle-income families. Participants were 126 children who were attending an urban Head Start site or a private preschool. Children's motivation orientation was assessed as being performance oriented or mastery oriented using a…

  18. Relationships of Homework Motivation and Preferences to Homework Achievement and Attitudes in Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iflazoglu, Ayten; Hong, Eunsook

    2012-01-01

    Whether students' motivation, organizational approaches, physical needs, and environmental and interpersonal preferences during the homework process predict homework achievement and attitudes toward homework was examined in 1,776 Turkish students in Grades 5 through 8. The Homework Motivation and Preference Questionnaire was utilized to assess…

  19. The Ins and Outs of Homeschooling: The Determinants of Parental Motivations and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collom, Ed

    2005-01-01

    This research investigates two major aspects of homeschooling. Factors determining parental motivations to homeschool and the determinants of the student achievement of home-educated children are identified. Original survey data from an organized group of homeschoolers is analyzed. Regression models are employed to predict parents' motivations and…

  20. Self-Determined Motivation and Social Achievement Goals in Children's Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini

    2011-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study we investigated to what extent autonomous and controlled motivation and social achievement goals are associated with students' emotional experiences at school. We found in a sample of 426 elementary school students, aged from 10 to 12 years, autonomous motivation (i.e. students' engagement in class activities because…

  1. Preschool Teaching Students' Prediction of Decision Making Strategies and Academic Achievement on Learning Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acat, M. Bahaddin; Dereli, Esra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify problems and motivation sources and strategies of decision-making of the students' attending preschool education teacher department, was to determine the relationship between learning motivation and strategies of decision-making, academic achievement of students, was to determine whether strategies of…

  2. The Influence of Motivational Orientations on Academic Achievement among Working Adults in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-Ling; Pang, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of five motivational orientations in continuing education among working adults. The influence of motivational orientations on their academic achievement was identified. The study involved 159 working adults who enrolled into part-time programs in an Open University in Sabah. Boshier's Education Participation Scale…

  3. Perceived Opportunity, Ethnic Identity, and Achievement Motivation among Latinos at a Selective Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Using in-depth interview data, this study explored perceptions of opportunity, ethnic identity beliefs, and motivation orientations among Latino students at a selective university. One profile is characterized by individualistic achievement motivations, feelings of exemption from social barriers, and a sense of alienation from other Latinos.…

  4. A Cultural Heuristic Approach to the Study of Jamaican Undergraduate Students' Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Karen Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually-based, sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. With this in mind, this mixed method study examined Jamaican, of the West Indies, undergraduate students' perception of motivation. This study was conducted in two phases. First, a qualitative…

  5. Adolescents' Motivation for Reading: Group Differences and Relation to Standardized Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Denton, Carolyn A.; York, Mary J.; Francis, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on adolescents' motivation for reading by examining important group differences and the relation of motivation to standardized achievement. Adolescents (N = 406) ranging from grade 7 to grade 12 completed a self-report survey that assessed 13 different aspects of their reading motivation…

  6. Compass models: Theory and physical motivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Zohar; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Compass models are theories of matter in which the couplings between the internal spin (or other relevant field) components are inherently spatially (typically, direction) dependent. A simple illustrative example is furnished by the 90° compass model on a square lattice in which only couplings of the form τixτjx (where {τia}a denote Pauli operators at site i ) are associated with nearest-neighbor sites i and j separated along the x axis of the lattice while τiyτjy couplings appear for sites separated by a lattice constant along the y axis. Similar compass-type interactions can appear in diverse physical systems. For instance, compass models describe Mott insulators with orbital degrees of freedom where interactions sensitively depend on the spatial orientation of the orbitals involved as well as the low-energy effective theories of frustrated quantum magnets, and a host of other systems such as vacancy centers, and cold atomic gases. The fundamental interdependence between internal (spin, orbital, or other) and external (i.e., spatial) degrees of freedom which underlies compass models generally leads to very rich behaviors, including the frustration of (semi-)classical ordered states on nonfrustrated lattices, and to enhanced quantum effects, prompting, in certain cases, the appearance of zero-temperature quantum spin liquids. As a consequence of these frustrations, new types of symmetries and their associated degeneracies may appear. These intermediate symmetries lie midway between the extremes of global symmetries and local gauge symmetries and lead to effective dimensional reductions. In this article, compass models are reviewed in a unified manner, paying close attention to exact consequences of these symmetries and to thermal and quantum fluctuations that stabilize orders via order-out-of-disorder effects. This is complemented by a survey of numerical results. In addition to reviewing past works, a number of other models are introduced and new results

  7. Dominant Achievement Goals of Older Workers and Their Relationship with Motivation-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their dominant achievement goals were linked to…

  8. Assessing the Dependability of Drinking Motives via Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Smith, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the score reliability of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R) via generalizability theory. Participants (n = 367 college students) completed the DMQ-R at three time points. Across subscale scores, persons, persons x occasions, and persons x items interactions accounted for meaningful variance. Findings illustrate…

  9. Team Performance Pay and Motivation Theory: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions of a team performance pay program in a large suburban school district through the lens of motivation theories. Mixed data analysis was used to analyze teacher responses from two archival questionnaires (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Responses from teachers who participated in the team…

  10. Faculty Forum: Applying Motivation Theory to Real-World Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpine, Elaine Clanton

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of incorporating an applied learning experience in an upper level undergraduate motivation theory class. In this 3-part course requirement, students (a) participated in a 2-hr field experience, (b) completed a homework assignment based on their participation, and (c) worked in groups to develop a deeper…

  11. Putting Herzberg's Two Factor Theory of Motivation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Charles R.; Decker, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Explores challenges to Frederick Herzberg's Two Factor Theory of Motivation--a required concept in many administrator preparation programs. Herzberg used modified critical incident (or self-reporting) techniques to illustrate that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction occupied different continua and were not opposed to each other. Criticisms, study…

  12. Motivational Classroom Climate for Learning Mathematics: A Reversal Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a case is made that affect is central in determining students' experience of learning or not learning mathematics. I show how reversal theory (Apter, 2001), and particularly its taxonomy of motivations and emotions, provides a basis for a thick description of students' experiences of learning in a mathematics classroom. Using data…

  13. Family Caregivers' Motives for Helping Scale derived from motivation-to-help theory.

    PubMed

    Smith, C E; Kleinbeck, S V; Boyle, D; Kochinda, C; Parker, S

    2001-01-01

    The literature does not contain a measure of family caregivers' motives for helping provide daily complex home care. Such a measure will permit nurses to assess and provide interventions specific to each caregiver's motivation for helping. The purpose of this study was to apply Batson's empirically derived helping pathway theory to the measurement of caregiver motives for helping and develop a short form that does not add to the burden of caregiving. A Principal Components factor analysis (N = 93) of Family Caregivers' Motives for Helping Scale is used. Criterion-related validity is ascertained using a triangulated, independent validation procedure with qualitative data from a subsample (N = 41). Subsample subjects' interview data were categorized, based on Batson's theoretical pathway definitions, by coders blinded to caregiver Motives for Helping Scale scores. Three of Batson's four helping pathways (reward seeking, altruism, and punishment-avoidance) were extracted during factor analysis. This three-factor solution explained 66.6% of the variance and was confirmed by a 97% agreement between three of Batson's pathways and caregivers' helping motive score. The content analyses of the descriptive interview data also coincide with the 3-factor solution. The scale items representing Batson's fourth helping pathway, distress reaction, were not retained due to cross loading. The Family Caregivers' Motives for Helping Scale accurately measures three of four theoretically derived motivations for helping another. The scale should be reanalyzed in a larger sample of caregivers. Aligning nursing interventions to caregiver motives for helping can provide reinforcement for caregivers and potentially enhance home care outcomes.

  14. The Achievement Motive Construct and its Measurement: Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineman, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    Examines the current position regarding the conceptualization and measurement of the achievement motive (nAch). Describes the concept, reviews various measures and evaluates their psychometric properties. (Author/RK)

  15. [The social-cognitive model of achievement motivation in physical education].

    PubMed

    González-Cutre Coll, David; Sicilia Camacho, Alvaro; Moreno Murcia, Juan A

    2008-11-01

    Our objective in this study was to test the new social-cognitive model of achievement motivation in a physical education setting. Research was conducted on a sample of 895 physical education students, ages 12 to 16 years. We measured perception of the motivational climate conveyed by the teacher, implicit beliefs of ability, perceived competence, 2 x 2 achievement goals and self-determined motivation. We carried out structural equation modeling to analyse the relationships among variables. Results showed that task climate positively predicted incremental belief, whereas ego climate positively predicted entity belief. Both climates positively predicted perceived competence. Incremental belief positively predicted mastery-approach goals, performance-approach goals and avoidance goals, whereas entity belief positively predicted performance-approach goals and avoidance goals. Perceived competence positively predicted mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Mastery-approach goal positively predicted self-determined motivation, whereas performance-approach goal and avoidance goals negatively predicted self-determined motivation.

  16. A Scale-Free Systems Theory of Motivation and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Warren K.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2007-01-01

    Scale-free organizations, characterized by uneven distributions of linkages between nodal elements, describe the structure and function of many life-based complex systems developing under evolutionary pressures. We explore motivated behavior as a scale-free map toward a comprehensive translational theory of addiction. Motivational and behavioral repertoires are reframed as link and nodal element sets, respectively, comprising a scale-free structure. These sets are generated by semi-independent information-processing streams within cortical-striatal circuits that cooperatively provide decision-making and sequential processing functions necessary for traversing maps of motivational links connecting behavioral nodes. Dopamine modulation of cortical-striatal plasticity serves a central-hierarchical mechanism for survival-adaptive sculpting and development of motivational-behavioral repertoires by guiding a scale-free design. Drug-induced dopamine activity promotes drug-taking as a highly connected behavioral hub at the expense of natural-adaptive motivational links and behavioral nodes. Conceptualizing addiction as pathological alteration of scale-free motivational-behavioral repertoires unifies neurobiological, neurocomputational and behavioral research while addressing addiction vulnerability in adolescence and psychiatric illness. This model may inform integrative research in defining more effective prevention and treatment strategies for addiction. PMID:17574673

  17. Models of misbelief: Integrating motivational and deficit theories of delusions.

    PubMed

    McKay, Ryan; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2007-12-01

    The impact of our desires and preferences upon our ordinary, everyday beliefs is well-documented [Gilovich, T. (1991). How we know what isn't so: The fallibility of human reason in everyday life. New York: The Free Press.]. The influence of such motivational factors on delusions, which are instances of pathological misbelief, has tended however to be neglected by certain prevailing models of delusion formation and maintenance. This paper explores a distinction between two general classes of theoretical explanation for delusions; the motivational and the deficit. Motivational approaches view delusions as extreme instances of self-deception; as defensive attempts to relieve pain and distress. Deficit approaches, in contrast, view delusions as the consequence of defects in the normal functioning of belief mechanisms, underpinned by neuroanatomical or neurophysiological abnormalities. It is argued that although there are good reasons to be sceptical of motivational theories (particularly in their more floridly psychodynamic manifestations), recent experiments confirm that motives are important causal forces where delusions are concerned. It is therefore concluded that the most comprehensive account of delusions will involve a theoretical unification of both motivational and deficit approaches. PMID:17331741

  18. Protection motivation theory: is this a worthwhile theory for physical activity promotion?

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Trinh, Linda

    2010-04-01

    This article reviews the published studies in the physical activity domain, which include novel hypothesis from our laboratory, that have tested Rogers' Protection Motivation Theory. Across the various population groups, the theory's coping appraisal is generally supported; however, there is limited support for the theory's threat components. Implications of these findings are discussed from both theoretical and practical perspectives.

  19. Motivation Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor & McClelland. A Literature Review of Selected Theories Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardee, Ronald L.

    Job satisfaction, motivation, and reward systems are included in one area of organizational theory. The strongest influence in this area is motivation because it overlaps into both of the other two components. A review of the classical literature on motivation reveals four major theory areas: (1) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs; (2) Herzberg's…

  20. Little-known truths, quirky anecdotes, seething scandals, and even some science in the history of (primarily achievement) motivation.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    This article presents a history of the study of motivation from approximately 1900-1975, focusing on achievement strivings and containing little-known and often surprising facts about the main contributors to this field. Four theorists are highlighted: David McClelland, Kurt Lewin, John Atkinson, and Fritz Heider, each associated with a different theoretical approach (respectively and in order of historical emergence: trait, Gestalt, expectancy/value, and attribution theory). A fifth conception, drive theory, is also represented. In addition, a number of individuals who influenced these theorists and others who followed them are discussed. The article emphasizes the interrelations between the theorists and the interaction between personal and scientific life.

  1. Assets and Educational Achievement: Theory and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William; Sherraden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Economics of Education Review explores the role of savings and asset holding in post-secondary educational achievement. Most college success research has focused on income rather than assets as a predictor, and most college financing policy has focused on tuition support and educational debt, rather than asset accumulation.…

  2. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  3. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure. PMID:26595290

  4. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure.

  5. Improving Reading Achievement Through Increased Motivation, Specific Skill Enhancement, and Practice Time for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Britt K.; Lamon, Kathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    The action research project report began when the teacher researchers determined that students at Sites A and B struggled with reading achievement. The purpose of the project was to improve students' reading achievement through increased motivation, specific skill instruction, and additional practice time. The project involved 26 students: 17…

  6. Culture, Motivation, and Reading Achievement: High School Students in 41 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Chow, Bonnie Wing Yin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how cultural values and family cultural capital were linked to adolescents' motivation and reading achievement using multilevel analyses on reading tests and questionnaire responses of 193,841 fifteen-year-olds in 41 countries. In countries that valued more rigid gender roles, girls had lower reading achievement than girls in…

  7. Achievement Motivation, Socialization, and Hypnotic Susceptibility Among Youths from Four Israeli Subcultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Mordechai; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The impact of child rearing practices on achievement motivation, hypnotic susceptibility, and brain wave patterns of children from Israeli subcultures are examined. Of the four subgroups studied, although they differed in school performance, their need achievement scores were similiar. (Author/DEP)

  8. Development of Independence: Locus of Control, Achievement Motivation and Self vs. Adult Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickie, Jane R.; Mast, Vicki A.

    The development and interrelationship of various measures of independence in children ages 3-12 are examined. Subjects were scored on measures of locus of control and achievement motivation and were rated by teachers on independence and achievement. Subjects were also scored on reliance on adult evaluation and self-evaluation. The results showed…

  9. Self-Efficacy of College Intermediate French Students: Relation to Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Nicole; Pajares, Frank; Herron, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the influence of self-efficacy and other motivational self-beliefs on the achievement of college intermediate French students (N= 303). Self-efficacy for self-regulation was a stronger predictor of intermediate French language achievement than were self-efficacy to obtain grades in French, French…

  10. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Hall, Neff

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Ninety (mostly 10th-grade) students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups…

  11. Social Adaptation and Its Relationship to Achievement Motivation among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlZboon, Saleem Odeh

    2013-01-01

    The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…

  12. Effects of Activity Based Blended Learning Strategy on Prospective of Teachers' Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif; Ahmed, Abdelrahman Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of Activity based Blended Learning strategy and Conventional Blended Learning strategy on students' achievement and motivation. Two groups namely, experimental and control group from Sultan Qaboos University were selected randomly for the study. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and…

  13. The Effects of Gender and Attributions on Achievement Motivation and Subsequent Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Sibylle J.; Latta, R. Michael

    One attributional model of achievement proposes that individuals attribute their own and others' performance outcomes to one or more of four causes, i.e., ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, and that such attributions have motivational significance for subsequent achievement-related behavior. The effects of gender, level of resultant…

  14. Achievements and Problems in Diophantine Approximation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprindzhuk, V. G.

    1980-08-01

    ContentsIntroduction I. Metrical theory of approximation on manifolds § 1. The basic problem § 2. Brief survey of results § 3. The principal conjecture II. Metrical theory of transcendental numbers § 1. Mahler's classification of numbers § 2. Metrical characterization of numbers with a given type of approximation § 3. Further problems III. Approximation of algebraic numbers by rationals § 1. Simultaneous approximations § 2. The inclusion of p-adic metrics § 3. Effective improvements of Liouville's inequality IV. Estimates of linear forms in logarithms of algebraic numbers § 1. The basic method § 2. Survey of results § 3. Estimates in the p-adic metric V. Diophantine equations § 1. Ternary exponential equations § 2. The Thue and Thue-Mahler equations § 3. Equations of hyperelliptic type § 4. Algebraic-exponential equations VI. The arithmetic structure of polynomials and the class number § 1. The greatest prime divisor of a polynomial in one variable § 2. The greatest prime divisor of a polynomial in two variables § 3. Square-free divisors of polynomials and the class number § 4. The general problem of the size of the class number Conclusion References

  15. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.

  16. Testing Theories of Learning: Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Cool, Valerie A.

    Theories of school learning consistently point to variables such as ability, time (e.g., homework), quality of instruction, motivation, and academic coursework as important influences on learning. In this study, path analysis was used to test the direct and indirect effects of these variables on high school learning, with learning measured by both…

  17. The Influence of Fuzzy Logic Theory on Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semerci, Çetin

    2004-01-01

    As science and technology develop, the use's areas of Fuzzy Logic Theory develop too. Measurement and evaluation in education is one of these areas. The purpose of this research is to explain the influence of fuzzy logic theory on students' achievement. An experimental method is employed in the research. The traditional achievement marks and The…

  18. Intrinsic motivation, performance, and the mediating role of mastery goal orientation: a test of self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Cerasoli, Christopher P; Ford, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Although intrinsic motivation has been linked repeatedly to performance and outcomes, the causal relationship between the two has remained unclear. To explain the link, this study considered the focusing influence of mastery goals. Using a three-wave panel study and hypotheses drawn from self-determination theory and achievement goal theory, the current study sought to clarify the relationships between intrinsic motivation, mastery goal orientation, and performance. Specifically, the current study hypothesized and found that mastery goals mediated (explained) the relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance.

