Wentzel, K R
Relations between academic performance and 3 aspects of social competence--socially responsible behavior, sociometric status, and self-regulatory processes (goal setting, interpersonal trust, and problem-solving styles)--were studied. Based on a sample of 423 12- and 13-year-old students, correlational findings indicate that each aspect of social competence is related significantly to students' grades. Results from multiple regression analyses suggest that when accounting for students' IQ, sex, ethnicity, school absence, and family structure, socially responsible behavior mediates almost entirely the relations between students' grades and the other 2 aspects of social competence. Socially responsible behavior and peer status appear to be related by way of their joint association with goals to be socially responsible, interpersonal trust, and problem-solving styles. Similarly, relations between socially responsible behavior and the background variables are explained by joint relations with the self-regulatory processes. The social nature of learning and the role of self-regulation in both interpersonal and behavioral aspects of social competence are discussed.
Ray, Corey E.; Elliott, Stephen N.
This study examined the hypothesized relationship between social adjustment, as measured by perceived social support, self-concept, and social skills, and performance on academic achievement tests. Participants included 27 teachers and 77 fourth- and eighth-grade students with diverse academic and behavior competencies. Teachers were asked to…
Elias, Maurice J.; Haynes, Norris M.
Despite living in disadvantaged urban communities experiencing social and economic hardships, many children emerge with positive outcomes. Social-emotional competence and social support were hypothesized to have strong influences on academic trajectories during the critical period of academic skill acquisition. Participants were 282 third-grade…
Simpson, Barbara Lazenby
Acquisition of pragmatic competence by second language learners in the target language environment is examined, drawing on a study of learners of English as a Second Language in Dublin (Ireland). The hypothesis presented is that learners who perceive social or cultural distance between themselves and the target language culture will have greater…
Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin
This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…
Gil-Olarte Márquez, Paloma; Palomera Martín, Raquel; Brackett, Marc A
This study investigated the discriminant, criterion and incremental validity of an ability measure of Emotional Intelligence (EI). High school students (N = 77) took the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test - Spanish Version (MSCEIT V. 2.0, 2002), a measure of Big Five personality traits (BFQ; Caprara, Barbanelli, & Borgogni , 1993), an General Intelligence test (IGF-r 5; Yuste, 2002), and a social competence inventory (AECS; Moraleda, González, & García-Gallo, 1998). Students' academic grades also were obtained from official school records at the end of the school year. As predicted, the MSCEIT was discriminable from well-established measures of personality and intelligence. The test was also moderately related to social competence and predicted students' final grades. Most of the findings remained significant after personality and academic intelligence were statistically controlled. The potential utility of EI in the context of academic institutions is discussed.
Ooms et al sets out some good general principles for a global social support system to improve fairer global competitiveness as a result of redistribution. This commentary sets out to summarize some of the conditions that would need to be satisfied for it to level up gradients in inequality through such a social support system, using the National Basketball Association (NBA) example as a point of reference. From this, the minimal conditions are described that would be required for the support system, proposed in the article by Ooms et al, to succeed. PMID:26927594
Ross, Shelley; Poth, Cheryl N.; Donoff, Michel; Humphries, Paul; Steiner, Ivan; Schipper, Shirley; Janke, Fred; Nichols, Darren
Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residency programs require innovative means to assess residents’ competence in “soft” skills (eg, patient-centred care, communication, and professionalism) and to identify residents who are having difficulty early enough in their residency to provide remedial training. Objective of program To develop a method to assess residents’ competence in various skills and to identify residents who are having difficulty. Program description The Competency-Based Achievement System (CBAS) was designed to measure competence using 3 main principles: formative feedback, guided self-assessment, and regular face-to-face meetings. The CBAS is resident driven and provides a framework for meaningful interactions between residents and advisors. Residents use the CBAS to organize and review their feedback, to guide their own assessment of their progress, and to discern their future learning needs. Advisors use the CBAS to monitor, guide, and verify residents’ knowledge of and competence in important skills. Conclusion By focusing on specific skills and behaviour, the CBAS enables residents and advisors to make formative assessments and to communicate their findings. Feedback indicates that the CBAS is a user-friendly and helpful system to assess competence. PMID:21918129
Rantanen, K; Timonen, S; Hagström, K; Hämäläinen, P; Eriksson, K; Nieminen, P
The aims of this study were to describe the social competence of 3- to 6-year-old children with epilepsy (n=26) compared with that of age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n=26). Social competence was assessed with the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised, and the Child Behavior Checklist. The results indicate that the children with epilepsy, especially with complicated epilepsy, had fewer age-appropriate social skills and more attention and behavior problems than the healthy children, as reported by parents. It is possible that the lack of age-appropriate social skills and the presence of attention problems predispose to behavioral problems. Also, epilepsy-related factors impaired the achievement of social competence. This study shows that the preschool children with complicated, early-onset epilepsy are at increased risk of difficulties in social competence.
Eisenberg, Nancy; Harris, Jerry D.
Effective peer relations and the enhancement of social interactions in young children play a central role in the discussion of social competence. Developmental issues relevant to the assessment of social competence including perspective taking, conceptions of friendship, interpersonal strategies and problem solving, moral judgments, and…
Rhoades, Brittany L.; Warren, Heather K.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Greenberg, Mark T.
Recently, research has begun to identify cognitive and social-emotional predictors of early academic success. Yet few studies have examined the mechanisms by which children's social-emotional skills are associated with later academic success. The present study examines the associations between preschool emotion knowledge, kindergarten attention…
Rhodes, Darson L.
A sample of 656 undergraduate students from multiple sections of an introductory nutrition course, a personal health course, and a physical fitness course at a large Midwestern University completed one of four surveys. Using matrix sampling, each participant completed a survey measuring one of four personal and social competence constructs; coping…
Selenski, Charlotte M.; Kaufman, Alan G.
Horizon House, a psycho-social rehabilitation center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has developed a Clerical Preparatory Program which has simultaneously raised achievement levels in the areas of social competency and job skill proficiencies for its clients. (LH)
Joy, Jennifer M.
Social competence is seen as a critical aspect of academic and social success; however, the construct is often minimized to a set of social skills or the absence of negative behaviors. The current study aims to broaden the understanding of social competence by incorporating the factors associated with the development of social competence and the…
Fein, Greta G.
This is a study of how young children gain social competence through pretend play or role playing. Subjects were 38 Caucasian children (19 females, 19 males) who were observed at four ages: 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The same set of toys, which included a doll, a saucepan, doll bottles, coffee mug, teacup, teaspoon, doll crib, blanket, toy phone…
Ryan, Allison M.; Shim, S. Serena
Two studies investigated the proposition that social achievement goals (different orientations toward social competence) are an important aspect of young adolescents' social motivation. Study 1 (N = 153 6th-grade students) established that different orientations toward developing or demonstrating social competence can be seen in young adolescents'…
Arredondo, Patricia; Perez, Patricia
Social justice and multicultural competence have been inextricably linked for nearly four decades, influencing the development of multicultural competency standards and guidelines and organizational change in psychology. This response provides a historical perspective on the evolution of competencies and offers clarifications regarding their…
Jackson, Sandra L; Cunningham, Solveig A
Objectives. We examined the relationship between children's weight and social competence. Methods. We used data from the third- and fifth-grade waves of the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (n = 8346) to examine changes in children's weight and social competence. Results. Obesity in third grade was not associated with subsequent changes in social competence between third and fifth grade, but social competence in third grade was associated with subsequent development of obesity. Among normal-weight children, having higher social competence in third grade was associated with lower odds of becoming overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80 ±0.09; P < .05) or obese (OR = 0.20 ±0.08; P < .001). In addition, obese children with higher social competence were more likely to lose weight between third and fifth grade (OR = 1.43 ±0.25; P < .05). Conclusions. Obesity and impaired social competence often occur together and have serious implications for children's well-being. More knowledge about how weight and social competence affect one another could inform interventions to promote children's social development and reduce obesity.
Cunningham, Solveig A.
Objectives. We examined the relationship between children’s weight and social competence. Methods. We used data from the third- and fifth-grade waves of the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (n = 8346) to examine changes in children’s weight and social competence. Results. Obesity in third grade was not associated with subsequent changes in social competence between third and fifth grade, but social competence in third grade was associated with subsequent development of obesity. Among normal-weight children, having higher social competence in third grade was associated with lower odds of becoming overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80 ±0.09; P < .05) or obese (OR = 0.20 ±0.08; P < .001). In addition, obese children with higher social competence were more likely to lose weight between third and fifth grade (OR = 1.43 ±0.25; P < .05). Conclusions. Obesity and impaired social competence often occur together and have serious implications for children's well-being. More knowledge about how weight and social competence affect one another could inform interventions to promote children’s social development and reduce obesity. PMID:25393191
Hair, Elizabeth C.; Jager, Justin; Garrett, Sarah
Because social competency is an important element for adolescents' healthy development, a central question is what can be done to help adolescents achieve and maintain social competency. This report details antecedents of two key aspects of social competency: quality social relationships and good social skills. For each social relationship and…
Mallinckrodt, Brent; Wei, Meifen
In this survey study of 430 undergraduates, elements of the social competencies and interpersonal processes model (B. Mallinckrodt, 2000) were tested. Two social competencies were hypothesized to mediate the direct effects of 2 independent variables, attachment anxiety and avoidance, on 2 outcomes, psychological distress and perceived social…
Tran, Alisia G T T; Lee, Richard M
This study examined the direct and moderating role of cultural socialization in relation to same-race and cross-race friendships and social competence among Asian American late-adolescents (N = 146). We hypothesized that same-race and cross-race friendships would be uniquely associated with social competence, but that these associations would be moderated by cultural socialization practices targeting enculturation and preparation for bias. Using Pearson correlations, cross-race friendships were significantly correlated with social competence, whereas same-race friendships had a marginally significant relation. In moderator analyses, only preparation for bias was a significant moderator of cross-race friendships in relation to social competence. Specifically, for late-adolescents who reported a high level of preparation for bias, there was a positive relation between cross-race friendships and social competence. There were no significant interactions between same-race friendships and any dimension of cultural socialization in relation to social competence. The findings support the relevance of cultural socialization in Asian American late-adolescent social development.
This study examined the relations between cognitive ability, socioemotional competency (SEC), and achievement in gifted children. Data were collected on children between the ages of 8 and 15 years (n = 124). Children were assessed via teacher reports of SEC, standardized cognitive assessment, and standardized achievement assessment. Composite…
Adcock, Don; Segal, Marilyn
This guide for parents discusses social competence in 2-year-old children, drawing upon anecdotal data to provide a sampling of 2-year-old children's social behavior and their parents' child rearing techniques. The data were collected from questionnaires, telephone interviews, and home visits in a 12-month study of the interactions of 86…
Bosma, Harvey; Johnston, Meaghen; Cadell, Susan; Wainwright, Wendy; Abernethy, Ngaire; Feron, Andrew; Kelley, Mary Lou; Nelson, Fred
Social workers play an important role in the delivery of Hospice Palliative Care in many diverse settings. The profession brings a unique perspective to end-of-life care that reflects and supports the holistic philosophy of Hospice Palliative Care. Despite the prominent and longstanding position of social work in this area, the role and functions of social workers had not been clearly defined. A Canadian task group of social work practitioners and educators utilized a modified Delphi process to consult front line clinicians nationally, and thereby achieved consensus regarding the identification and description of eleven core competencies in Hospice Palliative Care. These competencies are relevant for social workers at different experience levels across care settings. They can be used to inform social work practice, as well as professional development and educational curricula in this area.
Daniel, João R.; Santos, António J.; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E.
The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool…
Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva; Granlund, Mats
Preschool teachers share their environment with young children on a daily basis and interventions promoting social competence are generally carried out in the preschool setting. The aim was to find out if and how preschool teachers' definitions of social competence are related to factors in the preschool environment like: a) the number of children…
Treiman, Joan Little
The purpose of this paper was to test the hypothesis set forth by Farnham-Diggory (1967) and Denner (1970) that problem readers lack representational and syntactic competence. A random sample of 72 first graders, stratified by sex and social class, was given the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test and the Farnham-Diggory tasks. An analysis of variance…
McClellan, Diane E.; Katz, Lilian G.
During the past two decades, a convincing body of evidence has accumulated to indicate that unless children achieve minimal social competence by about the age of 6 years, they have a high probability of being at risk into adulthood in several ways. This digest presents a checklist of attributes of child social behavior that teachers are encouraged…
Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosén, Monica
The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of formal teacher competence on pupils' reading achievement. The data comes from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 in grade 3. Information was obtained from pupils (n = 5271) and teachers (n = 351). The analyses were conducted using 2-level structural equation modeling. Teacher…
Drózdz, E; Pokorski, M
The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationships among perceived parental attitudes and domains of social competence in late adolescents. Forty boys and 40 girls, all aged 18, representing a population sample of high school second graders were examined. Self-report data were collected using questionnaires of parent-child relations and of social competence. Analyses detected a significant association between the maternal loving or protective attitude and competence in interpersonal relations in the combined sample of adolescents. However, gender was a moderator of this general relationship. Maternal control fostered their sons' interpersonal relations, and no such relationship was observed toward daughters. Adolescents' behavior was somehow less influenced by fatherly control. The findings are in line with the concept of familism as a dominant form of family organization, but implicate constraints in parental sentiments whose overly expression may backfire and do more harm than good in other domains of social competence of adolescents, such as assertiveness and performance during social exposure. The study may contribute to future research on how parenting style shapes adolescent social outcomes.
Beland maintains that high school students will need a high level of skill in the social and emotional arena to be ready for competitive employment in the 21st century. In a 2006 survey, human resource professionals said five skills were most crucial to high school graduates' success: professionalism/work ethic; teamwork; oral communications;…
Shure, Myrna B.
Training in Interpersonal Cognitive Problem Solving (ICPS) can be a means of promoting social competence and adjustment. Empirical findings suggest that the process of being able to consider multiple options for solutions of interpersonal problems is important for healthy adaptive functioning, even in children as young as 4 years of age. If one…
Song, Qingfang; Wang, Qi
This study examined mother-child reminiscing about children's experiences with peers and its relation to children's peer-related self-views and social competence. Sixty-three mothers and their preschool-aged children discussed at home two specific past events involving the child and his or her peers, one event being positive and one negative. The…
New, Rebecca S.
Considers how child care and early education in Italy reflect the convergence of cultural values and practices of the larger cultural region but also the immediate community's local traditions. Focuses on educational practices of Reggio Emilia preschools, and how they demonstrate the relationship between children's social competencies and…
Dietrich, Heike; Zhang, Ying; Klopp, Eric; Brünken, Roland; Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Spinath, Frank M.; Stark, Robin; Spinath, Birgit
The aim of the present study was to introduce a general theoretical model of scientific competencies in higher education and to adapt it to three social sciences, namely psychology, sociology, and political science, by providing evidence from expert interviews and program regulations. Within our general model, we distinguished and specified four…
Bailey, Drew H; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara; Geary, David C
Competence with fractions predicts later mathematics achievement, but the codevelopmental pattern between fractions knowledge and mathematics achievement is not well understood. We assessed this codevelopment through examination of the cross-lagged relation between a measure of conceptual knowledge of fractions and mathematics achievement in sixth and seventh grades (N=212). The cross-lagged effects indicated that performance on the sixth grade fractions concepts measure predicted 1-year gains in mathematics achievement (ß=.14, p<.01), controlling for the central executive component of working memory and intelligence, but sixth grade mathematics achievement did not predict gains on the fractions concepts measure (ß=.03, p>.50). In a follow-up assessment, we demonstrated that measures of fluency with computational fractions significantly predicted seventh grade mathematics achievement above and beyond the influence of fluency in computational whole number arithmetic, performance on number fluency and number line tasks, central executive span, and intelligence. Results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that competence with fractions underlies, in part, subsequent gains in mathematics achievement.
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the main social competencies that future engineers need to become recognized professionals. In the paper the key competencies for contemporary engineers are examined and the focus is given on the importance of social competencies for professional development. A competency research model is developed…
Snavely, William B.; Walters, Ellen V.
Assessed coworkers' perceptions of public school superintendents' behavior related to social style (assertiveness, responsiveness, versatility) and interpersonal communication competence (empathy, social anxiety, listening, self-disclosure, flexibility). Found that superintendents with highly responsive styles were perceived as more competent than…
Longoria, Adelina Q.; Page, Melanie C.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennison, Shelia M.
The research investigated the hypothesis that teachers' ratings of kindergarten children's receptive and expressive language ability would be related to children's social competence. Teachers' ratings of social competence were obtained for a sample of 116 kindergarten children. Social competence was measured using the California Preschool Social…
Villena Martínez, M. D.; Justicia, F. Justicia; Fernández de Haro, E.
Introduction: Social competence in school students has been studied extensively in terms of their being socially competent or not. However, there has been little analysis of how teachers contribute to the development of these skills. This research assesses the influence of teachers' assertiveness on the social competence of their students and on…
Rantanen, K; Eriksson, K; Nieminen, P
This systematic review focuses on definitions of social competence and assessment methods and provides an overview of the main findings in childhood epilepsy. A total of 45 studies drawn from MEDLINE and PsycINFO (1998-2010) and their reference lists met the selection criteria. Social competence was not defined in the studies reviewed. The study samples varied and consisted mostly of school-aged children. The majority of the studies focused on social adjustment and addressed problems in this area. Little is known about other aspects of social competence, namely social skills or social performance. A broader perspective on and definition of the assessment of social competence in children with epilepsy are proposed. More studies of the abilities underlying social competence, such as social and socio-cognitive skills, are needed in order to gain insight into the developmental pathways of social competence and protective factors for later development.
Miller-Graff, Laura E; Howell, Kathryn H; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Grein, Katherine
Children's social competence is a key characteristic of resilience, yet little research has assessed contributing factors to this construct. The objectives of this study were to examine direct and indirect effects of maltreatment on children's social competence, the promotive role of child and caregiver social support, and factors contributing to reports of child social competence across informants. Structural equation modeling evaluated the influence of CPS report history, child adjustment, and child and caregiver social support on child social competence in n = 783 caregiver-child dyads. CPS report history (age 0-8) was indirectly related to low social competence through child adjustment problems. Social support was a significant promotive factor of child social competence, with caregiver social supports predicting higher levels of parent-reported child social competence. Child social support predicted self-reported child social competence. Findings reinforce the assertion that both caregiver and child social support networks are critical to promoting child well-being after adversity.
Strohmeier, Dagmar; Hoffmann, Christine; Schiller, Eva-Maria; Stefanek, Elisabeth; Spiel, Christiane
The ViSC Social Competence Program has been implemented in Austrian schools within the scope of a national strategy plan, Together Against Violence. The program is a primary preventive program designed for grades 5 to 8. The prevention of aggression and bullying is defined as a school development task, and the initial implementation of the program lasts one school year. The program consists of universal and specific actions that are implemented through in-school teacher training and a class project for students. The program was evaluated with a randomized intervention control group design. Data were collected from teachers and students. Results suggest that the program reduces aggression in schools.
The relationship of 102 fifth and sixth graders' judgments of fairness with their academic and social competence and aggressiveness was studied. Children were given self-report and peer-nomination inventories measuring academic competence, social competence, and aggressiveness at a single point in time at the public school they attended. These measures were related to children's prediction of fairness on a distributive justice measure. Children who saw themselves as academically and socially competent scored higher on the distributive justice measure. Children whose peers saw them as less academically competent and more aggressive scored lower on the distributive justice measure. Analyses showed an association between children's academic competence, social competence, and aggressiveness scores and their scores on judgments of fairness.
Schirvar, Wendi Margaret
Social competence is vital for healthy development (Canto-Sperber & Dupuy, 2001; Spence, Barrett & Tuner, 2003). Beginning in childhood and heavily influenced by culture, social competence develops as we combine personal and environmental resources for positive social outcomes and includes the absence of negative behaviors alongside the…
Randhawa, Bikkar S.; And Others
In mathematics, Canadian students perform poorly, and enrollment in Canadian postsecondary institutions is low, particularly for women. Clearly, there is a need to understand the personal and social factors that influence mathematics achievement and academic choices. A. Bandura's self-efficacy theory (1977, 1982) implies that academic choices are…
This study utilises a quantitative case study social network approach to explore the connection between masculinity and scholastic achievement in two secondary, all-boys schools in Australia. In both schools two social networks representing social status are explored: the "friendship" network as a measure of status that includes…
Hussong, Andrea M; Zucker, Robert A; Wong, Maria M; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Puttler, Leon I
In the current study, the authors tested the hypothesis that children of alcoholic parents (COAs) show deficits in social competence that begin in early childhood and escalate through middle adolescence. Teachers, parents, and children reported on the social competence of COAs and matched controls in a community sample assessed from ages 6 to 15. Hierarchical linear growth models revealed different patterns of change in social competence across development as a function of the reporter of various indicators of competence. Moreover, female COAs showed deficits in social competence in early childhood that receded in adolescence and that varied across subtypes of parent alcoholism. Implications of these findings for understanding the development of social competence in children, and at-risk children in particular, are discussed.
Damron-Rodriguez, Joann; Lawrance, Frances P; Barnett, Diane; Simmons, June
Preparing social workers to effectively practice with the growing older population requires the identification of geriatric competencies for the profession. The John A. Hartford Geriatric Social Work Initiative provided the impetus and direction for a national strategy to improve the quality of preparation of geriatric social workers. The Geriatric Social Work Practicum Partnership Program (PPP) is the project with the Hartford Initiative that emphasizes field education. The Geriatric Social Work Education Consortium (GSWEC), one of the PPP programs, initiated the development of competencies for work with older adults. GSWEC utilized Geriatric Social Work White Papers and the pioneering work of the Council on Social Work Education's (CSWE) Strengthening Aging and Gerontology Education for Social Work's (SAGE-SW) comprehensive competency list as well as conducted focus groups locally to delineate key competencies for field education. The Coordinating Center for the PPP, located at the New York Academy of Medicine, led in collaboratively developing knowledge based skill competencies for geriatric social work across all 6 demonstration sites (11 universities). The competencies adopted across sites include skills in the following five major domains: values and ethics; assessment (individuals and families, aging services, programs and policies); practice and interventions (theory and knowledge in practice, individual and family, aging services, programs and practice) interdisciplinary collaboration; and evaluation and research. The identified competencies have proven effective in evaluating students (n = 190) pre- and post PPP field education. The implications for further development of competency driven education for geriatric social work are discussed.
Nurse scholars with expertise in global health and culturally competent care recently proposed standards of practice for culturally competent nursing care that are founded on social justice as a broad framework. The purpose of this article is to respond to invited dialogue about the standards and to offer commentary on social justice and its relationship with context, advocacy, leadership, and culturally competent care. A model of culturally competent care for vulnerable groups informs this discussion. The context and culture that surround migrant and seasonal farmworkers illustrate how social justice illuminates their health inequities and necessitates their need for culturally competent care. The article concludes with recommendations for culturally competent education, practice, and research and offers suggestions for developing culturally competent interventions for migrant and seasonal farmworkers.
Barnett, Melissa A.; Gustafsson, Hanna; Deng, Min; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha
Rapid changes in language skills and social competence, both of which are linked to sensitive parenting, characterize early childhood. The present study examines bidirectional associations among mothers' sensitive parenting and children's language skills and social competence from 24 to 36?months in a community sample of 174 families. In addition,…
Curby, Timothy W.; Brown, Chavaughn A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Denham, Susanne A.
Identifying and understanding the predictors of preliteracy skills can set the stage for success in a child's academic career. Recent literature has implicated social-emotional competence as a potential component in helping children learn preliteracy skills. To further understand the role of social-emotional competence in preliteracy, the…
Hussong, Andrea M.; Zucker, Robert A.; Wong, Maria M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Puttler, Leon I.
In the current study, the authors tested the hypothesis that children of alcoholic parents (COAs) show deficits in social competence that begin in early childhood and escalate through middle adolescence. Teachers, parents, and children reported on the social competence of COAs and matched controls in a community sample assessed from ages 6 to 15.…
Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E
The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool children (152 seen in consecutive years of data collection) from middle-class families participated. Affiliative subgroup type was assessed from observed proximity data. Social competence was assessed using observational and sociometric measures. Children in more cohesive affiliative subgroups had higher levels of SC, whereas ungrouped children had the lowest SC scores. Follow-up analyses indicated that 2 of the measured SC domains (social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior/personality attributes) were responsible for the overall difference in SC. Further, membership in a more cohesive subgroup in 1 year contributed to increases in scores for 2 of 3 SC domains (i.e., profiles of behavior/personality attributes and peer acceptance) in the following year. Results suggest that affiliative subgroups both reflect and support individual differences in peer SC during early childhood.
Veiga, Guida; de Leng, Wendy; Cachucho, Ricardo; Ketelaar, Lizet; Kok, Joost N.; Knobbe, Arno; Neto, Carlos; Rieffe, Carolien
Social interactions at the playground have been represented as a rich learning opportunity to hone and master social skills at preschool years. Specifically, all forms of social play (fantasy, role, exercise or rough-and-tumble) have been related to children's social competence. The main goal of this study was to examine whether it is a certain…
Santos, António J; Vaughn, Brian E; Peceguina, Inês; Daniel, João R
This study examines the temporal stability (over 3 years) of individual differences in 3 domains relevant to preschool children's social competence: social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior and personality attributes characteristic of socially competent young children, and peer acceptance. Each domain was measured with multiple indicators. Sociometric status categories (Asher & Dodge, 1986) and reciprocated friendships were derived from sociometric data. Composites for social competence domains were significantly associated across all time points. Within age-periods, social competence domains were associated with both sociometric and friendship status categories; however, neither sociometric status nor reciprocated friendships were stable over time. Nevertheless, analyses examining the social competence antecedents to reciprocated friendship at age-4 and age-5 suggested that more socially competent children in the prior year were more likely to have a reciprocated friendship in the current year. Popular and rejected sociometric status categories were also associated with social competence indicators in prior years, but this was most clearly seen at age-5.
Oliveira, Rui F
In social species animals should fine-tune the expression of their social behavior to social environments in order to avoid the costs of engaging in costly social interactions. Therefore, social competence, defined as the ability of an animal to optimize the expression of its social behavior as a function of the available social information, should be considered as a performance trait that impacts on the Darwinian fitness of the animal. Social competence is based on behavioral plasticity which, in turn, can be achieved by different neural mechanisms of plasticity, namely by rewiring or by biochemically switching nodes of a putative neural network underlying social behavior. Since steroid hormones respond to social interactions and have receptors extensively expressed in the social behavioral neural network, it is proposed that steroids play a key role in the hormonal modulation of social plasticity. Here, we propose a reciprocal model for the action of androgens on short-term behavioral plasticity and review a set of studies conducted in our laboratory using an African cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) that provide support for it. Androgens are shown to be implicated as physiological mediators in a wide range of social phenomena that promote social competence, namely by adjusting the behavioral response to the nature of the intruder and the presence of third parties (dear enemy and audience effects), by anticipating territorial intrusions (bystander effect and conditioning of the territorial response), and by modifying future behavior according to prior experience of winning (winner effect). The rapid behavioral actions of socially induced short-term transient changes in androgens indicate that these effects are most likely mediated by nongenomic mechanisms. The fact that the modulation of rapid changes in behavior is open to the influence of circulating levels of androgens, and is not exclusively achieved by changes in central neuromodulators, suggests
Collin, V. Terri; Violato, Claudio; Hecker, Kent
To develop and test a latent variable path model of general achievement, aptitude for medicine and competence in medicine employing data from the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), pre-medical undergraduate grade point average (UGPA) and demographic characteristics for competence in pre-clinical and measures of competence (United States…
This study examined the relationship between master of social work program's (MSW) support of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people (LGBT-competence), and the sexual minority competence (LGB-competence) of social work students. Data was gathered from a sample of MSW program directors, faculty members, and students (N = 1385) within 34 MSW programs in the United States. A series of hierarchical linear models tested if a MSW program's LGBT-competence was associated with the LGB-competence of its students. Results showed a significant relationship between organizational LGBT-competence and individual LGB-competence within schools of social work, and that programs with greater LGBT-competence also had students who felt more competent to work with sexual minorities. These findings suggest schools of social work can take substantive action at an organizational level to improve the professional LGB-competence of future social workers. Implications for social work education are discussed.
Background: In recent years, social work has become increasingly concerned with efforts to produce professionals capable of effectively supporting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) clients. Research examining LGBT-competence in social work remains limited, however, because it often neglects to address the role social work education…
Caplan, Rochelle; Sagun, Jaclyn; Siddarth, Prabha; Gurbani, Suresh; Koh, Susan; Gowrinathan, R; Sankar, Raman
This study compared parent-based Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) social competence scores of 90 children with complex partial seizures (CPS) and 62 with absence epilepsy (CAE) of average intelligence with scores of 91 healthy children. It also examined the role of seizure-related, cognitive, behavioral, linguistic, social communication, and demographic variables on these measures. When differences in cognitive, linguistic, and demographic variables were controlled for, the CPS and CAE groups had significantly lower scores in the school, but not in the social interaction and activities domains compared with the healthy control group. Among the patients, lower Full Scale IQ externalizing behaviors, disruptive disorders, minority status, and impaired social communication, but not seizure variables, predicted lower social competence scores. These findings demonstrate the importance of controlling for cognitive, behavioral, and demographic variables in social competence studies of children with CPS and CAE and the need to assess cognition and behavior when parents report school and social problems in these children.
Calsyn, Robert J.; Winter, Joel P.; Burger, Gary K.
This study compared the strength of competing causal models in explaining the relationship between perceived support, enacted support, and social anxiety in adolescents. The social causation hypothesis postulates that social support causes social anxiety, whereas the social selection hypothesis postulates that social anxiety causes social support.…
Pillay, Soma; James, Reynold
Intercultural competency (ICC) has been an extensively researched area within the past decade, given the broad consensus that this trait constitutes one of the key competencies of the 21st century manager. However, somewhat under-explored are aspects including the implications and effects that pedagogies such as blended learning have on the…
Richardson, Rita Coombs; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Lee, Yi-Hsuan
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a social skills program, "Connecting with Other: Lessons for Teaching Social and Emotional Competence," would enable students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms to develop skills to facilitate socialization with peers with and without disabilities. Students' growth was measured only in…
Brown, P. Margaret; Bortoli, Anna; Remine, Maria D.; Othman, Basyariatul
The social engagement, social attention skills and social competence of 10 hearing preschoolers and 10 preschoolers with hearing loss were investigated during free play in inclusive oral kindergarten settings using a three-level hierarchical model. When comparing the types of opportunities, at the first level, the children with hearing loss…
This study explores how various aspects of language competence are related to social focus among preschoolers. The study presented is based on video-recorded observation of 64 children, aged 11-61 months, during free play at their kindergarten. A measure of social focus in the preschool, regarded as an indicator of social status, was constructed…
Dawson, Pamela J.; Spitzberg, Brian H.
The effectiveness of a social skills training workshop was assessed by comparing the rated competence of participants in an Interpersonal Skills Training Program to the rated competence of nonparticipants. Subjects' self-ratings were included. This comparison was operationalized through a pretest-posttest design with 12 experimental and 22 control…
Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Zinsser, Katherine
Young children's emotional competence--regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other's emotions--is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers are…
Adewale, J. Gbenga
One of the goals of education in Nigeria is to develop in children the ability to adapt to their changing environment. This goal could be achieved through competency in life skills. Therefore, this study examines the competency level of Nigerian Primary 4 pupils in the life skills achievement test. The test was administered on a sample of 22,638…
Cho, YoonJung; Weinstein, Claire Ellen; Wicker, Frank
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of two moderators--perceived competence and perceived autonomy--in the relationships of achievement goal orientations with a broad range of learning-related variables, including interest, effort, learning strategy use and academic achievement. Perceived competence and autonomy played…
Barnett, Melissa A; Gustafsson, Hanna; Deng, Min; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha
Rapid changes in language skills and social competence, both of which are linked to sensitive parenting, characterize early childhood. The present study examines bidirectional associations among mothers' sensitive parenting and children's language skills and social competence from 24 to 36 months in a community sample of 174 families. In addition, this study examines how these developmental pathways vary by child sex. Findings indicate stability across time in sensitive parenting, expressive language skills, and social competence, as well as positive main effects of sensitive parenting on expressive and receptive language skills for girls and boys. We find mixed evidence over time of reciprocal links between social competence and sensitive parenting. Further, boys' receptive language skills at 24 months uniquely contribute to increases in mothers' observed sensitive parenting from 24 to 36 months. These findings highlight the utility of applying transactional frameworks to the study of sex-based differences in early developmental processes.
Wolf, Gregory H.
This article discusses a short-term study abroad program conducted in Berlin in English for college students. Guided by the academic goals of developing cultural competence, demonstrating cultural communication, and attaining a basic level of cultural literacy, this program, with its pre- and post-program academic components, offers an alternative…
Harralson, T L; Lawler, K A
This study examined parenting styles, Type A behavior in parents and children, and social competence in children. Fifty 1st-6th grade children, parents, and their teachers participated. Type A behavior in parents was associated with a controlling style of parenting, but not with pressuring the child to achieve. Parenting styles of achievement pressure and high control were related to impatient and aggressive behaviors in children, as measured by the MYTH, a teacher-scored Type A behavior instrument. In addition, impatience and aggressiveness in the children were negatively correlated with the child's social competency and ability to function in school. Parenting practices, Type A behavior, and social competency in children may play important roles in the origins of detrimental components of Type A behavior, such as impatience and aggression.
Fiske, Susan T; Cuddy, Amy J C; Glick, Peter
Like all perception, social perception reflects evolutionary pressures. In encounters with conspecifics, social animals must determine, immediately, whether the "other" is friend or foe (i.e. intends good or ill) and, then, whether the "other" has the ability to enact those intentions. New data confirm these two universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence. Promoting survival, these dimensions provide fundamental social structural answers about competition and status. People perceived as warm and competent elicit uniformly positive emotions and behavior, whereas those perceived as lacking warmth and competence elicit uniform negativity. People classified as high on one dimension and low on the other elicit predictable, ambivalent affective and behavioral reactions. These universal dimensions explain both interpersonal and intergroup social cognition.
Santos, António J.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Peceguina, Inês; Daniel, João R.
This study examines the temporal stability (over 3 years) of individual differences in 3 domains relevant to preschool children's social competence: social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior and personality attributes characteristic of socially competent young children, and peer acceptance. Each domain was measured with multiple…
Strong social skills are vital for successful functioning in life. Social skills can affect academic success, peer relationships, family relationships, employment, and extracurricular and leisure activities. Children and adolescents who display academic, social, and behavioral deficits are at risk for both short-term and long-term negative social…
Arsenio, William F.; Lemerise, Elizabeth A.
Summarizes the main debate points on the issue and nature of bullies and bullying, and clarifies unresolved issues concerning the nature and limits of social competence values. Argues that variations in children's emotion processes may underlie some individual differences that have been found in empathy, social information processing, and reactive…
Cultural competency continues to be a concern for social work practitioners. This article examined the effectiveness of bachelor of social work (BSW) multicultural curricula at two universities in the mid-south. Data was collected using a survey research design to explore how well students were prepared for multicultural practice. Surveyed were…
Louie, Jennifer Yu; Wang, Shu-wen; Fung, Joey; Lau, Anna
Previous research suggests that adult perceptions of children's social competence may vary depending on the socialization goals in a given cultural context. There is also ample evidence of cultural differences in values concerning emotional display, with East Asian collectivistic contexts favoring restraint and Western individualistic contexts…
Lin, Yen-Chun; Yawkey, Thomas D.
The purpose of the study was to examine parents' play beliefs and see whether their perceptions of play impact children's social competence. A total number of 142 Taiwanese parents with different social class backgrounds participated in the survey. Results revealed that most Taiwanese parents highly agreed that play contributes to children's…
Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M.
Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for…
Connolly, Jennifer; Doyle, Anna-Beth
This study was designed to provide additional understanding of the construct of social competence by using multiple assessments, including both behavioral and inferential techniques. Indices of qualitative social behaviors and of quantitative interaction dimensions were collected on 66 preschoolers during free play. Scores on the Kohn and Rosman…
Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M
Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for sons and daughters. They also found several themes in the prediction of preschoolers' emotion knowledge and regulation. For example, sometimes mother-father differences in emotional style actually seem to promote such competence, and girls seem particularly susceptible to parental socialization of emotion.
Shapiro, Jeremy P.; And Others
To explain sexually abused children's various degrees of maladjustment, assessed behavior problems, social competence, and cognitive functioning in 53 black girls (5 to 16 years old). Internalizing dysfunction was positively related to three cognition-related variables: intellectual functioning, academic achievement, and age. Anxiety over the…
McCollum, Jeanette A.; Chen, Yu-Jun
A study compared Euro-American and Taiwanese mothers' descriptions of the social competence benefits of early parent-child interaction and what they do during interactions to achieve these benefits. Visual analysis of probability patterns indicated that mothers in each group thought somewhat differently about their roles in developing different…
Gonida, Eleftheria; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris; Leondari, Angeliki
In the present study 3 alternative causal models concerning the relationships between implicit theories of intelligence, perceived academic competence, and school achievement were tested. The direction of changes in implicit theories and perceived competence during early adolescence also was examined. A total of 187 fifth and sixth graders were tested and retested a year later, when they were sixth and seventh graders, respectively. Cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that school achievement determined the adoption of a particular implicit theory through the mediation of perceived competence. Implicit theories were found to change toward the adoption of more incremental beliefs and perceived academic competence declined; however, high achievers, as compared with their low- and middle-level classmates, adopted more incremental beliefs and had significantly higher perceived competence.
Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Roberts, Brent W; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois
Conscientiousness and domain-specific competence beliefs are known to be highly important predictors of academic effort and achievement. Given their basis in distinct research traditions, however, these constructs have rarely been examined simultaneously. Three studies with 571, 415, and 1,535 students, respectively, found a moderate association between conscientiousness and competence beliefs. Both conscientiousness and competence beliefs meaningfully predicted academic effort, irrespective of how academic effort was measured (single-measurement questionnaire or diary data). The associations of competence beliefs with academic effort were highly domain specific, whereas conscientiousness was predictive of academic effort across a wide range of academic subjects. Conscientiousness and competence beliefs were also associated with academic achievement. Figural and verbal reasoning ability, although associated with academic achievement, only loosely predicted academic effort.
Tran, Alisia G T T; Lee, Richard M
This study extends the research on parental ethnic-racial socialization to Asian American late adolescents (N = 166). The authors specifically examined the factor structure, frequency, and correlates of a perceived ethnic-racial socialization measure. Ethnic identity was also hypothesized to function as a mediator in the relationship between perceived cultural socialization and social competence. The results supported a 3-factor model of perceived ethnic-racial socialization that included cultural socialization-pluralism, promotion of mistrust, and preparation for bias. Exploratory analyses revealed that ethnic-racial socialization messages were reported by large proportions of participants and were related to a number of demographic variables. The authors further found that perceived promotion of mistrust messages were inversely associated with social competence. They also found that perceived cultural socialization-pluralism was significantly related to social competence through ethnic identity. Results support the importance of perceived ethnic-racial socialization for Asian American development.
Freiberger, Verena; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit
To study the role of students' competence beliefs and their perceived teachers' ability evaluations for intrinsic motivation and achievement in math, 459 second graders from 27 German classrooms were examined. Students provided self-reports on their intrinsic motivation, competence beliefs and perceived teachers' ability evaluations in math.…
Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Sgammato, Adrienne N.; Dadisman, Kimberly; Thompson, Jana H.
This study examined interpersonal competence configurations in a sample of 315 fifth-grade students (170 girls and 145 boys) from 8 elementary schools in the Appalachian region. Teachers completed the Interpersonal Competence Scale-Teacher (ICS-T) for each student. The ICS-T consists of 18 7-point Likert scales to assess academic achievement,…
Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie S.; Wolfe, Christopher; Spitler, Mary Elaine
In an effort to promote best practices regarding mathematics teaching and learning at the preschool level, national advisory panels and organizations have emphasized the importance of children’s emergent counting and related competencies, such as the ability to verbally count, maintain one-to-one correspondence, count with cardinality, subitize, and count forward or backward from a given number. However, little research has investigated whether the kind of mathematical knowledge promoted by the various standards documents actually predict later mathematics achievement. The present study uses longitudinal data from a primarily low-income and minority sample of children to examine the extent to which preschool mathematical competencies, specifically basic and advanced counting, predict fifth grade mathematics achievement. Using regression analyses, we find early numeracy abilities to be the strongest predictors of later mathematics achievement, with advanced counting competencies more predictive than basic counting competencies. Our results highlight the significance of preschool mathematics knowledge for future academic achievement. PMID:27057084
Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu
The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…
Farrell, Martin Peter
It has long been suggested that, in a bilingual setting, the proficiencies achieved in the first (L1) and second (L2) language may have a bearing on a subject's cognitive and, consequently, academic functioning. The study is set in Malta, a country in which Maltese (L1) and English (L2) are learnt simultaneously at school from age 5. It…
Daley, James G.; Carlson, Joan; Evans, Pinkie
This article is for social work educators unfamiliar with military social work and receptive to a number of exemplars to enhance teaching strategies within their courses. Because examples of military social work are directly tied to the Council on Social Work Education competencies, this article offers a number of suggested teaching strategies…
Gjernes, Trude; Måseide, Per
The article analyzes how a person with dementia playing a guitar collaborates with other people in a joint activity. The analysis shows that a person with dementia may gain social membership in a group of persons with and without dementia through social interaction, collaboration, scaffolding and use of material anchors. It shows that interactional skills as well as skills as guitar player are not only products of a mind-body system, but also a product of collaboration between different actors with different participant statuses in a particular situation. The guitar player's mind emerges in the social context of the joint activity and scaffolding. Scaffolding comes from interactive moves from the other participants without dementia and from the guitar. The guitar represents a material anchor. It is a tool for participation, experiences of pleasure, and coping, but it is also a challenge that requires management of face threatening events.
Bürgermeister, Anika; Ringeisen, Tobias; Raufelder, Diana
Using a longitudinal design, the present study examined whether two teaching concepts that varied in their capacity to foster students' self-determination affected students' sense of social relatedness and their perceived moderation competence, as well as the interplay between these two components and the students' performance during a moderation…
Benson, Vladlena; Morgan, Stephanie
With the strong acceptance of social technologies by student users, the academic applications have swiftly followed, bringing a social dimension into every area of university life. However, there have been concerns raised about the impact of social media on students. Some Universities have started including social media skills training in the…
Bernard, Michael E.
This article discusses the non-academic, social-emotional factors that contribute to student academic achievement, including the cognitive-behavioral characteristics of underachieving students and those with learning disabilities; the "You Can Do It! Education" (YCDI) theory of achievement; derivative research on social-emotional capabilities,…
Hubbard, Julie A.; Coie, John D.
Reviews research that provides connections between the constructs of emotional functioning and social competence in children, focusing on such areas as children's understanding and identification of emotions, emotion regulation, emotion display rules, sympathetic responding, and children's mood states. Finds some support for the idea that high…
Donovan, Owen M.
This article presents a teaching technique that aims to demonstrate pedagogy consistent with the characteristics of effective health education curricula that is student-centered, builds personal and social competence, and embeds assessment throughout the learning process. This teaching technique is appropriate for middle and high school students…
Drozdikova-Zaripova, Albina R.; Kostyunina, Nadezhda Yu.
The purpose of the article is to present and analyze the results of experimental work to verify the efficiency of the developed and approved program aimed at the formation of social competence in adolescents with physical problems. The leading method in the study of this problem is a consequent version of the pedagogical experiment. The results of…
Farmer, Thomas W.; Estell, David B.; Hall, Cristin M.; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study examines interpersonal competence configurations in relation to students' concurrent behavior problems and social risks for later adjustment difficulties. Participants are 648 (345 girls, 303 boys) fourth-grade students (65% White, 6.9% African American, 19.5% Hispanic, 4.6% Asian, and 4.0% Other) from the suburbs of a major Midwestern…
This study aims to examine social competence of Chinese immigrant children and its associations with age, length of attendance in childcare, gender, generational status and proficiencies in English and Mandarin Chinese. One hundred Mandarin-speaking children aged three to five years from 15 childcare centres in Sydney were assessed by normed…
Palacios, Jesus; Moreno, Carmen; Roman, Maite
A growing, sizable proportion of school children do not live in conventional family environments. Among these, internationally adopted children have gained increasing visibility in recent years. While other areas of their behavior have been widely explored, little is known about adopted children's social competence and their integration into peer…
Yagmurlu, Bilge; Yavuz, H. Melis
The aim of the study was to investigate social competence in children with orthopaedic disability and its concurrent relations to child's temperament, health condition, and maternal warmth. Participants were 68 Turkish children (mean = 5.94 years) with chronic orthopaedic disability and their mothers coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. Mother…
Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong
The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…
Schaefer, Earl S.; And Others
This study replicates and elaborates a three-dimensional, spherical model that integrates research findings concerning social and emotional behavior, psychopathology, and academic competence. Kindergarten teachers completed an extensive set of rating scales on 100 children, including the Classroom Behavior Inventory and the Child Adaptive Behavior…
Breeding, John; And Others
Through the use of a model combining constructs proposed by Zigler and Trickett (1978) and Schaefer (1978), the structure of social competence in preschool children was investigated. Measures chosen for inclusion in the assessment battery and specific variables related to each measure were the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Revised…
Putwain, David W.; Symes, Wendy
Background: Previous work suggests that the expectation of failure is related to higher test anxiety and achievement goals grounded in a fear of failure. Aim: To test the hypothesis, based on the work of Elliot and Pekrun (2007), that the relationship between perceived competence and test anxiety is mediated by achievement goal orientations.…
Angley, Meghan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace
Depression is known to mediate the association between low social support and parenting competence in adult mothers, but this relationship is rarely assessed in adolescent mothers and fathers. The primary aim of this study was to identify the association between social support, family functioning and social capital on parenting competence, including self-efficacy and satisfaction in adolescent mothers and their partners. Secondary aims included identifying potential partner effects (e.g. whether a partner's social support influenced the respondent's parenting efficacy). Data was obtained from a subset of participants from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescent females and their partners. Couples completed individual structured interviews via audio computer-assisted self-interview during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. To measure the influence of support on parenting outcomes, multi-level modeling was used to assess the Actor-Partner Interdependence model, which examines responses from both members of a dyad in a single analysis. Greater social support was associated with increased parenting self-efficacy (B = 0.062, p = 0.006) and parenting satisfaction (B = 0.111, p < 0.001). Higher family functioning was also associated with greater parenting satisfaction (B = 0.05, p = 0.035). Greater partner family functioning was associated with higher parenting satisfaction (B = 0.047, p = 0.026). This study found the importance of a strong support structure during pregnancy on perceived parenting competence in the early postpartum period for young mothers and fathers. Both social support and family functioning during pregnancy were associated with a greater sense of parenting competence, and these associations were mediated by parental depression. The results of this study underscore the importance of providing social support for young expectant fathers as well as mothers.
In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process,…
Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.
Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…
In this research, it was analyzed to what extent the variables of social avoidance, concern for being criticized and sense of individual worthlessness as sub-dimensions of social phobia predicted the perceived social competence levels of teenagers. The study group of this study included totally 648 students including 301 (46.5%) female and 347…
Singh, P.; Sreenivasan, S.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.
We study a three-state (leftist, rightist, centrist) model that couples the dynamics of social balance with an external deradicalizing field. The mean-field analysis shows that there exists a critical value of the external field pc such that for a weak external field (p
Ludden, Alison Bryant
The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…
Camodeca, Marina; Caravita, Simona C S; Coppola, Gabrielle
The different roles of bullying participation (bully, follower, victim, defender of the victim, and outsider) have not been investigated in preschool children. The aims of this study were to use a peer-report measure to assess these roles and to investigate their associations with social competence among pre-schoolers. We also explored whether status among peers, indicated by being socially preferred, mediates the relationship between social competence and bullying roles. Three hundred twenty 3- to 6-year-old children participated in the study. Bullying roles and social preference were assessed by means of peer reports, whereas social competence was investigated with a Q-Sort methodology, based on observations in classrooms. Bullying was also assessed by means of teacher reports. The results showed quite a clear distinction among roles and a correspondence between peer and teacher assessments, except for the role of outsider. The role of defender was positively associated with social competence, whereas the other roles were negatively associated. In a subsample, social preference statistically predicted the role of bully and mediated between social competence and bullying. The findings are discussed in terms of the importance of assessing bullying and its correlates at a very young age, although roles may further develop when children grow up.
Pekdogan, Serpil; Kanak, Mehmet
The purpose of this research is to explore the social competence and temperament of 4-6 age group children attending pre-school education institutions, to identify whether their social competence levels vary by gender, and to show the relationship between the sub-dimensions of social competence and those of temperament. The study group consists of…
Rosner, Beth A.; Hodapp, Robert M.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Sagun, Jaclyn N.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.
Background: This study explores everyday social competence in the lives of persons with three genetic intellectual disability syndromes. Methods: Using parent reports on the Social and Activity Competence domains of Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), socially competent behaviours were examined in 58 persons with Williams syndrome, 54…
González-Cutre Coll, David; Sicilia Camacho, Alvaro; Moreno Murcia, Juan A
Our objective in this study was to test the new social-cognitive model of achievement motivation in a physical education setting. Research was conducted on a sample of 895 physical education students, ages 12 to 16 years. We measured perception of the motivational climate conveyed by the teacher, implicit beliefs of ability, perceived competence, 2 x 2 achievement goals and self-determined motivation. We carried out structural equation modeling to analyse the relationships among variables. Results showed that task climate positively predicted incremental belief, whereas ego climate positively predicted entity belief. Both climates positively predicted perceived competence. Incremental belief positively predicted mastery-approach goals, performance-approach goals and avoidance goals, whereas entity belief positively predicted performance-approach goals and avoidance goals. Perceived competence positively predicted mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Mastery-approach goal positively predicted self-determined motivation, whereas performance-approach goal and avoidance goals negatively predicted self-determined motivation.
Gottman, J; Gonso, J; Rasmussen, B
The relationship between social skills, social interaction, and popularity was examined. The subjects were 198 children in third and fourth grades in middle- and low-income schools. The relationships between number of friends, socioeconomic status, and grade level were studied in a 2 times 2 times 2 factorial design with 2 sets of dependent measures: (1) social skills were assessed by an experimenter testing each child individually on a set of tasks which included measures of the ability to label emotions in facial expressions, knowledge of how to make friends, giving help, and role-taking ability; and (2) social interaction in the classroom was assessed using a naturalistic observational system. Popular and unpopular children differed in their knowledge of how to make friends and on the referential-communication task. In the classroom, popular children distributed and received more positive reinforcement than unpopular children and spent less time daydreaming. Both grade and social class factors were significant. However, different patterns of results contributed to the main effect of friends and the grade-level main effect. The importance of assessing social skills which are first validated by reference to a criterion such as sociometric position was noted.
Horst, S. Jeanne; Finney, Sara J.; Barron, Kenneth E.
The current research explored the theory of social goal orientation. More specifically, we conducted three studies utilizing six-independent university student samples to evaluate the construct validity of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (SAGOS; Ryan & Hopkins, 2003), a measure representing the construct of social goal orientation.…
Heck, DeAnn M.
This mixed methods action study examines the relationship of students' three psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness and competence as presented in the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) to the level of achievement of high school seniors at Litchfield High School. In the quantitative phase of the study, the quantitative…
Pezzoli, Jean A.; Ainsworth, Don
This document proposes a program in sustainable technology at Maui Community College (Hawaii). This new career program would be designed to provide four Certificates of Competence, a Certificate of Achievement, and an Associate in Applied Science degree. The primary objectives of the program are to meet student, county, and state needs for…
Schellenberg, Rita; Grothaus, Tim
This article illustrates standards blending, the integration of core academic and school counseling standards, as a culturally alert responsive services strategy to assist in closing the achievement gap while also enhancing employability skills and culturally salient career competencies. The responsive services intervention described in this…
Froiland, John Mark; Oros, Emily
This study investigated the effects of intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, classroom engagement and extrinsic motivation on reading development among youth. Using a nationally representative sample of students in the US, the researchers followed students longitudinally from fifth to eighth grade. Reading achievement was measured using…
Rogošic, Silvia; Baranovic, Branislava
The influence of social capital on an individual's educational achievements is the subject of numerous scientific papers. Research on social capital is most frequently based on Coleman's (1988) or Bourdieu's (1986) theories of capital, which are related to different paradigms of social theory: whereas Coleman's approach has its roots in structural…
Hukkelberg, Silje; Ogden, Terje
The study investigated dimensionality in the Home and Community Social Behaviour Scales (HCSBS) that assess social competence (Peer Relations and Self-Management/Compliance) and antisocial behaviour (Defiant/Disruptive and Antisocial/Aggressive behaviour) in children and adolescents. The four scales comprising 64 items were completed by 551…
Morgan, Joseph J.