  19. Eight myths on motivating social services workers: theory-based perspectives.

    PubMed

    Latting, J K

    1991-01-01

    A combination of factors has made formal motivational and reward systems rare in human service organizations generally and virtually non-existent in social service agencies. The author reviews eight of these myths by reference to eight motivational theories which refute them: need theory, expectancy theory, feedback theory, equity theory, reinforcement theory, cognitive evaluation theory, goal setting theory, and social influence theory. Although most of these theories have been developed and applied in the private sector, relevant research has also been conducted in social service agencies. The author concludes with a summary of guidelines suggested by the eight theories for motivating human service workers.

  20. Eight myths on motivating social services workers: theory-based perspectives.

    PubMed

    Latting, J K

    1991-01-01

    A combination of factors has made formal motivational and reward systems rare in human service organizations generally and virtually non-existent in social service agencies. The author reviews eight of these myths by reference to eight motivational theories which refute them: need theory, expectancy theory, feedback theory, equity theory, reinforcement theory, cognitive evaluation theory, goal setting theory, and social influence theory. Although most of these theories have been developed and applied in the private sector, relevant research has also been conducted in social service agencies. The author concludes with a summary of guidelines suggested by the eight theories for motivating human service workers. PMID:10114292

  1. Motivational Theories as Applied to Ways To Improve School Attendance of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Patti

    In light of the theory that student absenteeism and lack of motivation are intertwined, educators have begun to investigate the theories of motivation in order to apply them to creative attendance policies in an attempt to reduce the problem of student absenteeism. Motivational theories indicate common elements of the importance of the intrinsic…

  2. Interrelationships of Study Habits and Attitudes, Locus of Control, Motivation Achievement Tendencies and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The study investigated (a) relationships between measures on study habits and attitudes, locus of control, achieving tendency, and semester grade-point averages (SGPA), (b) differences between the sexes on the above mentioned variables, and (c) best predictor of SGPA. The subjects were 39 males and 81 females. There were a number of significant…

  3. Social Equity Theory and Racial-Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process,…

  4. Achievement Motivation of the High School Students: A Case Study among Different Communities of Goalpara District of Assam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Achievement motivation is a consistent striving force of an individual to achieve success to a certain standard of excellence in competing situation. In this study an attempt was made to study the effect of achievement motivation on the academic achievement of the high school students of tribal and non tribal communities in relation to their sex…

  5. Students' perceptions of motivation in high school biology class: Informing current theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManic, Janet A.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' perceptions of motivation to achieve while participating in general level high school biology classes. In a national poll of teacher's attitudes, student's motivation was a top concern of teachers (Elam, 1989). The student's perceptions of motivation are important to understand if improvements and advancements in motivation are to be implemented in the science classroom. This qualitative study was conducted in an urban high school that is located in a major metropolitan area in the southeast of the United States. The student body of 1100 is composed of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian students. The focus question of the study was: What are students' perceptions of their motivation in biology class? From general level biology classes, purposeful sampling narrowed the participants to fifteen students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants having varying measurements of motivation on the Scale of Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom (Harter, 1980). The interviews were recorded and transcribed. After transcription, the interviews were coded by the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The coded data of students' responses were analyzed and compared to current theories of motivation. The current theories are the social-cognitive model (Bandura, 1977), attribution theory (Weiner, 1979), basic needs theory (Maslow, 1954) and choice theory (Glasser, 1986). The results of this study support the social cognitive model of motivation (Bandura, 1977) through the description of family structure and its relationship to motivation (Gonzalez, 2002). The study upheld previous research in that extrinsic orientation was shown to be prevalent in older students (Harter, 1981; Anderman & Maehr, 1994). In addition, the students' responses disclosed the difficulties encountered in studying biology. Students expressed the opinion that biology terms are

  6. Profiling first-year students in STEM programs based on autonomous motivation and academic self-concept and relationship with academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level.

  7. Profiling First-Year Students in STEM Programs Based on Autonomous Motivation and Academic Self-Concept and Relationship with Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level. PMID:25390942

  8. Influence of science and technology magnet middle schools on students' motivation and achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, David

    Some informal discussions among educators regarding motivation of students and academic performance have included the topic of magnet schools. The premise is that a focused theme, such as an aspect of science, positively affects student motivation and academic achievement. However, there is limited research involving magnet schools and their influence on student motivation and academic performance. This study provides empirical data for the discussion about magnet schools influence on motivation and academic ability. This study utilized path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to simultaneously investigate the relationships between demographic exogenous independent variables, the independent variable of attending a science or technology magnet middle school, and the dependent variables of motivation to learn science and academic achievement in science. Due to the categorical nature of the variables, Bayesian statistical analysis was used to calculate the path coefficients and the standardized effects for each relationship in the model. The coefficients of determination were calculated to determine the amount of variance each path explained. Only five of 21 paths had statistical significance. Only one of the five statistically significant paths (Attended Magnet School to Motivation to Learn Science) explained a noteworthy amount (45.8%) of the variance.

  9. The Intricate Relationship between Motivation and Achievement: Examining the Mediating Role of Self-Regulated Learning and Achievement-Related Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine how motivation is related to academic achievement. The "Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ) was administered to 1,166 students at a polytechnic in Singapore as a measure for motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning strategies. In addition, students' prior knowledge,…

  10. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  11. Cognitive dissonance theory and motivation for change: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Marcia

    2003-01-01

    Managers frequently seek ways to create effective and lasting change among employees. When attempting change, each manager must consider what will motivate a particular employee at a particular time. To create lasting change, it is believed that a change in attitudes, beliefs, or values may be necessary. Cognitive dissonance is purported to be a powerful motivator for change. People find consistency comfortable and prefer to be consistent in their thoughts, beliefs, emotions, values, attitudes, and actions. When inconsistency exists, an individual feels an imbalance or dissonance. To reduce this feeling of imbalance, individuals may change their attitude or behavior to regain the feeling of consistency. This article explores cognitive dissonance theory and discusses a situation in which it was used to produce effective and lasting change in a nursing work unit.

  12. Final Report on Head Start Evaluation and Research: 1967-68 to the Office of Economic Opportunity. Section II: Achievement Motivation and Patterns of Reinforcement in Head Start Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Renato

    Eighty-six Negro and Mexican-American children were divided into experimental and control groups in a study designed to learn the effects of an 8-week summer Head Start program on the achievement motive of these children. The study was based on McClelland's theory of achievement motive and the models of Atkinson and Aronson. Children were…

  13. An application of belief-importance theory in the domain of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Petrides, K V; Frederickson, Norah

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Belief-importance (belimp; Petrides, 2010a,b) theory posits that personality traits confer on the individual a propensity to perceive convergences and divergences between their belief that they can attain goals and the importance that they place on these goals. The theory suggests that these convergences and divergences have important implications for affect, motivation, and action. AIMS. To test belimp theory using performance-based criteria relating to academic achievement and constructs from the personality domain. SAMPLES. Two hundred and forty-two students, of whom 121 were male and 117 were female (4 unreported). They were approximately 18 years old at the time of testing. METHODS. Data were collected on the belief and importance of academic achievement, the Giant Three personality dimensions, and trait emotional intelligence (trait EI). Academic achievement was operationalized via Key Stage 3 and A-level assessment results. RESULTS. Four hypotheses concerning academic achievement were tested and confirmed, with the Motivation quadrant scoring higher than the other three belimp quadrants (Hubris, Depression, and Apathy). Four hypotheses concerning personality were tested, of which two were confirmed, with the Hubris quadrant scoring highest on psychoticism and the Depression quadrant scoring highest on neuroticism. Four hierarchical regressions demonstrated the incremental validity of the belief and importance belimp coordinates over the Giant Three personality dimensions in the prediction of academic achievement. CONCLUSIONS. The results are encouraging for belimp theory and complement similarly supportive findings in Petrides (2010b,c).

  14. Cross-domain generality of achievement motivation across sport and the classroom: the case of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Isabel; Duda, Joan L; Balaguer, Isabel; Tomás, Inés

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from contemporary social cognitive theories of achievement motivation, the relationship of personal theories of achievement (ego and task theory) with perceived ability and reported satisfaction with school and sport was examined. The cross-domain generality of these relationships in these contexts, in the case of a representative sample of adolescents between 11 and 15 years of age (N = 967, M age = 13.5, SD = 1.80; 492 girls and 475 boys) from the Valencian Community (Spain) also was examined. According to previous research in the United States (Duda & Nicholls, 1992), the findings of this study indicate a cross-domain consistency with regard to how adolescents tend to define success and their views of how achievement activities operate across sport and the classroom. However, little cross-domain generality was found for perceptions of ability and reported satisfaction. In the sport and classroom domains, a task theory was related to greater satisfaction, while an ego theory was related to greater reported boredom and low interest in the activity. PMID:19950870

  15. Attitude and Motivation as Predictors of Academic Achievement of Students in Clothing and Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwameiye, B. E.; Osho, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated attitude and motivation as predictors of academic achievement of students in clothing and textiles. Three colleges of education in Edo and Delta States were randomly selected for use in this study. From each school, 40 students were selected from Year III using simple random technique yielding a total of 240 students. The…

  16. Connection between Organizational Culture and Development of Achievement Motive of Students of the Faculty of Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubulj, Milan; Arsenijevi, Olja; Simic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The authors of this paper are engaged in studying the organizational culture and achievement motive, by carrying out their studies among the students of the Faculty of Management in Novi Sad, AP Vojvodina, Serbia. The problem of this paper's research was set by the question: is there a connection of a dominantly present organizational culture and…

  17. Spotlight on Student Engagement, Motivation, and Achievement. No. 5 in the Harvard Education Letter Spotlight Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.; Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Only when students feel engaged both socially and academically can schools and teachers lay the groundwork to motivate achievement. This volume, the fifth in the "Harvard Education Letter" Spotlight series, brings together fifteen seminal articles that examine research and practice on these complex and interrelated issues. Contributors include:…

  18. Characteristics of Academically-Influential Children: Achievement Motivation and Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2016-01-01

    The contributions of academic achievement motivation and social status to peer-reported academic influence were explored in a sample of 322 children in grades three through five. Latent moderated structural equation modeling indicated that children who value academics are more likely to be rated by peers as academically influential. Social status…

  19. Influence of Motivation, Self-Beliefs, and Instructional Practices on Science Achievement of Adolescents in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of motivation to learn science, science self-beliefs, and science instructional practices on science achievement of 13,985 15-year-old students from 431 schools across Canada. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses, while controlling for student- and school-level demographic characteristics, revealed the…

  20. Differential Relations of Constructivist and Didactic Instruction to Students' Cognition, Motivation, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how constructivist and didactic instruction was related to students' cognitive, motivational, and achievement outcomes in English classrooms, using a sample of 3000 Grade 9 students from 108 classrooms in 39 secondary schools in Singapore. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed differential cross-level relations. After…

  1. Models of Pre-Service Teachers' Academic Achievement: The Influence of Cognitive Motivational Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Villarreal, Felicia; Guerra, Norma; Sass, Daniel; Hseih, Pei-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models were tested using structural equation modeling to evaluate the interrelations among cognitive motivational variables and academic achievement using a sample of 128 predominately Hispanic pre-service teachers enrolled in two undergraduate educational psychology classes. Data were gathered using: (1) a quantitative questionnaire…

  2. Relationships between Online Motivation, Participation, and Achievement: More Complex than You Might Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnett, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing importance and rapid growth of online courses, diversification of the student population, and the growing concern over retention rates, exploration of learner online participation and possible relationships with motivation and achievement behaviour is becoming increasingly relevant in higher education. Previous studies (Gerber,…

  3. Academic Performance in African American Undergraduates: Effects of Cultural Mistrust, Educational Value, and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Taisha; Obasi, Ezemenari M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined achievement motivation, the value of education, cultural mistrust, and academic performance in 202 African American college students attending both Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and a Predominately White Institution (PWI). Results using hierarchical multiple regression established that the three…

  4. Entrepreneurs and Public-Sector Employees: The Role of Achievement Motivation and Risk in Occupational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Irvin B., III

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study that investigated how achievement motivation and risk affect entrepreneurs and nonentrepreneurs in their selection of occupations. Concludes that the will to be independent and successful is more important to entrepreneurs than for others, while personal risk-taking preferences are not significant in explaining entrepreneurial…

  5. Perceived Social Support and Early Adolescents' Achievement: The Mediational Roles of Motivational Beliefs and Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; van der Werf, Greetje; Kuyper, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Although a bulk of literature shows that perceived social support (PSS) influences academic achievement, the mechanisms through which this effect operates received little empirical attention. The present study examined the multiple mediational effects of motivational beliefs (competence beliefs and subjective value) and emotions (anxiety and…

  6. Elementary School Counselors' Motivation to Support Student Academic Achievement through Identified Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, Jennifer S.; Brott, Pamelia E.

    2012-01-01

    The researchers explored the relationship between elementary school counselors' motivational orientation, perceptions of importance and levels of implementation of Academic and Personal/Social Standards as a strategy for supporting academic achievement. Responses from 212 elementary school counselors confirm both types of Standards as being highly…

  7. Impact of Video Presentation Features on Instructional Achievement and Intrinsic Motivation in Secondary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Ronald B.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed instructional achievement and intrinsic motivation among 21st century secondary students utilizing a video lecture incorporating both student reaction cutaway images and immediate content interaction within the lecture. Respondents (n = 155) were from multiple classes and grade levels at a suburban Texas high school. Four…

  8. The Relationship between Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Achievement for First Generation Latino College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Naomi Noel; DeFreitas, Stacie Craft

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic students are pursuing higher education more than in previous years and they often represent their family as the first member to attend college (Strage in "Coll Stud J" 33:198-205, 1999). Past educational research has studied the influence of intrinsic motivation on academic achievement in various ethnically diverse elementary,…

  9. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEVENTH GRADE PUERTO RICAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, WILLIAM M.; CHRISTENSEN, EDWARD W.

    THIS STUDY INVOLVED--(1) EXPLORING ACADEMIC MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN PUERTO RICAN 11TH-GRADE STUDENTS, (2) CREATING A MEASURE FOR THESE FACTORS WHICH MIGHT BE USABLE IN OTHER LATIN AMERICAN AREAS, AND (3) INVESTIGATING THE CHILD-REARING AND OTHER PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. THE METHOD INVOLVED THREE STAGES--(1)…

  10. Professional training in the workplace: the role of achievement motivation and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants' employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers' qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers' effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions.

  11. Comparing Relations of Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement among Struggling and Advanced Adolescent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauda, Susan Lutz; Guthrie, John T.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of reading motivation, engagement, and achievement in early adolescence by comparing interrelations of these variables in struggling and advanced readers. Participants were 183 pairs of seventh grade students matched in gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school attended. They completed…

  12. Motivation for Reading and Upper Primary School Students' Academic Achievement in Reading in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucherah, Winnie; Herendeen, Abbey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school students' reading motivation and performance on the standardized exam. Participants included 901 seventh and eighth grade students from Kenya. There were 468 females and 433 males. Contrary to previous studies, results showed reading challenge and aesthetics, but not efficacy, predicted reading achievement,…

  13. Achievement-Based Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: A Test of Cognitive Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Judy; Pierce, W. David; Banko, Katherine M.; Gear, Amber

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed how rewards impacted intrinsic motivation when students were rewarded for achievement while learning an activity, for performing at a specific level on a test, or for both. Undergraduate university students engaged in a problem-solving activity. The design was a 2 * 2 factorial with 2 levels of reward in a learning phase…

  14. Mathematics Anxiety According to Middle School Students' Achievement Motivation and Social Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesici, Sahin; Erdogan, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify whether middle school students' mathematics anxiety differentiates or not, according to their low and high achievement motivation and their level of self-esteem stemming from social comparison. This study also aims to clarify the effects of these two variables on mathematics anxiety. The study groups were…

  15. Socially Oriented Motivational Goals and Academic Achievement: Similarities between Native and Anglo Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Jinnat; McInerney, Dennis M.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; King, Ronnel B.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between two socially oriented dimensions of student motivation and academic achievement of Native (Navajo) American and Anglo American students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a multidimensional and hierarchical model was found to explain the relations between performance and social goals. Four first-order…

  16. Demographic and Educational Influences on Academic Motivation, Competence, and Achievement in Minority Urban Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    Using the Scale of Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom (S. Harter, 1980) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children (S. Harter, 1985), this study of 222 urban early adolescents (median age=149 months) examined differences in motivation that might affect academic achievement and perceptions of competence. Socioeconomic status…

  17. Achievement Goals, Motivational Climate and Sportspersonship: A Study of Young Handball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornes, Tor; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and sportspersonship in a sample of young male Norwegian handball players. A cross-sectional study of 440 male handball players aged from 14 to 16 was conducted, in which the players responded to a questionnaire measuring…

  18. Help-Seeking Tendencies during Early Adolescence: An Examination of Motivational Correlates and Consequences for Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allison M.; Shin, Huiyoung

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the motivational correlates and achievement consequences of students' help-seeking tendencies during sixth grade (N = 217). Students' grades were collected from school records at the beginning and end of the school year. Midway through the year students reported on their academic self-efficacy and social demonstration…

  19. The Effect of an Augmented Reality Enhanced Mathematics Lesson on Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estapa, Anne; Nadolny, Larysa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess student achievement and motivation during a high school augmented reality mathematics activity focused on dimensional analysis. Included in this article is a review of the literature on the use of augmented reality in mathematics and the combination of print with augmented reality, also known as interactive…

  20. African American Homeschool Parents' Motivations for Homeschooling and Their Black Children's Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…

  1. Predicting Learned Helplessness and Achievement: The Role of Locus on Control and Motivational Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane; Barrett, Marty

    This 2-year study examined the relative potency of locus of control (LOC) and motivational orientation (MO) as predictors of standardized achievement scores and learned helplessness. Also tested was the prediction that children with an extrinsic MO would be prone to adopt an external LOC over time. In the first year of the study, subjects were 158…

  2. Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback…

  3. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.