The Internet has opened a variety of different avenues for people to interact with each other. As new digital environments are developed, new sets of social skills are needed to appropriately interact. Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often have deficits in social competence and require specialized training in specific social…
Miers, A. C.; Blote, A. W.; de Rooij, M.; Bokhorst, C. L.; Westenberg, P. M.
This cohort-sequential study examined developmental trajectories of social anxiety in a nonclinical sample (N = 331, 161 girls) aged 9 to 17 years at initial and 12 to 21 years at final assessment. We tested whether variables assessing cognition, social competence, and temperament discriminated between the trajectories. Variables were collected…
This study investigated the composition of the social network that the homestay offers learners in an intensive summer Arabic language program in diglossic and multilingual Tunisia and examined the types of language socialization as well as the overall linguistic and intercultural competence such opportunities present. The study specifically…
French, Doran C; Eisenberg, Nancy; Vaughan, Julie; Purwono, Urip; Suryanti, Telie A
This study assessed the relation between religious involvement and multiple indices of competence in 183 eighth- and ninth-grade Indonesian Muslim adolescents (M = 13.3 years). The authors assessed spirituality and religiosity using both parent and adolescent reports, and social competence and adjustment using multiple measures and data sources. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that parent and adolescent reports of religiosity and spirituality yielded a single religious involvement latent variable that was related to peer group status, academic achievement, emotional regulation, prosocial behavior, antisocial/problem behavior, internalizing behavior, and self-esteem. The consistency of relations between religious involvement and competence may be in part attributable to the collectivist context of religion in West Java, Indonesia, within which people exhibit strong beliefs in Islam and religion permeates daily life.
Kumagai, Arno K; Lypson, Monica L
In response to the Liaison Committee on Medical Education mandate that medical education must address both the needs of an increasingly diverse society and disparities in health care, medical schools have implemented a wide variety of programs in cultural competency. The authors critically analyze the concept of cultural competency and propose that multicultural education must go beyond the traditional notions of "competency" (i.e., knowledge, skills, and attitudes). It must involve the fostering of a critical awareness--a critical consciousness--of the self, others, and the world and a commitment to addressing issues of societal relevance in health care. They describe critical consciousness and posit that it is different from, albeit complementary to, critical thinking, and suggest that both are essential in the training of physicians. The authors also propose that the object of knowledge involved in critical consciousness and in learning about areas of medicine with social relevance--multicultural education, professionalism, medical ethics, etc.--is fundamentally different from that acquired in the biomedical sciences. They discuss how aspects of multicultural education are addressed at the University of Michigan Medical School. Central to the fostering of critical consciousness are engaging dialogue in a safe environment, a change in the traditional relationship between teachers and students, faculty development, and critical assessment of individual development and programmatic goals. Such an orientation will lead to the training of physicians equally skilled in the biomedical aspects of medicine and in the role medicine plays in ensuring social justice and meeting human needs.
Harter, Susan; Pike, Robin
Describes two versions of a new pictorial scale of perceived competence and social acceptance, a downward extension of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children. Both versions, one for preschoolers/kindergarteners and one for first/second graders, tap four domains: cognitive competence, physical competence, peer acceptance, and maternal…
Newton, Emma; Jenvey, Vickii
This study aimed to investigate whether: (1) the development of "theory of mind" (ToM) is associated with social competence; and (2) social peer play is also associated with social competence in young children. Associations between ToM task performance, frequencies of observed social and solitary free-play and parent-rated social…
sequelae after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Without successful social skills a person is often isolated, in conflict with others, and denied access to...maintain social competence for individuals with TBI with identified social skill deficits. The Group Interactive Structured Treatment (GIST...Social Competence program is a holistic, dual-disciplinary intervention targeting the pervasive interpersonal and communication problems that often
individuals with TBI with identified social skill deficits. The Group Interactive Structured Treatment (GIST) - Social Competence program is a holistic...with identified social skill deficits. The Group Interactive Structured Treatment (GIST) - Social Competence program is a holistic, dual-disciplinary...verbally communicate; (2) were unable to attend treatment sessions due to schedule or transportation; (3) were involved in ongoing structured group
Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena
Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college.
Destin, Mesmin; Richman, Scott; Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani
The current study tested a psychosocial mediation model of the association between subjective social status (SSS) and academic achievement for youth. The sample included 430 high school students from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Those who perceived themselves to be at higher social status levels had higher GPAs. As…
Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel
The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…
Pearl, Amanda M.; Murray, Michael J.; Smith, Laura A.; Arnold, Mariah
There is a paucity of instruments designed to measure social competence of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. The Social Responsiveness Scale is one of a few that can be used. This study compared differences between mother and father reports of social competence of adolescents. Data were collected from parents of 50 adolescents with and…
Fire, Nancy; Casstevens, W. J.
Achieving foundation-level practice behaviors to develop social work core competencies involves integrating learning across a curriculum. This article focuses on two phases of foundation-level course redevelopment aimed to support graduate students in accomplishing this outcome. The first phase involved restructuring the course to become a…
Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.; Kim, Mina; Krzysik, Lisa; Bost, Kelly K.; McBride, Brent; Santos, Antonio J.; Peceguina, Ines; Coppola, Gabrielle
Achieving consensus on the definition and measurement of social competence (SC) for preschool children has proven difficult in the developmental sciences. We tested a hierarchical model in which SC is assumed to be a second-order latent variable by using longitudinal data (N = 345). We also tested the degree to which peer SC at Time 1 predicted…
Warner, Laura A.; Stubbs, Eric; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Huynh, Phuong
The purpose of this study was to identify the specific competencies needed to apply social marketing, a promising approach to behavior change, to Extension programming. A modified Delphi study was used to achieve group consensus among a panel of experts on the skills, characteristics, and knowledge needed to successfully apply this behavior change…
Casciaro, Tiziana; Lobo, Miguel Sousa
When looking for help with a task at work, people turn to those best able to do the job. Right? Wrong. New research shows that work partners tend to be chosen not for ability but for likability. Drawing from their study encompassing 10,000 work relationships in five organizations, the authors have classified work partners into four archetypes: the competent jerk, who knows a lot but is unpleasant; the lovable fool, who doesn't know much but is a delight; the lovable star, who's both smart and likable; and the incompetent jerk, who.. .well, that's self-explanatory. Of course, everybody wants to work with the lovable star, and nobody wants to work with the incompetent jerk. More interesting is that people prefer the lovable fool over the competent jerk. That has big implications for every organization, as both of these types often represent missed opportunities. Because they are liked by a disproportionate number of people, lovable fools can bridge gaps between diverse groups that might not otherwise interact. But their networking skills are often developed at the expense of job performance, which can make these employees underappreciated and vulnerable to downsizing. To get the most out of them, managers need to protect them and put them in positions that don't waste their bridge-building talents. As for the competent jerks, too often their expertise goes untapped by people who just can't put up with them. But many can be socialized through coaching or by being made accountable for bad behavior. Others may need to display their competence in more isolated settings. Intriguingly, managers aren't limited to leveraging people that others like and changing those that others loathe. They also can create situations in which people are more apt to like one another, whatever their individual qualities.
Cotugno, Albert J
This study examined the effectiveness of a 30 week social competence and social skills group intervention program with children, ages 7-11, diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Eighteen children with ASD were assessed with pretreatment and posttreatment measures on the Walker-McConnell Scale (WMS) and the MGH YouthCare Social Competence Development Scale. Each received the 30-week intervention program. For comparison, a matched sample of ten non-ASD children was also assessed, but received no treatment. The findings indicated that each ASD intervention group demonstrated significant gains on the WMS and significant improvement in the areas of anxiety management, joint attention, and flexibility/transitions. Results suggest that this approach can be effective in improving core social deficits in individuals with ASD.
Ohan, Jeneva L.; Johnston, Charlotte
We compared social self-competence ratings in 9-12 year old girls with (n = 42) versus without (n = 40) ADHD, relative to ratings of the girls' social competence made by mothers, teachers, and blind raters during a social laboratory task. Relative to scores from mothers, teachers, and the lab-task, girls with ADHD over-estimated their competence…
Stichter, Janine P.; Randolph, Jena; Gage, Nicholas; Schmidt, Carla
Social competency deficits are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). During the past several decades, a number of social skill interventions for students with ASD have emerged. However, over the past five years, three converging issues have brought increased attention to the need for social competence programming: (1) increased ASD…
Macgowan, Mark J.; Vakharia, Sheila P.
Objectives: Accreditation standards and challenges in group work education require competency-based approaches in teaching social work with groups. The Association for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups developed Standards for Social Work Practice with Groups, which serve as foundation competencies for professional practice. However, there…
Kettunen, Jaana; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Vuorinen, Raimo
This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into career practitioners' understanding of competency for social media in career services. Sixteen Danish and Finnish practitioners with experience using social media in career services were interviewed in focus groups. Competency for social media in career services was conceived…
Maederer, Jennifer L.
The primary purpose of the current research was to determine whether low-income, high-risk young children's emergent literacy skills, including measures of oral language and letter knowledge, were related to their social competence. Other goals included determining the reliability of a social competence rating scale, the Social Competence…
Spritz, Becky L.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister; Maher, Edward; Zajdel, Ruth T.
Research Findings: Fostering the social competence of at-risk preschoolers would be facilitated by knowing which of children's emotion skills are most salient to social outcomes. We examined the emotion skills and social competence of 44 children enrolled in a Head Start program. Emotion skills were examined in terms of children's emotional…
Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.
Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…
Huyder, Vanessa; Nilsen, Elizabeth S.
Behaving in a socially competent manner is a complex process that requires the coordination of a number of cognitive skills. The present study examined the unique contributions of executive functions (i.e., inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility), theory of mind, and verbal skills to socially competent behaviours during social interactions.…
Introduction: This study analyzes the social competence of university students of the Music Education Teaching Degree through variables group climate, team cohesion and social skills. The need to develop good social competence was the basis to implement a project based on the musical theater applied according to the collaborative learning…
Mishne, Judith Marks
Written for parents and for professionals working with children and their parents, this book demonstrates that children's social development must be given paramount importance in order for them to achieve long-term school success. The book shows parents how to be effective caregivers by knowing what to realistically expect from a child based on a…
Warnes, Emily D.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Geske, Jenenne; Warnes, William A.
An exploratory study was conducted which assessed behaviors that characterize social competence in the second and fifth grades. A contextual approach was used to gather information from second- and fifth-grade children and their parents and teachers regarding the behaviors they perceived to be important for getting along well with peers. Data were…
Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin J.
The current study examined whether negative interactions with parents and peers would mediate the longitudinal association between perceived social competence and depressive symptoms and whether a negative cognitive style would moderate the longitudinal association between negative interactions with parents and increases in depressive symptoms.…
Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget; Popp, Tierney; Smith, Cynthia L.; Kupfer, Anne; Greving, Karissa; Liew, Jeffrey; Hofer, Claire
The authors examined the relations of maternal supportive parenting to effortful control and internalizing problems (i.e., separation distress, inhibition to novelty), externalizing problems, and social competence when toddlers were 18 months old (n = 256) and a year later (n = 230). Mothers completed the Coping With Toddlers' Negative Emotions…
Ewart, Craig K; Jorgensen, Randall S; Schroder, Kerstin E; Suchday, Sonia; Sherwood, Andrew
We report the first systematic study of hemodynamic responses to the Social Competence Interview, using the original Ewart protocol, which focuses attention on a persisting personal threat. Physiologic changes in 212 African American and Caucasian urban adolescents during the Social Competence Interview, mirror tracing, and reaction time tasks showed that the Social Competence Interview elicits a pronounced vasoconstrictive response pattern, with diminished cardiac activity, that is more typical of alert mental vigilance than of active coping. This pattern was observed in all race and gender subgroups. Results suggest that the Social Competence Interview may be a broadly useful procedure for investigating the role of threat-induced vigilance in cardiovascular and other diseases.
Taylor, Zoe E; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F
Social bonds and supportive relationships are widely recognized as being indispensable to healthy psychological functioning and well-being. Social support is a psychological resource that is expected to also contribute positively to parenting practices. The present study longitudinally examined the relations between mothers' (N = 674) and fathers' (N = 430) perceived social support and parenting behaviors, and their relations with children's social competence during early adolescence in Mexican-origin single and two-parent families. Our constructs of interest (warm parenting, monitoring, perceived social support, and children's social competence) were significantly correlated at T1, and demonstrated significant stability across time for both parental models. Parental warmth (as reported by the child, and opposite parent) and parental monitoring (self-reported by mothers and fathers) were correlated and also showed bidirectional associations across time. Parental monitoring at T2 positively predicted change in children's social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for mothers. Parental warmth at T2 positively predicted change in children's social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for fathers. For mothers, the indirect effect of social support at T1 on children's social competence at T3 via parental monitoring at T2 (and controlling for prior levels) was significant. Findings suggest that maternal perceived social support contributes to children's social competence due to its positive relation to maternal monitoring. Results may also suggest that mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors differentially relate to children's social competence in Latino families, although additional work focused on comparing parenting behaviors in two-parent families is needed.
Taylor, Zoe E.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.
Social bonds and supportive relationships are widely recognized as being indispensable to healthy psychological functioning and well-being. Social support is a psychological resource that is expected to also contribute positively to parenting practices. The present study longitudinally examined the relations between mothers’ (N = 674) and fathers’ (N = 430) perceived social support and parenting behaviors, and their relations with children’s social competence during early adolescence in Mexican-origin single and two-parent families. Our constructs of interest (warm parenting, monitoring, perceived social support, and children’s social competence) were significantly correlated at T1, and demonstrated significant stability across time for both parental models. Parental warmth (as reported by the child, and opposite parent) and parental monitoring (self-reported by mothers and fathers) were correlated and also showed bidirectional associations across time. Parental monitoring at T2 positively predicted change in children’s social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for mothers. Parental warmth at T2 positively predicted change in children’s social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for fathers. For mothers, the indirect effect of social support at T1 on children’s social competence at T3 via parental monitoring at T2 (and controlling for prior levels) was significant. Findings suggest that maternal perceived social support contributes to children’s social competence due to its positive relation to maternal monitoring. Results may also suggest that mothers’ and fathers’ parenting behaviors differentially relate to children’s social competence in Latino families, although additional work focused on comparing parenting behaviors in two-parent families is needed. PMID:26751039
Klug, Julia; Lüftenegger, Marko; Bergsmann, Evelyn; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara
There is a strong urge to foster lifelong learning (LLL) competencies with its key components – motivation and self-regulated learning – from early on in the education system. School in general is presently not considered to be successful in systematically imparting motivation and self-regulated learning strategies. There is strong evidence that decisive motivational determinants decrease the longer students stay in school. At present, the central sources of information about the situation in Austria are international monitoring studies, which only examine selected aspects of specific target groups, and their interpretability concerning mean values is constricted due to cultural differences. Thus, it is important to conduct additional and more differentiated national surveys of the actual state. This is why this study aimed at answering the following questions: (1) how well are Austrian students equipped for the future, in terms of their lifelong learning competencies, (2) can perceived classroom structure predict students’ LLL, and (3) is there a correlation of students’ LLL with their achievement in the school subjects math and German language. 5366 students (52.1% female) from 36 Austrian schools took part in the online-questionnaire (mean age 15.35 years, SD = 2.45), which measured their perceived LLL competencies in the subjects math and German language, their perceived classroom structure and their achievement. Results showed that the great majority of Austrian students – independent from domain and sex – know and are able to apply cognitive as well as metacognitive learning strategies. With regard to motivation the picture is less satisfactory: whilst students’ self-efficacy is not the problem, there is a lack of interest in the school subjects and they often report to follow performance approach goals. Classroom structure positively predicted students’ goals, interest, self-efficacy and learning strategies. Self-efficacy, performance
Klug, Julia; Lüftenegger, Marko; Bergsmann, Evelyn; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara
There is a strong urge to foster lifelong learning (LLL) competencies with its key components - motivation and self-regulated learning - from early on in the education system. School in general is presently not considered to be successful in systematically imparting motivation and self-regulated learning strategies. There is strong evidence that decisive motivational determinants decrease the longer students stay in school. At present, the central sources of information about the situation in Austria are international monitoring studies, which only examine selected aspects of specific target groups, and their interpretability concerning mean values is constricted due to cultural differences. Thus, it is important to conduct additional and more differentiated national surveys of the actual state. This is why this study aimed at answering the following questions: (1) how well are Austrian students equipped for the future, in terms of their lifelong learning competencies, (2) can perceived classroom structure predict students' LLL, and (3) is there a correlation of students' LLL with their achievement in the school subjects math and German language. 5366 students (52.1% female) from 36 Austrian schools took part in the online-questionnaire (mean age 15.35 years, SD = 2.45), which measured their perceived LLL competencies in the subjects math and German language, their perceived classroom structure and their achievement. Results showed that the great majority of Austrian students - independent from domain and sex - know and are able to apply cognitive as well as metacognitive learning strategies. With regard to motivation the picture is less satisfactory: whilst students' self-efficacy is not the problem, there is a lack of interest in the school subjects and they often report to follow performance approach goals. Classroom structure positively predicted students' goals, interest, self-efficacy and learning strategies. Self-efficacy, performance approach goals, meta
Stanford, Sara B; Lee, Stephanie; Masaquel, Candace; Lee, Robert H
Colonoscopy is considered to be the most effective tool for reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) morbidity and mortality. As a result, certifying trainee competence in the performance of colonoscopy is critical to maximizing CRC screening and prevention efforts. Guidelines on training and accreditation around the world have been revised to emphasize the attainment of milestones in the technical and cognitive skills necessary to perform the procedure. To meet this challenge, new evaluation systems have been developed to measure trainee competence through all aspects of colonoscopy training. These changes stem from increased recognition that procedural numbers alone do not necessarily guarantee trainees’ proficiency in the performance of colonoscopy. Variability in endoscopic practice and in CRC screening outcomes also point to deficiencies in the current approach towards colonoscopy instruction. However, technological innovations hold great promise in training endoscopists to perform high quality colonoscopy. Furthermore, potential advances in the use of feedback as a training tool provide new avenues for research. This review summarizes the latest evidence on the effort to define, evaluate and promote the achievement of competence in colonoscopy among trainees. PMID:26675559
Hoffman, Michael F.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette
This study compared levels of social competence and language development in 74 young children with hearing loss and 38 hearing peers aged 2.5–5.3 years. This study was the first to examine the relationship between oral language and social competence using a dynamic systems framework in children with and without hearing loss. We hypothesized that, due to deficits in oral language, children who were deaf would display lower levels of social competence than their hearing peers. Furthermore, language age would predict social competence scores. Social competence was measured with a general and deaf-specific measure. Results showed that children with hearing loss performed significantly worse than hearing peers on the general measure but better than the norms on the deaf-specific measure. Controlling for maternal education and income, regression analyses indicated that hearing status and language age predicted social competence in both groups. Among children with hearing loss, correlations were also found between age at diagnosis, age at amplification, and two of the general social competence measures. Results supported our hypothesis that deficits in language would have cascading negative effects on the development of social competence in young deaf children. Development of early intervention programs that target both language and social skills are needed for this population. PMID:25583707
Hoffman, Michael F; Quittner, Alexandra L; Cejas, Ivette
This study compared levels of social competence and language development in 74 young children with hearing loss and 38 hearing peers aged 2.5-5.3 years. This study was the first to examine the relationship between oral language and social competence using a dynamic systems framework in children with and without hearing loss. We hypothesized that, due to deficits in oral language, children who were deaf would display lower levels of social competence than their hearing peers. Furthermore, language age would predict social competence scores. Social competence was measured with a general and deaf-specific measure. Results showed that children with hearing loss performed significantly worse than hearing peers on the general measure but better than the norms on the deaf-specific measure. Controlling for maternal education and income, regression analyses indicated that hearing status and language age predicted social competence in both groups. Among children with hearing loss, correlations were also found between age at diagnosis, age at amplification, and two of the general social competence measures. Results supported our hypothesis that deficits in language would have cascading negative effects on the development of social competence in young deaf children. Development of early intervention programs that target both language and social skills are needed for this population.
Hocking, Matthew C; McCurdy, Mark; Turner, Elise; Kazak, Anne E; Noll, Robert B; Phillips, Peter; Barakat, Lamia P
Pediatric brain tumor (BT) survivors are at risk for psychosocial late effects across many domains of functioning, including neurocognitive and social. The literature on the social competence of pediatric BT survivors is still developing and future research is needed that integrates developmental and cognitive neuroscience research methodologies to identify predictors of survivor social adjustment and interventions to ameliorate problems. This review discusses the current literature on survivor social functioning through a model of social competence in childhood brain disorder and suggests future directions based on this model. Interventions pursuing change in survivor social adjustment should consider targeting social ecological factors.
This paper examines how social capital formed by effective parental practices within Chinese families influences student achievement. Survey responses from 266 students from Grades 4 to 6 in a suburban elementary school in China were analysed to identify their perceptions of parental practices (support, pressure, help, monitoring and…
Beier, Jonathan S.; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda
From early in development, humans have strong prosocial tendencies. Much research has documented young children's propensity to help others achieve their unfulfilled goals toward physical objects. Yet many of our most common and important goals are social--directed toward other people. Here we demonstrate that children are also inclined, and able,…
This study examined the associations of parents' cultural beliefs and attitudes with respect to fate, traditional gender roles, aspirations, and involvement in children's academic achievement in Cambodia. Based on Coleman's social capital theory, a good parent-child relationship enables children's school success because resources are created as a…
Wilson, Timothy D.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.
Attempts to improve student achievement typically focus on changing the educational environment (e.g., better schools, better teachers) or on personal characteristics of students (e.g., intelligence, self-control). The 6 articles in this special issue showcase an additional approach, emanating from social psychology, which focuses on students'…
Bendt, Lori; Nunan, Jan
This paper examines the impact of the explicit teaching of social skills to enhance academic achievement. The targeted population comprised kindergarten and second grade students in a middle-class community located in central Illinois. The problem of inappropriate behaviors and difficulties interacting with peers and how this may affect academic…
Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Kupfer, Anne
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to test the premise that children's effortful control (EC) is prospectively related to their academic achievement and to specify mechanisms through which EC is related to academic success. We used data from 214 children (M age at Time 1 [T1] = 73 months) to test whether social functioning (e.g.,…
Wang, Yean; Chui, Ernest
Objective: This article reports a study that developed and validated the Perceived Social Work Competence Scale (PSWCS) for assessing social work students' competence in Mainland China. Method: The indicators were generated by a broad empirical review of recent literature, confirmed by experts, and indigenized by means of two focus groups of…
Holopainen, Leena; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Junttila, Niina; Savolainen, Hannu
This study examines the relationship between social competence and psychological well-being of adolescents. The role of academic learning disabilities with social competence and psychological well-being was also studied. The sample (n = 412; 207 girls and 205 boys), one complete age group (mean age 15.5 years), was followed from last year of…
Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi; AlZoubi, Rifa Rafe
Children's social competence is an area of research that receives minimal attention from Jordanian researchers. It is important to investigate this area of development so as to provide parents with information about the nature of social competence and possible factors affecting its development. This research study examined Jordanian mothers'…
Han, Heejeong Sophia
This study was conducted with White American kindergarten teachers from a southeast region of the United States to examine their beliefs about culture and social competence. Overall, from a sociocultural perspective, these teachers had limited understanding of young children's social competence and showed varying degrees of cultural knowledge for…
Renk, Kimberly; Phares, Vicky
We examined maternal and paternal perceptions of social competence in children and adolescents. One hundred forty-seven parents rated scenarios depicting children who varied in age, gender, and social competence. Parents also completed questionnaires assessing the amount of time they spend with their own children, their gender identity, their…
Hoffman, Michael F.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette
This study compared levels of social competence and language development in 74 young children with hearing loss and 38 hearing peers aged 2.5-5.3 years. This study was the first to examine the relationship between oral language and social competence using a dynamic systems framework in children with and without hearing loss. We hypothesized that,…
The present study examined the longitudinal relations between psychopathology and social competence in a sample of 115 Chinese children during the transition to preschool initiated in their third year of life. Social competence was assessed by maternal reports at three months after preschool entry (T1) and at the end of the first (T2) and second…
Rhoades, Brittany L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Domitrovich, Celene E.
Social-emotional competence is a key developmental task during early childhood. This study examined concurrent relationships between maternal education and employment status, children's sex, ethnicity, age, receptive vocabulary, emotional knowledge, attention skills, inhibitory control and social-emotional competence in a sample of 146 preschool,…
Monopoli, W. John; Kingston, Sharon
Relationships exist between language ability, emotion regulation, and social competence in preschool children. This study examines how these relationships function in elementary school children, and explores whether language ability partially mediates the relationship between emotion regulation and social competence. Second-grade students (N = 67)…
Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Konold, Timothy R.
Research Findings: Children's social competence has been linked to successful transition to formal school. The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of children's temperament to teachers' ratings of their social competence from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Children (N = 1,364) from the National Institute of Child Health and…
Galindo, Claudia; Fuller, Bruce
We know that social competence contributes to young children's adaptation to, and cognitive learning within, classroom settings. Yet initial evidence is mixed on the social competencies that Latino children bring to kindergarten and the extent to which these skills advance cognitive growth. Building from ecocultural and developmental-risk theory,…
Jensen, Bryant; Reese, Leslie; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra; Bennett, Courtney
Research Findings: In this study we analyze how parent and teacher ratings of young Latino children's social competencies in rural California are associated with children's oral language development. We find (a) that there is considerable incongruence between parent and teacher ratings of child social competence, (b) that both parent and teacher…
Walter, Jamie L.; LaFreniere, Peter J.
Observed 56 preschool children during free play to record occurrences of four types of affect: moderate and strong positive affect, anger, and distress. Also collected teacher ratings of social competence and peer sociometrics. Found that social competence and peer acceptance were associated with strong positive affect, whereas anger and distress…
Curl, Angela L.; Tompkins, Catherine J.; Rosen, Anita L.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy
Our society is aging, and this demographic change necessitates that all social workers have basic competency in gerontology. This article describes the results of a competency survey conducted in 2000, and how these results helped transform basic social work curricula and enhance gerontology-related resources. Results were used to encourage and…
In this study, the effect of solution-focused brief group counseling upon the perceived social competences of teenagers was investigated. The study group included 24 volunteer students who took lower scores rather than the ones obtained from perceived social competence scale pre-test measurements out of 227 students studying at a high school in…
Sariçam, Hakan; Yaman, Erkan; Çelik, Ismail
The purpose of this research was to examine whether loneliness might play a mediating role between perceived social competence and cyberbullying in Turkish adolescents. The participants were 326 high school students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Cyberbullying Scale, the Perceived Social Competence Scale, and the UCLA…
Ogden, Terje; Sorlie, Mari-Anne; Hagen, Kristine Amlund
In the present pilot study we examined how a school-wide intervention model, "Positive behavior, interactions and learning environment in school" (Norwegian acronym: PALS) contributed to risk reduction in immigrant students through the promotion of social competence. The aims of the PALS project were to promote social competence through…
Fiorilli, Caterina; Albanese, Ottavia; Gabola, Piera; Pepe, Alessandro
This study explored the relationships among teachers' emotional competence, burnout as a mediator, and social support. Teachers' emotional competence was assessed via measures of emotional intensity and emotional regulation. Social support was evaluated in terms of external versus internal support, and teacher dissatisfaction with support…
Meyer, Sonia Beatriz; Barbosa, Debora Regina
In individual behavior therapy two clients were evaluated using behavior categories created by the therapist. Both clients were observed to improve in terms of social competence. One demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between improvement of social competence and weight loss during treatment (16 sessions) and lost weight. The other…
Mihic, Josipa; Novak, Miranda; Basic, Josipa; Nix, Robert L.
Preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) is an evidence-based universal prevention program focused on promoting children's social and emotional competencies and reducing the likelihood of behaviour problems and negative relationships with peers and teachers. This paper examines changes in the social and emotional competencies of…
Dzheksembekova, Menslu I.; Ibrayeva, Kamarsulu E.; Akhmetova, Aimkul K.; Urazalieva, Moldir A.; Sultangaliyeva, Elmira S.; Issametova, Klavdiya I.
This paper aims at analyzing specific features of social competence of future music teachers and the development of specialized techniques in order to improve the quality of motivational and cognitive components of student social competence. The sample involved 660 undergraduate students. The authors used a number of research methods, such as…
Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Maria; Ribas-Fito, Nuria; Mazon, Carlos; Torrent, Maties; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Sunyer, Jordi
Research Findings: Few rating scales measure social competence in very young Spanish or Catalan children. We aimed to analyze the psychometric characteristics of the California Preschool Social Competence Scale (CPSCS) when applied to a Spanish- and Catalan-speaking population. Children were rated by their respective teachers within 6 months…
Christopoulos, Christina; Dell, Susan B.
An attempt was made to identify aspects of the family environment that predict social competence in the school environment. A total of 69 second graders were administered a revised verion of Furman and Buhrmester's (1985) Network of Relationships Inventory. Social competence was assessed sociometrically and with seven behavioral nominations.…
Meyer, Sonia Beatriz; Barbosa, Debora Regina
In individual behavior therapy two clients were evaluated using behavior categories created by the therapist. Both clients were observed to improve in terms of social competence. One demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between improvement of social competence and weight loss during treatment (16 sessions) and lost weight. The other…
Mendez, Julia L.; McDermott, Paul; Fantuzzo, John
Presents multiple constructs that play a role in understanding African American preschool children's social competence. Findings support the importance of considering both children's developmental stage and their gender when evaluating aspects of social competence, particularly temperament and interactive peer play abilities. Discusses…
Barn, Ravinder; Das, Chaitali
Family Group Conferences (FGCs) as a method of preventive work came into being over two decades ago. The FGC approach arose from a minority cultural perspective and the rising numbers of Maori children in state care in New Zealand. Two decades after the Family Rights Group first championed FGC in the UK, it is a great concern that we know little or nothing about how such an approach is being utilised with culturally diverse families in the UK. This paper draws upon an empirical study carried out in London to ascertain the views and experiences of social and community work FGC coordinators and managers, located in statutory and non-government organisations, who employed the FGC approach with culturally diverse families. Findings from this study are discussed in the context of extant research literature into the nature and extent of involvement of black and minority ethnic (BME) families with child welfare services across the globe. Moreover, given the inherent emphasis on the foundational 'cultural framework' of the FGC approach, the paper makes an important contribution to the literature on cultural competence within social work through the practice of FGC.
Barn, Ravinder; Das, Chaitali
Family Group Conferences (FGCs) as a method of preventive work came into being over two decades ago. The FGC approach arose from a minority cultural perspective and the rising numbers of Maori children in state care in New Zealand. Two decades after the Family Rights Group first championed FGC in the UK, it is a great concern that we know little or nothing about how such an approach is being utilised with culturally diverse families in the UK. This paper draws upon an empirical study carried out in London to ascertain the views and experiences of social and community work FGC coordinators and managers, located in statutory and non-government organisations, who employed the FGC approach with culturally diverse families. Findings from this study are discussed in the context of extant research literature into the nature and extent of involvement of black and minority ethnic (BME) families with child welfare services across the globe. Moreover, given the inherent emphasis on the foundational ‘cultural framework’ of the FGC approach, the paper makes an important contribution to the literature on cultural competence within social work through the practice of FGC. PMID:27559207
Galindo, Claudia; Fuller, Bruce
We know that social competence contributes to young children's adaptation to, and cognitive learning within, classroom settings. Yet initial evidence is mixed on the social competencies that Latino children bring to kindergarten and the extent to which these skills advance cognitive growth. Building from ecocultural and developmental-risk theory, this paper shows children's social competence to be adaptive to the normative expectations and cognitive requirements of culturally bounded settings in both the home and classroom. Latino socialization in the home may yield social competencies that teachers value rather than reflect "risk factors" that constrain children's school readiness. We draw on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, kindergarten cohort (N = 19,590) to detail 5 social competencies at entry to school--self-control, interpersonal skills, approaches to learning, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors--and to examine variability among Latino subgroups. We then test the extent to which baseline variation in social competence accounts for children's cognitive growth during the kindergarten year. We find that Latino children from poor, but not middle-class, families display weaker social competencies vis-à-vis White children (all relationships p < or = .05). Social competence levels contribute to Latino children's cognitive growth, which is shaped most strongly by positive approaches to learning. The disparities in competencies observed for Latino children from poor families, relative to White children, are significant yet much smaller than gaps in baseline levels of mathematical understanding. We discuss how the consonance or mismatch between competencies acquired at home and those valued by teachers must consider cultural differences, social-class position, and variation among diverse Latino subgroups.
Krentzman, Amy R.; Townsend, Aloen L.
This study reviews extant measures of cultural competence from many disciplines and evaluates their suitability for social work education based on 8 criteria: validity, reliability, relevance to social justice, item clarity, definition of diversity, coherence, social desirability, and appropriateness for social work. Nineteen instruments met…
Siaki, Leilani A; Lentino, Cynthia V; Mark, Debra D; Hopkins-Chadwick, Denise L
Despite the Institute of Medicine's goal of 90% of all practice being evidence-based by 2020, educational and practice institutions are not on target to achieve this goal. Evidence-based practice is one of 5 core elements of the Army Nurse Corps' patient care delivery system and a key focus of the Hawaii State Center for Nursing. In order to increase evidence-based practice (EBP), a civilian-military partnership was formed to include healthcare organizations in the state, optimize resources, and share strategies for successful practice changes statewide. The partnership has been successful in meeting each of these goals using national EBP competencies and Bloom's taxonomy as a guide. The article presents a discussion regarding the history, processes, and outcomes of this partnership.
Coleman, William Lord
Friendship formation (making friends, keeping friends, and having successful interactions with peers and adults) constitutes a critical developmental-social milestone for adolescents. This process can be especially challenging for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, whose attentional problems may negatively affect their social skills (verbal and nonverbal language) and who fail to appreciate the complexity and nuances of adolescent communication. They often do not respond to feedback cues. They may be perceived as "immature," lacking empathy, and loners and losers, they may endure a "reputational bias," and they often experience coexisting challenges (eg, language problems, learning disabilities, or obesity). Successful and gratifying interactions, or the lack thereof, deeply and broadly affect adolescents: their self-esteem, self-image, confidence, school-learning, lifestyle, behavior, sexual activity, intimacy formation, mental-emotional well-being, and physical health. Successful achievement of this ever-evolving milestone has lifelong implications. This article describes various social-interactional skills, other components of social competence, and the dysfunctions that may cause social failure and suffering and describes how to evaluate and help manage problems in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Beier, Jonathan S; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda
From early in development, humans have strong prosocial tendencies. Much research has documented young children's propensity to help others achieve their unfulfilled goals toward physical objects. Yet many of our most common and important goals are social--directed toward other people. Here we demonstrate that children are also inclined, and able, to help others achieve their social goals. Three-year-old children observed an experimenter trying unsuccessfully to get the attention of another individual and then helped by directing the 2nd individual's attention back to the experimenter. A control condition ensured that children's responses were not motivated by a general desire to inform the 2nd individual about interesting events. A 2nd experiment showed that children distinguish between fulfilled and frustrated versions of this social goal and help appropriately on the basis of this distinction. Young children are therefore willing to intervene in a 3rd-party interaction to help it along. This result expands the range of situations in which young children are known to spontaneously help others into the social domain, thereby underscoring the pervasiveness of their prosocial motivations and identifying a critical area for further research.
Zhang, Fengjuan; You, Zhiqi; Fan, Cuiying; Gao, Chuang; Cohen, Robert; Hsueh, Yeh; Zhou, Zongkui
The purpose of this study was to test an integrative model in which peer relations at different levels of social complexity (friendship quality, social preference, and proximity prestige) are associated with children's loneliness, with children's self-perceived social competence acting as a mediator of these associations. A middle childhood sample of 509 Chinese children (233 girls and 276 boys; 3rd to 6th grade) completed a battery of sociometric and self-report questionnaires. Bootstrap analysis showed that self-perceived social competence mediated the relations between each peer variable and loneliness. In the integrative model tested with SEM, the mediating effect of self-perceived social competence in the relation between friendship quality and loneliness and between social preference and loneliness remained significant. However, self-perceived social competence no longer mediated the association between proximity prestige and loneliness, when considering the simultaneous influences of the three peer variables (friendship quality, social preference, and proximity prestige). The whole model accounted for 56% of the variance in loneliness. These findings suggest that self-perceived social competence played an important role in children's loneliness, that the quality and the quantity of direct peer relations (friendship quality, social preference, and part of proximity prestige) were associated with loneliness, and that indirect friends had a relatively lower but significant influence on children's loneliness. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for preventing children's loneliness.
Carman, Sarah N; Chapparo, Christine J
There is an emphasis on the social competence of children who have difficulties with learning as a significant percentage also experience reduced social skills. Social competence in the classroom is becoming increasingly important as the school curriculum incorporates group work and socially directed activities for purposes of learning. A goal of occupational therapy for children with learning difficulties and their parents is that they 'fit' into their social group and form friendships. While teachers are able to identify social skills that are required for life at school, less is known about how children perceive their interactions. This study aimed to explore social interaction during occupational performance at school and at home from the perception of children with learning difficulties and their mothers. Participants included 10, 8- to 12-year-old children who had difficulties with learning and their 10 mothers. Children were interviewed using semi-structured focus groups. Mothers participated in semi-structured interviews. Four main themes emerged from this study, including the importance of social skills, effects of poor social skills, difficulties with planning and problem solving in social situations and impact of social competence on a child's occupational performance. The study revealed that social participation is perceived to be an integral part of the child's ability to participate in occupational performance, and that children have definite perspectives on the importance of social competence. Children in this study indicated that their social skills were adequate when in an one-to-one situation but not in a group.
The article examines the effect of two factors on achievement test scores in English as a foreign language for specific purposes in higher education: preexisting linguistic competence and frequency of use of language learner strategies. The rationale for the analysis of language learner strategies as a factor affecting achievement test outcomes is…
Cummings, Kelli D.; Kaminski, Ruth A.; Merrell, Kenneth W.
This study describes the initial validation of an innovative social-behavioral observational assessment tool that is designed to be used on a repeated basis to assess growth and development of social competence over time to: (a) identify the social functioning of all students, (b) assist in planning support for students at risk, and (c) evaluate…
Jamison, Kristen Roorbach
Early interventions with the goal of altering the trajectory of social skill acquisition are needed in order to establish social competence in young children with developmental disabilities. This study used a unique play-based intervention (the Early Childhood Storybook Intervention) to teach social skills to young children with developmental…
Ogelman, Hulya Gulay; Seven, Serdal
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect social information processing levels has on the social competence (entering a peer group, response towards provocation, response to failure, response to success, social expectations, teacher expectations, reactive aggression, proactive aggression) and peer relationship (prosocial behaviour,…
Children's social competence is important for their general wellbeing and life satisfaction. Often it is an area identified as problematic for children brought to the attention of a psychologist, particularly for children with brain injuries. However, it can be difficult to pin down exactly where social difficulties lie, and therefore how best to help. The current article draws together the literature on social competence from brain injury and from more general developmental research. A hierarchical model is presented with three layers: social adjustment, social functioning, and social cognition. Additional factors likely to be relevant for children with brain injuries are noted. This framework can be used to guide psychologists' casework around social competence, aiming to provide a practical and coherent structure for assessment that can then support formulation, person centred planning, and tailored interventions.
Roussos, Gina; Dunham, Yarrow
Past research suggests that warmth and competence are primary dimensions of social perception used by adults to understand social groups. The current study investigated whether children use these two dimensions to structure their representations of familiar groups. Results indicated that adult warmth and competence judgments were independent from one another and placed groups in warmth by competence space in ways consistent with past work. However, children showed some sensitivity to both dimensions but did not treat them as independent. Children's judgments of competence were closely aligned with adult judgments, but their judgments of warmth were influenced by factors that solely influenced adult judgments of competence. These data suggest that children develop an understanding of competence as an independent dimension prior to developing an understanding of warmth as an independent dimension and that their judgments of warmth may reflect a more general summing of all available evaluative information. Implications for children's developing understanding of the broader intergroup landscape are discussed.
Curl, Angela L; Tompkins, Catherine J; Rosen, Anita L; Zlotnik, Joan Levy
Our society is aging, and this demographic change necessitates that all social workers have basic competency in gerontology. This article describes the results of a competency survey conducted in 2000, and how these results helped transform basic social work curricula and enhance gerontology-related resources. Results were used to encourage and assist social work faculty to infuse gerontological content into social work curriculum, which helped practitioners to gain the necessary knowledge and skills to meet the needs of a growing aging population. This social work education framework can be replicated in an effort to infuse gerontology content throughout other disciplines.
Bédard, Karine; Bouffard, Thérèse; Pansu, Pascal
This study conducted among 544 adolescents (M = 15.1 years, SD = .82) examined whether perceived social support from parents and peers mediated the relationship between biased self-evaluations of social competence and internalizing problems. The results showed negative links between bias in self-evaluation and depressive symptoms, social anxiety and social avoidance. Bias in self-evaluation of social competence was more strongly related to perceived peer support than perceived parental support. Gender differences were observed in the mediating role of social support. Among boys, parental support was a partial mediator only of the link between bias in self-evaluation and depressive symptoms. While perceived peer support was a partial mediator of the links between bias in self-evaluation and depressive symptoms, social anxiety and social avoidance in girls, this was the case only for social avoidance in boys. These findings suggest that girls may show vulnerability to peer emotional support at an earlier age than boys.
This article provides a rationale for "assessment for social justice", through which a greater focus is given to the role of assessment in achieving the social justice aspirations of higher education. It takes inspiration from work on assessment for learning to propose that as assessment is a powerful driver of how and what students…
Fater, Kerry H; Ready, Robert
The Institute of Medicine recommends that educational and service organizations develop partnerships to promote and prioritize competency development for nurses. This article describes a collaborative project between a college of nursing and a regional health care system. The project's aim was to foster the development of safety and quality by creating a curriculum based on the 10 core competencies identified by the Massachusetts Department of Higher Education Nurse of the Future Competency Committee. To accomplish this goal, learning experiences were created to address competency development. Competency-based education will help ensure that nursing graduates are adequately prepared to meet the current and future health care needs of our population.
Ren, Lixin; Edwards, Carolyn Pope
This study examines relations among Chinese parents' expectations for children's development of social-emotional skills, parenting styles, and child social competence. A total of 154 parents with preschool-aged children from mainland China completed questionnaires measuring their timing of expectations for children's mastery of social-emotional…
Blair, Bethany L.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Shanahan, Lilly
This study used data from 356 children, their mothers, teachers, and peers to examine the longitudinal and dynamic associations among 3 dimensions of social competence derived from Hinde's (1987) framework of social complexity: social skills, peer group acceptance, and friendship quality. Direct and indirect associations among each discrete…
Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.
The present study examined indices of friends' social adjustment (prosocial skills and social anxiety) that may protect against or exacerbate vulnerability to lower academic competence in the context of peer victimization during middle school (N=320). Peer victimization was assessed with peer nominations, social anxiety was measured with self…
Jani, Jayshree S.; Osteen, Philip; Shipe, Stacy
Social work educators are responsible for ensuring that future practitioners are culturally competent and have the ability to work effectively with people from different backgrounds. The purpose of this article is to address the current limitations in measuring cultural competence and to report the results of a qualitative study examining…
Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.
Two studies investigated the impact of information about the effort and performance of others on students' anticipated affects and judgments of competence given success in task-involving and ego-involving contexts. Without social comparison information, competence and positive affects were judged higher when students were asked to imagine…
Ratts, Manivong J.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia; Butler, S. Kent; McCullough, Julian Rafferty
In 2014, the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD) appointed a committee to revise the Multicultural Counseling Competencies developed by Sue, Arredondo, and McDavis in 1992 and operationalized by Arredondo et al. in 1996. This article reflects the updated competencies, titled the Multicultural and Social Justice…
French, Doran C.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Vaughan, Julie; Purwono, Urip; Suryanti, Telie A.
This study assessed the relation between religious involvement and multiple indices of competence in 183 eighth- and ninth-grade Indonesian Muslim adolescents (M = 13.3 years). The authors assessed spirituality and religiosity using both parent and adolescent reports, and social competence and adjustment using multiple measures and data sources.…
Abrams, Laura S.; Moio, Jene A.
Cultural competence is a fundamental tenet of social work education. Although cultural competence with diverse populations historically referred to individuals and groups from non-White racial origins, the term has evolved to encompass differences pertaining to sexuality, religion, ability, and others. Critics charge that the cultural competence…
Russell, Beth S.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Spieker, Susan; Oxford, Monica L.
The current longitudinal study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) to examine a model of development that emphasizes early caregiving environments as predictors of social emotional competence (including classroom competence). This path analysis…
Gambrill, Eileen D.; Richey, Cheryl A.
Describes and critiques criteria used to evaluate socially competent behavior of women. Discusses the relationship between the definition of competence used and the assessment methods relied on. Notes the advantages of focusing on specific goals and provides a checklist that consumers can use to review the content of training programs. (Author/ABB)
In recent decades, the notion of the competent child has, in the field of Early Childhood Education, become a powerful discourse. In this paradigm, inspired by the sociology of childhood, the child is seen as a competent social actor having agency in his or her life. However, critical comments have been made at both the micro-and macro-level about…
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.
This matrix keys the objectives of the school television programs to the objectives of the grades K-3 competency-based curriculum. Eight programs of the "Out and About" series address science and social studies competency goals and objectives for kindergarten and grade 1. Titles of the lessons are: "Making Friends"; "Keeping Friends"; "Ways to…
Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L; Taylor, Scott N
Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.
Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.
Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative. PMID:25566128
Freund, Judith Horen; Elardo, Richard
The role of maternal behavior and family constellation factors as predictors of social competence was investigated with 17 learning disabled children (mean age 10 years) and their mothers. Journal availability: see EC 112 927. (DLS)
Zorza, Juan P; Marino, Julián; de Lemus, Soledad; Acosta Mesas, Alberto
This study explored the predictive power of effortful control (EC) on empathy, academic performance, and social competence in adolescents. We obtained self-report measures of EC and dispositional empathy in 359 students (197 girls and 162 boys) aged between 12 and 14 years. Each student provided information about the prosocial behavior of the rest of his/her classmates and completed a sociogram. At the end of the school year, we calculated the mean grade of each student and the teacher responsible for each class completed a questionnaire on the academic skills of his/her students. The study confirmed the existence of a structural equation model (SEM) in which EC directly predicted academic performance and social competence. Additionally, empathic concern partially mediated the effect of EC on social competence. Finally, social competence significantly predicted academic performance. The article discusses the practical applications of the model proposed.
Penela, Elizabeth C.; Walker, Olga L.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Henderson, Heather A.
This study examined emotion regulation (ER) as a mediator in the relation between early behavioral inhibition (BI) and later social competence (N= 257), and whether this mediation varied depending on BI levels. Maternal-report and observational measures were used to assess BI (ages 2 and 3). Children’s ER strategies (age 5) and social competence with an unfamiliar peer (age 7) were measured using observational measures. Results showed that BI predicted less engaged ER strategies during a disappointment task, and engaged ER predicted higher social competence. Engaged ER mediated the effect of BI on social competence, but only for highly inhibited children. Findings elucidate developmental trajectories of risk and resilience and suggest targeting regulatory strategies in early prevention efforts with highly inhibited children. PMID:26014351
Blair, Bethany L.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Shanahan, Lilly
This study utilized data from 356 children, their mothers, teachers, and peers, to examine the longitudinal and dynamic associations among three dimensions of social competence derived from Hinde's (1987) framework of social complexity: social skills, peer group acceptance, and friendship quality. Direct and indirect associations among each discrete dimension of social competence and emotion regulation were also examined. Results suggest that there are important distinctions among the dimensions of social competence as they relate to one another and to emotion regulation. Model comparisons provided evidence of cascade and reciprocal effects among the variables, demonstrating complex associations that are ongoing across middle childhood. Specifically, there were cascading effects from emotion regulation abilities at age 5 to social skills at age 7, which was then associated with age 10 outcomes of more positive friendship quality, greater peer acceptance, and greater emotion regulation. PMID:26147773
Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.
The longitudinal associations between maternal parenting behavior and toddler risk with children’s emotional and social competence were examined during the transition to kindergarten, in a sample of 253 children. Toddler risk was characterized by early externalizing behavior and poor emotion regulation skills. Given that we were interested in the multiple pathways that may result in emotional and social competence, we examined the interactions among maternal parenting behavior and toddler risk. There were some significant interactions; although the pattern of results was not consistent across all competence outcomes. Maternal parenting behavior was not directly associated with children’s emotional and social competence. In some instances, maternal control has differential implications for children’s emotional and social competence dependent upon the child’s level of early risk and maternal positive parenting. Specifically, maternal control tended to be more detrimental for children’s emotional competence during the transition to kindergarten, when children exhibit higher levels of risk. Overall, it appears that there are multiple developmental pathways, depending on child and maternal characteristics that lead to early emotional and social competence. PMID:20102651
Walker, Olga L; Henderson, Heather A
The goals of the current study were to examine whether children's social problem solving (SPS) skills are a mechanism through which temperament influences later academic achievement and whether sex moderates these associations. Participants included 1,117 children enrolled in the NICHD Early Child Care Study. During preschool, mothers and childcare providers rated children's temperamental shyness and inhibitory control, and SPS was assessed using a hypothetical-reflective measure during a laboratory visit. During kindergarten and first grade, teacher-report of math and language skills was collected. Results indicated that high ratings of inhibitory control in preschool, but not shyness, predicted better kindergarten and first grade academic skills. Furthermore, children's SPS competence mediated the relations between both shyness and inhibitory control on later academic skills. The child's sex did not moderate these associations. Results suggest that preventative efforts targeting early SPS skills may buffer against later academic adjustment problems among temperamentally extreme children.
Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq
Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental control, dyadic reciprocity) and two family-level measures (cohesion and rigidity) were coded at each age. Children's social competence was observed at child-care locations. Cultural differences were observed for parent sensitivity and child social engagement, and the large cultural differences in sensitivity observed in infancy were attenuated by the toddler age. Interactive behaviors correlated with culture-specific parenting practices, child-rearing goals, and sex-role attitudes. Mother-child reciprocity in infancy and child engagement with father and family-level cohesion at both time points predicted social competence. Maternal sensitivity in infancy facilitated social competence only among Israeli children. Paternal control in toddlerhood interfered with Israeli children's social functioning but contributed to competence among Palestinians. Results underscore the links between early relational experiences and children's adaptation to the social milieu.
Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.; Spinrad, Tracy L.
We examined the relations of negative emotions in toddlerhood to the development of ego-resiliency and social competence across early childhood. Specifically, we addressed whether fear and anger/frustration in 30-month-old children (N = 213) was associated with the development of ego-resiliency across 4 time points (42 to 84 months), and, in turn, whether ego-resiliency predicted social competence at 84 months. Child anger/frustration negatively predicted the intercept of ego-resiliency at 42 months (controlling for prior ego-resiliency at 18 months) as well as the slope. Fear did not significantly predict either the intercept or slope of ego-resiliency in the structural model, although it was positively correlated with anger/frustration and was negatively related to ego-resiliency in zero-order correlations. The slope of ego-resiliency was positively related to children’s social competence at 84 months; however, the intercept of ego-resiliency (set at 42 months) was not a significant predictor of later social competence. Furthermore, the slope of ego-resiliency mediated the relations between anger/frustration and children’s later social competence. The results suggest that individual differences in anger/frustration might contribute to the development of ego-resiliency, which, in turn, is associated with children’s social competence. PMID:24364850
Shaffer, Anne; Burt, Keith B; Obradović, Jelena; Herbers, Janette E; Masten, Ann S
Prospective studies of intergenerational continuity in parenting quality remain scarce, with little attention given to the potential role of social competence as a mediator of continuity. This study examined social competence as a mediator in the pathway from 1st generation (G1) to 2nd generation (G2) parenting quality. A normative sample of children and their parents were assessed in childhood, and again 10 and 20 years later. Parenting quality of G1 parents was assessed at each time point with multiple informants, as was G2 social competence. G2 parenting was assessed at the 20-year follow-up for those who were parents. The mediational role of social competence in G1 to G2 parenting quality was tested via nested path analytic models, accounting for continuity and cross-domain relations. Social competence mediated the intergenerational relation of parenting quality; results were invariant across gender and ethnic minority status and were unchanged after controlling for age, IQ, socioeconomic status, rule-abiding conduct, and personality (i.e., constraint). The authors discuss results regarding developmental theories of close relationships and the potential for cascading benefits within and across generations from interventions to improve G1 parenting or G2 social competence.
Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D; Spinrad, Tracy L
We examined the relations of negative emotions in toddlerhood to the development of ego-resiliency and social competence across early childhood. Specifically, we addressed whether fear and anger/frustration in 30-month-old children (N = 213) was associated with the development of ego-resiliency across 4 time points (42 to 84 months), and, in turn, whether ego-resiliency predicted social competence at 84 months. Child anger/frustration negatively predicted the intercept of ego-resiliency at 42 months (controlling for prior ego-resiliency at 18 months) as well as the slope. Fear did not significantly predict either the intercept or slope of ego-resiliency in the structural model, although it was positively correlated with anger/frustration and was negatively related to ego-resiliency in zero-order correlations. The slope of ego-resiliency was positively related to children's social competence at 84 months; however, the intercept of ego-resiliency (set at 42 months) was not a significant predictor of later social competence. Furthermore, the slope of ego-resiliency mediated the relations between anger/frustration and children's later social competence. The results suggest that individual differences in anger/frustration might contribute to the development of ego-resiliency, which, in turn, is associated with children's social competence.
Stichter, Janine P; Laffey, James; Galyen, Krista; Herzog, Melissa
One consistent area of need for students with autism spectrum disorders is in the area of social competence. However, the increasing need to provide qualified teachers to deliver evidence-based practices in areas like social competence leave schools, such as those found in rural areas, in need of support. Distance education and in particular, 3D Virtual Learning, holds great promise for supporting schools and youth to gain social competence through knowledge and social practice in context. iSocial, a distance education, 3D virtual learning environment implemented the 31-lesson social competence intervention for adolescents across three small cohorts totaling 11 students over a period of 4 months. Results demonstrated that the social competence curriculum was delivered with fidelity in the 3D virtual learning environment. Moreover, learning outcomes suggest that the iSocial approach shows promise for social competence benefits for youth.
Cheng, Yufang; Ye, Jun
Social reciprocity deficits are a core feature of the autism spectrum conditions (ASCs). Many individual with ASCs have difficulty with social interaction due to a frequent lack of social competence. This study focuses on using a virtual learning environment to help the deficiencies of social competence for people with ASCs, and to increase their…
This article analyses the conformity of the educational action research (EAR) process for the improvement of selected competencies that will be necessary in the near future for each active and responsible person. The most requested competencies in the near and midterm future are determined in accordance with near future structural requirements of…
Villarreal, Mirta F; Drucaroff, Lucas J; Goldschmidt, Micaela G; de Achával, Delfina; Costanzo, Elsa Y; Castro, Mariana N; Ladrón-de-Guevara, M Soledad; Busatto Filho, Geraldo; Nemeroff, Charles B; Guinjoan, Salvador M
Measures of social competence are closely related to actual community functioning in patients with schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying competence in schizophrenia are not fully understood. We hypothesized that social deficits in schizophrenia are explained, at least in part, by abnormally lateralized patterns of brain activation in response to tasks engaging social cognition, as compared to healthy individuals. We predicted such patterns would be partly heritable, and therefore affected in patients' nonpsychotic siblings as well. We used a functional magnetic resonance image paradigm to characterize brain activation induced by theory of mind tasks, and two tests of social competence, the Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia (TABS), and the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) in siblings discordant for schizophrenia and comparable healthy controls (n = 14 per group). Healthy individuals showed the strongest correlation between social competence and activation of right hemisphere structures involved in social cognitive processing, whereas in patients, the correlation pattern was lateralized to left hemisphere areas. Unaffected siblings of patients exhibited a pattern intermediate between the other groups. These results support the hypothesis that schizophrenia may be characterized by an abnormal functioning of nondominant hemisphere structures involved in the processing of socially salient information.
Wang, Li-Yi; Jen-Yi, Li; Tan, Liang-See; Tan, Irene; Lim, Xue-Fang; Wu, Bing Sheng
This study adopted a pragmatic qualitative research design to unpack high and low efficacy teachers' task analysis and competence assessment in the context of teaching low-achieving students. Nine secondary school English and Science teachers were recruited and interviewed. Results of thematic analysis show that helping students perform well in…
Mullola, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Alatupa, Saija; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa
We examined associations of teacher-perceived student temperament and educational competence with school achievement, and how these associations were modified by students' gender and teachers' gender and age. Participants were 1063 Finnish ninth-graders (534 boys) and their 29 Mother Language teachers (all female) and 43 Mathematics teachers (17…
Kuvin, Jeffrey T; Williams, Eric S
Patients, hospitals, insurers, and the public rely on competent physicians. The definition and documentation of competency in cardiovascular training and practice continues to evolve. New tools, such as the American College of Cardiology's in-training examination, restructured Core Cardiovascular Training Statement, curricular and lifelong learning competencies, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones help define competent trainees and practitioners, and level the playing field. The American Board of Internal Medicine's Maintenance of Certification program is undergoing critical review, and a common vision of its future form and role are not yet clear. This paper explores present-day cardiovascular competency components, assessment tools, and strategies, and identifies challenges for the future.
Hayward, Dana A.; Ristic, Jelena
Gaze following is a fundamental ability that plays an important role in human social function. However, the link between these two processes remains elusive. On the one hand, typically developing persons show robust gaze following in laboratory cuing tasks. On the other hand, investigations with individuals with autism suggest that reduced social competence in this population may partly reflect an atypical access to social information through attending to perceptual changes that normally accompany gaze shifts, like luminance or motion transients. Here we investigated if gaze cuing in typically developing individuals was modulated by similar task-irrelevant perceptual changes. In Experiment 1, a social gaze cue was presented with or without a luminance change. In Experiment 2, a social gaze cue was presented together with a motion cue. Both experiments indicated reduced magnitudes of gaze cuing in persons with low social competence on trials containing an irrelevant perceptual change. This suggests that similarly to individuals with autism, typically developing persons with low social competence also utilize idiosyncratic perceptual changes in the environment to access social content, revealing strong links between basic gaze following abilities and a range of social competence within typical individuals. PMID:28281642
Hayward, Dana A; Ristic, Jelena
Gaze following is a fundamental ability that plays an important role in human social function. However, the link between these two processes remains elusive. On the one hand, typically developing persons show robust gaze following in laboratory cuing tasks. On the other hand, investigations with individuals with autism suggest that reduced social competence in this population may partly reflect an atypical access to social information through attending to perceptual changes that normally accompany gaze shifts, like luminance or motion transients. Here we investigated if gaze cuing in typically developing individuals was modulated by similar task-irrelevant perceptual changes. In Experiment 1, a social gaze cue was presented with or without a luminance change. In Experiment 2, a social gaze cue was presented together with a motion cue. Both experiments indicated reduced magnitudes of gaze cuing in persons with low social competence on trials containing an irrelevant perceptual change. This suggests that similarly to individuals with autism, typically developing persons with low social competence also utilize idiosyncratic perceptual changes in the environment to access social content, revealing strong links between basic gaze following abilities and a range of social competence within typical individuals.
Anderson, Vicki; Beauchamp, Miriam Helen; Yeates, Keith Owen; Crossley, Louise; Ryan, Nicholas Peter; Hearps, Stephen J C; Catroppa, Cathy
Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at risk of social impairment, but research is yet to document the trajectory of these skills post-injury and factors that may predict social problems. The study addressed these gaps in knowledge, reporting on findings from a prospective, longitudinal follow-up study which investigated social outcomes post injury and explored factors contributing to these outcomes at 2 years post-injury. The sample included 113 children, 74 with TBI and 39 typically developing (TD) controls. TBI participants were recruited on presentation to hospital. Parents rated pre-injury function at that time and all children underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Participants were followed up at 2 years post-injury. Outcomes were social adjustment, social participation, social relationships, and social cognition. Predictors of social outcomes examined included brain lesion characteristics, child cognition (6 months post-TBI) and behavior and environmental factors (pre-injury and 2 years). Reduced social adjustment (p=.011) and social participation (p<.001) were evident in children with TBI compared to TD controls. Poor social adjustment was predicted by externalizing behaviour problems and younger age at injury. Reduced social participation was linked to internalizing behavior problems. Greater lesion volume, lower socioeconomic status and family burden contributed to poorer social relationships, while age at injury predicted social cognition. Within the TBI group, 23% of children exhibited social impairment: younger age at injury, greater pre-injury and current behavior problems and family dysfunction, poorer IQ, processing speed, and empathy were linked to impairment. Further follow-up is required to track social recovery and the influences of cognition, brain, and environment over time.
Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A
The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India.
Contractor, Noshir S.; DeChurch, Leslie A.
The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the “who” and the “how” of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373
Petranovich, Christine L; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Staat, Mary Allen; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter; Wade, Shari L
The objectives of this study were to examine the association of structural language and pragmatic communication with behavior problems and social competence in girls adopted internationally. Participants included girls between 6-12 years of age who were internationally adopted from China (n = 32) and Eastern-Europe (n = 25) and a control group of never-adopted girls (n = 25). Children completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Parents completed the Child Communication Checklist- second edition, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Home and Community Social Behavior Scales. Compared to the controls, parents in the Eastern European group reported more problems with social competence, externalizing behaviors, structural language, and pragmatic communication. The Chinese group evidenced more internalizing problems. Using generalized linear regression, interaction terms were examined to determine if the associations of pragmatic communication and structural language with behavior problems and social competence varied across groups. Controlling for general intellectual functioning, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more externalizing problems and poorer social competence. In the Chinese group, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more internalizing problems. Post-adoption weaknesses in pragmatic communication are associated with behavior problems and social competence. Internationally adopted children may benefit from interventions that target pragmatic communication.
Cohen, Robert; Hsueh, Yeh; Zhou, Zongkui; Hancock, Miriam H.; Floyd, Randy
Children's peer relations are critical for social adjustment and respect plays an important role in peer relations. Furthermore, children's understanding and expression of respect is related to culture. This chapter discusses the interplay of culture, peer social competence, and respect. (Contains 1 table.)
Adapting Norton's (2000) notion of investment as an analytical lens along with thematic analysis, this longitudinal/narrative inquiry explores how 2 EFL teachers' language socialization in the United States resulted in an identity (re)construction as teachers of intercultural competence. Baris and Serkan's language socialization in the United…
Pearson, Emma; Rao, Nirmala
Examined relations between Hong Kong and English mothers' socialization goals and childrearing practices and their impact upon preschool peer competence. Found significant correlations between socialization toward filial piety and authoritarian practices, and valuing socioemotional development and authoritative parenting for both groups. Chinese…
Stichter, Janine P.; Christ, Shawn E.; Herzog, Melissa J.; O'Donnell, Rose M.; O'Connor, Karen V.
Numerous research groups have consistently called for increased rigor within the evaluation of social programming to better understand pivotal factors to treatment outcomes. The underwhelming data on the essential features of social competence programs for students with behavior challenges may, in part, be attributed to the manner by which…
Laosa, Luis M.; Henderson, Ronald W.
This chapter focuses on the innermost level of Bronfenbrenner's four-level conception of the human environmental ecology, namely the microsystem, and more specifically, the child's socialization in the family. Following discussion of concepts related to socialization, competence, and environmental ecology, selected research studies are reviewed to…
Shapiro, Valerie B.; Kim, B. K. Elizabeth; Accomazzo, Sarah; Roscoe, Joe N.
"The Devereux Student Strengths Assessment Mini" (DESSA-Mini) (LeBuffe, Shapiro, & Naglieri, 2014) efficiently monitors the growth of Social-Emotional Competence (SEC) in the routine implementation of Social Emotional Learning programs. The DESSA-Mini is used to assess approximately half a million children around the world. Since…
Sponseller, Doris Bergen; And Others
The study was designed to determine whether use of an immediate photographic feedback technique by teachers can enhance self concept development and extend appropriate social activity in 46 handicapped children (aged 2-6 years) from four classrooms in two schools. During the first week all teachers completed the Social Competence Rating Scale and…
Myers, L L; Thyer, B A
Persons with severe hearing loss live in a unique cultural context with which social workers may not be familiar. This paper reviews the skills needed for the culturally competent social work assessment with deaf clients, including communication skills, interviewing methods, taking case and family histories and behavioral observation.
Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette
This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…
This paper discusses the use of an alternative instrument to assess the social-emotional competence (SEC) of secondary school students in Singapore. The instrument was used in a larger study to explore an approach to infuse social-emotional learning in the curriculum for children in school. The design of this research instrument is based on the…
Zeedyk, Sasha M.; Cohen, Shana R.; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan
Perceived loneliness and social competence were assessed for 127 children with ASD without comorbid ID, 4-7 years old, through child self-report. Using an abbreviated version of the "Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire" (LSDQ; Cassidy and Asher in Child Dev 63:250-365, 1992), the majority of children reported friendships,…
Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq
Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental…
Zeedyk, Sasha M.; Cohen, Shana R.; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan
Perceived loneliness and social competence were assessed for 127 children with ASD without comorbid ID, 4-7 years old, through child self-report. Using an abbreviated version of the "Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire" (LSDQ; Cassidy and Asher in "Child Dev" 63:250-365, 1992), the majority of children reported…
Guralnick, Michael J.; Connor, Robert T.; Johnson, L. Clark
The peer-related social competence of children with Down syndrome was examined in an observational study. Dyadic interactions with peers of children with Down syndrome were compared with the dyadic interactions of matched groups of typically developing children and with playmates differing in both familiarity and social skills. Results suggested…
Stichter, Janine P.; O'Connor, Karen V.; Herzog, Melissa J.; Lierheimer, Kristin; McGhee, Stephanie D.
Despite frequent reports of academic success, individuals with high functioning autism or Aspergers Syndrome (HFA/AS) often manifest deficits in social abilities. These deficits can lead to daily difficulties, and negative long-term outcomes. Deficits in social competency are evident in this population from an early age, as children with HFA/AS…
Teasley, Martell; Gourdine, Ruby; Canfield, James
This study presents descriptive findings from self-reported qualitative and quantitative data on barriers and facilitators to culturally competent school social work practice. The study highlights the need for the development of evaluative methods for the purpose of examining how elements within the practice environment affect school social work…
Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Harn, William E.
Among characteristics of children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS) are difficulties in social communication. This study describes the social communicative competence of two middle school children with AS participating in conversations in three different situational contexts. The conversations were transcribed and submitted to three kinds of…
Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Rescorla, Leslie
The present study examined gender differences in the relation between language and social competence in 268 children aged 18 to 35 months. Correlational and regression analyses demonstrated that the association between expressive language and social ability was significantly stronger in boys than in girls.
Macgowan, Mark J.
Objective: This article describes the development of a measure of foundation competencies in group work derived from the Standards for Social Work Practice with Groups. Developed by the Association for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups, the Standards have not been widely used. An instrument based on the Standards can help advance…
Fox, Nathan A.; And Others
Observed 4-year-olds during interaction tasks, and 2-weeks later recorded brain wave functions while subject attended to a visual stimulus. Found that children who displayed social competence exhibited greater relative left frontal activation than children displaying social withdrawal during the play session, who exhibited greater relative right…
Hilton, Claudia; Graver, Kathleen; LaVesser, Patricia
Purpose: This study examines the relationship between social competence and sensory processing in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Methodology: Children, ages 6-10 (N = 36), with high functioning autism spectrum disorders were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Sensory Profile (SP). A bivariate…
Steward, Robbie J.; Sobczak, Joan
This study investigated the relationship between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-perceived social competence. Subjects were 157 male and 215 female college students who completed a consent form, demographic questionnaire, the Texas Social Behavior Inventory, and the Body Parts/Physical Attractiveness Scale. Significant correlations…
Butova, Yelena Valeryevna; Khan, Natalya Nikolaevna; Illarionova, Ludmila Petrovna; Moldazhanova, Asemqul
This paper represents a profound research of Kazakh and foreign scientific literature and tries to define the structure, the essence and meaningful characteristics of the art higher education institution students' competence as a set of professionally significant qualities of personality, which is determined by the nature and specifics of the…
Hardy, Kristina K; Willard, Victoria W; Watral, Melody Ann; Bonner, Melanie J
Children with brain tumors are at risk for a number of cognitive, academic, and social difficulties as a consequence of their illness and its treatment. Of these, the least is known about social functioning, particularly over the course of the illness. Thirty children with brain tumors were evaluated using neurocognitive and psychological measures, including a measure of perceived competency. Results indicated that off-therapy brain tumor patients reported more concerns about their social competence than both a normative sample and children on treatment. Findings highlight the need for more research aimed at helping survivors cope with long-term stressors associated with their illness.
Gerli, Fabrizio; Bonesso, Sara; Pizzi, Claudio
Even though, over the last two decades, the boundaryless career concept has stimulated a wide theoretical debate, scholars have recently claimed that research on the competencies that are necessary for managing a cross-boundary career is still incomplete. Similarly, the literature on emotional and social competencies has demonstrated how they predict work performance across industries and jobs but has neglected their influence in explaining the individual's mobility across boundaries and their impact on career success. This study aims to fill these gaps by examining the effects of emotional and social competencies on boundaryless career and on objective career success. By analyzing a sample of 142 managers over a period of 8 years, we found evidence that emotional competencies positively influence the propensity of an individual to undertake physical career mobility and that career advancements are related to the possession of social competencies and depend on the adoption of boundaryless career paths. This study also provides a contribution in terms of the evaluation of the emotional and social competencies demonstrated by an individual and of the operationalization of the measurement of boundaryless career paths, considering three facets of the physical mobility construct (organizational, industrial, and geographical boundaries). PMID:26388809
Gerli, Fabrizio; Bonesso, Sara; Pizzi, Claudio
Even though, over the last two decades, the boundaryless career concept has stimulated a wide theoretical debate, scholars have recently claimed that research on the competencies that are necessary for managing a cross-boundary career is still incomplete. Similarly, the literature on emotional and social competencies has demonstrated how they predict work performance across industries and jobs but has neglected their influence in explaining the individual's mobility across boundaries and their impact on career success. This study aims to fill these gaps by examining the effects of emotional and social competencies on boundaryless career and on objective career success. By analyzing a sample of 142 managers over a period of 8 years, we found evidence that emotional competencies positively influence the propensity of an individual to undertake physical career mobility and that career advancements are related to the possession of social competencies and depend on the adoption of boundaryless career paths. This study also provides a contribution in terms of the evaluation of the emotional and social competencies demonstrated by an individual and of the operationalization of the measurement of boundaryless career paths, considering three facets of the physical mobility construct (organizational, industrial, and geographical boundaries).
Anderson, Vicki; Gomes, Alison; Greenham, Mardee; Hearps, Stephen; Gordon, Anne; Rinehart, Nicole; Gonzalez, Linda; Yeates, Keith Owen; Hajek, Christine A; Lo, Warren; Mackay, Mark
Limited information is available regarding predictors of psychosocial difficulties in children following stroke. This study aimed to (i) compare social competence of children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) to those with chronic illness and healthy controls and (ii) investigate the contribution of stroke pathology, neurological outcome and environment. Thirty-six children with AIS > 12 months prior to recruitment were compared with children with chronic illness (asthma) (n = 15) and healthy controls (n = 43). Children underwent intellectual assessment, and children and parents completed questionnaires to assess social competence. Children with AIS underwent MRI scan and neurological evaluation. Child AIS was associated with poorer social adjustment and participation, and children with AIS were rated as having more social problems than controls. Lesion volume was not associated with social outcome, but subcortical stroke was linked to reduced social participation and younger stroke onset predicted better social interaction and higher self-esteem. Family function was the sole predictor of social adjustment. Findings highlight the risk of social impairment following pediatric stroke, with both stroke and environmental factors influencing children's social competence in the chronic stages of recovery. They indicate the potential for intervention targeting support at the family level.
Kok, Tessa B; Post, Wendy J; Tucha, Oliver; de Bont, Eveline S J M; Kamps, Willem A; Kingma, Annette
Social competence, i.e. appropriate or effective social functioning, is an important determinant of quality of life. Social competence consists of social skills, social performance and social adjustment. The current paper reviews social skills, in particular emotion recognition performance and its relationship with social adjustment in children with brain disorders. In this review, normal development and the neuro-anatomical correlates of emotion recognition in both healthy children and adults and in various groups of children with brain disorders, will be discussed. A systematic literature search conducted on PubMed, yielded nine papers. Emotion recognition tasks were categorized on the basis of task design and emotional categories to ensure optimal comparison across studies before an explorative meta-analysis was conducted. This meta-analytic review suggests that children with brain disorders show impaired emotion recognition, with the recognition of sad and fearful expressions being most impaired. Performance did not seem to be related to derivative measures of social adjustment. Despite the limited number of studies on a variety of brain disorders and control groups, outcomes were quite consistent across analyses and corresponded largely with the existing literature on development of emotion recognition in typically developing children. More longitudinal prospective studies on emotion recognition are needed to gain insight into recovery and subsequent development of children with distinct brain disorders. This will aid development, selection and implementation of interventions for improvement of social competence and quality of life in children with a brain disorder.
Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás
We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.
Van Overwalle, Frank; Ma, Ning; Baetens, Kris
This study investigates to what extent social and competence traits are represented in a similar or different neural trait code. To localize these trait codes, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging repetition suppression, which is a rapid reduction of neuronal responses upon repeated presentation of the same implied trait. Participants had to infer an agent's trait from brief trait-implying behavioral descriptions. In each trial, the critical target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence that implied the same trait or a different competence-related trait which was also opposite in valence. The results revealed robust repetition suppression from prime to target in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) given a similar (social) as well as a dissimilar (competence) prime. The suppression given a similar prime confirms earlier research demonstrating that a trait code is represented in the ventral mPFC. The suppression given a dissimilar prime is interpreted as indicating that participants categorize a combination of competence and social information into novel subcategories, reflecting nice (but incompetent) or nerdy (but socially awkward) traits. A multi-voxel pattern analysis broadly confirmed these results, and pinpointed the inferior parietal cortex, cerebellum, temporo-parietal junction and mPFC as areas that differentiate between social and competence traits.
Hayashi, Chisato; Mikami, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Reiko; Maeda, Chiho; Hayakawa, Kazuo
This study investigated the relationship between twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence in a prospective longitudinal study. We hypothesized that twins whose tie is close would be more likely to develop a twin language, and these twins would be less likely to develop social competence. In addition, we hypothesize that some environmental factors, such as having an older sibling, preschool attendance, zygosity, and sex are also related to twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence. At baseline in 1999 a mailed questionnaire survey was conducted, and a follow-up questionnaire was distributed in 2004 among 958 mothers. As a result, 516 respondents returned the questionnaire (53.9%). In this study, we used 261 twin pairs aged from 6 to 12 years (school-age children) for analysis, excluding those with missing values. In the present study, we found that zygosity and sex were associated with twins' close ties. Having an older sibling and preschool attendance did not affect the twins' close tie, twin language, or social competence. One of the most important findings was that social competence was not affected directly by twins' close tie, but was affected when a twin language was found.
Barbarin, Oscar; Iruka, Iheoma U; Harradine, Chistine; Winn, Donna-Marie C; McKinney, Marvin K; Taylor, Lorraine C
This article explores the development of psychosocial competence in boys of color (BOC; 226 African Americans and 109 Latinos). Changes in competence were assessed over 2 years in cohorts of low-income BOC beginning in pre-K, kindergarten, or first grade. Psycho-social competence was assessed in terms of self-regulation, interpersonal skills, and positive relationships with peers and teachers. Psycho-social and academic competence in literacy and math were assessed in prekindergarten through second grade using teacher reports, child reports, and normed measures. One-year follow-up data were available on measures of psycho-social competence. BOC evidenced high levels of psycho-social competence, especially on self-regulation, which was related to both math and reading achievement. Teachers and children held similarly favorable views of their relationships, but teacher ratings of peer relationships of BOC were less positive. Although emotional self-regulation was stable, declines were observed in self-regulation of attention, quality of peer relationships, teacher-rated closeness, and satisfaction with life at school, especially over the transition from pre-K to primary school.
This applied dissertation investigated whether a combined-strategy group intervention improved social competence among children with autism spectrum disorders. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders exhibit deficits in social behaviors that may negatively impact all aspects of their lives. Social competence for individuals with autism spectrum…
Vickerstaff, Sandy; Heriot, Sandra; Wong, Michelle; Lopes, Ana; Dossetor, David
Although social competence deficits in children with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorders (HFASD) are well documented, there is little research investigating self-perceptions of social limitations. This study replicated research showing a negative association between self-perceived social competence and intellectual ability and…
LaFreniere, Peter J.; Sroufe, L. Alan
Peer competence in preschool children in two classes was assessed via (a) teacher rankings of social competence, (b) peer sociometrics, and behavioral measures of (c) social participation, and others. Affective expression and social behavior were temporally stable and consistent across contexts for both classes; however, patterns of…
With the emergence of Web 2.0, the incorporation of internet-based social networking tools is becoming increasingly popular in the foreign language classes of today. This form of social interaction provides students with the opportunity to express and share their views with their peers, and to create profiles as well as online communities of…
Wright, Kevin B; Banas, John A; Bessarabova, Elena; Bernard, Daniel R
Drawing upon Kreps's (1988) Relational Health Communication Competence Model (RHCCM), this study examined the effect of perceived communication competence on perceived stress and subsequently perceived job burnout. In addition, the role of social support satisfaction as a potential mediator between perceived communication competence and perceived stress was explored. The extended RHCCM was proposed and tested in a survey of 221 health care workers from three Veterans Administration hospitals in the United States. The model was tested by structural equation modeling. The results indicated support for the extended model. The implications of the findings for the extended RHCCM are discussed along with limitations of the study and directions for future research.
Smith, Matthew J; Horan, William P; Cobia, Derin J; Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Reilly, James L; Breiter, Hans C
Empathic deficits have been linked to poor functioning in schizophrenia, but this work is mostly limited to self-report data. This study examined whether performance-based empathy measures account for incremental variance in social competence and social attainment above and beyond self-reported empathy, neurocognition, and clinical symptoms. Given the importance of working memory in theoretical models of empathy and in the prediction of functioning in schizophrenia, we also examined whether empathy mediates the relationship between working memory and functioning. Sixty outpatients and 45 healthy controls were compared on performance-based measures of 3 key components of empathic responding, including facial affect perception, emotional empathy (affective responsiveness), and cognitive empathy (emotional perspective-taking). Participants also completed measures of self-reported empathy, neurocognition, clinical symptoms, and social competence and attainment. Patients demonstrated lower accuracy than controls across the 3 performance-based empathy measures. Among patients, these measures showed minimal relations to self-reported empathy but significantly correlated with working memory and other neurocognitive functions as well as symptom levels. Furthermore, cognitive empathy explained significant incremental variance in social competence (∆R (2) = .07, P < .05) and was found to mediate the relation between working memory and social competence. Performance-based measures of empathy were sensitive to functionally relevant disturbances in schizophrenia. Working memory deficits appear to have an important effect on these disruptions in empathy. Empathy is emerging as a promising new area for social cognitive research and for novel recovery-oriented treatment development.