  4. Understanding the Relationship between Perfectionism and Achievement Motivation in Gifted College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speirs-Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2004-01-01

    This study is a slice of an overarching research investigation of perfectionism in gifted college students. Utilizing a qualitative interview design, this study examined how gifted college students scoring high on 1 of 2 different dimensions of-perfectionism (socially prescribed or self-oriented) perceived their achievement motivation. Findings…

  5. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  6. Confronting the Effects of Unemployment on Achievement Motivation: The Case for Postmodern Career Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Kobus; Ebersohn, Liesel; Vermaak, Bianca

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the ways in which postmodern career facilitation was applied to enhance achievement motivation in a male adolescent from a community with a high unemployment rate. A case study following a mixed-method approach was conducted with a purposefully selected youth and a postmodern career facilitation intervention was developed…

  7. Patterns of Association among Multiple Motivations and Aspects of Achievement in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Amy N.; Guthrie, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the multivariate relationships between several aspects of motivation and achievement in reading. Canonical correlation analysis was used to examine patterns of associations for reading information texts in Phase I and for reading literary texts in Phase II. The samples were 923 and 225 seventh graders, respectively.…

  8. Cognitive Abilities and Motivational Processes in Science Achievement and Engagement: A Person-Centered Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Roeser, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This study adopted a person-centered approach to examine organized patterns of psychological factors and their relations to achievement and engagement in a sample of high school students. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective characteristics were identified in both the male and…

  9. Cognitive Abilities and Motivational Processes in High School Students' Situational Engagement and Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Roeser, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Building on R. Snow's two pathways to achievement outcomes (1989), examined how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways respectively contributed to prediction of outcomes in science for 491 high school students. Results are consistent with Snow's conjecture that factors related to both pathways…

  10. Modeling the Relationships among Reading Instruction, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Ho, Amy N.

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the interrelationships of reading instruction, motivation, engagement, and achievement in two contexts, employing data from 1,159 seventh graders. In the traditional reading/language arts (R/LA) context, all students participated in traditional R/LA instruction. In the intervention R/LA context, 854 students from the full sample…

  11. On the Impact of Formative Assessment on Student Motivation, Achievement, and Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue; Shavelson, Richard J.; Ayala, Carlos C.; Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Brandon, Paul R.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Tomita, Miki K.; Young, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment was hypothesized to have a beneficial impact on students' science achievement and conceptual change, either directly or indirectly by enhancing motivation. We designed and embedded formatives assessments within an inquiry science unit. Twelve middle-school science teachers with their students were randomly assigned either to…

  12. Effect of Learning Cycle Approach-Based Science Teaching on Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning cycle approach-based teaching on academic achievement, attitude, motivation and retention at primary school 4th grade science lesson. It was conducted pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in this study. The study was conducted on a total of 65 students studying in two different…

  13. Suicide Proneness in College Students: Relationships with Gender, Procrastination, and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was…

  14. Achievement Motivation, Anxiety and Academic Success in First Year Master of Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Lynn; Goldenberg, Dolly

    1999-01-01

    A study of 41 graduate nursing students found they had high achievement motivation and academic ability. Trait anxiety was the only valid predictor of academic success. Academic ability and inherent anxiety had greater potential for predicting students who would succeed. (Author/SK)

  15. The Roles of Cognitive and Motivational Predictors in Explaining School Achievement in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Heike S.; Lu, Liping; Shi, Jiannong; Spinath, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the roles of cognitive (working memory, intelligence) and motivational variables (self-perceived ability, intrinsic value) in explaining school achievement. The sample consisted of N = 320 German elementary school children in the fourth grade. Working memory and intelligence were assessed in the classroom.…

  16. Peer relationships in adolescent competitive soccer: associations to perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Roberts, Glyn C; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Miller, Blake W

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived motivational climate, achievement goals, perfectionism and indices of peer relationships in a sample of young male and female Norwegian soccer players. The sample consisted of 1719 experienced soccer players (1231 males, 488 females) aged 12-19 years (mean = 14.9 years) participating in the Norway Cup international youth soccer competition. The players responded to a questionnaire measuring perceived peer acceptance and quality of friendship in soccer, perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism in soccer. Canonical correlation analyses revealed that young female players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly mastery oriented, and who were moderately task oriented and scored negatively on maladaptive perfectionism, reported better relations with their peers in soccer. Constructive peer relations were evident in that they scored positively on companionship with their best friend in soccer; they perceived this friend as being loyal and allowing of free discussion, and they reported being socially accepted by their peers in soccer. Mirroring these findings, young male players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly performance oriented, who had a moderately negative score on task orientation but a quite strong positive score on maladaptive perfectionism, reported negative relationships with peers in terms of these aspects. They also reported being in conflict with their best soccer friend. The findings suggest that the qualities of motivation have a systematic relationship with peer acceptance and the quality of friendship in male and female youth soccer.

  17. Gamification in science education: The relationship of educational games to motivation and achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, Kelly Elizabeth

    Community colleges have become increasingly more important in America's higher education system. Part of this emphasis has been directly due to President Obama's 2010 directive to produce a competitive workforce in the United States by increasing the community college graduation rate by five million over the next decade (Madhani, 2010). Community colleges allow open admission for students which permits marginally prepared students to enter. These students may lack motivation, which contributes to student attrition (Williams, 2010). The focus of this study is to examine methods that may improve student learning and motivation, which could ultimately lead to higher graduation rates. This study investigates the relationship of gamification to motivation and achievement in a community college microbiology class. Gamification is defined as "the process of adding game mechanics to processes, programs, and platforms that would not traditionally use such concepts" (Swan, 2012). The goal of game-based learning is to increase student motivation and learning. The results of this investigation indicate that educational games increase motivation and achievement of students in a community college microbiology class.

  18. Folk Belief Theory, the Rigor Gap, and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torff, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Folk belief theory is suggested as a primary cause for the persistence of the achievement gap. In this research-supported theory, culturally specified folk beliefs about learning and teaching prompt educators to direct more rigorous curriculum to high-advantage students but not to low-advantage students, resulting in impoverished pedagogy in…

  19. Motivation and Autonomy in Counseling, Psychotherapy, and Behavior Change: A Look at Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Richard M.; Lynch, Martin F.; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Deci, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation has received increasing attention across counseling approaches, presumably because clients' motivation is key for treatment effectiveness. The authors define motivation using a self-determination theory taxonomy that conceptualizes motivation along a relative-autonomy continuum. The authors apply the taxonomy in discussing how various…

  20. Understanding volunteer peer health educators' motivations: applying social learning theory.

    PubMed

    Klein, N A; Sondag, K A; Drolet, J C

    1994-11-01

    We conducted focus group interviews with students who were current peer health educators at a mid-sized university to determine what factors motivate individuals to volunteer for a peer health education program. Specifically, we asked the participants questions designed to explore their life experiences, their expectations of the peer education program, and their motivations. Constructs from social learning theory were used to categorize and contribute to our understanding of the responses. Many participants specified experiences with family members or friends, such as alcoholism or other illnesses, that had influenced their decisions. Participants' expectation of the program varied greatly and did not indicate a strong link to the decision to volunteer. The peer health educators' motivations for volunteering were altruistic, such as wanting to help others; egotistic, such as wanting job training; or related to self-efficacy beliefs, such as satisfying a personal need for health education. This study indicated that life experiences, a belief in the effectiveness of peer health education programs, and positive reinforcement to join influence the decision to volunteer. Implications for coordinating peer education programs are discussed.

  1. Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Mary D.; Rosse, Joseph G.

    2007-01-01

    Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article offers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational…

  2. Sport Ability Beliefs, 2 x 2 Achievement Goals, and Intrinsic Motivation: The Moderating Role of Perceived Competence in Sport and Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. K. John; Liu, Woon Chia; Lochbaum, Marc R.; Stevenson, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether perceived competence moderated the relationships between implicit theories, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation for sports and physical activity. We placed 309 university students into high and moderate perceived competence groups. When perceived competence was high, entity beliefs did not predict the…

  3. Achievement motivation level in students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and its influential factors

    PubMed Central

    KAVOUSIPOUR, SOMAYEH; NOORAFSHAN, ALI; POURAHMAD, SAEEDEH; DEHGHANI-NAZHVANI, ALI

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Many studies have investigated the relationship between motivation and educational outcomes. The present study was conducted to determine whether the students’ motivation in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) decreases during educational years. Methods: 770 students in SUMS were selected by multi-stage stratified random sampling from each field and entrance year. The first questionnaire contained 57 questions on the effect of economic, social, educational, geographical and personality factors on the students’ motivation. The second one was based on 50 incomplete sentences. The validity and reliability of these questionnaires were approved by the experts and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (85% and 90%, respectively). In this cross-sectional study, ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square tests were applied for data analysis at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Six factors with the most effect on academic motivation were "family attitudes", "getting good jobs in future", "respect for themselves", " the ability to learn", "believing their role in victory and defeat" and "the tendency toward optimism about themselves". In addition, comparing professional doctorate and basic sciences’ results revealed no significant relationship between academic motivation and educational years (F=0.819, p=0.397). But comparing field by field showed that Dentistry and Hospital Management and Medical Information (HMMI) had a significant decrease in motivation score by increase in educational years (F=3.991, p=0.015). Conclusion: Achievement motivation level in SUMS students was higher than average and did not decrease during educational years. Also, the results showed that personal, social and educational related factors affected motivation level more than economic and environmental factors. PMID:25587552

  4. Study of Teachers' Motivation To Motivate Students by the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesus, Saul Neves de; Abreu, Manuel Viegas

    This research goes with a new tendency in the field of educational psychology--the study not only of students' motivation but also of teachers' motivation. However, the studies of teacher motivation had been only to acknowledge the factors to motivate teachers, without the analysis of motivation as a process that contains several cognitive…

  5. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: the moderating role of achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård

    2013-09-01

    This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE. PMID:22273179

  6. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: the moderating role of achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård

    2013-09-01

    This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE.

  7. Managing for Motivation: Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Its Application to 4-H Leadership. National Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Walter J.

    A study examined the organizational factors contributing to the motivation of 4-H volunteer leaders. A modified form of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory served as the research design of the study. A total of 149 4-H leaders were interviewed regarding thirteen job factors: recognition; personal growth; relationships with other 4-H leaders,…

  8. Teachers' Conceptions of Motivation and Motivating Practices in Second-Language Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Ana; Ramirez, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Based on self-determination theory, we conducted an exploratory study aimed at identifying teachers' beliefs about motivation and motivating practices in second-language teaching at a private language center in Medellin, Colombia. To gather data, 65 teachers were surveyed; from this initial group, 11 were interviewed and observed in class during…

  9. Relationships among constructivist learning environment perceptions, motivational beliefs, self-regulation and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Sungur Vural, Semra

    2013-11-01

    Background. There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose. This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables (personal relevance, uncertainty, shared control, critical voice, student negotiation), motivational beliefs (self-efficacy, intrinsic interest, goal orientation), self-regulation, and science achievement. Sample. The sample for this study comprised 802 Grade 8 students from 14 public middle schools in a district of Ankara in Turkey. Design and methods. Students were administered 4 instruments: Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, Goal Achievement Questionnaire, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and Science Achievement Test. LISREL 8.7 program with SIMPLIS programming language was used to test the conceptual model. Providing appropriate fit indices for the proposed model, the standardized path coefficients for direct effects were examined. Results. At least one dimension of the constructivist learning environment was associated with students' intrinsic interest, goal orientation, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and science achievement. Self-efficacy emerged as the strongest predictor of both mastery and performance avoidance goals rather than the approach goals. Intrinsic value was found to be significantly linked to science achievement through its effect on self-regulation. The relationships between self-efficacy and self-regulation and between goal orientation and science achievement were not significant. Conclusion. In a classroom environment supporting student autonomy and control, students tend to develop higher interest in tasks, use more self-regulatory strategies, and demonstrate higher academic performance. Science teachers are highly recommended to consider these findings when designing

  10. The quality of volunteers' motives: Integrating the functional approach and self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Güntert, Stefan Tomas; Strubel, Isabel Theresia; Kals, Elisabeth; Wehner, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Volunteers' motives have been differentially linked to various aspects of successful volunteering. Using self-determination theory, we propose that volunteer functions are systematically related to the experience of self-determined versus controlled motivation. This "quality of motivation," in turn, explains why motives are differentially associated with satisfaction. We conducted two studies: Study 1 (N1 = 824) addressed motives, quality of motivation, and satisfaction; Study 2 (N2 = 323) additionally examined function-specific benefits and the extent to which they match volunteers' motives. Overall, our hypotheses were supported: values, understanding, and social justice motives were positively associated with relatively self-determined motivation (RSM), whereas career, social, protective, and enhancement motives showed negative correlations. The relationships between motives and satisfaction were partially mediated by RSM. Concerning benefits, Study 2 corroborated these findings for values, protective, enhancement, and social justice. This research introduces a new perspective on the quality of volunteers' motives-with theoretical and practical implications.

  11. Tweeting badges: user motivations for displaying achievement in publicly networked environments.

    PubMed

    Kwon, K Hazel; Halavais, Alexander; Havener, Shannon

    2015-02-01

    Badge systems, a common mechanism for gamification on social media platforms, provide a way for users to present their knowledge or experience to others. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of why social media users publicize their achievements in the form of online badges. Five motivational factors for badge display in public networked environments are distinguished-self-efficacy, social incentives, networked support, passing time, and inattentive sharing-and it is suggested that different badge types are associated with different motivations. System developers are advised to consider these components in their designs, applying the elements most appropriate to the communities they serve. Comparing user motivations associated with badges shared across boundaries provides a better understanding of how online badges relate to the larger social media ecosystem. PMID:25684610

  12. Predicting Long-Term Growth in Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Unique Contributions of Motivation and Cognitive Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…

  13. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  14. What motivates health professionals? Opportunities to gain greater insight from theory.

    PubMed

    Buetow, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    Health care policy-makers and researchers need to pay more attention to understanding the influence of motivation on professional behaviour. Goal setting theory, including two hypotheses - the business case and the pride case - dominates current attempts to motivate professionals. However, the predominance of goal setting theory stifles other approaches to conceptualizing professional motivation. These approaches include other cognitive theories of motivation, such as self-determination theory (concerned with how to use extrinsic rewards that enhance intrinsic motivation), as well as content, psychoanalytic and environmental theories. A valuable opportunity exists to develop and test such theories in addition to possible hybrids, for example, by elaborating goal setting theory in health care. The results can be expected to inform health policy and motivate individual professionals, groups, organizations and workforces to improve and deliver high quality care.

  15. Gifted Students' Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations and Parental Influence on Their Motivation: From the Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dhamit, Yahya; Kreishan, Lana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to describe and investigate a sample of school gifted students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and the role of their parents in fostering motivational achievements in Jordan. In the study, 122 gifted students were selected to complete a questionnaire (adapted from Pelletier, Fortier and Vallerand et?al.)…

  16. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  17. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented. PMID:6465152

  18. Predicting elite Scottish athletes' attitudes towards doping: examining the contribution of achievement goals and motivational climate.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine; Taylor, John; Dimeo, Paul; Dixon, Sarah; Robinson, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding athletes' attitudes to doping continues to be of interest for its potential to contribute to an international anti-doping system. However, little is known about the relationship between elite athletes' attitudes to drug use and potential explanatory factors, including achievement goals and the motivational climate. In addition, despite specific World Anti-Doping Agency Code relating to team sport athletes, little is known about whether sport type (team or individual) is a risk or protective factor in relation to doping. Elite athletes from Scotland (N = 177) completed a survey examining attitudes to performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Athletes were generally against doping for performance enhancement. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that task and ego goals and mastery motivational climate were predictors of attitudes to PED use (F (4, 171) = 15.81, P < .01). Compared with individual athletes, team athletes were significantly lower in attitude to PED use and ego orientation scores and significantly higher in perceptions of a mastery motivational climate (Wilks' lambda = .76, F = 10.89 (5, 170), P < .01). The study provides insight into how individual and situational factors may act as protective and risk factors in doping in sport.