Van Ryzin, Mark J; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David
Although social competence in children has been linked to the quality of parenting, prior research has typically not accounted for genetic similarities between parents and children, or for interactions between environmental (i.e., parental) and genetic influences. In this article, the possibility of a Gene x Environment (G × E) interaction in the prediction of social competence in school-age children is evaluated. Using a longitudinal, multimethod data set from a sample of children adopted at birth (N = 361), a significant interaction was found between birth parent sociability and sensitive, responsive adoptive parenting when predicting child social competence at school entry (age 6), even when controlling for potential confounds. An analysis of the interaction revealed that genetic strengths can buffer the effects of unresponsive parenting.
Kouri, Pirkko; Rissanen, Marja-Liisa; Weber, Patrick; Park, Hyeoun-Ae
In today's life, social media offer new working ways. People are increasingly expanding interactions from face-to-face meetings to online ways of communication, networking, searching, creating and sharing information, and furthermore taking care of patients/citizens via tweeting care, Facebook care, blogging care, vlogging care, infotainment care, gamification-care, infographic care, for instance. This chapter discusses the utilisation of social media in the healthcare domain including nursing education, practice and research. When in the current healthcare era, social media is used effectively and purposefully, it can give all of us a greater choice in how we live, how we take care of our health and how we learn and build both our professional competences and produce evidence-based, qualified data. Nurses need continuous education and proper tools to take the most of the benefits of social media, not forgetting privacy and ethical issues. This use of social media in professional nursing generates the need for new competences.
Arden-Ogle, Ellen A.
The research's purpose was to examine how exemplary community college study abroad programs assisted student participants in acquiring global competence. Three research questions were explored: (1) What issues need to be anticipated when planning a study abroad program for community college students in order to effectively incorporate…
The emphasis on multicultural education and cultural competency has been a popular subject among teacher educators and scholars (Cochran-Smith, 2001; Ladson-Billings, 1995, 1999a, 1999b; Ladson-Billings, 2003, 2006; Perry, Moore, Acosta, Edwards, & Frey, 2006; Sleeter, 2008, 2009; Sleeter & Stillman, 2005; Sleeter,1991, 2001, 2008; Sleeter…
Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie S.; Wolfe, Christopher; Spitler, Mary Elaine
In an effort to promote best practices regarding mathematics teaching and learning at the preschool level, national advisory panels and organizations have emphasized the importance of children's emergent counting and related competencies, such as the ability to verbally count, maintain one-to-one correspondence, count with cardinality, subitize,…
Greene, Jay P.; Winters, Marcus A.
This study examined whether the existence or threat of competition would cause public schools to improve, focusing on Florida's A+ Program, which combined educational vouchers and high stakes testing. The theory behind the program is that chronically failing public schools will have an incentive to improve if they must compete with other schools…
Boahin, Peter; Eggink, Jose; Hofman, Adriaan
This article undertakes a comparison of competency-based training (CBT) systems in a number of countries with the purpose of drawing lessons to support Ghana and other countries in the process of CBT implementation. The study focuses on recognition of prior learning and involvement of industry since these features seem crucial in achieving…
Mosalanejad, Leili; Shahsavari, Sakine; Sobhanian, Saeed; Dastpak, Mehdi
Background: By rapid developing of the network technology, the internet-based learning methods are substituting the traditional classrooms making them expand to the virtual network learning environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of virtual systems on competency-based skills of first-year nursing students.…
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Franzini, Luisa; Windle, Michael; Dittus, Patricia; Cuccaro, Paula; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A
Despite evidence that neighborhoods confer both risk and resilience for youth development, the existing neighborhood research has a number of methodological limitations including lack of diversity in neighborhoods sampled and neighborhood characteristics assessed. The purpose of this study was to address these methodological limitations of existing research and to examine the relationship of neighborhood structural and social characteristics to family-level social processes and teacher-reported social competence during early adolescence. The study sample of 3,624 fifth graders (51 % girls) was ethnically diverse, including roughly even proportions of non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic youth. Neighborhood measures included economic disadvantage derived from the U.S. Census, physical and social disorder obtained by direct observation, and social capital from parental reports. Family-level social processes included parent reported family cohesion and youth reported maternal and paternal nurturance. We found that neighborhood factors significantly associated with youth social aggression and social competence but not social withdrawal, after controlling for individual demographic characteristics and parenting factors. There was limited evidence of moderation of family influences by neighborhood characteristics as well as the moderation of neighborhood effects by children's gender. Neighborhood physical disorder was associated with increased social aggression among boys but with increased social withdrawal among girls. Implications of the study's findings for research on neighborhoods and adolescent development and the development of preventive interventions are discussed.
Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Nie, Youyan
This study examined how values related to achievement goals and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among secondary school students in China (N = 355) and Indonesia (N = 356). Statistical comparisons showed the Chinese students endorsed more strongly than the Indonesian students on self-direction and hedonism values, individual-oriented achievement motivation, and mastery-approach goals. Conversely, the Indonesian students endorsed more strongly than their Chinese counterparts on security, conformity, tradition, universalism and achievement values, social-oriented achievement motivation, and performance-approach and mastery-avoidance goals. Values explained a significant amount of the variance in almost all of the dimensions of motivation. Etic and emic relationships between values and achievement motivations were found.
Wang, C K John; Liu, Woon Chia; Lochbaum, Marc R; Stevenson, Sarah J
We examined whether perceived competence moderated the relationships between implicit theories, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation for sports and physical activity. We placed 309 university students into high and moderate perceived competence groups. When perceived competence was high, entity beliefs did not predict the performance-avoidance goal; yet when perceived competence was moderately low, entity beliefs did predict this goal. The mastery-avoidance goal had no relationship with intrinsic motivation when perceived competence was high, but had a significant negative relationship when perceived competence was moderately low. Our findings highlight the importance of reexamining the role of perceived competence when studying implicit beliefs and the 2 x 2 achievement goals.
To determine short-run effects of experimentally imposed leadership roles, a sample of 221 Boy Scouts (aged 10 to 17) was formed into (usually) 4-man teams that competed in 3 skill games. One member of each team was randomly designated as captain, with power to administer and reward. Captains who were leaders in their troops responded to becoming…
Carr-Lopez, Sian; Seal, Craig R.; Scott, Amy N.; Lopez, Chris
Objective. To determine whether a quantitative tool could be used to measure social emotional competence and whether the development of social emotional competence through a pharmacy practicum course is possible. Design. First-year pharmacy students completed the Social Emotional Development Inventory (SED-I) online and then participated in a series of mock patient consultations on smoking cessation and nonprescription medication. Assessment. The 212 students enrolled in the course completed the SED-I. Evaluation of students’ performance in the clinical cases using a patient counseling assessment form showed that students’ social emotional competencies significantly improved. Observer ratings for “influence” and “connection” on the assessment form predicted student performance in the clinical cases. Conclusions. Role-play exercises in which students engage in patient consultations can be used to develop social emotional competence in pharmacy students, and the SED-I and a patient counseling assessment form can be used to assess learning and improvement in this area. PMID:23049104
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice
This study used a 3-wave longitudinal design to investigate developmental cascades among social competence and externalizing and internalizing behavioral adjustment in a normative sample of 117 children seen at 4, 10, and 14 years. Children, mothers, and teachers provided data. A series of nested path analysis models was used to determine the most parsimonious and plausible cascades across the three constructs over and above their covariation at each age and stability across age. Children with lower social competence at age 4 years exhibited more externalizing and internalizing behaviors at age 10 years and more externalizing behaviors at age 14 years. Children with lower social competence at age 4 years also exhibited more internalizing behaviors at age 10 years and more internalizing behaviors at age 14 years. Children who exhibited more internalizing behaviors at age 4 years exhibited more internalizing behaviors at age 10 years and more externalizing behaviors at age 14 years. These cascades among social competence and behavioral adjustment obtained independent of child intelligence and maternal education and social desirability of responding. PMID:20883577
Rockhill, Carol M; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Katon, Wayne J
This study examined the roles of social competence and social support as potential mediators of the association between psychopathology and functional outcomes in a middle school sample (n=521). Participants were stratified into four psychopathology risk groups (depression only, conduct problems only, comorbid depression and conduct problems, low symptoms) based on screening during early 6th grade. Functional outcomes were 6th grade point average (GPA) and parent rating of global adaptive functioning in their 7th grade student. Low levels of social competence were found to mediate the association between symptoms and both lower grades and global functioning for adolescents with depressive symptoms alone and with comorbid symptoms, but not for those with conduct problems alone. Lack of social support mediated the association between psychiatric symptoms and lower grades for adolescents with depression alone and comorbid symptoms, but not for those with conduct problems alone. These findings suggest that intervention to improve social competence and social support may enhance functional outcomes, especially for youth with depressive symptoms or comorbid depressive and conduct symptoms.
Berg, Anne T; Vickrey, Barbara G; Testa, Francine M; Levy, Susan R; Shinnar, Shlomo; DiMario, Francis
Behavioral and related disorders are frequently reported in association with childhood epilepsy but the reasons for this are unclear. In a long-term prospective, community-based study of newly-diagnosed childhood epilepsy, behavioral assessments (Child Behavior Checklist) were performed in children 8 to 9 years after the initial diagnosis of epilepsy to determine the impact of remission and medication status on behavioral problems. Children with epilepsy were also compared with sibling controls. A total of 226 children (108 females, 118 males; mean age 13y 1mo [SD 2y 8mo], range 8-17y) with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy were included in the analyses. One hundred and twenty-eight matched pairs were included in analyses of case-sibling differences. Lack of remission and current medication use were associated with worse behavioral problem and competency scores. Lack of remission generally had a greater effect than medication use, except for attention problems; medication status had the more deleterious effect (p<0.001). Children with epilepsy had significantly worse behavioral problems and competency scores relative to sibling controls. Even in paris in which the patient was seizure-free and off medication, significant case-sibling differences persisted for most scales (p=0.05 to p=0.001). Lack of remission and continued use of antiepileptic drugs have a negative influence on behavioral problems in children with epilepsy but do not fully explain the worse scores relative to siblings. This suggests an independent effect associated with the epilepsy itself.
The changes facing industries are necessitating a concomitant change in university curriculum. Before instigating a reform, however, education providers need to acquire an understanding of the most pertinent development needs essential for filling industrial competence gaps. The Language Centre at the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland set out to respond to the emerging competence demands by examining industrial requirements through previous research and stakeholder analyses. Surveys conducted among employers and students corroborated a need to shift focus towards oral communication abilities. More specifically, university education needs to address interaction skills essential in meetings and managerial tasks. As a result, a so-called integrated language course was designed and piloted to train students into multi-disciplinary, culturally and ethically aware communicators who possess leveraged self-leadership and managerial abilities. 'Organisational Communications' integrates substance matters such as finance, strategy, leadership and ethics into a language course, while harnessing the English language as a tool. Course methodology is based on project- and problem-based learning and situational learning, rooting the students in real working life by imitating authentic corporate cases and industrial contexts. The course aims to provide the students with preparedness, ability and mindset to deal with working life challenges and ways of working while applying their specialist discourse, that is, the appropriate industrial jargon and linguistic practices. The learning outcomes and student feedback from this course indicate that the pedagogy in use in this experiment, drawing from exercises emulating authentic, industrial problems, offers an effective method of preparing students for working life requirements.
Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Razza, Rachel P.; Dillworth-Bart, Janean E.; Mueller, Ulrich
Executive function is understood as an umbrella term encompassing a number of interrelated sub-skills necessary for purposeful, goal-directed activity. Research suggests a vital role for executive function in children's social-emotional development. However, executive function is rarely considered in models of intervention programs that attempt to…
Mak, Anita S.; Shaw, Tamara L.
Increasing ethnic and cultural diversity worldwide and especially in Australia requires that psychologists and counsellors cultivate the know-how to interact and work effectively with clients and stakeholders in cross-cultural contexts. This study aimed to identify and compare themes regarding challenging intercultural social scenarios experienced…
Nurius, Paula S.
As the scientific marketplace rapidly evolves, we must keep revisiting strategic preparation of our doctoral students and early career scholars to be successful innovators in these contexts. As an inherently integrative, change-oriented, community-engaged, and context-sensitive discipline, social work has enormous potential as a value-added…
Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.
Attachment theorists suggest that attachment security with parents supports the quality of social adaptation in peer groups during early childhood, and numerous studies supporting this conjecture have been published. Most of these studies used enacted representations rather than mental representations of attachment security, and most studies…
Schlesinger, Elfriede G.; Schatz, Joseph L.
Focus is on assessing how Vance's concepts may aid in reconceptualizing and reorganizing much human behavior and social environment content to facilitate the integration of seemingly unrelated findings and conflicting theories on the relationship between disability, poverty, and alienation. (Author/LBH)
Pinto, María; Fernández-Pascual, Rosaura; Gómez-Hernández, José A.; Cuevas, Aurora; Granell, Ximo; Puertas, Susana; Guerrero, David; Gómez, Carmen; Palomares, Rocío
This paper examines students' self-assessment of their information literacy, presenting a study involving 1,575 social science students at five Spanish universities. Data were collected and analyzed through a validated instrument that measures the variables of (1) the students' belief in the importance of information literacy skills; (2)…
Coelho, Vitor A; Sousa, Vanda; Marchante, Marta
The Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's version, Short Form (QACSE-P-SF) allows teachers to assess their students' social and emotional competencies, having been designed for program evaluation. Thirty-nine teachers completed the QACSE-P-SF, regarding 657 students (fourth to ninth grades). Factor analyses supported a six-factor structure with acceptable internal consistency. Sex differences were found with teachers reporting girls as having higher scores on Self-Control, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills, and Responsible Decision Making. Developmental differences were also found with fourth-grade students presenting higher levels of Social Awareness and Relationship Skills than older students. The final version of the QACSE-P-SF is composed by 30 items, organized into six scales and less time consuming than the previous version for teachers who need to assess full classes.
Inglehart, Marita; Brown, Donald R.
This study investigated the influence of social support on a person's career choice and its impact on later achievement, testing the hypotheses that social support that pressures a person into entering a given field will lead to lower achievement, and that social support that contributes to the person's development of a professional identity will…
Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Wang, Cen
The current study investigated the mediating role of social achievement goals in the relation between classroom goal structures and academic engagement and social adjustment among 373 middle school students (52.8% female). Students' perceptions of classroom goal structures were measured in Fall; social achievement goals and academic and social…
Faria, Debra Fromm; Dauenhauer, Jason A; Steitz, David W
This article describes the development and qualitative student outcomes of an intergenerational service-learning course designed to promote social work gerontological competencies. Efforts focused on creating a learning environment to actively promote learning opportunities for students and older adults. The course was hosted at a local, private, not-for-profit senior housing location where older adults were invited to actively participate in the course activities. A total of 37 undergraduate and graduate students completed the course. Content and narrative analysis was conducted using text from a final structured reflective journal assignment. This analysis identified themes related to the "explicit" and "implicit" pedagogy of the course that details students' educational growth. The results of this study indicate that intergenerational service-learning coursework may help foster geriatric competencies among graduate and undergraduate students. The benefits of utilizing social work gerontological competencies to guide course objectives, content, and student outcomes are discussed.
Singer, Jonathan B.; Gray, Susan W.; Miehls, Dennis
The 2008 Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards identified 10 core competencies that all social work graduates should master. MSW programs found themselves with a need to identify knowledge, values, and skill statements that reflected what concentration-year students were expected to know and be able to do. In 2009 a group of educators…
Mitchell-Copeland, Jennifer; And Others
Observed 62 children in 10 preschools and day care centers, and their interactions with their mothers (at home) and with teachers and peers (at school). Teachers rated children's social competence; children rated one another's likability. Regression analysis suggested that quality of child-teacher attachment relationships relates to prosocial…
Singh, Anneliese A.; Merchant, Niloufer; Skudrzyk, Bogusia; Ingene, Daphne
The Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) is committed to understanding how issues of multiculturalism and social justice affect all aspects of group work. This document reflects the updating and revision of a previous document entitled, "Principles for Diversity-Competent Group Workers," which was endorsed by ASGW in 1998 and published…
The objective of this study was to determine how different is the competence of between Junior High School Economic-Social Studies teachers in Indonesia, especially Java and outside of Java. The subjects of this study were teachers who participated in Curriculum 2013 dissemination activities carried out by the Directorate of Elementary and…
Wood, Mary M.
This final report discusses the outcomes of an outreach project based on the validated Developmental Therapy-Teaching model that emphasizes teaching skills which foster a child's social-emotional-behavioral competence. The project assisted early childhood and local child care programs in replicating components of the model in inclusive or pull-out…
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Nickerson, Kim
Examined the association between parent racial socialization and child competence among African American preschoolers. Found that strong racial identity and ethnic cultural enrichment at home were linked to higher factual knowledge and better developed problem-solving skills, as well as fewer problem behaviors. (JPB)
Öneren Sendil, Çagla; Tantekin Erden, Feyza
This study investigated the differences in peer preference, gender and temperamental characteristics of children aged five to six in relation to their social competence (SC) and behavioural adaptation. The data were collected through the use of "Picture Sociometry Scale", "SC and Behaviour Evaluation Scale" and "Short…
Ren, Yonggang; Wyver, Shirley
This study investigated whether host and heritage cultural orientations were associated with Chinese preschoolers' social competence and whether such associations varied across gender in Western contexts. Ninety-six Chinese-Australian children aged 36-69 months from 15 childcare centres in Sydney participated in the study. The General Ethnicity…
The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating…
Classen, Audra; Cheatham, Gregory A.
Many children in preschool need support developing appropriate social-emotional competencies. Supportive early educators build confidence in young children to express and regulate emotions, develop solutions to problems, interact with peers, and persist when faced with challenges (Denham, 2006; Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2004). This article…
Boissicat, Natacha; Pansu, Pascal; Bouffard, Therese; Cottin, Fanny
According to the literature, among social comparison mechanisms, identification with an upward target would be the most frequent mechanism that students report to use. However, it remains unclear how the identification and the contrast mechanisms contribute to the construction of pupils' scholastic perceived competence. The aim of this study was…
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.
This matrix keys school films to the social studies competency-based curriculum cbjectives for grade 5. Three television series are included. Emphasis is placed on geography, people, and the economy, but the themes are also related to history and government. The first series, "Across Cultures," focuses on the people of North America, South…
Dunsmore, Julie C.; Noguchi, Ryoichi J. P.; Garner, Pamela W.; Casey, Elizabeth C.; Bhullar, Naureen
Research Findings: We examined whether "affective social competence," or the ability to effectively send and receive emotional signals and to manage one's own emotional experience, contributes to preschool children's peer relations. Forty-two previously unacquainted preschoolers were observed while participating in a week-long playschool. Greater…
Cardoza, Deanna Janine
The purpose of this research study was to examine the effectiveness of training students in peer mediation (Mediator Mentors Curriculum), and how peer mediation-training influences third- through fifth-grade student perceptions of self-esteem, resiliency, and social competence. The research was a mixed-methods design with both quantitative and…
Lauth, Gerhard W.; Otte, T. Alian; Heubeck, Bernd G.
Modern evaluations of parent training programmes seek evidence not only of efficacy in optimal, often university clinic settings, but also of effectiveness under normal field conditions. The Kompetenztraining fur Eltern sozial auffalliger Kinder (KES) is a cognitive-behavioural competence training for parents of socially disruptive children. This…
Zhexembinova, Ainur K.; Shah, Saeeda; Taubayeva, Sharkul T.
The article presents the results of the first series of practical research within the scope of an adopted program of pilot testing on "The Technology of Formation of Exploratory Competence in Future Social Teachers within the System of University Education." A set of questionnaires offered to students made it possible to identify the…
Oberst, Ursula; Gallifa, Josep; Farriols, Nuria; Vilaregut, Anna
This article discusses the importance of emotional and social competences in higher education and presents a training model. In 1991, Ramon Llull University of Barcelona (Spain) created the Seminar methodology to tackle these challenges. A general model derived from the Emotional Intelligence concept and the general principles of this methodology…
Tynjälä, Päivi; Virtanen, Anne; Klemola, Ulla; Kostiainen, Emma; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena
The purpose of the study was to examine how social competence and other generic skills can be developed in teacher education using a pedagogical model called Integrative Pedagogy. This model is based on the idea of integrating the four basic components of expertise: Theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge, self-regulative knowledge, and…
Sorlie, Mari-Anne; Hagen, Kristine Amlund; Ogden, Terje
The degree of continuity and distinctiveness in social competence and antisocial behavior was examined in a longitudinal structural equation model. Participants were 391 typically developing Norwegian middle school students (51% boys), their parents, and teachers and were assessed when they were approximately 13 years of age (a school cohort in…
Gipson, Leah R.
This viewpoint examines the limitations of cultural competency in art therapy education through personal reflection, calling for an immersive engagement with social justice practices of naming difference, asserting counter narratives, and following the leadership of people impacted by systemic violence. The author discusses the impact of…
Vaughn, Brian E.; Shin, Nana; Kim, Mina; Coppola, Gabrielle; Krzysik, Lisa; Santos, Antonio J.; Peceguina, Ines; Daniel, Joao R.; Verissimo, Manuela; DeVries, Anthon; Elphick, Eric; Ballentina, Xiomara; Bost, Kelly K.; Newell, Wanda Y.; Miller, Ellaine B.; Snider, J. Blake; Korth, Byran
The generality of a multilevel factorial model of social competence (SC) for preschool children was tested in a 5-group, multinational sample (N = 1,540) using confirmatory factor analysis. The model fits the observed data well, and tests constraining paths for measured variables to their respective first-order factors across samples also fit…
Al Bataineh, Mohammad; Anderson, Sharon
This study used a cross-sectional, ten-point Likert-type scale survey design, to examine the perception of Jordanian seventh to twelfth-grade social studies teachers of the competency needed for technology implementation in their classrooms. The instrument for this study was a modified version of a survey developed by Kelly (2003) called the…
Fetro, Joyce V.; Rhodes, Darson L.; Hey, David W.
During the last 20 years, youth programming has shifted from risk reduction to youth development. While numerous instruments exist to measure selected individual characteristics/competencies among youth, a comprehensive instrument to measure four constructs of personal and social skills could not be identified. The purpose of this study was to…
Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan
This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…
Vu, Jennifer A.
This study describes the use of story stems in order to determine children's representations of relationships with mothers, teachers, and friends, and how these representations are related to mother- and teacher-rated social competence. Thirty preschool-aged children were administered the story stem tasks featuring three different interactional…
Razza, Rachel A.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Background: Approaches to learning (ATL) is a key domain of school readiness with important implications for children's academic trajectories. Interestingly, however, the impact of early ATL on children's social competence has not been examined. Objective: This study examines associations between children's ATL at age 5 and academic achievement…
Ren, Lixin; Knoche, Lisa L.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope
Research Findings: The current study examines the relations between Chinese preschoolers' social-emotional competence and their preacademic skills, as well as the role of child gender and parental education in such relations. A total of 154 children from the northeastern region of China were involved in the study. Both parents and head teachers of…
Santos, Antonio J.; Peceguina, Ines; Daniel, Joao R.; Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.
This study tested assumptions and conclusions reached in an earlier confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) study of the social competence (SC) construct for preschool children. Two samples (total N = 408; a new Portuguese sample and one from US samples that had participated in the original study) contributed data. Seven SC indicators were tested for…
Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura
Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…
Using a two-year and three-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between father-child relationships and children's social competence. The results of structural equation modeling showed bidirectional effects between father-child conflict and social…
Meek, Shantel E.; Robinson, Lauren T.; Jahromi, Laudan B.
The current study investigated the relations among parent-child joint engagement, dyadic interactive behaviors, and children's subsequent social competence with peers. Participants were 40 children (20 children with autism, and 20 developmentally-matched typical children) between the ages of 2.75 and 6.5 years. Observational coding was conducted…
Isabella, Russell A.; Diener, Marissa L.
Self-representations of 1st-, 3rd-, and 5th-graders' social and academic competence were examined in relation to children's personal (grade/age); family (attachment to parents, marital conflict, anxiety related to conflict); and school (teacher appraisals) contexts. Children who reported higher levels of security of attachment to parents and lower…
Fox, Lise; Hemmeter, Mary; Snyder, Patricia; Binder, Denise Perez; Clarke, Shelley
Growing evidence suggests the importance of practitioners implementing promotion, prevention, and intervention practices to foster children's social-emotional competence and address challenging behavior within schools. Limited research exists, however, on how to support teachers of school-age children to implement with fidelity comprehensive…
Denham, Susanne A.
To validate a new approach to research on the attachment behavior of children beyond toddler age, this study investigated relations between Q-sort outcomes and preschool children's affective perspective-taking; prosocial responsiveness to emotion; social competence, as rated by their teachers; and their mothers' expression and handling of…
Nelson, Jo Ann N.; Simmerer, Norma J.
This report summarizes three related studies of 3- to 5-year-old children's temperament and its relationship to their social competence, ability to solve interpersonal problems, locus of control, parent behavior and teacher/child interactions. Fifty-eight children, predominantly middle class participants in a laboratory preschool, and their…
Workplace relations like any social relation first and foremost have a moral dimension. Thus, if vocational education sees one of its major goals in helping apprentices to deal with moral issues, one of the core objectives in vocational education is the support of the apprentice's development of moral judgement competence. Since Lawrence Kohlberg…
You, Sukkyung; Kim, Ann Y.
In recent years, increase in adolescent crime in the Republic of Korea has put adolescent aggression in the spotlight. This study examines whether the quality of attachment to parents and peers influences aggressive behaviors and whether social emotional competencies serve as significant mediators for middle school students. These relationships…
The aim of this research is to thoroughly investigate preschool teachers' opinions about emotional competence and emotion socialization. The study group was comprised of 20 preschool teachers working in preschools in the city-center of Aksaray. A semi-structured interview form prepared by the researcher was used as the data collection tool. Data…
Benowitz, Alison Joy
Children with learning disabilities (LD) makeup 50.5% of all children identified for special services in the schools. Research has found that children with LD have difficulties in areas of functioning related to social competence. This study is based on a risk and resilience model to explore external protective factors (friendships and social…
Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Lee, Robert E.; Nievar, M. Angela; Stollak, Gary
This study investigated family and classroom characteristics associated with parents' and teachers' ratings of 183 preschool children's social competence. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that teachers' negative ratings of the children were predicted by negative teacher behaviors and less optimal classroom climate. Children with higher…
Vela, Alicia L.
With budgets on the decline, university officials are seeking alternative methods to maintain and increase the type of services provided to students. By incorporating social entrepreneurial competencies in the daily actions of university staff members, staff members will be able to perform their work more effectively and help students acquire…
Wittmer, Donna; Doll, Beth; Strain, Phil
Presents an analysis of existing norm-referenced measures of social and emotional competence and disability for young children birth-to-5 to determine whether these indices satisfy technical and conceptual requirements. It concludes that informal clinical opinion should be used to supplement norm-referenced measures in this area. (DB)
Skokut, Mary; Robinson, Suzanne; Openden, Daniel; Jimerson, Shane R.
Addressing the needs of children with autism in the school context is an essential component of facilitating the success of these students. This article provides an overview of scientifically based and promising interventions that may be used to promote the social and cognitive competence of children with autism, focusing on the research base of…
Brekke Stangeland, Elisabeth
In this study, the relationship between play, language skills and social competence is explored in a sample (n = 1005) of 33-month-old toddlers in a Norwegian early childhood education setting--Barnehages--based on two observational materials ("Tras" and "Alle med"). The study has two aims: (1) to investigate whether there is a…
Ahmetoglu, Emine; Acar, Ibrahim H.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations between Turkish preschool pre-service teacher's personal and educational characteristics, and their social competence, empathy, and communication skills. A total of 385 state university Turkish pre-service teachers (age range 18 to 32 years) from the early childhood education field…
In this study a post-assessment survey was analyzed to seek for social learning preferences among women in a competency-based online learning environment. The survey asked what learning resources students used to prepare for the assessment. Each learning resource was given a relative sociability rating. This rating acts as the weighting for a…
Ratts, Manivong J.; Hutchins, A. Michael
There is a rise in calls for counselors to be advocates for social justice. Counselors can meet the growing need to expand their roles to include advocacy by using the ACA (American Counseling Association) Advocacy Competencies (J. A. Lewis, M. S. Arnold, R. House, & R. L. Toporek, 2002). This article operationalizes the client/student level of…
Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Sirotkin, Yana S.; Brown, Chavaughn; Morris, Carol S.
The goals of this study were to evaluate (1) how specific aspects of executive control, briefly assessed, predict social competence and classroom adjustment during preschool and (2) differences between two aspects of executive control, according to child's age, socioeconomic risk status, and gender. The facets of executive control were defined as…
Jo, Il-Hyun; Kang, Stephanie; Yoon, Meehyun
Collaborative learning has become a dominant learning apparatus for higher level learning objectives. Much of the psychological and social mechanisms operating under this complex group activity, however, is not yet well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of college students' communication competence and degree…
This study examined the potential contribution of self-compassion to perceived competence and mental health in master's of social work students (N=65). It was hypothesized that the components of self-compassion (i.e., mindfulness, common humanity, self-kindness, overidentification, isolation, and self-judgment) would impact perceived competence…
Rhule, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spieker, Susan J.
We examined the extent to which maternal antisocial behavior (ASB) is directly related to child conduct problems and social competence and assessed the potential mediating role of negative parenting. The sample included 93 adolescent mothers and their children (44 boys, 49 girls). Mothers retrospectively reported about their ASB since the child's…
Cook, Amy L.; Krell, Megan M.; Hayden, Laura A.; Gracia, Robert; Denitzio, Kari
Practicum fieldwork was conducted in an urban high school setting using a Professional Development Schools (PDS) model, with a focus on multicultural and social justice counseling competencies (MSJCC). Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze the journal responses of 16 counseling students to ascertain MSJCC development during…
Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Kooyman, Leslie
In light of the rapidly changing demographics of the United States, it is imperative for counselor educators and trainers of mental health professionals to infuse instructional strategies that promote multicultural and social justice (MSJ) competencies for trainees. The purpose of this article is to translate MSJ-based teaching strategies within…
Spivak, Asha Leah; Farran, Dale C.
Research Findings: This study investigates contributions of the preschool classroom interpersonal environment to students' social competence in 1st grade. Participants were 862 ethnically/racially diverse children who attended public preschool classrooms serving low-income families. Systematic observations of 60 classrooms occurred across the…
Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Kutschera, P. C.; Capili, Claire Ann P.
The study focuses on the background of Social Science and Humanities students (specifically in the course General Psychology) on their English education and competence. This research aims to identify the common factors of these students in terms of their English Proficiency. The students will answer survey questions that will give us information…
Stichter, Janine P; O'Connor, Karen V; Herzog, Melissa J; Lierheimer, Kristin; McGhee, Stephanie D
Despite frequent reports of academic success, individuals with high functioning autism or Aspergers Syndrome (HFA/AS) often manifest deficits in social abilities. These deficits can lead to daily difficulties, and negative long-term outcomes. Deficits in social competency are evident in this population from an early age, as children with HFA/AS present unique challenges relating to peers, interpreting complex contextual cues, and transitioning across settings. A paucity of social interventions exist that target elementary-age children with HFA/AS and their combination of core social competence deficit areas: theory of mind (ToM), emotional recognition, and executive functioning. The current study expanded on the Social Competence Intervention (for adolescents; SCI-A), as detailed in Stichter et al. (J Autism Dev Disorders 40:1067-1079, 2010), by adjusting the curriculum to meet the needs of an elementary population. Results indicate significant improvements on direct assessments measuring theory of mind and problem solving, and parent perceptions of overall social abilities and executive functioning for 20 students, aged 6-10, with HFA/AS. The elementary SCI program appears promising, however, additional replications are necessary including expansion to school settings.
Foerster, Steffen; Franz, Mathias; Murray, Carson M.; Gilby, Ian C.; Feldblum, Joseph T.; Walker, Kara K.; Pusey, Anne E.
Dominance hierarchies are widespread in animal social groups and often have measureable effects on individual health and reproductive success. Dominance ranks are not static individual attributes, however, but instead are influenced by two independent processes: 1) changes in hierarchy membership and 2) successful challenges of higher-ranking individuals. Understanding which of these processes dominates the dynamics of rank trajectories can provide insights into fitness benefits of within-sex competition. This question has yet to be examined systematically in a wide range of taxa due to the scarcity of long-term data and a lack of appropriate methodologies for distinguishing between alternative causes of rank changes over time. Here, we expand on recent work and develop a new likelihood-based Elo rating method that facilitates the systematic assessment of rank dynamics in animal social groups, even when interaction data are sparse. We apply this method to characterize long-term rank trajectories in wild eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and find remarkable sex differences in rank dynamics, indicating that females queue for social status while males actively challenge each other to rise in rank. Further, our results suggest that natal females obtain a head start in the rank queue if they avoid dispersal, with potential fitness benefits. PMID:27739527
Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah
The development of children's cognitive and social skills is a topic of considerable importance and interest in education and educational psychology. The current study examines whether emotion knowledge and self-regulation predict cognitive competence, social competence, and classroom behavior problems among a sample of 74 preschoolers (40 boys).…
Nielsen, Line; Meilstrup, Charlotte; Nelausen, Malene Kubstrup; Koushede, Vibeke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
Purpose: Within the framework of Health Promoting Schools "Up" is an intervention using a whole school approach aimed at promoting mental health by strengthening social and emotional competence among schoolchildren. Social and emotional competence is an integral part of many school-based mental health interventions but only a minority of…
Kilgus, Stephen P.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Stichter, Janine P.; Schoemann, Alexander M.; Bellesheim, Katie
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the reliability of Direct Behavior Ratings--Social Competence (DBR-SC) ratings. Participants included 60 students identified as possessing deficits in social competence, as well as their 23 classroom teachers. Teachers used DBR-SC to complete ratings of 5 student behaviors within the general…
Irvin, Dwight W.; Boyd, Brian A.; Odom, Samuel L.
Difficulty with social competence is a core deficit of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine the link between adult talk and the socially competent behavior displayed by preschoolers with ASD concurrently and over time. A modified version of Kontos's Teacher Talk classification was used to code videos of 73 children…
Han, Heejeong Sophia
There is a growing recognition that young children's social competence is critical because it is positively associated with their school readiness and academic success. However, professional development (PD) opportunities for early childhood teachers to enhance their roles in promoting young children's social competence are limited. In…
Ren, Yonggang; Wyver, Shirley; Xu Rattanasone, Nan; Demuth, Katherine
Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to examine whether language skills and emotion regulation are associated with social competence and whether the relationship between English skills and social competence is moderated by emotion regulation in Mandarin-English bilingual preschoolers. The language skills of 96 children ages…
Background: Traditional disability categories may reveal little of the functional characteristics and social competence of a child. Objective: To compare the social competence of typically developing children, children with established disabilities and undiagnosed children identified by a functional approach to be in need of special support.…
Garte, Rebecca R.
The present paper reported on a new method and procedure for assessing preschooler's social competence. This method utilized an observational measure of intersubjectivity to assess the social competence that develops in real time during interaction between two or more children. The measure of intersubjectivity reflected a conceptualization of the…
Purpose: The European Commission and social partner organisations at EU level encourage the lifelong development of qualifications and competence. This is reflected in many policy reports and reviews. This paper seeks to show the involvement of social partner organisations at the level of EU-funded competence development projects.…
Gordon, Theresa A.; Nelson-Becker, Holly; Chapin, Rosemary K.; Landry, Sarah
This article reports an evaluation of a GeroRich effort to increase age-specific content throughout bachelor and master-level social work curricula. A total of 426 students (128 BSWs and 298 MSWs) completed pre and posttests in 2004-2005, self-rating their aging competency using the Social Work with Aging Skill Competency Scale II (New York…
Irvin, Dwight W.
Difficulty with social competence is a core deficit of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research on typically developing children suggests the amount of adult talk they are exposed to can positively affect their social competence. With growth in the number of children with ASD entering the inclusive preschool classroom, there is a need to…
Laible, Deborah J.; Carlo, Gustavo
The goal of this study was to examine how the parenting dimensions of both mothers and fathers independently and together predict adolescent outcomes in three domains: sympathy, self-worth, and social competence. One-hundred eight adolescents completed self-report measures on their perceived relationship with parents, sympathy, social competence,…
This report describes a program designed to enhance social studies skills and knowledge. The target areas for enhancement are geography, economics, history, and core democratic values. The need for strengthening these skills was documented by literature, and surveys. An analysis of probable cause for lack of social studies skills revealed that…
Elliot, Richard J.
Questions as to whether measurement can provide a universally applicable set of criteria for making value judgments in the social sciences are raised. Four assumptions about education, experience, reality, and value formation were identified to provide a fuller reference point for social science educators when they are viewing current standardized…
Schaffer, Marjorie A; Nelson, Pamela; Litt, Emily
Public health nurses from 13 local public health agencies and nurse educators from five schools of nursing developed population-based public health nursing competencies for new graduates and novice public health nurses. Educators in one nursing program used a portfolio assignment to measure achievement of the competencies by traditional and RN to BSN students in a community health nursing course. Data were collected from surveys and focus groups to determine students' responses to the portfolio and their use of population-based public health nursing concepts. The assignment enhanced students' critical thinking skills; however, concerns about the structure and evaluation of the portfolio decreased student satisfaction. Recommendations are made for improving the portfolio format, increasing students' valuing of the portfolio, managing the tension between assessment and learning, and orienting clinical agency staff and nursing instructors.
von Klitzing, Kai; Stadelmann, Stephanie; Perren, Sonja
This study examined whether content and performance in story stem narratives were associated with children's social competence, and whether children's symptom levels moderated these associations. Five-year-old children from a clinically enriched Swiss sample completed eight stories (N = 187). Teachers rated children's social competence. Parents and teachers rated behavioral/emotional symptoms that were used to categorize children into clinical (n = 80), borderline (n = 31), and normal (n = 74). Controlling for gender and verbal competence, no differences were found in story responses between normal and clinical children. However, pro-social/moral and disciplinary themes, and coherence and quality of narration were significantly associated with children's social competence. The associations between narratives and social competence were prominent in the clinical children, suggesting that narrative assessments may help to identify resources on which psychotherapeutic approaches can build.
Fetterman, Adam K.; Hopkins, Kay; Krishnakumar, Sukumarakurup
Provocations and frustrating events can trigger an urge to act aggressively. Such behaviors can be controlled, but perhaps more so for people who can better distinguish effective from ineffective courses of action. The present three studies (total N = 285) introduce a scenario-based measure of this form of social competence. In Study 1, higher levels of social competence predicted lower levels of trait anger. Study 2 presented provocation scenarios and asked people whether they would engage in direct, indirect, and symbolic forms of aggression when provoked. Social competence was inversely predictive of all forms of aggressive responding. Study 3 focused on reactions to frustrating events in daily life. Such events were predictive of hostile behavior and cognitive failures particularly at low levels of social competence. The research establishes that social competence can be assessed in an objective manner and that variations in it are systematically predictive of reactive aggression. PMID:23754040
Stichter, Janine P.; Laffey, James; Galyen, Krista; Herzog, Melissa
One consistent area of need for students with autism spectrum disorders is in the area of social competence. However, the increasing need to provide qualified teachers to deliver evidence-based practices in areas like social competence leave schools, such as those found in rural areas, in need of support. Distance education and in particular, 3D…
Feng, Ling; Hu, Yanqing; Li, Baowen; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo; Braunstein, Lidia A
Modern social media are becoming overloaded with information because of the rapidly-expanding number of information feeds. We analyze the user-generated content in Sina Weibo, and find evidence that the spread of popular messages often follow a mechanism that differs from the spread of disease, in contrast to common belief. In this mechanism, an individual with more friends needs more repeated exposures to spread further the information. Moreover, our data suggest that for certain messages the chance of an individual to share the message is proportional to the fraction of its neighbours who shared it with him/her, which is a result of competition for attention. We model this process using a fractional susceptible infected recovered (FSIR) model, where the infection probability of a node is proportional to its fraction of infected neighbors. Our findings have dramatic implications for information contagion. For example, using the FSIR model we find that real-world social networks have a finite epidemic threshold in contrast to the zero threshold in disease epidemic models. This means that when individuals are overloaded with excess information feeds, the information either reaches out the population if it is above the critical epidemic threshold, or it would never be well received.
Data from interviews with 299 teachers in 46 English primary schools revealed that the correlation between free school meals and achievement and between free school meals and special educational needs may stem from teacher judgments. The very poorest schools with the lowest achievement have substantially higher levels of special needs identified…
Mattingly, Robert M.; VanSickle, Ronald L.
Presents a study of the cooperative learning method "Jigsaw II." Reports superior academic achievement effects are inconsistent with poorer results reported in earlier studies. Discusses a modification incorporating a group goal achievable only by contribution of all group members. Concludes that cooperative learning must include a group…
Groh, Ashley M; Fearon, R Pasco; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Steele, Ryan D; Roisman, Glenn I
This meta-analytic review examines the association between attachment during the early life course and social competence with peers during childhood, and compares the strength of this association with those for externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. Based on 80 independent samples (N = 4441), the association between security and peer competence was significant (d = 0.39, CI 0.32; 0.47) and not moderated by the age at which peer competence was assessed. Avoidance (d = 0.17, CI 0.05; 0.30), resistance (d = 0.29, CI 0.09; 0.48), and disorganization (d = 0.25, CI 0.10; 0.40) were significantly associated with lower peer competence. Attachment security was significantly more strongly associated with peer competence than internalizing (but not externalizing) symptomatology. Discussion focuses on the significance of early attachment for the development of peer competence versus externalizing and internalizing psychopathology.
Loignon, Christine; Boudreault-Fournier,, Alexandrine
This paper attempts to go deeper into the topic of social competency of physicians who provide primary care to populations living in poverty in Montreal. Adaptability as well as the ability to tailor practices according to patient expectations, needs and capabilities were found to be important in the development of the concept of social competency. The case of paternalism is used to demonstrate how a historically and socially contested medical approach is readapted by players in certain contexts in order to better meet patient expectations. This paper presents data collected in a qualitative study comprising 25 semi-supervised interviews with physicians recognized by their peers as having developed exemplary practices in Montreal's impoverished neighbourhoods. PMID:24289940
Lianos, Panayiotis G
In a study of 230 preadolescent students (mean age 11.3 years) from the wider area of Athens, Greece, the role of Big Five personality traits (i.e. Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Extraversion) in the relation between parenting dimensions (overprotection, emotional warmth, rejection, anxious rearing) and social competence in school was examined. Multiple sets of regression analyses were performed. Main effects of Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience were identified. Limited evidence for moderation and some support of gender-specific parenting was found. Agreeableness and Extraversion interacted with paternal overprotection, whereas Neuroticism interacted with maternal and paternal rejection in predicting social competence. Mean differences in gender and educational grade were reported. The relationship between environmental effects (such as parenting during early adolescence) and social adjustment in school is discussed in terms of the plasticity and malleability of the preadolescents' personality characteristics.
Raimundo, Raquel; Carapito, Elsa; Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques Pinto, Alexandra; Lima, Maria Luísa; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa
This study analyses the psychometric proprieties of a Portuguese version of the social competence scale from the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS-2, Merrell, 2002). It is a rating instrument of children and adolescents behavior, to be used by teachers and other school personnel. This scale includes 3 subscales: self-management/compliance, peer relations and academic behavior. In our first sample, 175 teachers rated 344 students from grade 1 through 12. On the second sample 13 teachers rated 251 3rd and 4th grades students. The results from the Portuguese adaptation support the multidimensional structure of the social competence scale from the SSBS-2, although an alternative model demonstrated a better fit to the data than the model originally proposed by the author. The scale showed good internal consistency and good intercorrelations between subscales, as well as between subscales and the total scale. The final model was well replicated in the second sample. These results encourage us to pursue the SSBS-2 Portuguese adaptation, in order to provide a useful and validated instrument for the assessment of social competence and for educational interventions.
Greenfield, Emily A; Morton, Cory; Birkenmaier, Julie; Rowan, Noell L
Since 1998, the Hartford Partnership Program in Aging Education (HPPAE) has been implemented in over 70 graduate social work programs. This study examined whether program and individual student characteristics are associated with students' knowledge, skills, and values in aging. We conducted a secondary analysis of national program evaluation data. Results from hierarchical linear models indicated greater gains in knowledge of aging among full-time students, as well as students in programs that had defined field rotation models and/or that made greater use of geriatric social work competencies. Implications for efforts to enhance graduate social work education in aging are discussed.
Russell, Beth S.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Spieker, Susan; Oxford, Monica L.
The current longitudinal study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) to examine a model of development that emphasizes early caregiving environments as predictors of social emotional competence (including classroom competence). This path analysis model included features of parenting, emotion regulation, preschool language skills, and attention to predict child outcomes in 1st grade. Early caregiving environments were directly predictive of peer relationship satisfaction, oppositional behavior, social skills, and classroom competence over and above significant mediated effects through preschool self regulation (language, inattention, and anger/frustration). These results suggest that the characteristics of supportive and stimulating caregiving shift in valence over time, such that qualities of the infant-child relationship that are significant in predicting early childhood outcomes are not the same as the caregiving qualities that move to the foreground in predicting primary school outcomes. Implications for school-readiness programming are discussed, including interventions in the early caregiving system to encourage sensitive and supportive parent child interactions to bolster school readiness via the development of social-emotional competence. PMID:27616805
There are large social class inequalities in educational achievement in the UK. This paper quantifies the contribution of one mechanism to the production of these inequalities: social class differences in school "effectiveness," where "effectiveness" refers to a school's impact on pupils' educational achievement (relative to…
Maisto, Stephen A; Ewart, Craig K; Connors, Gerard J; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Krenek, Marketa
Interpersonal stress is a significant determinant of relapse following treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs), but there remains little specific information about the mechanisms underlying the relationship between interpersonal stress and AUD relapse. Application of Social Action Theory provides one new approach to advancing knowledge about the interpersonal stress-relapse relationship. Especially relevant are the Social Action Theory construct of social-emotional competence, with its accompanying measurement procedures of the Social Competence Interview and the Anger Transcendence Challenge. This study evaluated the use of the Social Competence Interview and Anger Transcendence Challenge in a sample of 63 men and women in AUD intensive outpatient treatment. The results support the use of the Social Competence Interview and the Anger Transcendence Challenge with an adult AUD clinical sample, so that these measures may help to advance knowledge about the relationship between interpersonal stress and alcohol relapse.
Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.
Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…
Peck, Robert F.; Hughes, Robert
Psychologists and educators have become interested in the development of a child's social and emotional abilities as well as cognitive outcomes. To determine the important coping patterns that predict success in school, a sample of 10- and 14-year old children (N=3600) from the U.S.A., Brazil, Italy, and Mexico completed a multi-lingual battery of…
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of social media language learning activities with traditional language learning activities on the development of L2 grammatical competence in two English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes at a Taiwanese university. The study was grounded in four bodies of knowledge: (a) the…
Lin, Qiyi; Fu, Hong; Wan, Yingjia; Zhou, Nan; Xu, Hui
We investigated relationships between Chinese children's imaginary companions (ICs) and peer relationships and social competence in 160 children, aged 5-6 years old. Children and their mothers participated in the interviews regarding the details of the children's ICs, including the type of the companion and the quality of the child-IC relationship. Peer relationships were assessed using sociometric nomination and perceived popularity nomination. Teachers rated children's social competence. Here, 55 children (34.3%) were deemed to have engaged in imaginary companion play. There was no relationship between imaginary companion types and child-IC relationship qualities. Children with invisible friends received more positive nominations than children with personified objects. Children with egalitarian relationships received more positive nominations and popularity nominations, but fewer negative nominations and unpopularity nominations than children with hierarchical relationships. Compared with children with hierarchical relationships, teachers rated the children with egalitarian relationships higher in social competence. The results suggest that imaginary companion types and relationship qualities may represent different dimensions of imaginary companions, calling attentions to the different mechanisms underlying imaginary companion types and relationship qualities with respect to social functioning.
Stichter, Janine P; Herzog, Melissa J; Visovsky, Karen; Schmidt, Carla; Randolph, Jena; Schultz, Tia; Gage, Nicholas
Individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) exhibit difficulties in the knowledge or correct performance of social skills. This subgroup's social difficulties appear to be associated with deficits in three social cognition processes: theory of mind, emotion recognition and executive functioning. The current study outlines the development and initial administration of the group-based Social Competence Intervention (SCI), which targeted these deficits using cognitive behavioral principles. Across 27 students age 11-14 with a HFA/AS diagnosis, results indicated significant improvement on parent reports of social skills and executive functioning. Participants evidenced significant growth on direct assessments measuring facial expression recognition, theory of mind and problem solving. SCI appears promising, however, larger samples and application in naturalistic settings are warranted.
Crapolicchio, R.; Bigazzi, A.; De Chiara, G.; Neyt, X.; Stoffelen, A.; Belmonte, M.; Wagner, W.; Reimer, C.
The Scatterometer Instrument Competence Centre (SCIRoCCo, http://scirocco.sp.serco.eu) is a project established by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2014 as an interdisciplinary cooperation of international scatterometry experts aimed at promoting the continuing exploitation of ESA's unique 20 years' worth of ERS Scatterometer data (ESCAT) at medium (25Km, 50 Km) spatial resolution, and improving the quality of available and future scatterometry data.SCIRoCCo aims at consolidating current methodologies for Scatterometer data processing and calibration. SCIRoCCo provides ERS-1/ERS-2 sensors inter- calibration, sensor characterization and data validation. Data analysis and processing software, academic and technical publications in support of calibration and many diverse applications and research in Land (e.g. Soil Moisture), Oceanography (Ocean Winds, Sea, Ice), Climatology are also provided through the web portal, which also serves as the entry point to SCIRoCCo's educational network, funded through Grants and aimed at fostering the next-generation scatterometry experts. SCIRoCCo thus targets the needs of meteorological agencies, meteorological operations centers and the broader Researchers' and Users' communities for consistent and high quality Scatterometer data processing.
Horevitz, Elizabeth; Manoleas, Peter
The Affordable Care Act has led to a widespread movement to integrate behavioral health services into primary care settings. Integrated behavioral health (IBH) holds promise for treating mild to moderate psychiatric disorders in a manner that more fully addresses the biopsychosocial spectrum of needs of individuals and families in primary care, and for reducing disparities in accessing behavioral health care. For behavioral health practitioners, IBH requires a shift to a brief, outcome-driven, and team-based model of care. Despite the fact that social workers comprise the majority of behavioral health providers in IBH settings, little research has been done to assess the extent to which social workers are prepared for effective practice in fast-paced primary care. We conducted a survey of social workers (N = 84) in IBH settings to assess the following: (1) Key competency areas for social work practice in IBH settings and (2) Self-rated preparedness for effective practice in IBH settings. Online snowball sampling methods were used over a period of 1 month. Results indicate that social workers feel prepared for general practice in IBH settings, but would benefit from additional training in IBH-specific competency areas identified in the survey. Findings can help guide social work training to improve workforce preparedness for practice in IBH settings in the wake of health care reform.
Noble, Charhonda L.
In an age where more people place emphasis on global competition, it only seems right to have students meet achievement in all subjects equally. However, that is not the case with the content area of social studies. In recent years, many people have been alarmed at social studies test scores as measured by student achievement. It is the goal of…
Enwelim, Samuel Chiedu
The study on teacher characteristics and students achievement in social Studies in Nigeria is geared towards investigating and determining the relationship between teachers' characteristics and students achievement in social studies in Nigeria. The main purpose of the study is to determine if there is relationship between certain teacher…
Zhao, Yanhua; Zhu, Xiangru; Zhao, Guoxiang
This study examined the validity of a Chinese version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (C-SAGOS), a measure testing the trichotomous framework of achievement goal orientations in a social domain. A total of 208 college students (51% female) aged 18 to 23 participated in the study. Factor analyses showed that the three-factor model…
Mattingly, Robert M.; VanSickle, Ronald L.
Cooperative learning generally refers to students working together to achieve academic objectives and the instructional procedures that structure the students' collaborative efforts. Jigsaw is a cooperative learning model that involves small gruops of 5-6 students teaching each other subject matter about which they have become "experts"…
Dee, Thomas S.
One provocative explanation for the continued persistence of minority achievement gaps involves the performance-dampening anxiety thought to be experienced by minority students in highly evaluative settings (i.e., "stereotype threat"). Recent field-experimental studies suggest that modest, low-cost "buffering" interventions…
Maehr, Martin L.