  19. Exploring the Complexities of Learning Motivation in Pre-Service Teacher Education Students: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosskopf, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded-theory study investigated learning motivation differences among three achievement groupings of undergraduate students enrolled in the College of Education and Human Sciences at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Nine students participated in in-depth interviews that explored their reasons for pursuing their degree,…

  20. Performance Approach-Avoidance Motivation and Planned Behavior Theory: Model Stability With Greek Students With and Without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies evaluated the contribution of goal orientation--over and above the constructs of planned behavior theory--in explaining the relationship between attitudes, motivation, and academic achievement for students with and without learning disabilities. Results indicated that a performance-approach orientation exerted significant positive…

  1. The Motivational Determinants of Students at Risk of Having Reading Difficulties: Planned Behavior Theory and Goal Importance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Padeliadu, Susana

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the motivational determinants of 258 low and high elementary grade readers in Greece within the framework of planned behavior theory. Low performing readers exhibited significantly lower perceptions of goal importance, intention to achieve, belief strength, outcome evaluation, and normative beliefs. The planned behavior model…

  2. Effect of Motivational Interviewing on a Weight Loss Program Based on the Protection Motivation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Mirkarimi, Kamal; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Eshghinia, Samira; Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Ozouni-Davaji, Rahman Berdi; Aryaie, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the increase the world over, which imposes an ever-increasing burden on societies and health care systems. Objectives: This study sought to investigate the effect of motivational interviewing (MI) on a weight-loss program based on the protection motivation theory (PMT). Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial study, comprising pretest-posttest with a control group, was conducted on 150 overweight and obese women attending a private nutrition clinic for the first time. Samples were randomly selected using the clinic’s records and then allocated to three groups (50 women in each group) receiving: 1) a standard weight-control program; 2) motivational interviewing; and 3) MI plus intention intervention. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire through in-person interviews and were analyzed using SPSS (version 11) and statistical tests, including the Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance, paired t-test, and linear regression model. Results: In the two intervention groups, the PMT construct scores, namely susceptibility (P = 0.001), severity (P = 0.001), rewards (P =0.004), self-efficacy (P = 0.001), response efficacy (P = 0.001), and costs (P = 0.014), were significantly increased compared to those in the control group. The anthropometric status was statistically significant in the MI group (P = 0.001) and the MI plus intention-intervention group (P = 0.001) at 2 months’ follow-up, while in the control group, weight was meaningfully different after the intervention (P = 0.027). Weight was different between the groups after the intervention, with the Tukey test demonstrating that the differences were statistically significant between the control group and the MI group. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that MI, combined with the implementation of intention intervention, increased weight loss and PMT construct scores in our study population. PMID:26380106

  3. Achievement, motivation, and educational choices: A longitudinal study of expectancy and value using a multiplicative perspective.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D; Marsh, Herbert W; Morin, Alexandre J S

    2015-08-01

    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes during the transition into early adulthood. Participants were from a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 15-year-old Australian youths (N = 10,370). The results suggest that (a) both math self-concept and intrinsic value interact in predicting advanced math course selection, matriculation results, entrance into university, and STEM fields of study; (b) prior reading achievement has negative effects on advanced math course selection and STEM fields through math motivational beliefs; and (c) gender differences in educational outcomes are mediated by gender differences in motivational beliefs and prior academic achievement, while the processes underlying choice of educational pathway were similar for males and females.

  4. Achievement, motivation, and educational choices: A longitudinal study of expectancy and value using a multiplicative perspective.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D; Marsh, Herbert W; Morin, Alexandre J S

    2015-08-01

    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes during the transition into early adulthood. Participants were from a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 15-year-old Australian youths (N = 10,370). The results suggest that (a) both math self-concept and intrinsic value interact in predicting advanced math course selection, matriculation results, entrance into university, and STEM fields of study; (b) prior reading achievement has negative effects on advanced math course selection and STEM fields through math motivational beliefs; and (c) gender differences in educational outcomes are mediated by gender differences in motivational beliefs and prior academic achievement, while the processes underlying choice of educational pathway were similar for males and females. PMID:26053150

  5. Suicide proneness in college students: relationships with gender, procrastination, and achievement motivation.

    PubMed

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was also examined for each gender. Participants included 475 (336 women, 139 men) undergraduates from a southeastern university. For both genders, procrastination and achievement motivation were significantly correlated at the univarate level with the suicide proneness indices. However, for college women, but not men, procrastination significantly accounted for unique amounts of variance in both suicide indices above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem. Implications for suicide intervention efforts directed toward college women and men are offered. PMID:24501841

  6. Suicide proneness in college students: relationships with gender, procrastination, and achievement motivation.

    PubMed

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was also examined for each gender. Participants included 475 (336 women, 139 men) undergraduates from a southeastern university. For both genders, procrastination and achievement motivation were significantly correlated at the univarate level with the suicide proneness indices. However, for college women, but not men, procrastination significantly accounted for unique amounts of variance in both suicide indices above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem. Implications for suicide intervention efforts directed toward college women and men are offered.

  7. Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: the unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; Mage  = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies.

  8. What my parents make me believe in learning: the role of filial piety in Hong Kong students' motivation and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Wong, Yi-Lee

    2014-08-01

    Chinese students are well-known for their academic excellence. However, studies that explore the underlying mechanism of how cultural factors relate to the motivational process and academic achievement of Chinese students have been limited. This study aimed to examine the role of filial piety in shaping Chinese students' theories of intelligence so as to obtain a clearer understanding of the process by which parent-child connectedness is linked to Chinese students' academic achievement. A sample of 312 university students in Hong Kong were assessed concerning their filial piety beliefs, theories of intelligence and academic achievement. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results indicated that different filial piety beliefs relate to students' academic achievement by shaping different theories of intelligence. Reciprocal filial piety beliefs were found to facilitate an incremental view of intelligence, which in turn contributes to students' academic achievement. Authoritarian filial piety beliefs were shown to be associated with an entity view of intelligence, which consequently deteriorates students' academic achievement. Cultural views of motivational processes can shed light on how motivational beliefs are developed as a product of cultural or socialization processes, which, in turn, contribute to students' academic success. PMID:24990635

  9. The Development of an Attribution-Based Theory of Motivation: A History of Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The history of ideas guiding the development of an attribution-based theory of motivation is presented. These influences include the search for a "grand" theory of motivation (from drive and expectancy/value theory), an attempt to represent how the past may influence the present and the future (as Thorndike accomplished), and the incorporation of…

  10. On the nature of motivational orientations: implications of assessed goals and gender differences for motivational goal theory.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Huertas, Juan A; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2010-05-01

    In a historical revision of the achievement goal construct, Elliot (2005) recognized that there is little consensus on whether the term "goal" in "achievement goal orientations" (GO) is best represented as an "aim", as an overarching orientation encompassing several "aims", or as a combination of aims and other processes -self-regulation, etc.-. Elliot pointed also that goal theory research provides evidence for different models of GO. As there were no consensus on these issues, we decided to get evidence about the nature and structure of GO, about the role of gender differences in the configuration of such structure, and about relations between GO, expectancies, volitional processes and achievement. A total of 382 university students from different faculties of two public universities of Madrid (Spain) that voluntarily accepted to fill in a questionnaire that assessed different goals, expectancies and self-regulatory processes participated in the study. Scales reliability, confirmatory factor analyses, multiple-group analyses, and correlation and regression analyses were carried out. Results support the trichotomous model of GO, the consideration of GO as a combination of aims and other psychological processes, showed some gender differences and favour the adoption of a multiple goal perspective for explaining students' motivation.

  11. The Mediating Role of Socio-Motivational Support in the Association between Individual School Self-Concept and Achievement Motivation amongst Adolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakadorova, Olga; Raufelder, Diana

    2014-01-01

    It is now well known that adolescence is frequently marked by a decline in students' achievement motivation, which in turn is often associated with a decline in individual school self-concept. Less is known about the mediating role of socio-motivational support in the association between individual school self-concept and achievement…

  12. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  13. Cooperative Learning and Its Effect on Fourth-Grade Mathematics Students' Achievement, Motivation, and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torchia, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was to explore the relationship between the use of cooperative learning strategies and student achievement, and student perceptions of self-efficacy and motivation in mathematics. Teacher perceptions of the impact that cooperative learning strategies have on student achievement, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy were…

  14. College Students' Achievement Goal Orientation and Motivational Regulations in Physical Activity Classes: A Test of Gender Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xiaoxia; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students' 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students' scores were fully…

  15. The Importance of Emotion in Theories of Motivation: Empirical, Methodological, and Theoretical Considerations from a Goal Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Julianne C.; Meyer, Debra K.; Schweinle, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Despite its importance to educational psychology, prominent theories of motivation have mostly ignored emotion. In this paper, we review theoretical conceptions of the relation between motivation and emotion and discuss the role of emotion in understanding student motivation in classrooms. We demonstrate that emotion is one of the best indicators…

  16. Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Care Motivation, and Blood Pressure Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Templin, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was integrated within the theory of self-care (SCT) to explore the predictive value of extending TPB to measure attitudes and beliefs regarding a behavioral goal, and determine the ability of goal beliefs to predict engagement in the combined, multiple behaviors necessary to control BP. The hypothesized model was evaluated in a sample of 306 community-dwelling African Americans between 21 and 65 years of age. Scales developed for the study achieved acceptable reliability (α=.68–95). Structural equation modeling analysis resulted in a second-order factor structure with attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention modeled as indicators of a construct representing goal beliefs related to keeping BP within normal limits. This latent construct was conceptualized within the theory of self-care as “self-care motivation,” and predicted 18% of the variance in self-care behaviors necessary for BP control. The model achieved acceptable fit (CMIN/df = 2.32; CFI = .95; RMSEA = .066). Final assessment of fit was done using multi-group SEM and bootstrapping techniques. In this extension of the TPB attitudes and beliefs regarding the goal of keeping BP within normal limits were found to determine one's motivation to engage in the multiple behaviors necessary for BP control. PMID:20949834

  17. Theory of planned behavior, self-care motivation, and blood pressure self-care.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rosalind M; Templin, Thomas N

    2010-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was integrated within the theory of self-care (SCT) to explore the predictive value of extending TPB to measure attitudes and beliefs regarding a behavioral goal, and determine the ability of goal beliefs to predict engagement in the combined, multiple behaviors necessary to control BP. The hypothesized model was evaluated in a sample of 306 community-dwelling African Americans between 21 and 65 years of age. Scales developed for the study achieved acceptable reliability (alpha = .68-.95). Structural equation modeling analysis resulted in a second-order factor structure with attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention modeled as indicators of a construct representing goal beliefs related to keeping BP within normal limits. This latent construct was conceptualized within the theory of self-care as "self-care motivation," and predicted 18% of the variance in self-care behaviors necessary for BP control. The model achieved acceptable fit (CMIN/df = 2.32; CFI = .95; RMSEA = .066). Final assessment of fit was done using multi-group SEM and bootstrapping techniques. In this extension of the TPB attitudes and beliefs regarding the goal of keeping BP within normal limits were found to determine one's motivation to engage in the multiple behaviors necessary for BP control.

  18. Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: a longitudinal study and an intervention.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Lisa S; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol Sorich

    2007-01-01

    Two studies explored the role of implicit theories of intelligence in adolescents' mathematics achievement. In Study 1 with 373 7th graders, the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) predicted an upward trajectory in grades over the two years of junior high school, while a belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory) predicted a flat trajectory. A mediational model including learning goals, positive beliefs about effort, and causal attributions and strategies was tested. In Study 2, an intervention teaching an incremental theory to 7th graders (N=48) promoted positive change in classroom motivation, compared with a control group (N=43). Simultaneously, students in the control group displayed a continuing downward trajectory in grades, while this decline was reversed for students in the experimental group. PMID:17328703

  19. Predicting Student Grade Point Average at a Community College from Scholastic Aptitude Tests and from Measures Representing Three Constructs in Vroom's Expectancy Theory Model of Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloch, Douglas C.; Michael, William B.

    1981-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether an unweighted linear combination of community college students' scores on standardized achievement tests and a measure of motivational constructs derived from Vroom's expectance theory model of motivation was predictive of academic success (grade point average earned during one quarter of an academic…

  20. The Reciprocal Relations between Self-Concept, Motivation and Achievement: Juxtaposing Academic Self-Concept and Achievement Goal Orientations for Mathematics Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…

  1. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  2. Language-Learning Motivation during Short-Term Study Abroad: An Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Heather Willis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the development of language-learning motivation during short-term study abroad (SA) for six intermediate-level students of French. Taking an activity theory perspective, findings demonstrated that one of two orientations motivated participants to study or continue studying French at the college level: linguistic motives or…

  3. Academic Motivation of the First-Year University Students and the Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koseoglu, Yaman

    2013-01-01

    The Self Determination Theory has identified various types of motivation along a continuum from weakest to strongest. Yet, until recently, no reliable method existed to measure accurately the strength of motivation along this continuum. Vallerand et al. (1992) developed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) to measure the validity of the Self…

  4. A Profile Approach to Self-Determination Theory Motivations at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Christina M.; Diefendorff, James M.; Kim, Tae-Yeol; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) posits the existence of distinct types of motivation (i.e., external, introjected, identified, integrated, and intrinsic). Research on these different types of motivation has typically adopted a variable-centered approach that seeks to understand how each motivation in isolation relates to employee outcomes. We…

  5. Measuring more than we know? An examination of the motivational and situational influences in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydel, Angela Michelle

    The purpose of this dissertation was to advance theoretical understanding about fit between the personal resources of individuals and the characteristics of science achievement tasks. Testing continues to be pervasive in schools, yet we know little about how students perceive tests and what they think and feel while they are actually working on test items. This study focused on both the personal (cognitive and motivational) and situational factors that may contribute to individual differences in achievement-related outcomes. 387 eighth grade students first completed a survey including measures of science achievement goals, capability beliefs, efficacy related to multiple-choice items and performance assessments, validity beliefs about multiple-choice items and performance assessments, and other perceptions of these item formats. Students then completed science achievement tests including multiple-choice items and two performance assessments. A sample of students was asked to verbalize both thoughts and feelings as they worked through the test items. These think-alouds were transcribed and coded for evidence of cognitive, metacognitive and motivational engagement. Following each test, all students completed measures of effort, mood, energy level and strategy use during testing. Students reported that performance assessments were more challenging, authentic, interesting and valid than multiple-choice tests. They also believed that comparisons between students were easier using multiple-choice items. Overall, students tried harder, felt better, had higher levels of energy and used more strategies while working on performance assessments. Findings suggested that performance assessments might be more congruent with a mastery achievement goal orientation, while multiple-choice tests might be more congruent with a performance achievement goal orientation. A variable-centered analytic approach including regression analyses provided information about how students, on

  6. Social equity theory and racial-ethnic achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process, direct and signal influences, that these two kinds of processes operate across developmental contexts, and that the kind of influence and the setting in which they are enacted change with age. Evidence supporting each of SET's key propositions is discussed in the context of a critical review of research on the Black-White achievement gap. Specific developmental hypotheses derived from SET are described, along with proposed standards of evidence for testing those hypotheses.

  7. Social equity theory and racial-ethnic achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process, direct and signal influences, that these two kinds of processes operate across developmental contexts, and that the kind of influence and the setting in which they are enacted change with age. Evidence supporting each of SET's key propositions is discussed in the context of a critical review of research on the Black-White achievement gap. Specific developmental hypotheses derived from SET are described, along with proposed standards of evidence for testing those hypotheses. PMID:23240908

  8. The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on middle school students' student achievement and motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, John

    A problem facing science educators is determining the most effective means of science instruction so that students will meet or exceed the new rigorous standards. The theoretical framework for this study was based on reform and research efforts that have informed science teachers that using constructivism is the best method of science instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the constructivist method of science instruction affected student achievement and student motivation in a sixth grade science classroom. The guiding research question involved understanding which method of science instruction would be most effective at improving student achievement in science. Other sub-questions included the factors that contribute to student motivation in science and the method of science instruction students receive that affects motivation to learn science. Quantitative data were collected using a pre-test and post-test single group design. T-test and ANCOVA were used to test quantitative hypotheses. Qualitative data were collected using student reflective journals and classroom discussions. Students' perspectives were transcribed, coded and used to further inform quantitative findings. The findings of this study supported the recommendations made by science reformists that the best method of science instruction was a constructivist method. This study also found that participant comments favored constructivist taught classes. The implications for social change at the local level included potential increases in student achievement in science and possibly increased understanding that can facilitate similar changes at other schools. From a global perspective, constructivist-oriented methods might result in students becoming more interested in majoring in science at the college level and in becoming part of a scientifically literate work force.

  9. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  10. Motivating Learners in Open and Distance Learning: Do We Need a New Theory of Learner Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ormond

    2008-01-01

    This paper calls for a new theory of learner support in distance learning based on recent findings in the fields of learning and motivational psychology. It surveys some current learning motivation theories and proposes that models drawn from the relatively new field of Positive Psychology, such as the "Strengths Approach", together with Dweck's…

  11. Expectancy Theory as a Predictor of Faculty Motivation to Use a Course Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcan, Marian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between the elements of the Expectancy theory and faculty motivation to use a course management system. Specifically it analyzed if the elements of the Expectancy theory (Valence, Instrumentality and Expectancy) were useful in predicting faculty motivation when using Blackboard tools in…

  12. Finding a Fit or Developing It: Implicit Theories About Achieving Passion for Work.

    PubMed

    Chen, Patricia; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Schwarz, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    "Passion for work" has become a widespread phrase in popular discourse. Two contradictory lay perspectives have emerged on how passion for work is attained, which we distill into the fit and develop implicit theories. Fit theorists believe that passion for work is achieved through finding the right fit with a line of work; develop theorists believe that passion is cultivated over time. Four studies examined the expectations, priorities, and outcomes that characterize these implicit theories. Our results show that these beliefs elicit different motivational patterns, but both can facilitate vocational well-being and success. This research extends implicit theory scholarship to the work domain and provides a framework that can fruitfully inform career advising, life coaching, mentorship, and employment policies. PMID:26231591

  13. Finding a Fit or Developing It: Implicit Theories About Achieving Passion for Work.

    PubMed

    Chen, Patricia; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Schwarz, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    "Passion for work" has become a widespread phrase in popular discourse. Two contradictory lay perspectives have emerged on how passion for work is attained, which we distill into the fit and develop implicit theories. Fit theorists believe that passion for work is achieved through finding the right fit with a line of work; develop theorists believe that passion is cultivated over time. Four studies examined the expectations, priorities, and outcomes that characterize these implicit theories. Our results show that these beliefs elicit different motivational patterns, but both can facilitate vocational well-being and success. This research extends implicit theory scholarship to the work domain and provides a framework that can fruitfully inform career advising, life coaching, mentorship, and employment policies.

  14. A Protection Motivation Theory application to date rape education.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Orwat, John; Grossman, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Date rape risk communication is a key component of education-based Date Rape Prevention Programs, common across colleges. In such programs, risk assessment in date rape is approached cautiously in order to avoid a tone of "victim blaming." Since it is important in the assessment of any risk to understand the surrounding social context of the risky situation and the individual's unique relationship with that social context, this study examines Protection Motivation Theory as it applies to handling the risk of date rape without victim blaming. The paper links individual personality and social contexts with risk communication. The study sample comprised 367 undergraduate women enrolled in a large Southern Public University. The study examines the relationships between dating activity, social competency, and type of information provided with the dependents variables of date rape related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. A factorial multiple analysis of covariance analysis found that the dependent variables had a significant relationship with aspects of social competency and dating activity. The exposure to varying information about date rape was not significantly related to the dependent variables of date rape-related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. The identification of social competency and dating activity status as protective factors in this study makes a significant contribution to the practice and research efforts in date rape education.

  15. Developing Intrinsic Motivation: Student Perceived Autonomy, Relatedness and Competence and the Relationship to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, DeAnn M.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods action study examines the relationship of students' three psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness and competence as presented in the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) to the level of achievement of high school seniors at Litchfield High School. In the quantitative phase of the study, the quantitative…

  16. Study Procrastination, Achievement, and Academic Motivation in Web-Based and Blended Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Jeanine; Wallace, Tary L.; Helmick, Ina J.; Carey, Lou M.; Adkins, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Growth in distance education is increasing the need to examine students' learning strategies in distance and blended learning environments. Students' cramming or spaced-review behaviors were measured and compared across delivery formats as well as examined related to course achievement and attitudes across a term. Although theory would predict…

  17. Mathematically Gifted Students and High Achievement: The Role of Motivation and Classroom Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Kollmayer, Marlene; Bergsmann, Evelyn; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    One of the most intriguing questions for those who study intellectually gifted students is why some of them reach peak performances at school and others don't. Moderator theories of giftedness assume that domain-specific gifts are transformed into achievement in a process influenced by non-cognitive and environmental variables. Thus, the current…

  18. An Analysis of the Relationships between Taiwanese Eighth and Fourth Graders' Motivational Beliefs and Science Achievement in TIMSS 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the issues of students' motivational beliefs in science learning and their relations with science achievement. Data of Taiwanese fourth and eighth graders from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2011 were examined. Students' self-concept and intrinsic interest as motivational beliefs,…

  19. An Evaluation of Training for Lay Providers in the Use of Motivational Interviewing to Promote Academic Achievement among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a motivational interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban, low-income minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of workshop training in MI. Additionally, two 2-hour…

  20. The Role of Personal Best (PB) and Dichotomous Achievement Goals in Students' Academic Motivation and Engagement: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the role of prior personal best goals in predicting subsequent academic motivation and engagement. A total of 1160 high school students participated in a longitudinal survey study exploring the extent to which personal best and mastery and performance (dichotomous) achievement goals predict students' academic motivation and…

  1. Using ARCS Model to Promote 11th Graders' Motivation and Achievement in Learning about Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Sung-Lin; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study are: to apply the ARCS model in designing an acid and bases unit, and to assess a single class of 11th graders for motivation and achievement outcomes before and after ARCS instruction. Four essential strategies for designing motivation instruction in the ARCS model were: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and…

  2. What Makes a Good Student? How Emotions, Self-Regulated Learning, and Motivation Contribute to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mega, Carolina; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking emotions, self-regulated learning, and motivation to academic achievement. This model was tested with 5,805 undergraduate students. They completed the Self-Regulated Learning, Emotions, and Motivation Computerized Battery (LEM-B) composed of 3 self-report questionnaires: the Self-Regulated Learning…

  3. Mathematics Motivation and Achievement as Predictors of High School Students' Guessing and Help-Seeking with Instructional Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, C. R.; Qu, L.; Lee, H.

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the relation of adolescent students' mathematics motivation and achievement to their appropriate help-seeking and inappropriate guessing behaviour while using instructional software. High school students (n = 90) completed brief assessments of mathematics motivation and then worked with software for geometry…

  4. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self Handicapping as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Intrinsic Achievement Motivation and Negative Automatic Thoughts in Adolescence Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping and achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from 14 to 20 (M = 16.08), adolescence students…

  5. There's nothing more practical than a good theory: integrating motivational interviewing and self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Sheldon, Kennon M

    2006-03-01

    In this article we compare and integrate two well-established approaches to motivating therapeutic change, namely self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, ) and motivational interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 1991, ). We show that SDT's theoretical focus on the internalization of therapeutic change and on the issue of need-satisfaction is fully compatible with key principles and clinical strategies within MI. We further suggest that basic need-satisfaction might be an important mechanism accounting for the positive effects of MI. Conversely, MI principles may provide SDT researchers with new insight into the application of SDT's theoretical concept of autonomy-support, and suggest new ways of testing and developing SDT. In short, the applied approach of MI and the theoretical approach of SDT might be fruitfully married, to the benefit of both.

  6. There's nothing more practical than a good theory: integrating motivational interviewing and self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Sheldon, Kennon M

    2006-03-01

    In this article we compare and integrate two well-established approaches to motivating therapeutic change, namely self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, ) and motivational interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 1991, ). We show that SDT's theoretical focus on the internalization of therapeutic change and on the issue of need-satisfaction is fully compatible with key principles and clinical strategies within MI. We further suggest that basic need-satisfaction might be an important mechanism accounting for the positive effects of MI. Conversely, MI principles may provide SDT researchers with new insight into the application of SDT's theoretical concept of autonomy-support, and suggest new ways of testing and developing SDT. In short, the applied approach of MI and the theoretical approach of SDT might be fruitfully married, to the benefit of both. PMID:16480567

  7. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawel, Joseph E.

    Among the behavioral theories embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. Herzberg proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees, and Maslow developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of human needs and how people pursue those needs. This digest briefly outlines both theories and then…

  8. Self-Regulated Learning and Motivation Belief Differences among Gifted and Non-Gifted Middle School Students across Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogrebe, Jaclyn M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examined self-regulated learning (SRL) and motivation beliefs (i.e., self-efficacy, perceived responsibility) across ability (i.e., gifted, advanced, average) and achievement groups (i.e., high achievers, low achievers) in a sample of 135 suburban middle school students (i.e., fifth and sixth grade). In order to expand upon…

  9. Self-regulation, motivation, and math achievement in middle school: variations across grade level and math context.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Timothy J; Chen, Peggy P

    2009-10-01

    The current study examined grade level, achievement group, and math-course-type differences in student self-regulation and motivation in a sample of 880 suburban middle-school students. Analysis of variance was utilized to assess group differences in student self-regulation and motivation, and linear regression analysis was used to identify variables that best predicted students' use of regulatory strategies. A key finding was that although seventh graders exhibited a more maladaptive self-regulation and motivation profile than sixth graders, achievement groups in seventh grade (high, moderate, low) were more clearly differentiated across both self-regulation and motivation than achievement groups in sixth grade. The pattern of achievement group differences also varied across math course type, as self-regulation and motivation processes more consistently differentiated achievement groups in advanced classes than regular math courses. Finally, task interest was shown to be the primary motivational predictor of students' use of regulatory strategies during math learning. The study highlights the importance of identifying shifting student motivation and self-regulation during the early middle school years and the potential role that context may have on these processes.

  10. Applicability of Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory in Studying Academic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoon, Robert A.; James, Aaron

    1978-01-01

    Forty-one community college students were asked to recall one college-related event which made them feel good and one which made them feel bad, and provide additional information about each. Results were analyzed using Herzberg's methods to identify factors related to student motivation, as "satisfiers" or "dissatisfiers" and "motivators" or…

  11. The Motivation to Volunteer: A Systemic Quality of Life Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shye, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to volunteer motivation research is developed. Instead of asking what motivates the volunteer (accepting "any" conceptual category), we ask to what extent volunteering rewards the individual with each benefit taken from a complete set of possible benefits. As a "complete set of benefits" we use the 16 human functioning modes…

  12. Motivation of Academics: An Empirical Assessment of Herzberg's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Aycan Cicek

    2007-01-01

    This study examined academics' viewpoints according to sex, academic title, and professional seniority to establish how much the university presented to its staff hygiene and motivation factors and to find out the effect of these factors in motivating the staff. The findings show that there is not a statistical difference among the academics'…

  13. Understanding Volunteer Peer Health Educators' Motivations: Applying Social Learning Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Nicole Aydt; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Researchers conducted focus group interviews with college student peer health educators to determine what factors motivated them to volunteer for a peer health education program. Examination of their life experiences, motivations, and program expectations indicated that life experiences, belief in the effectiveness of peer health education, and…

  14. Work motivation theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Latham, Gary P; Pinder, Craig C

    2005-01-01

    In the first Annual Review of Psychology chapter since 1977 devoted exclusively to work motivation, we examine progress made in theory and research on needs, traits, values, cognition, and affect as well as three bodies of literature dealing with the context of motivation: national culture, job design, and models of person-environment fit. We focus primarily on work reported between 1993 and 2003, concluding that goal-setting, social cognitive, and organizational justice theories are the three most important approaches to work motivation to appear in the last 30 years. We reach 10 generally positive conclusions regarding predicting, understanding, and influencing work motivation in the new millennium.

  15. The implications of Herzberg's "motivation-hygiene" theory for management in the Irish health sector.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Given that they create what it sells, employees are the Irish Health service's most valuable asset. They are increasingly being asked to embrace change on many different levels. In order to facilitate this process, it behooves management to actively promote employee motivation. Herzberg et al's "motivation-hygiene" theory of motivation proposes that certain "motivator" and "hygiene" factors can respectively affect job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Considering "motivators," better on-the-job performance may increase motivation. However, work overload can become a dissatisfier. Devolving equal levels of authority and responsibility and providing appropriate recognition may also serve to motivate. Likewise, providing opportunities for promotion and personal growth may maintain motivation, as might re-engineering of jobs so that work remains meaningful. Over time both salary and incentives may come to be viewed as entitlements and lose their ability to motivate. Other "hygiene" factors such as organizational policy and administrative structure, relations with others, job insecurity, physical working conditions, and quality of supervision can lead to job dissatisfaction. Hence, the theory of Herzberg et al usefully highlights many factors that may serve to motivate or demotivate employees. However, this theory does not reflect some of the realities of the modern health care work environment.

  16. The implications of Herzberg's "motivation-hygiene" theory for management in the Irish health sector.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Given that they create what it sells, employees are the Irish Health service's most valuable asset. They are increasingly being asked to embrace change on many different levels. In order to facilitate this process, it behooves management to actively promote employee motivation. Herzberg et al's "motivation-hygiene" theory of motivation proposes that certain "motivator" and "hygiene" factors can respectively affect job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Considering "motivators," better on-the-job performance may increase motivation. However, work overload can become a dissatisfier. Devolving equal levels of authority and responsibility and providing appropriate recognition may also serve to motivate. Likewise, providing opportunities for promotion and personal growth may maintain motivation, as might re-engineering of jobs so that work remains meaningful. Over time both salary and incentives may come to be viewed as entitlements and lose their ability to motivate. Other "hygiene" factors such as organizational policy and administrative structure, relations with others, job insecurity, physical working conditions, and quality of supervision can lead to job dissatisfaction. Hence, the theory of Herzberg et al usefully highlights many factors that may serve to motivate or demotivate employees. However, this theory does not reflect some of the realities of the modern health care work environment. PMID:16501377

  17. Influence of social motives on integrative negotiation: a meta-analytic review and test of two theories.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, C K; Weingart, L R; Kwon, S

    2000-05-01

    A meta-analysis of 28 studies examined support for the Theory of Cooperation and Competition (M. Deutsch, 1973) and Dual Concern Theory (D. G. Pruitt & J. Z. Rubin, 1986). Effects of social motive (prosocial vs. egoistic) and resistance to yielding (high vs. low vs. unknown) on contenting, problem solving, and joint outcomes were examined. Consistent with Dual Concern Theory, results showed that negotiators were less contentious, engaged in more problem solving, and achieved higher joint outcomes when they had a prosocial rather than egoistic motive, but only when resistance to yielding was high (or unknown) rather than low. The authors also explored the moderating effects of study characteristics and found effects for participation inducement (class exercise, participant pool), for publication status, and for treatment of no-agreement dyads.

  18. Implicit and self-attributed motives to achieve: two separate but interacting needs.

    PubMed

    Brunstein, Joachim C; Maier, Günter W

    2005-08-01

    This research examined how implicit and self-attributed needs to achieve (labeled as n Ach and san Ach, respectively) combine with self-referenced and norm-referenced feedback to predict effort-related (task performance) and choice-related (task continuation) indexes of students' engagement in a mental concentration task. In Experiment 1 the authors found that in a task-focused setting, task performance was predicted by the joint effect of self-referenced feedback and n Ach, whereas task continuation was predicted by the joint effect of norm-referenced feedback and san Ach. In Experiment 2 the authors found that in an ego-focused setting, n Ach and san Ach interacted in the prediction of task performance but not of task continuation. In Experiment 3 the authors found that the effects of n Ach and san Ach on students' performance were mediated by the anticipated affective value of achievement outcomes. These findings are discussed in relation to a 2-system approach to achievement motivation.

  19. Theory of magnon motive force in chiral ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güngördü, Utkan; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2016-07-01

    We predict that magnon motive force can lead to temperature dependent, nonlinear chiral damping in both conducting and insulating ferromagnets. We estimate that this damping can significantly influence the motion of skyrmions and domain walls at finite temperatures. We also find that in systems with low Gilbert damping moving chiral magnetic textures and resulting magnon motive forces can induce large spin and energy currents in the transverse direction.

  20. Effect of implicit theories on judgement of cheating acceptability in physical education: the mediating role of achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Corrion, Karine; D'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Chalabaev, Aïna; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine; Roussel, Peggy; Cury, François

    2010-06-01

    We tested a hypothetical model that examined both the effects of implicit theories of ability on the judgement of cheating acceptability in a physical education context and the mediating role of the achievement goals defined in the social-cognitive model of achievement motivation. Data were collected from 477 middle-school students, who completed measures of implicit theories of ability, achievement goals, and judgement of cheating acceptability in team sports within a cross-sectional design. The results indicated that performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals mediated the relationships between entity theory and the judgement of cheating acceptability, and mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance goals mediated the relationships between incremental theory and the judgement of cheating acceptability. Further research is needed to determine whether these results would be replicated with other moral variables and other contexts.

  1. The relationship between achievement goal profile groups and perceptions of motivational climates in sport.

    PubMed

    Ntoumanis, N; Biddle, S

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to expand on previous research that has found compatibility between individuals' views on achievement and the type of achievement that was promoted in the sport environment they belonged to. However, this line of research has ignored the fact that the two main goal orientations are largely independent and that their impact in combination is often different from their effects examined separately. The present study, therefore, examined which combinations of goal orientations are compatible with perceptions of mastery and performance climates in a sample of 146 British university students. With regard to mastery climate, the analysis showed that the critical factor was the degree of task orientation since those with high scores in this factor (irrespective of the degree of their ego orientation) perceived the climate as more mastery-oriented than those with low scores in task orientation. This was substantiated by the large differences in effect sizes between the high- and low-task groups. As far as performance climate was concerned, the most negative perceptions of climate were held by those who were rated both low in task orientation and high in ego orientation. A general inference from these results is that high task orientation is motivationally adaptive, whereas high ego orientation is not motivationally detrimental as long as it is accompanied by a high task orientation. These findings are in contrast with previous suggestions that have called for the enhancement of task orientation with the concurrent suppression of ego orientation. Our results are, however, consonant with studies which have employed a goal profiles analysis in sport and in physical education, and with empirical evidence from real sport settings.

  2. The Human Side of Science Education: Using McGregor's Theory Y as a Framework for Improving Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markwell, John

    2004-01-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more…

  3. Evidence against the continuum structure underlying motivation measures derived from self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Chemolli, Emanuela; Gagné, Marylène

    2014-06-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) proposes a multidimensional conceptualization of motivation in which the different regulations are said to fall along a continuum of self-determination. The continuum has been used as a basis for using a relative autonomy index as a means to create motivational scores. Rasch analysis was used to verify the continuum structure of the Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and of the Academic Motivation Scale. We discuss the concept of continuum against SDT's conceptualization of motivation and argue against the use of the relative autonomy index on the grounds that evidence for a continuum structure underlying the regulations is weak and because the index is statistically problematic. We suggest exploiting the full richness of SDT's multidimensional conceptualization of motivation through the use of alternative scoring methods when investigating motivational dynamics across life domains.

  4. Information-Seeking Behavior in Generation Y Students: Motivation, Critical Thinking, and Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Research in information-seeking behavior, motivation, critical thinking, and learning theory was explored and compared in a search for possible motivating factors behind students' dependence on television and the Internet for their information needs. The research indicates that only a very small percentage of the general population prefer to learn…

  5. Why Are You Learning a Second Language? Motivational Orientations and Self-Determination Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noels, Kimberly A.; Pelletier, Luc G.; Clement, Richard; Vallerand, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined self-determination theory (SDT) in the language learning context. Involved the development of a valid and reliable instrument to assess different subtypes of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and explored the link between these motivational sub-types and various orientations to language learning. Showed instrumental orientation and the…

  6. Parental Influences on the Academic Motivation of Gifted Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    The home environment that parents provide their gifted children can have a significant impact on academic motivation, yet limited research has focused on this topic. Self-determination theory, a comprehensive framework of motivation, was used in the current study to explore two research questions: (a) What attitudes do parents of gifted students…

  7. Motivation and Exercise Dependence: A Study Based on Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Cutre, David; Sicilia, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use self-determination theory to analyze the relationships of several motivational variables with exercise dependence. The study involved 531 exercisers, ranging in age from 16 to 60 years old, who responded to different questionnaires assessing perception of motivational climate, satisfaction of basic…

  8. Extrinsic Motivation for Large-Scale Assessments: A Case Study of a Student Achievement Program at One Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmett, Joshua; McGee, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to discover the critical attributes of a student achievement program, known as "Think Gold," implemented at one urban comprehensive high school as part of the improvement process. Student achievement on state assessments improved during the period under study. The study draws upon perspectives on motivation as a…

  9. Developing a Structural Model on the Relationship among Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadlelmula, Fatma Kayan; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Sungur, Semra

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among students' motivational beliefs (i.e. achievement goal orientations, perception of classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy), use of self-regulated learning strategies (i.e. elaboration, organization, and metacognitive self-regulation strategies), and achievement in mathematics, by proposing and…

  10. Examination of Gender Differences on Cognitive and Motivational Factors That Influence 8th Graders' Science Achievement in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Ömer; Türkmen, Lütfullah; Bilgin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of several students' cognitive and motivational factors on 8th graders' science achievement and also gender differences on factors that significantly contribute to the science achievement model. A total of 99 girls and 83 boys responded all the instruments used in this study. Results showed that girls outperformed boys on…

  11. Achievement-Motivation Patterns Among Low-Income Anglo-American, Mexican-American, and Negro Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Edmund V.

    This project was designed to study the relationship between ethnic-racial factors and patterns of achievement motivation in males raised in low-income families. Anglo-Americans, Mexican-Americans, and Negro Americans have been depicted as possessing achievement-orientation styles that are characteristially different from one another. The subjects…

  12. Science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation: Perceptions of female science olympians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Kelly Rae

    Women remain under-represented in science career fields and this is especially evident in the physical sciences. Female students maintain equal science interest and achievement to male students in elementary school but by middle and high school they fall behind their male peers. Reasons cited for girls' declining interest in science include battling traditional gender stereotypes, lack of encouragement, and lack of female role models. Four main science concerns related to girls/women as indicated by research literature were science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation. In Georgia, some girls have made a break from the research trends by demonstrating their fervor for science through participation in the academic activity, Science Olympiad. The purpose of this study was to examine the science perceptions of girls who demonstrated science success by their participation in Science Olympiad. Utilizing phenomenological and feminist perspectives, the qualitative research method of focus group interviewing was used to address the research questions comprising the four science concerns of female science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation. The study participants were all girls/women who participated in Science Olympiad. A total of five focus groups were studied. One of the focus groups had current college undergraduates, former Science Olympians, in it while the others were composed of high school girls. Through the description of their science experiences, the participants shared their perceptions of the four science concerns. When addressing these science concerns, the participants revealed four factors that had most affected their science perceptions: the importance of support, science needs Serious Fun, teachers matter, and the bonuses of extracurricular involvement. In their experiences, the participants found success in science because they had teachers, parents, and peers who supported their academic interests, including science, and

  13. The relationship of learning motivation, achievement and satisfaction for nurses learning simple excel VBA information systems programming.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ying Li; Chien, Tsai Feng; Kuo, Ming Chuan; Chang, Polun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand the relationship between participating nurses' motivation, achievement and satisfaction before and after they learned to program in Excel Visual Basic for Applications (Excel VBA). We held a workshop to train nurses in developing simple Excel VBA information systems to support their clinical or administrative practices. Before and after the workshop, the participants were evaluated on their knowledge of Excel VBA, and a questionnaire was given to survey their learning motivation and satisfaction. Statistics softwares Winsteps and SPSS were used for data analysis. Results show that the participants are more knowledgeable about VBA as well as more motivated in learning VBA after the workshop. Participants were highly satisfied with the overall arrangement of the workshop and instructors, but didn't have enough confidence in promoting the application of Excel VBA themselves. In addition, we were unable to predict the participants' achievement by their demographic characteristics or pre-test motivation level.

  14. Students' Motivational Profiles and Achievement Outcomes in Physical Education: A Self-Determination Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boiche, Julie C. S.; Sarrazin, Philippe G.; Pelletier, Luc G.; Grouzet, Frederick M. E.; Chanal, Julien P.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies in education have inspected the relations between students' autonomous versus controlled motivation and relevant outcomes. In most of those studies a global index of self-determined motivation was created. The purpose of this article was to examine (a) how the different types of motivation proposed by Self-Determination Theory…

  15. Innovative Learning and Developments in Motivation and Achievement in Upper Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstra, Lisette; van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea; Volman, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has shown the potential of innovative learning for enhancing motivation and learning outcomes, further understanding is needed on which aspects of IL are most effective and whether these are equally motivating for different types of students. The present study investigated how developments in students' motivation and…

  16. Toward a Reconstruction of Organizational Theory: Androcentric Bias in A. H. Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation and Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tietze, Irene Nowell; Shakeshaft, Charol

    An exploration in the context of feminist science of one theoretical basis of educational administration--Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation and self-actualization--finds an androcentric bias in Maslow's methodology, philosophical underpinnings, and theory formulation. Maslow's hypothetico-deductive methodology was based on a…

  17. [Musculoskeletal rehabilitation and bone. Application of motivation theory for rehabilitation of the elderly].

    PubMed

    Takasugi, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2010-04-01

    Selection and application of the exercise programs for rehabilitation of the elderly should not only be based on a short-term efficiency, but also be based on the self- determination and motivation of the participants themselves. In this paper, we will review the functional improvement of the elderly by Tai Chi, Hula, Ball Exercise, and Arcade Games, and will discuss about the motivation theory to apply in practice. The intrinsic motivation is the essential element of the theory and is composed of enjoyment, interest and satisfaction.

  18. The politics of human embryo research and the motivation to achieve PGD

    PubMed Central

    Theodosiou, Anastasia A.; Johnson, Martin H.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a historical study of factors influencing the achievement of clinical preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in 1990, 22 years after its first demonstration in animals. During the 1970s, research on PGD continued in large farm animals, but serious interest in human PGD was not evident until 1986. First, interest in PGD during the 1970s waned with the advent of prenatal testing, which for gynaecologists was clinically more familiar, technically simpler and ethically less challenging than IVF. Indeed, IVF was viewed with widespread suspicion until the first IVF births in 1978. Second, interest in clinical PGD was stimulated by the UK Parliamentary reaction against human embryo research that greeted the Warnock Report in 1984. This hostility led scientists to initiate a pro-research campaign, further galvanized in 1985 by MP Enoch Powell’s bid to ban such research. However, while Powell abhorred embryo research, he approved of PGD, a stance that divided the anti-research lobby. Accordingly, the campaigners for research emphasized that it was needed to achieve PGD. Powell demanded evidence of such projects and PGD research increased from 1986. It is concluded that UK political debates on embryo research played a critical role in stimulating the achievement of clinical PGD. Human pregnancies following preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for embryo sex were announced in 1990, 22 years after the technique was pioneered in animals. PGD in humans required not only technological advances, such as IVF and sensitive diagnostic tests, but also the motivation to develop and apply them. Our historical analysis shows that, although research on PGD continued in large farm animals during the 1970s, and techniques of the required sensitivity were developed on mouse embryo models, interest in clinical PGD was not evident until 1986. Two factors stimulated this sudden change in motivation. First, interest in PGD was depressed during the 1970s by the advent

  19. Motivation, Self-Regulated Learning Efficacy, and Academic Achievement among International and Domestic Students at an Urban Community College: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Hsiang-Ann; Ferdenzi, Anita Cuttita; Edlin, Margot

    2012-01-01

    This study is designed to examine how intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning efficacy influence academic achievement of international and domestic community college students. Results show that for both international and domestic students, motivation did not directly affect academic achievement. Self-regulated…

  20. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  1. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  2. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  3. The correlation between academic achievements, self-esteem and motivation of female seventh grade students: A mixed methods approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henman, Karen

    During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry, physics, and engineering. This study used quantitative data to investigate the correlation between female students' motivation, self-esteem, and standards-based state science achievement tests combined with a qualitative survey of student's perceptions of parents' attitudes toward science. The Children's Science Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) determined students' levels of motivation toward science. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI) ascertained female students' overall self-esteem. The ISTEP+ exam given in the 6th grade measured the students' academic achievement in science. Trained examiners who interviewed students comprised the qualitative component of the study. Each examiner elaborated on selected questions from the CSEI and CAIMI to determine the students' perceptions of parental attitudes toward science. A multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between self-esteem, motivation, and achievement in science. The correlation was strongest between motivation. Interviews revealed parents and teachers had the most influence on students' perception of science. In understanding the correlation between female students' motivation, achievement, and self-esteem, schools will gain further knowledge into how students relate to the academic field of science and can thus promote females' participation in more science courses in high school. This then will provide females the necessary background knowledge to pursue a greater number of science majors in college.

  4. The role of parents in the ontogeny of achievement-related motivation and behavioral choices.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Sandra D

    2015-06-01

    Parents believe what they do matters. But, how does it matter? How do parents' beliefs about their children early on translate into the choices those children make as adolescents? The Eccles' expectancy–value model asserts that parents' beliefs about their children during childhood predict adolescents' achievement-related choices through a sequence of processes that operate in a cumulative, cascading fashion over time. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors that predict their children's motivational beliefs. Those beliefs predict children's subsequent choices. Using data from the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723), we tested these predictions in the activity domains of sports, instrumental music, mathematics, and reading across a 12-year period. In testing these predictions, we looked closely at the idea of reciprocal influences and at the role of child gender as a moderator. The cross-lagged models generally supported the bidirectional influences described in Eccles' expectancy-value model. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that: (a) these relations were stronger in the leisure domains than in the academic domains, (b) these relations did not consistently vary based on youth gender, (c) parents were stronger predictors of their children's beliefs than vice versa, and (d) adolescents' beliefs were stronger predictors of their behaviors than the reverse. The findings presented in this monograph extend our understanding of the complexity of families, developmental processes that unfold over time, and the extent to which these processes are universal across domains and child gender.

  5. The role of parents in the ontogeny of achievement-related motivation and behavioral choices.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Sandra D

    2015-06-01

    Parents believe what they do matters. But, how does it matter? How do parents' beliefs about their children early on translate into the choices those children make as adolescents? The Eccles' expectancy–value model asserts that parents' beliefs about their children during childhood predict adolescents' achievement-related choices through a sequence of processes that operate in a cumulative, cascading fashion over time. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors that predict their children's motivational beliefs. Those beliefs predict children's subsequent choices. Using data from the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723), we tested these predictions in the activity domains of sports, instrumental music, mathematics, and reading across a 12-year period. In testing these predictions, we looked closely at the idea of reciprocal influences and at the role of child gender as a moderator. The cross-lagged models generally supported the bidirectional influences described in Eccles' expectancy-value model. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that: (a) these relations were stronger in the leisure domains than in the academic domains, (b) these relations did not consistently vary based on youth gender, (c) parents were stronger predictors of their children's beliefs than vice versa, and (d) adolescents' beliefs were stronger predictors of their behaviors than the reverse. The findings presented in this monograph extend our understanding of the complexity of families, developmental processes that unfold over time, and the extent to which these processes are universal across domains and child gender. PMID:25943024

  6. Toward a Psychobiological Theory of Motivations for Human Communication Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jack B.

    Noting that recent research and theory from the expanding field of psychobiology have not been integrated into the study of human communication, this paper offers a synthesis of principles from several leading psychobiological scientists as a step toward a possible unifying approach to communication philosophy, theory, and research. The paper…

  7. Review and Implications of Job Satisfaction and Work Motivation Theories for Air Force Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Thomas C.; Hazel, Joe T.

    The purpose of this report is to: (a) review certain major theories of work motivation, particularly as related to job satisfaction, (b) distill from such theories and other research, implications for an Air Force job satisfaction research program, and (c) provide a comprehensive bibliography of satisfaction/retention studies. The theoretical…

  8. The TEACH Method: An Interactive Approach for Teaching the Needs-Based Theories Of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorer, Cleamon, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive approach for explaining and teaching the Needs-Based Theories of Motivation. The acronym TEACH stands for Theory, Example, Application, Collaboration, and Having Discussion. This method can help business students to better understand and distinguish the implications of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs,…

  9. Insights into Participants' Behaviours in Educational Games, Simulations and Workshops: A Catastrophe Theory Application to Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryer, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Develops models for participants' behaviors in games, simulations, and workshops based on Catastrophe Theory and Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation. Examples are given of how these models can be used, both for describing and understanding the behaviors of individuals, and for eliciting insights into why participants behave as they do. (11…

  10. Motivation, Satisfaction, and Morale in Army Careers: A Review of Theory and Measurement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motowidlo, Stephan J.; And Others

    This report reviews and relates to each other the major concepts and theories that differentiate and define the constructs of motivation, satisfaction, and morale. It also describes and summarizes the potentialities of instruments and methods for measuring these concepts, with the focus on those theories and instruments most likely to be usefully…

  11. The human side of science education: Using McGregor's theory Y as a framework for improving student motivation*.

    PubMed

    Markwell, John

    2004-09-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more active learning than Theory X-style teachers who do not view students as active learners. Many teachers are not aware of their Theory X/Theory Y orientation and how this bias may be impacting their interaction with students. This article explores the benefits of moving from a Theory X to a more Theory Y style of teaching.

  12. Motivational beliefs, cognitive engagement, and achievement in language and mathematics in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Metallidou, Panagiota; Vlachou, Anastasia

    2007-02-01

    The contextual differences in the patterns of relations among various motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive components of self-regulated learning and performance in two key curriculum subject areas, language and mathematics, were examined in a sample of 263 Greek primary school children of fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms. Age and gender differences were also investigated. Students were asked to complete the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 ), which comprised five factors: (a) Self-efficacy, (b) Intrinsic Value, (c) Test Anxiety, (d) Cognitive Strategy Use, and (e) Self-regulation Strategies. They responded to the statements of the questionnaire on a 7-point Likert scale in terms of their behaviour in mathematics and language classes, respectively. Moreover, their teachers were asked to evaluate each of their students' academic achievement in Greek language and mathematics on a 1- to 20-point comparative scale in relation to the rest of the class. The results of the study indicated very few differences in the pattern of relations among self-regulated components within and across the two subject areas and at the same time revealed a context-specific character of self-regulated components at a mean level differences. Further, the current study (a) confirmed the mediatory role of strategies in the motivation-performance relation, (b) stressed the differential role of cognitive and regulatory strategies in predicting performance in subject areas that differ in their structural characteristics of the content, and (c) pointed out the key motivational role of self-efficacy. In fact, self-efficacy proved the most significant predictor not only of performance but of cognitive and regulatory strategy use as well. Gender differences in motivation and strategy use were not reported, while motivation was found to vary mainly with age. The usefulness of these findings for promoting greater clarity among motivational and

  13. Motivational beliefs, cognitive engagement, and achievement in language and mathematics in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Metallidou, Panagiota; Vlachou, Anastasia

    2007-02-01

    The contextual differences in the patterns of relations among various motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive components of self-regulated learning and performance in two key curriculum subject areas, language and mathematics, were examined in a sample of 263 Greek primary school children of fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms. Age and gender differences were also investigated. Students were asked to complete the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 ), which comprised five factors: (a) Self-efficacy, (b) Intrinsic Value, (c) Test Anxiety, (d) Cognitive Strategy Use, and (e) Self-regulation Strategies. They responded to the statements of the questionnaire on a 7-point Likert scale in terms of their behaviour in mathematics and language classes, respectively. Moreover, their teachers were asked to evaluate each of their students' academic achievement in Greek language and mathematics on a 1- to 20-point comparative scale in relation to the rest of the class. The results of the study indicated very few differences in the pattern of relations among self-regulated components within and across the two subject areas and at the same time revealed a context-specific character of self-regulated components at a mean level differences. Further, the current study (a) confirmed the mediatory role of strategies in the motivation-performance relation, (b) stressed the differential role of cognitive and regulatory strategies in predicting performance in subject areas that differ in their structural characteristics of the content, and (c) pointed out the key motivational role of self-efficacy. In fact, self-efficacy proved the most significant predictor not only of performance but of cognitive and regulatory strategy use as well. Gender differences in motivation and strategy use were not reported, while motivation was found to vary mainly with age. The usefulness of these findings for promoting greater clarity among motivational and

  14. Undergraduate STEM Achievement and Retention: Cognitive, Motivational, and Institutional Factors and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Perez, Tony; Kaplan, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Student cognition and motivation, as well as institutional policies, determine student course grades and retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Regarding cognition, study skills relate to course grades, and grades relate to retention in STEM. Several aspects of motivation are related to both grades and…

  15. Relationships among Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulation and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Vural, Semra Sungur

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose: This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception…

  16. Achievement Motivation in Rural African-American Female High School Honor Graduates. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Dale F.; And Others

    This report examines motivational variables and support structures that influenced the success of African American females who graduated with honors from a rural Georgia high school. Case studies focus on the nature of the honor graduates' friendships and the role that friendship may have played in motivating these students to become honor…

  17. Cultural Predictors of Academic Motivation and Achievement: A Self-Deterministic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Adena; Johnson, Gail; Hawthorne, Melissa; Pugh, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    College retention and graduation rates are significantly lower for African American and Hispanic American students. Limited research has been conducted on the relationship between academic motivation and perceived social support. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of social support as a predictor of academic motivation and…

  18. The Stereotyped Task Engagement Process: The Role of Interest and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jessi L.; Sansone, Carol; White, Paul H.

    2007-01-01

    Competence-based stereotypes can negatively affect women's performance in math and science (referred to as stereotype threat), presumably leading to lower motivation. The authors examined the effects of stereotype threat on interest, a motivational path not necessarily mediated by performance. They predicted that working on a computer science task…

  19. "I am a scientist": How setting conditions that enhance focused concentration positively relate to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Robin B.

    This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged thirteen to fourteen years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on forty-six percent of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. This research also illustrates the positive gains in motivation and achievement outcomes that emerge from student experiences with extended time in isolated areas referred to

  20. Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals during Task Engagement: Their Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…

  1. What Type of Motivation Is Truly Related to School Achievement? A Look at 1428 High-School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsenti, Thierry P.; Thibert, Gilles

    This paper reports on research to examine the types of motivation related to school achievement. A total of 1428 students from an inner city high school in the Montreal (Quebec) area participated in the study, 714 males and 714 females. The students ranged in age from 12 to 18, and approximately 40 percent were minorities (Hispanic, Asian, Black).…

  2. The Relationship of Mental Pressure with Optimism and Academic Achievement Motivation among Second Grade Male High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…

  3. Digital Storytelling for Enhancing Student Academic Achievement, Critical Thinking, and Learning Motivation: A Year-Long Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Wu, Wan-Chi I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of Digital storytelling (DST) on the academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation of senior high school students learning English as a foreign language. The one-year study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design involving 110 10th grade students in two English…

  4. The Effects of GIS on Students' Academic Achievement and Motivation in Seventh-Grade Social Studies Lessons in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladag, Elif

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on the academic achievement and motivation of seventh-grade students. The study used a quasi-experimental design and a set of social studies lessons. The study was conducted over the 2006-2007 academic year on the students of a primary school at Ankara, Turkey's…

  5. The Relationship between Student Voice and Perceptions of Motivation, Attachment, Achievement and School Climate in Davidson and Rutherford Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Sharon Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which there were statistically significant relationships between school administrators' systemic implementation of student voice work and student perceptions (i.e. achievement, motivation, attachment and school climate) and PLAN performance. Student voice was defined as students being equal partners in school…

  6. Effects of the Digital Game-Development Approach on Elementary School Students' Learning Motivation, Problem Solving, and Learning Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Hung, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the game-based development approach is proposed for improving the learning motivation, problem solving skills, and learning achievement of students. An experiment was conducted on a learning activity of an elementary school science course to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. A total of 59 sixth graders from two…

  7. Improving Learning Achievements, Motivations and Problem-Solving Skills through a Peer Assessment-Based Game Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hung, Chun-Ming; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a peer assessment-based game development approach is proposed for improving students' learning achievements, motivations and problem-solving skills. An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in a science course at an elementary school. A total of 167 sixth graders participated in…

  8. Examining the Relationships among Classroom Goal Structure, Achievement Goal Orientation, Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning for Ethnically Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, David; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shores, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the learning strategies used by ethnically diverse learners and to investigate the relationships among the constructs of classroom goal structure, achievement goal orientation, motivation and self-regulated learning in an ethnically diverse population of fourth and fifth grade learners (n = 396). Goal…

  9. Personal Best (PB) and "Classic" Achievement Goals in the Chinese Context: Their Role in Predicting Academic Motivation, Engagement and Buoyancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kai; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown personal best (PB) goals to be significantly related to students' motivation, engagement and achievement. However, research thus far has investigated PB goals only among Western samples and it is unclear to what extent PB goals hold academic merit in the Asian context. It is also unclear whether PB goals explain…

  10. Motivational Workshops for Low Achieving High School Students in Order to Help Them Improve Their Career Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Thomas R.

    Two studies were conducted in which low achieving high school students were given motivational workshops in order to help them improve their career maturity and to understand the processes involved in making wise career choices for themselves. It was hypothesized that in the experimental groups which received career counseling the student's career…

  11. An Investigation of Early Parental Motivational Strategies on Mathematics Achievement by Ethnicity: A Latent Curve Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Stefanie R.; Ing, Marsha; Marcoulides, George A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developmental effects of early parental intrinsic and extrinsic motivational strategies on mathematics achievement scores obtained from White students compared to underrepresented minority students. A latent growth curve model was fit to data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY) with mathematics achievement…

  12. The Influence of the Antecedent Variable on the Teachers' Performance through Achievement Motivation in Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…

  13. Examination of the Relationships between Fifth Graders' Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Motivational Beliefs, Attitudes, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocak, Gurbuz; Yamac, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of current study was to examine predictor and explanatory relationships between fifth graders' self-regulated learning strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics, and academic achievement. The study was conducted on a sample of 204 students studying in the primary schools of Afyonkarahisar province. Motivated…

  14. Readiness and Achievement Motivation: An Investigation of the Validity of the Readiness Scales in Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaoping; Knight, W. Hal

    The construct validity of two measures of employee job readiness was investigated by examining the relationships between job readiness and achievement motivation, and between readiness and the variables of education and work experience. The readiness, or maturity level, of employees is an important concept in the situational leadership model,…

  15. A Study on the Relationship between College Students' Boredom Tendency and Attribution Style as Well as Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Shunqin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This thesis discusses the relationship between college students' boredom tendency and attribution style as well as achievement motivation. Method: The author uses scale assessment on college students of boredom tendency scale, the inner-control scale, internality-powerful others scale and chance scale draw up by Leveson, as well as…

  16. Practice Brief: Assessing Compensatory Strategies and Motivational Factors in High-Achieving Postsecondary Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Research speculates that high-achieving college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may demonstrate a set of compensatory strategies and experience areas of difficulty and motivational factors that differ from the general ADHD populace. This Practice Brief used informal surveys with seven undergraduates with ADHD who had…

  17. The Relationship between Reading Attitude, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and the Reading Achievement of Fifth Grade African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Quentarius Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    Using a correlational research design, this dissertation sought to examine the variables--self-efficacy, motivation, reading attitude, and gender--which could serve as a predictors for reading achievement with a purposive sample of 81 African-American 5th grade males attending two elementary schools in North Texas. Using a bivariate correlation,…

  18. Beyond Benchmarks and Scores: Reasserting the Role of Motivation and Interest in Children's Academic Achievement--An ACEI Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2007-01-01

    There is little question that the fundamental purpose of education--what the ancient Greeks referred to as the "telos"--is to promote student learning. For decades, both experts and the general public have agreed that any effort to improve the education system must focus squarely on optimizing student learning, motivating students to achieve, and…

  19. Effects of an Emotion Control Treatment on Academic Emotions, Motivation and Achievement in an Online Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…

  20. Academic Achievement, Academic Self-Concept, and Academic Motivation of Immigrant Adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the self-reported academic achievement, academic self-concept, and academic motivation of 573 immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) secondary schools. Descriptive Discriminant Analyses indicated that the immigrant adolescents had higher performance in mathematics, higher math and school…

  1. Motivational, Parental, and Cultural Influences on Achievement and Persistence in Basic Skills Mathematics at the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Donna E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the gap in the current literature on community college students in basic math courses by examining motivational, parental and cultural factors as predictors of achievement and persistence of students enrolled in basic skills mathematics courses at a community college. More specifically, this study…

  2. The Impact of New York's School Libraries on Student Achievement and Motivation: Phase II--In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.; Snyder, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of the second phase of a three-phase study on the impact of the New York State's school libraries' services and resources on student achievement and motivation. A representative sample of more than 1,600 classroom teachers, students, and school library media specialists (SMLSs) from 47 schools throughout New York…

  3. The Effects of Captioning Videos on Academic Achievement and Motivation: Reconsideration of Redundancy Principle in Instructional Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Muzaffer; Izmirli, Serkan; Sahin-Izmirli, Ozden

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of captioned vs. non-captioned instructional videos on the motivation and achievement. To this end, a pre-test and post-test experimental design was used on 109 sophomores from a Turkish state university. Videos with and without captions of the unit in question were prepared by the…

  4. Case Studies of Factors Affecting the Motivation of Musical High Achievers to Learn Music in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Bo Wah; McPherson, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the…

  5. A Mixed Method Study of the Effectiveness of the Accelerated Reader Program on Middle School Students' Reading Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, SuHua

    2012-01-01

    The mixed-method explanatory research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the Accelerated Reader (AR) program on middle school students' reading achievement and motivation. A total of 211 sixth to eighth-grade students provided quantitative data by completing an AR Survey. Thirty of the 211 students were randomly selected to…

  6. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  7. Expeditionary Learning Schools: Theory of Action and Literature Review of Motivation, Character, and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Andrea; Clark, Tedra; Barker, Jane; Germeroth, Carrie; Apthorp, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Expeditionary Learning Schools opens and transforms K-12 schools. Through engaging, long-term interdisciplinary projects designed to achieve academic standards and an emphasis on a healthy school culture, Expeditionary Learning aims to develop students who are not only high-achieving but also highly motivated to do challenging…

  8. Exploring the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors: Motivators and strategies for achieving baccalaureate attainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajal, Sandy C.

    Drawing from Latino/a Critical Race Theory and the related Community Cultural Wealth (CCW) model, I concentrate on three forms of CCW---aspirational, navigational, and resistance capital---for this qualitative study on the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors, focusing on strategies and achieving baccalaureate attainment. I interviewed ten Latina students and asked them questions regarding their educational experiences in STEM majors, what contributed to their degree completion, and the strategies they employed for achieving baccalaureate attainment. I identified and described six themes within the study (the underrepresentation of Latinas in STEM majors, the lack of preparation by academic programs for upper division courses, motivators, involvement, time management, and support networks) that, when combined, contributed to participants' degree attainment. This study concludes with implications for policy and practice that would allow universities to better assist Latinas in STEM majors to achieve baccalaureate attainment.

  9. Motivational and emotional profiles in university undergraduates: a self-determination theory perspective.

    PubMed

    González, Antonio; Paoloni, Verónica; Donolo, Danilo; Rinaudo, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has focused on specific forms of self-determined motivation or discrete class-related emotions, but few studies have simultaneously examined both constructs. The aim of this study on 472 undergraduates was twofold: to perform cluster analysis to identify homogeneous groups of motivation in the sample; and to determine the profile of each cluster for emotions and academic achievement. Cluster analysis configured four groups in terms of motivation: controlled, autonomous, both high, and both low. Each cluster revealed a distinct emotional profile, autonomous motivation being the most adaptable with high scores for academic achievement and pleasant emotions and low values for unpleasant emotions. The results are discussed in the light of their implications for academic adjustment.

  10. Student-generated questions during chemistry lectures: Patterns, self-appraisals, and relations with motivational beliefs and achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergey, Bradley W.

    Self-generated questions are a central mechanism for learning, yet students' questions are often infrequent during classroom instruction. As a result, little is known about the nature of student questioning during typical instructional contexts such as listening to a lecture, including the extent and nature of student-generated questions, how students evaluate their questions, and the relations among questions, motivations, and achievement. This study examined the questions undergraduate students (N = 103) generated during 8 lectures in an introductory chemistry course. Students recorded and appraised their question in daily question logs and reported lecture-specific self-efficacy beliefs. Self-efficacy, personal interest, goal orientations, and other motivational self-beliefs were measured before and after the unit. Primary analyses included testing path models, multiple regressions, and latent class analyses. Overall, results indicated that several characteristics of student questioning during lectures were significantly related to various motivations and achievement. Higher end-of-class self-efficacy was associated with fewer procedural questions and more questions that reflected smaller knowledge deficits. Lower exam scores were associated with questions reflecting broader knowledge deficits and students' appraisals that their questions had less value for others than for themselves. Individual goal orientations collectively and positively predicted question appraisals. The questions students generated and their relations with motivational variables and achievement are discussed in light of the learning task and academic context.

  11. A Theory of School Achievement: A Quantum View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2012-01-01

    In most school achievement research, the relationships between achievement and explanatory variables follow the Newton and Einstein concept/principle and the viewpoint of the macro-observer: Deterministic measures based on the mean value of a sufficiently large number of schools. What if the relationships between achievement and explanatory…

  12. Exploring the Intrinsic Motivation of Hedonic Information Systems Acceptance: Integrating Hedonic Theory and Flow with TAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihuan

    Research on Information Systems (IS) acceptance is substantially focused on extrinsic motivation in workplaces, little is known about the underlying intrinsic motivations of Hedonic IS (HIS) acceptance. This paper proposes a hybrid HIS acceptance model which takes the unique characteristics of HIS and multiple identities of a HIS user into consideration by interacting Hedonic theory, Flow theory with Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The model was empirically tested by a field survey. The result indicates that emotional responses, imaginal responses, and flow experience are three main contributions of HIS acceptance.

  13. Corporate social responsibility motives and theories evidenced among oilwell drilling firms in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altvater, Norbert

    This dissertation is a study in conceptual CSR motives and theories prompted by the knowledge that socially active NGOs have tried to influence the CSP of companies in Alberta's oil patch by using media pressure. The focus of the study was narrowed to changing CSP among Alberta's oilwell drilling firms. This permits intensive interviews with the firms' informants. The examination of changing CSP implies a consideration of the pressures that prompt and influence its change, and points this study to firm motives for behaving responsibly. The firms were firstly categorized according to their primary and secondary CSP using 5 dimensions of CSR previously used by The Conference Board of Canada. The study uses CSR motives conceptualized by Ruth Aguilera and her collaborators to assess the firms' CSP using self-assessed CSR motives and observed CSP. At the onset 3 working hypotheses were posited as starting points from which substantiated propositions were developed. Lance Moir's and Elisabet Garriga and Domènec Meld's classifications of CSR theories were used to organize and evaluate the data. A mapping of the motives and theories in respect of the firms' primary and secondary CSR dimensions appears to display correlations between the CSR theories and the conceptualized motives. Nevertheless, for some of the firms none of the motives conceptualized by Aguilera and her collaborators seem to apply. By re-visiting the motives, and examining them more closely, it seems possible refine the conceptualized motives relying more on perceived conceptions, which are at the basis of legitimacy theories, rather than on relational factors to better explain the normative expectations raised. A similar analysis also indicates that the firms' seem to seek economic benefits, social benefits, or a combination of both. The CSP that results is within the same continuum; the resulting CSP for the firms seems to mediate towards a blend of both, regardless of the original CSR motives. These

  14. The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory

    PubMed Central

    Carton, John S.

    1996-01-01

    Substantial research indicates that tangible rewards, such as money, prizes, and tokens, decrease response rates by undermining intrinsic motivation. In contrast, praise appears to increase response rates by enhancing intrinsic motivation. Based on their interpretation of available evidence, many social-cognitive researchers warn not to use tangible rewards in applied settings and to use praise instead. Furthermore, they suggest that the differential effects of the two types of rewards on intrinsic motivation cannot be explained using principles of operant psychology. Cognitive evaluation theory provides one of the most recent and widely cited social-cognitive explanations for the different effects of the two types of rewards on intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985). However, a review of existing research found little support for the explanations based on this theory and revealed three potential confounding effects: (a) temporal contiguity, (b) the number of reward administrations, and (c) discriminative stimuli associated with reward availability. These three confounding factors provide explanations for the effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation that are consistent with principles of operant psychology. PMID:22478261

  15. Study on the salary system for IT enterprise based on double factor motivation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Chen; Qian, Wu

    2005-12-01

    To improve the fact that the IT enterprise's salary & compensation system can not motivate a company's staff efficiently, the salary system based on Hertzberg's double factor motivation theory and the enterprise characteristics is presented. The salary system includes a salary model, an assessment model and a performance model. The system is connected with a cash incentive based on the staff's performance and emphasizes that the salary alone is not a motivating factor. Health care, for example, may also play a positive role on the motivation factor. According to this system, a scientific and reasonable salary & compensation management system was established and applied in an IT enterprise. It was found to promote the enterprise's overall performance and competitive power.

  16. Motivating children with developmental coordination disorder in school physical education: the self-determination theory approach.

    PubMed

    Katartzi, Ermioni S; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to highlight the potential of self-determination theory (SDT) to inform the teaching practices of physical education (PE) teachers. Such practices may enhance motivational levels for participation in physical activity (PA) for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). First, we review the research in PE demonstrating links between teachers' interpersonal style, teaching methods, and outcomes relating to both students' motivation and motor skill improvement. Second, we outline the SDT mechanism through which the practices employed by PE teachers to support students' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness may effect positive changes in the motivation and the physical activity behaviour of children with DCD. Third, we present an overview of findings on the effectiveness of need-supporting practices used by PE teachers. Fourth, we provide directions for future motivational research using the SDT principles in school physical education for children with DCD. PMID:21742467

  17. Motivating children with developmental coordination disorder in school physical education: the self-determination theory approach.

    PubMed

    Katartzi, Ermioni S; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to highlight the potential of self-determination theory (SDT) to inform the teaching practices of physical education (PE) teachers. Such practices may enhance motivational levels for participation in physical activity (PA) for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). First, we review the research in PE demonstrating links between teachers' interpersonal style, teaching methods, and outcomes relating to both students' motivation and motor skill improvement. Second, we outline the SDT mechanism through which the practices employed by PE teachers to support students' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness may effect positive changes in the motivation and the physical activity behaviour of children with DCD. Third, we present an overview of findings on the effectiveness of need-supporting practices used by PE teachers. Fourth, we provide directions for future motivational research using the SDT principles in school physical education for children with DCD.

  18. Parental support and adolescent motivation for dieting: the Self-Determination Theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Katz, Idit; Madjar, Nir; Harari, Adi

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on parents' role in overweight adolescents' motivation to diet and successful weight loss. The study employed Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as the theoretical framework (Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2011). Ninety-nine participants (ages 20-30) who had been overweight during adolescence according to their Body Mass Index (BMI mean = 25, SD = 1.6), completed retrospective questionnaires about their motivation to diet and their parents' behavior in the context of dieting. Findings from a structural equation modeling analysis suggested that participants who viewed their parents' as more need-supportive demonstrated more autonomous motivation to diet, which, in turn, contributed to their successful weight loss. The findings highlight the importance of parental support of adolescents' psychological needs in the quality of their motivation to diet. This is an important insight for parents and professionals who aim to encourage more constructive parent involvement in adolescents' dieting and well-being.

  19. Motivation and exercise dependence: a study based on self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    González-Cutre, David; Sicilia, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to use self-determination theory to analyze the relationships of several motivational variables with exercise dependence. The study involved 531 exercisers, ranging in age from 16 to 60 years old, who responded to differentquestionnaires assessing perception of motivational climate, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, motivation types, and exercise dependence. The results of multiple mediation analysis revealed that ego-involving climate and perceived competence positively predicted exercise dependence in a directed and mediated manner through introjected and external regulation. Gender and age did not moderate the analyzed relationships. These results allow us to better understand the motivational process explaining exercise dependence, demonstrating the negative influence of the ego-involving climate in the context of exercise.

  20. Mothers' daily person and process praise: implications for children's theory of intelligence and motivation.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Eva M; Kempner, Sara G

    2013-11-01

    This research examined if mothers' day-to-day praise of children's success in school plays a role in children's theory of intelligence and motivation. Participants were 120 children (mean age = 10.23 years) and their mothers who took part in a 2-wave study spanning 6 months. During the first wave, mothers completed a 10-day daily interview in which they reported on their use of person (e.g., "You are smart") and process (e.g., "You tried hard") praise. Children's entity theory of intelligence and preference for challenge in school were assessed with surveys at both waves. Mothers' person, but not process, praise was predictive of children's theory of intelligence and motivation: The more person praise mothers used, the more children subsequently held an entity theory of intelligence and avoided challenge over and above their earlier functioning on these dimensions.

  1. The sensitivity theory of motivation: implications for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Reiss, S; Havercamp, S

    1996-08-01

    Sensitivity theory holds that people differ in both the types of reinforcement they desire and in the amounts of reinforcement they need to satiate. People who crave too much love, too much attention, too much acceptance, too much companionship, or too much of some other fundamental reinforcer are at risk for aberrant behavior because normative behavior does not produce the desired amounts of reinforcement. People who are intolerant of even everyday amounts of anxiety or frustration also are at risk for aberrant behavior. Individual differences in desired amounts of particular reinforcers may predict person-environment interactions, risk factors for psychopathology, and the occurrence of generalized and durable therapy effects versus the occurrence of relapses. Parallel predictions are made for individual differences in tolerance of aversive stimuli. Implications are discussed for applied behavior analysis, the development of psychopathology, and treatment strategies.

  2. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory.

    PubMed

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  3. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory.

    PubMed

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention. PMID:26543649

  4. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-concepts of intelligence: relations to modesty, narcissism, and achievement motivation

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenberg, Friederike X. R.; Imhoff, Roland; Banse, Rainer; Schmitt, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that different configurations of the implicit self-concept of intelligence (iSCI) and the explicit self-concept of intelligence (eSCI) are consistently related to individuals’ performance on different intelligence tests (Dislich etal., 2012). The results indicated that any discrepant configuration between the iSCI and the eSCI impairs performance. In the present study, how correspondence between the iSCI and the eSCI is related to intelligence test performance as well as personality traits of modesty (low eSCI, high iSCI), narcissism (high eSCI, low iSCI), and achievement motivation was investigated. Furthermore, a moderated mediation analysis showed that the relation between the iSCI–eSCI configurations and intelligence test performance was mediated by achievement motivation for modest individuals. PMID:24575063

  5. The Influence of Instrumentality Beliefs on Intrinsic Motivation: A Study of High-Achieving Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, David J.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    For many students, school is a forward-looking endeavor, with implications for future educational opportunity, job prospects, and financial success. How does believing that school is linked to a desired future outcome--known as an instrumentality belief--influence motivation? A number of studies have indicated that rewards, or other concerns that…

  6. Risk Taking and Performance in Relation to Achievement-Related Motives, Defensiveness and Social Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damm, John T.; Bloxom, Anne

    The effects of two social contexts on the risk -taking behavior of elementary boys on a shuffleboard task were investigated. It was predicted that Atkinson's motive-probability-incentive (M-P-I) model would be supported in the peer-competitive context, in that the success-oriented subjects would choose more goals with median Ps values than the…

  7. Motivational and Judgment Predictors of African American Academic Achievement at PWIs and HBCUs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Matthew C.; Schmitt, Neal

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether African American students at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) differ from African American students at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) in academic motivation and judgment, and whether type of academic institution (HBCU, PWI) moderates relationships between these differences and…

  8. Achieving Faculty Buy-In: Motivation Performance in Learning Outcome Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sujitparapitaya, Sutee

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great value of student learning outcome assessment (SLOA), faculty have not fully embraced the assessment movement, and many remain locked in debates on its merits. To gain faculty buy-in and explain why many faculty were motivated to engage in outcome assessment, the modified CANE (Commitment And Necessary Effort) model was used to…

  9. Intrinsic Motivation, Learning Goals, Engagement, and Achievement in a Diverse High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froiland, John Mark; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Using structural equation models, with gender, parent education, and prior grade point average (GPA) as control variables, we examined the relationships among intrinsic motivation to learn, learning goals, behavioral engagement at school, and academic performance (measured by GPA) in 1,575 students in an ethnically and racially diverse high…

  10. The Blended Learning Environment on the Foreign Language Learning Process: A Balance for Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isiguzel, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects on motivation and success within the application of blended learning environments in the foreign language class. The research sample is formed by third grade students studying in the tourism and hotel management programs of the faculty for tourism and the faculty of economics and administrative…

  11. The L2 Motivational Self System and L2 Achievement: A Study of Saudi EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovsky, Christo; Assulaimani, Turki; Racheva, Silvia; Harkins, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this article explores the relationship between Dörnyei's (2005, 2009) Second Language Motivational Self System (L2MSS) and the L2 proficiency level of Saudi learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Male and female participants (N = 360) responded to a questionnaire relating to the main components of L2MSS, the…

  12. Using Value-Added Models to Measure Teacher Effects on Students' Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzek, Erik A.; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Duncan, Greg J.; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Value-added (VA) models measure teacher contributions to student learning and are increasingly employed in educational reform efforts. Using data from 35 seventh-grade teachers and 2,026 students across seven schools, we employ VA methods to measure teacher contributions to students' motivational orientations (mastery and performance achievement…

  13. Effects of Extracurricular Participation during Middle School on Academic Motivation and Achievement at Grade 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of participating in two domains of extracurricular activities (sports and performance arts/clubs) in Grades 7 and 8 on Grade 9 academic motivation and letter grades, above baseline performance. Participants were 483 students (55% male; 33% Euro-American, 25% African American, and 39% Latino). Propensity score weighting…

  14. Motivational Factors Influencing the Academic Achievement of Adolescent African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Mary Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigated the nuances of understanding motivational factors with respect to the problem of academic underachievement among African American males (AAM). This research is compelling because AAM still under perform as they progress through the educational system despite more than a decade of interventions targeting the…

  15. Science Literacy in School and Home Contexts: Kindergarteners' Science Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Patrick, Helen; Samarapungavan, Ala

    2013-01-01

    We examined science learning and motivation outcomes as a function of children's participation in the classroom and classroom-plus-home components of the Scientific Literacy Project (SLP). The sample was comprised of kindergarten children in 4 low income, neighboring schools. Children in Schools 1 and 2 (n = 120) participated in the SLP science…

  16. Role of the Big Five Personality Traits in Predicting College Students' Academic Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komarraju, Meera; Karau, Steven J.; Schmeck, Ronald R.

    2009-01-01

    College students (308 undergraduates) completed the Five Factor Inventory and the Academic Motivations Scale, and reported their college grade point average (GPA). A correlation analysis revealed an interesting pattern of significant relationships. Further, regression analyses indicated that conscientiousness and openness explained 17% of the…

  17. Personality Factors and Achievement Motivation of Women in Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Patricia; Chu, Lily

    Female and male higher education administrators in Texas and New Mexico were compared in terms of their sex role orientation, motivational factors, and administrative styles. In addition to individual interviews of the 68 administrators, a questionnaire was developed that included items from the Bem Sex Role Inventory, Work and Family Orientation…

  18. Employment and First-Year College Achievement: The Role of Self-Regulation and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huie, Faye C.; Winsler, Adam; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Students often work in order to meet monetary requirements for college. However, employment reduces the time students can devote to their studies, which can hinder performance. This study examined whether motivation (self-efficacy goal orientation) and self-regulated learning (help-seeking, metacognitive self-regulation, time management and effort…

  19. The Relation of Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulatory Processes to Homework Completion and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer; Zimmerman, Barry J.

    This study examined individual differences in the ways students responded to a self-regulation learning training. It was predicted that students' motivational beliefs would be associated with at-risk college students' use of self-regulated learning strategies, homework completion, and academic performance. Participants were 58 college students in…

  20. An Interview with Allan Wigfield: A Giant on Research on Expectancy Value, Motivation, and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Allan Wigfield, professor and chair of the Department of Human Development and distinguished scholar-teacher at the University of Maryland. He has authored more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on children's motivation and other topics. He is a fellow of Division 15 (Educational…

  1. Learner Characteristics and Motivation: How to Achieve Efficient and Effective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Catherine Marie Fraser

    2015-01-01

    During the Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Conference 2014, a workshop was held three consecutive times as part of the Pedagogical Speed Dating sessions to introduce experienced college/university faculty and instructional designers to an approach to instructional design that is based on increasing motivation. The purpose of…

  2. Understanding Students' Motivation in Project Work: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia Liu, Woon; Wang, C. K. John; Tan, Oon Seng; Ee, Jessie; Koh, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Background: The project work (PW) initiative was launched in 2000 by the Ministry of Education, Singapore, to encourage application of knowledge across disciplines, and to develop thinking, communication, collaboration, and metacognitive skills. Although PW has been introduced for a few years, few studies have examined the motivation of students…

  3. Academic Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in Predicting Academic Achievement in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin, Baris

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether academic motivation and academic self-regulated learning predicted students' GPAs in the Early Childhood Education Department. The study participants consisted of 166 early childhood education majors enrolled in the 2014 spring semester at Georgia Southern University, USA. Data were gathered using…

  4. Information Seeking and Achievement Motivation in Middle Childhood and Adolescence: The Role of Conceptions of Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of age and conceptions of ability on information seeking, performance, and motivation among middle graders. Found that students who had acquired the concept of ability responded to the task condition with strivings to learn and requests for information relevant to acquiring mastery, and to the ego condition with strivings to…

  5. "Being the Faculty Face": A Grounded Theory of Living-Learning Program Faculty Motives and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler Sharp, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few evident incentives exist for faculty to become involved with living-learning programs. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to investigate the motives and experiences of faculty members working with living-learning programs at doctoral-granting research institutions. Illuminating the experiences of living-learning…

  6. Goal Theory and Indigenous Minority School Motivation: Relevance and Application. Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    This paper reports on a continuing study of Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian children. The study investigates the relevance and applicability of goal theory to explaining indigenous minority motivation in school settings. Task, ego social solidarity, and extrinsic goal structures were examined as a means of explaining and predicting…

  7. The Reconciliation of W. Edwards Deming and John Dewey: An Exploration of Similarities in Motivation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, William C.

    1996-01-01

    Interrogates similarities and misconceptions common to W. Edwards Deming and John Dewey, examining a reconciliation of the two within the context of motivation theory and concluding that Deming and Dewey are very similar in general outlook and the shared belief in the integrity of the individual within the social system. (SM)

  8. Factors that Motivate Business Faculty to Conduct Research: An Expectancy Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yining; Gupta, Ashok; Hoshower, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors used expectancy theory to examine key factors that motivate business faculty to conduct research. The survey results, from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, showed that faculty members who assign higher importance ratings to both the extrinsic and the intrinsic rewards of research exhibit higher research…

  9. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors in Online Gambling Behaviour: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Abby; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    To date, there has been very little empirical research examining why people gamble online or--just as importantly--why they do not gamble online. A grounded theory study examining the motivating and inhibiting factors in online gambling was carried out. The sample comprised 15 online gamblers, 14 offline gamblers, and 11 non-gamblers, and resulted…

  10. Rhetorical Dissent as an Adaptive Response to Classroom Problems: A Test of Protection Motivation Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2016-01-01

    Protection motivation theory (PMT) explains people's adaptive behavior in response to personal threats. In this study, PMT was used to predict rhetorical dissent episodes related to 210 student reports of perceived classroom problems. In line with theoretical predictions, a moderated moderation analysis revealed that students were likely to voice…

  11. Measuring Adjunct Instructor Job Satisfaction by Using Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Durrell

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to use Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory to investigate the different levels of job satisfaction among adjunct college instructors at eight institutions of higher education located in southeast Texas. Differences in job satisfaction were measured by instructor gender, ethnicity, age, teaching experience, type of…

  12. Using Game Theory and Competition-Based Learning to Stimulate Student Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burguillo, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for using Game Theory tournaments as a base to implement Competition-based Learning (CnBL), together with other classical learning techniques, to motivate the students and increase their learning performance. The paper also presents a description of the learning activities performed along the past ten years of a…

  13. Motivating Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in School Physical Education: The Self-Determination Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katartzi, Ermioni S.; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to highlight the potential of self-determination theory (SDT) to inform the teaching practices of physical education (PE) teachers. Such practices may enhance motivational levels for participation in physical activity (PA) for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). First, we review the…

  14. Motivation in Physical Education Classes: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Standage, Martyn

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of empirical studies in school physical education (PE) that have employed self-determination theory (SDT) and, where relevant, proposes ideas for future research in this area. First, we review research on teachers' interpersonal style and its relation to students' motivation. Second, we discuss intervention…

  15. Why We Do What We Do: A Biopsychosocial Theory of Human Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, Walter R.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a theory of human motivation that focuses on the unpredictability of life, innate and noninnate differences in individual characteristics, individual responsibility for actions, importance of a meaningful life, intrinsic physiologic rewards of behavior, gender differences in behavior, adult psychological maturation, and limitations of the…

  16. Situational State Balances and Participation Motivation in Youth Sport: A Reversal Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sit, Cindy H. P.; Lindner, Koenraad J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Reversal theory (Apter, 1982, 1989, ) is one of the motivational frameworks which attempts to examine human subjective experiences and behaviours. There are four dyads of metamotivational states (telic-paratelic, conformist-negativistic, autic-alloic, and mastery-sympathy) and individuals may prefer to be in one rather than the other…

  17. Antecedents of Emotions in Elite Athletes: A Cognitive Motivational Relational Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uphill, Mark A.; Jones, Marc V.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive motivational relational theory suggests that cognitive appraisals or core relational themes (a composite summary of appraisal components) represent the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. Semistructured interviews with 12 current international athletes (1 woman and 11 men) ages 19 to 37 years (M age = 27 years, SD = 6.03),…

  18. Motivation to Learn and Diversity Training: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiethoff, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Although training programs are an important component in most companies' diversity initiatives, little theoretical guidance is available for their implementation. This article proposes a model based on the theory of planned behavior, which addresses the roles of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in motivation to learn…

  19. Learning Achievement and Motivation in an Out-of-School Setting—Visiting Amphibians and Reptiles in a Zoo Is More Effective than a Lesson at School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünschmann, Stephanie; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian; Itzek-Greulich, Heike

    2016-04-01

    Interventions in out-of-school settings have been shown in previous studies to be effectively increase students' science knowledge and motivation, with mixed results on whether they are more effective than teaching at school. In this study, we compared an out-of-school setting in a reptile and amphibian zoo (Landau, Germany) with a sequence of classroom teaching and a control group without teaching on the topic. We compared learning at school (School) and out-of-school learning (Reptilium), which were tested in a randomized field setting with a focus on knowledge and motivation. Sixty-five elementary students participated in either the School group, Reptilium group or control group. We measured knowledge on the topics reptiles and amphibians with a newly developed two-factorial test, calibrated with item response theory, before the intervention, immediately afterwards (posttest) and 2 weeks later (follow-up). Motivation was measured immediately after the intervention. Data analyses were performed using SPSS and Mplus. We conclude that the two interventions appeared highly superior to the control group and that the out-of-school setting in the Reptilium was more effective than the school-only program. Concerning motivation, perception of choice was higher in the Reptilium than in the School group. There were gender-by-treatment interaction effects for knowledge in the posttest and follow-up, for perceived competence and for pressure/tension. Concerning knowledge, boys performed better in the School group than girls but this gender gap was not significant in the Reptilium group. Boys perceived themselves as more competent in the School group while girls reported less pressure/tension in the Reptilium group. In conclusion, encountering living animals in a formal zoo learning arrangement is encouraged in primary school since it supports self-determination (free choice), leads to higher achievement and closes gender disparities in achievement.

  20. The Achievement Motivation-Performance Relationship as Moderated by Sex-Role Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Steven

    1976-01-01

    The moderating effect of sex-role attitudes in relation to the predictive validity of Mehrabian's achievement tendency scale for females is examined. The scale predicts better for academic achievement with females classified as non-traditional in sex-role orientation, and in social achievement for females classified as traditional. (Author/JKS)