Given the decline in birth rates, which will produce a steep decline in the youth population by 1990, this paper examines the possible effects such a population shift will have on the achievement motivation of children. It is reasoned the increased adult/child ratio could result in either of two possibilities: the greater attention paid to the…
Almane, Dace; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce P
This study examined patterns of syndrome-specific problems in behavior and competence in children with new- or recent-onset epilepsy compared with healthy controls. Research participants consisted of 205 children aged 8-18, including youth with recent-onset epilepsy (n=125, 64 localization-related epilepsy [LRE] and 61 idiopathic generalized epilepsy [IGE]) and healthy first-degree cousin controls (n=80). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for children aged 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Dependent variables included Total Competence, Total Problems, Total Internalizing, Total Externalizing, and Other Problems scales. Comparisons of children with LRE and IGE with healthy controls were examined followed by comparisons of healthy controls with those having specific epilepsy syndromes of LRE (BECTS, Frontal/Temporal Lobe, and Focal NOS) and IGE (Absence, Juvenile Myoclonic, and IGE NOS). Children with LRE and/or IGE differed significantly (p<0.05) from healthy controls, but did not differ from each other, across measures of behavior (Total Problems, Total Internalizing, Total Externalizing, and Other Problems including Thought and Attention Problems) or competence (Total Competence including School and Social). Similarly, children with specific syndromes of LRE and IGE differed significantly (p<0.05) from controls across measures of behavior (Total Problems, Total Internalizing, and Other Problems including Attention Problems) and competence (Total Competence including School). Only on the Thought Problems scale were there syndrome differences. In conclusion, children with recent-onset epilepsy present with significant behavioral problems and lower competence compared with controls, with little syndrome specificity whether defined broadly (LRE and IGE) or narrowly (specific syndromes of LRE and IGE).
This study assessed the relation between school-social motivation and student academic achievement. A factor analysis was performed on a set of school-social items selected a priori from three measures of school motivation: the Inventory of School Motivation, the General Achievement Goals Orientation Scale, and the Facilitating Conditions Scale. Three factors with fewer items represented Global Motivation, Peer Help, and Social Power. Hierarchical regression analysis showed social motivation measures were weak predictors of achievement scores in the various content areas. Findings are discussed in the context of Qatari education and culture.
Bigras, Marc; Machado, Andréa da Luz
Harmony in family relationships has a positive impact on all its members and especially on the development of the social competence of the child. Based on current scientific knowledge, the scope of this article is to examine the quality criteria required for psychosocial support programs aimed at intervening together with families in order to reduce the behavioral problems of children and enhance their social competence. The programs discussed in this article are Incredible Years, High Scope and Fast Track (United States), ELEM and Fluppy (Canada). It is revealed that family interventions based on this knowledge meet high standards of efficacy and ethics. However, the conclusion reached is that researchers and professionals still face obstacles in protocols where the low coherence between assessment and intervention may compromise the quality of support offered to families from a public health perspective.
Collopy, Rachel; Bowman, Connie; Taylor, David A.
The educational achievement gap is a critical social justice issue. Catholic and Marianist conceptions of social justice in particular call people to work with others in their spheres of life to transform institutions in order to further human rights while promoting the common good. Drawing on key elements of Catholic teaching on social justice,…
Cener, Emin; Acun, Ismail; Demirhan, Gokhan
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of teaching social studies with the help of CT on pupils' achievement in social studies. A history, geography and culture oriented theme was selected from the social studies curriculum for the research, Turks on the Silk Road. A multimedia CD, documentaries, PowerPoint and so on were used to teach…
Song, Juyeon; Bong, Mimi; Lee, Kyehyoung; Kim, Sung-il
We examined (a) the relative importance of perceived social support from parents, peers, and teachers; (b) the consequences associated with different types of perceived social support; and (c) the mediation by achievement goals in the relationship between perceived social support and academic outcomes. We analyzed the first 3 waves of the Korean…
Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Turner, Isobel; Bromhead, David; Subasic, Emina
In explaining academic achievement, school climate and social belonging (connectedness, identification) emerge as important variables. However, both constructs are rarely explored in one model. In the current study, a social psychological framework based on the social identity perspective (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987) is…
Etel, Evren; Yagmurlu, Bilge
This study had two aims. The first aim was to measure mental state understanding in institution-reared children by using a theory of mind (ToM) scale, and to examine the role of cultural context in sequencing of ToM acquisition. The other aim was to investigate ToM in relation to social competence and executive function (EF). Due to its pronounced…
Robertson, Belinda R; Prestia, Davide; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Patterson, Thomas L; Bowie, Christopher R; Harvey, Philip D
Deficits in real world social functioning are common in people with schizophrenia and the treatment of social skills deficits has been a long-time treatment strategy. However, negative (i.e., deficit) symptoms also appear to contribute to real-world social dysfunction. In this study, we combined data from three separate studies of people with schizophrenia (total n=561) who were assessed with identical methods. We examined the prediction of real-world social functioning, rated by high contact clinicians, and compared the influence of negative symptoms and social skills measured with performance-based methods on these outcomes. Negative symptom severity accounted for 20% of the variance in real-world social functioning, with social skills adding an incremental 2%. This 2% variance contribution was the same when social skills were forced into a regression model prior to negative symptom severity. When we examined individual negative symptoms, prediction of real-world social functioning increased to 28%, with active and passive social avoidance entering the equation. Adding depression into the predictor model improved the prediction of real-world social functioning significantly, but minimally (4% variance). Social skills contribute to real-world social outcomes, but treating negative symptoms appears to be a possible path for improving real-world social functioning in this population.
Lengua, Liliana J.; Honorado, Elizabeth; Bush, Nicole R.
Using a short-term longitudinal design (6 months), this study examined cumulative contextual risk as a predictor of effortful control (EC) and social competence in a community sample of children (N = 80, ages 33–40 months at time 1). Maternal parenting was examined as a mediator of contextual risk. EC was assessed using laboratory tasks, and parenting was assessed using observational ratings. Time 1 contextual risk was negatively related to time 2 EC after controlling for time 1 EC. Mothers’ limit setting and scaffolding predicted higher time 2 EC and accounted for the effect of contextual risk. Time 1 EC, contextual risk, and parenting predicted time 2 social competence, and contextual risk had an indirect effect on social competence through parenting. Results suggest that contextual risk predicts smaller relative increases in EC and that parenting accounts for this effect. Knowledge of the factors that divert or promote effortful control can provide targets for intervention to enhance effortful control abilities and better adjustment. PMID:21687825
Lengua, Liliana J; Honorado, Elizabeth; Bush, Nicole R
Using a short-term longitudinal design (6 months), this study examined cumulative contextual risk as a predictor of effortful control (EC) and social competence in a community sample of children (N = 80, ages 33-40 months at time 1). Maternal parenting was examined as a mediator of contextual risk. EC was assessed using laboratory tasks, and parenting was assessed using observational ratings. Time 1 contextual risk was negatively related to time 2 EC after controlling for time 1 EC. Mothers' limit setting and scaffolding predicted higher time 2 EC and accounted for the effect of contextual risk. Time 1 EC, contextual risk, and parenting predicted time 2 social competence, and contextual risk had an indirect effect on social competence through parenting. Results suggest that contextual risk predicts smaller relative increases in EC and that parenting accounts for this effect. Knowledge of the factors that divert or promote effortful control can provide targets for intervention to enhance effortful control abilities and better adjustment.
Sallquist, Julie; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Gaertner, Bridget M.
The purpose of this study was to examine a new measure of children’s dispositional positive empathy (i.e., reactions to others’ positive emotions) and its concurrent and longitudinal relations with positive emotion, social competence, and empathy/sympathy with negative emotions. At Time 1, 192 3.5-year-olds (88 girls) participated; at Time 2, 1 year later, 168 4.5-year-olds (79 girls) participated. Children’s positive empathy was reported by mothers and observed in the laboratory at Time 2. Additionally, mothers, fathers, and non-parental caregivers completed questionnaires at Time 1 and Time 2 regarding children’s positive emotion, empathy/sympathy, and social competence. Children’s positive emotion was observed at both assessments. There was evidence of reliability of the new reported measure of positive empathy. Additionally, there were numerous positive relations between positive empathy and social competence and between positive empathy and empathy/sympathy with negative emotions. This study provides unique insight into children’s positive empathy and relations to socio-emotional functioning. PMID:20011674
Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Sirotkin, Yana S.; Brown, Chavaughn; Morris, Carol S.
The goals of this study were to evaluate (1) how specific aspects of executive control, briefly assessed, predict social competence and classroom adjustment during preschool; and (2) differences between two aspects of executive control, according to child’s age, socioeconomic risk status, and gender. The facets of executive control were defined as cool executive control (CEC; affectively neutral, slow acting, and late developing) and hot executive control (HEC; more emotional, fast acting, and early developing). Two hundred eighty-seven 3- to 5-year-old children from private child care and Head Start centers were directly assessed during executive control tasks, and preschool teachers provided information on their school success. Aspects of executive control varied with age, socioeconomic risk, and gender. Specifically, older children performed better on CEC tasks across three age levels; for HEC tasks, change was seen only between 3-year-olds and 4-year-olds. Children of mothers with less formal education performed less well on CEC than those whose mothers had more education; girls performed better than boys on HEC tasks. Further, facets of executive control were differentially related to later social competence and classroom adjustment. HEC predicted social competence, whereas CEC uniquely predicted classroom adjustment. Implications for everyday practice and specific curricula formulation are discussed. PMID:26166925
Zeedyk, Sasha M; Cohen, Shana R; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan
Perceived loneliness and social competence were assessed for 127 children with ASD without comorbid ID, 4-7 years old, through child self-report. Using an abbreviated version of the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire (LSDQ; Cassidy and Asher in Child Dev 63:250-365, 1992), the majority of children reported friendships, yet a considerable proportion also reported social difficulties. Factor analysis of the abbreviated LSDQ identified three factors, which were significantly associated with parent- and teacher-reported variables. Regression analyses revealed parent-reported social skills deficits and teacher-reported conflict in the student-teacher relationship to be associated with child-reported loneliness. Implications for practice are discussed.
Usher, Lauren V; Burrows, Catherine A; Schwartz, Caley B; Henderson, Heather A
Children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) display heterogeneity in social competence, which may be particularly evident during interactions with unfamiliar peers. The goal of this study was to examine predictors of social competence variability during an unfamiliar peer interaction. Thirty-nine participants with HFA and 39 age-, gender- and IQ-matched comparison participants were observed during dyadic laboratory interactions and detailed behavioral coding revealed three social competence dimensions: social initiative, social reciprocity, and social self-monitoring. Participants with HFA displayed higher social initiative but lower reciprocity than comparison participants. For participants with HFA, theory of mind was positively associated with observed initiative. For COM participants, social anxiety was negatively associated with reciprocity. However, for HFA participants, there was a quadratic relation between parent-reported social anxiety and observed reciprocity, demonstrating that low and high levels of anxiety were associated with low reciprocity. Results demonstrated the utility of our behavioral coding scheme as a valid assessment of social competence for children and adolescents with and without HFA. The curvilinear association between social anxiety and reciprocity highlights the importance of examining nonlinear relations in individuals with HFA, and emphasizes that discrete profiles of social anxiety in individuals with HFA may necessitate different treatment options.
Usher, Lauren V.; Burrows, Catherine A.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Henderson, Heather A.
Children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) display heterogeneity in social competence, which may be particularly evident during interactions with unfamiliar peers. The goal of this study was to examine predictors of social competence variability during an unfamiliar peer interaction. Thirty-nine participants with HFA and 39 age-, gender- and IQ-matched comparison participants were observed during dyadic laboratory interactions and detailed behavioral coding revealed three social competence dimensions: social initiative, social reciprocity, and social self-monitoring. Participants with HFA displayed higher social initiative but lower reciprocity than comparison participants. For participants with HFA, theory of mind was positively associated with observed initiative. For COM participants, social anxiety was negatively associated with reciprocity. However, for HFA participants, there was a quadratic relation between parent-reported social anxiety and observed reciprocity, demonstrating that low and high levels of anxiety were associated with low reciprocity. Results demonstrated the utility of our behavioral coding scheme as a valid assessment of social competence for children and adolescents with and without HFA. The curvilinear association between social anxiety and reciprocity highlights the importance of examining nonlinear relations in individuals with HFA, and emphasizes that discrete profiles of social anxiety in individuals with HFA may necessitate different treatment options. PMID:26161136
Lum, Mark Stephen
This review of research studies on the psychological adjustment of gifted persons focused on five dimensions: social/behavioral conduct, family adjustment, emotional functioning (personality characteristics, anxiety, depression), social functioning (interpersonal relationships, social skills), and perceived competence (self-concept, self-esteem,…
Sewell, Trevor; And Others
Examined the relationship of cognitive and personality variables to achievement in 49 Black junior high school students. Results showed a higher achievement motivation for males. Neither personality nor social reinforcement showed much predictive value. The relationship between achievement motive and academic measures was not significant. (JAC)
Motschnig-Pitrik, Renate; Mallich, Katharina
Web-based technology increases the hours we spend sitting in front of the screens of our computers. But can it also be used in a way to improve our social skills? The blended learning paradigm of Person-Centered e-Learning (PCeL) precisely aims to achieve intellectual as well as social and personal development by combining the benefits of online…
McQuade, Julia D; Breaux, Rosanna P; Gómez, Angelina F; Zakarian, Rebecca J; Weatherly, Julia
This study expands on prior research suggesting that children who either over- or under-estimate their social competence relative to others' reports are more likely to be aggressive. Linear and curvilinear associations between biased social self-perceptions and forms (physical vs. relational) and functions (proactive vs. reactive) of aggression were tested along with three moderators (peer rejection, social dominance goals, and child sex). Children in the fifth through eight grade (N = 167) completed self-reports of perceived social competence and social dominance goals. Teachers completed ratings of children's social competence, peer rejection, and reactive and proactive physical and relational aggression. Bias in self-perceived social competence was quantified as the residual difference between child and teacher ratings of the child's social competence. There was a significant interaction between quadratic bias and peer rejection predicting reactive physical aggression; rejected children with a positive bias or a negative bias were highest in reactive physical aggression. The interaction between linear bias, social dominance goals, and the sex of the child was also significant when predicting proactive physical aggression. Among girls who highly valued social dominance, a positive bias predicted greater proactive physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of implications for aggression theory and intervention. Aggr. Behav. 42:498-509, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gallifa, Josep; Garriga, Jordi
Research into the acquisition of generic competences was carried out with the undergraduate social science programmes offered by the Ramon Llull University, Barcelona (Spain). For these programmes an innovative methodology called "cross-course seminars" has been developed. Its focus is, amongst others, on developing generic competences.…
Background: Being recognized as a competent and accepted member in the peer group is one of the most important basic human needs for children and youth. However, it is the peer group itself that decides which competencies are estimated and which are not, and through this process, a social order as well as peer power constellations is created.…
Edeling, Sabrina; Pilz, Matthias
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to use teaching and learning units specially devised for development of self-competencies and social competencies in the retail sector to explore how learners assess these units in relation to acceptance, quality and self-assessment of improvement in their own performance. Design/methodology/approach: The…
Presents conceptual reorientation for providing responsive psychological services to older adults, focusing on need to develop prevention programs that encourage maintenance of social roles. Discusses changes in social structures that encourage more active social engagement, with examples from housing options, part-time employment, and ways to…
Burgel, Barbara J; Novak, Debra A; Carpenter, Holly Elizabeth; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann M; Taormina, Deborah
Additional findings are presented from a 2012 nationwide survey of 2,072 occupational health nurses regarding how they achieved competence in respiratory protection, their preferred methods of learning, and how they motivated employees to use respiratory protection. On-the-job training, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course, or attending professional conferences were the primary ways occupational health nurses gained respiratory protection knowledge. Attending professional conferences was the preferred method of learning, varying by type of industry and years of occupational health nurse experience. Employee motivational strategies were not widely used; the most common strategy was to tailor respiratory protection training to workplace culture. Designing training methods that match learning preferences, within the context of the organization's safety and quality improvement culture, is a key recommendation supported by the literature and these findings. Including respiratory protection content and competencies in all levels of academic nursing education is an additional recommendation. Additional research is needed to link training strategies with consistent and correct use of respiratory protection by employees.
Taylor, Jennifer Anne
This thesis presents a qualitative investigation of the effects of social competence on the participation of students with learning disabilities (LD) in the science learning processes associated with collaborative, guided inquiry learning. An inclusive Grade 2 classroom provided the setting for the study. Detailed classroom observations were the primary source of data. In addition, the researcher conducted two interviews with the teacher, and collected samples of students' written work. The purpose of the research was to investigate: (a) How do teachers and peers mediate the participation of students with LD in collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, (b) What learning processes do students with LD participate in during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, and (c) What components of social competence support and constrain the participation of students with LD during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities? The findings of the study suggest five key ideas for research and teaching in collaborative, guided inquiry science in inclusive classrooms. First, using a variety of collaborative learning formats (whole-class, small-group, and pairs) creates more opportunities for the successful participation of diverse students with LD. Second, creating an inclusive community where students feel accepted and valued may enhance the academic and social success of students with LD. Third, careful selection of partners for students with LD is important for a positive learning experience. Students with LD should be partnered with academically successful, socially competent peers; also, this study suggested that students with LD experience more success working collaboratively in pairs rather than in small groups. Fourth, a variety of strategies are needed to promote active participation and positive social interactions for students with and without LD during collaborative, guided inquiry learning. Fifth, adopting a general approach to teaching
Cecchini Estrada, José A; González González-Mesa, Carmen; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier
This study examined the relationship between achievement and social goals, and explored how both goals affect students' level of informed self-determination in Physical Education. Participants were 395 high school students. Three scales were used to assess achievement, social goals, and motivation. Several hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were the greatest contributors to the individuals' levels of self-determination. Achievement and social goals were found to be separate predictors of students' levels of self-determination, and this highlights the importance of separating mastery and performance goals into avoidance and approach profiles. Girls reported significantly higher values than boys on responsibility, relationship, and mastery-avoidance goals, whereas boys scored higher on performance-approach goals. Researchers could use achievement and social goals to study students' motivation and achievement in Physical Education settings.
Maville, J; Huerta, C G
This article describes two studies examining the effects of stress and social support on the academic achievement of Hispanic associate degree nursing students. The first study investigated stress, measured by the Life Experiences Survey (LES), and its relationship to academic achievement. Data analysis revealed a relationship between negative stress and academic achievement. Student level and ethnic origin were found to be predictive of stress. Ethnic origin and age also had an effect on academic achievement. Qualitative data indicated that students experienced stresses as a result of the academic environment. The second study investigated the effect of social support, measured by the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), on student persistence. No significant relationship was found. Qualitative data revealed less than desired social support in lower achieving students. Conclusions from these studies form the basis for identification of the high risk student and strategies to remediate the academically handicapped Hispanic student.
Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age.
Dokoohaki, Nima; Kaleli, Cihan; Polat, Huseyin; Matskin, Mihhail
Collaborative filtering (CF) recommenders are subject to numerous shortcomings such as centralized processing, vulnerability to shilling attacks, and most important of all privacy. To overcome these obstacles, researchers proposed for utilization of interpersonal trust between users, to alleviate many of these crucial shortcomings. Till now, attention has been mainly paid to strong points about trust-aware recommenders such as alleviating profile sparsity or calculation cost efficiency, while least attention has been paid on investigating the notion of privacy surrounding the disclosure of individual ratings and most importantly protection of trust computation across social networks forming the backbone of these systems. To contribute to addressing problem of privacy in trust-aware recommenders, within this paper, first we introduce a framework for enabling privacy-preserving trust-aware recommendation generation. While trust mechanism aims at elevating recommender's accuracy, to preserve privacy, accuracy of the system needs to be decreased. Since within this context, privacy and accuracy are conflicting goals we show that a Pareto set can be found as an optimal setting for both privacy-preserving and trust-enabling mechanisms. We show that this Pareto set, when used as the configuration for measuring the accuracy of base collaborative filtering engine, yields an optimized tradeoff between conflicting goals of privacy and accuracy. We prove this concept along with applicability of our framework by experimenting with accuracy and privacy factors, and we show through experiment how such optimal set can be inferred.
Botvin, G J
The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide
The secondary social studies lessons in this publication are intended to help teachers improve instruction. Lessons are provided for the curriculum areas of social inquiry, ethical development, and civic competence. In the social inquiry lessons, students learn to describe and explain human behavior. In the ethical development lessons, students…
Campbell, L. E.; McCabe, K. L.; Melville, J. L.; Strutt, P. A.; Schall, U.
Background: Social difficulties are often noted among people with intellectual disabilities. Children and adults with 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of executive and social-cognitive skills compared with typically developing young people. However, the relationship…
Wang, Yiji; Dix, Theodore
Background: This study examined whether social-cognitive processes in children mediate relations between mothers' depressive symptoms across the first 3 years and children's first-grade social competence. Three maladaptive cognitions were examined: self-perceived social inadequacy, hostile attribution, and aggressive response generation.…
Drusch, Katharina; Lowe, Agnes; Fisahn, Katrin; Brinkmeyer, Jürgen; Musso, Francesco; Mobascher, Arian; Warbrick, Tracy; Shah, John; Ohmann, Christian; Winterer, Georg; Wölwer, Wolfgang
More than 80 % of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia are nicotine-dependent. Self-medication of cognitive deficits and an increased vulnerability to stress are discussed as promoting factors for the development of nicotine dependence. However, the effects of nicotine on social cognition and subjective stress responses in schizophrenia are largely unexplored. A 2 × 2-factorial design (drug × group) was used to investigate the effects of nicotine versus placebo in smoking schizophrenia patients and healthy controls after 24 h of abstinence from smoking. Participants performed a facial affect recognition task and a semi-standardized role-play task, after which social competence and self-reported stress during social interaction were assessed. Data analysis revealed no significant group differences in the facial affect recognition task. During social interaction, healthy controls showed more non-verbal expressions and a lower subjective stress level than schizophrenia patients. There were no significant effects of nicotine in terms of an enhanced recognition of facial affect, more expressive behaviour or reduced subjective stress during social interaction. While schizophrenia patients unexpectedly recognized facial affect not significantly worse than healthy controls, the observed group differences in subjective stress and non-verbal expression during social interaction in the role-play situation are in line with previous findings. Contrary to expectations derived from the self-medication hypothesis, nicotine showed no significant effects on the dependent variables, perhaps because of the dosage used and the delay between the administration of nicotine and the performance of the role-play.
Low, Sabina; Cook, Clayton R; Smolkowski, Keith; Buntain-Ricklefs, Jodie
Research has consistently linked social-emotional skills to important educational and life outcomes. Many children begin their school careers, however, without the requisite social and emotional skills that facilitate learning, which has prompted schools nationwide to adopt specific curricula to teach students the social-emotional skills that enable them to maintain optimal engagement in the learning process. Second Step® is one of the most widely disseminated social-emotional learning (SEL) programs; however, its newly revised version has never been empirically evaluated. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial investigating the impact of the 4th Edition Second Step® on social-behavioral outcomes over a 1-year period when combined with a brief training on proactive classroom management. Participants were kindergarten to 2nd grade students in 61 schools (321 teachers, 7300 students) across six school districts. Hierarchical models (time×condition) suggest that the program had few main effects from teacher-reported social and behavioral indices, with small effect sizes. The majority of significant findings were moderated effects, with 8 out of 11 outcome variables indicating the intervention-produced significant improvements in social-emotional competence and behavior for children who started the school year with skill deficits relative to their peers. All the significant findings were based on teacher-report data highlighting a need for replication using other informants and sources of data. Findings provide program validation and have implications for understanding the reach of SEL programs.
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; O'Campo, Patricia J; Randolph, Suzanne M; Nickerson, Kim
The association between parent racial socialization and child competence was examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of African American preschoolers living in an urban setting. Interviews were conducted in the homes of 200 families. Racial socialization was assessed by parent report as well as by observation of the sociocultural context of the home, and child outcomes were assessed using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and the Child Behavior Checklist. Results indicated that African American parents who provided homes that were rich in African American culture had preschool children who had greater amounts of factual knowledge and better developed problem-solving skills. African American parents who socialized their preschool children to be proud of their heritage reported fewer problem behaviors.
Körner, Jürgen; Chuleva, Svetlana; Clausen, Hans-Joachim
The film-based MASC test, developed to identify patients with Asperger's, proved suitable for testing adolescents' and adults' social-cognitive competence. It differentiated young people with behavioural problems from those without (measured by SDQ) and showed significant differences between hyperactive adolescents and adolescents with behavioural problems; the hyperactive young people tended to select answers that indicated emotional overreaction to social information, while the young people with behavioural problems were more likely to give emotional content too little weight or ignore it altogether. The MASC shows satisfactory reliability, has a challenging character for young people, and is--in contrast to empathy questionnaires--not susceptible to subjects' tendency to provide socially desirable answers.
Ee, Jessie; Ong, Chew Wei
Research studies have shown that educational programmes such as camps and field trips can develop affective and social relationships through personal exposure to outdoor experiences among students. This study will illustrate the outcome of a social emotional learning camp organized for 93 Secondary Two students (mean age 14.1) in Singapore. Both…
Johnston, Krista Haley Smith; Iarocci, Grace
Generalized anxiety and depression symptoms may be associated with poorer social outcomes among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability. The goal of this study was to examine whether generalized anxiety and depression symptoms were associated with social competence after accounting for IQ, age, and gender in typically developing children and in children with ASD. Results indicated that for the TD group, generalized anxiety and depression accounted for 38% of the variance in social competence and for children with ASD, they accounted for 29% of the variance in social competence. However, only depression accounted for a significant amount of the variance. The findings underscore the importance of assessing the social impact of internalizing symptoms in children with ASD.
Groh, Ashley M.; Fearon, R. Pasco; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Steele, Ryan D.; Roisman, Glenn I.
This meta-analytic review examines the association between attachment during the early life course and social competence with peers during childhood, and compares the strength of this association with those for externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. Based on eighty independent samples (N = 4,441), the association between security and peer competence was significant (d = 0.39, CI 0.32; 0.47) and not moderated by the age at which peer competence was assessed. Avoidance (d = 0.17, CI 0.05; 0.30), resistance (d = 0.29, CI 0.09; 0.48), and disorganization (d = 0.25, CI 0.10; 0.40) were significantly associated with lower peer competence. Attachment security was significantly more strongly associated with peer competence than internalizing (but not externalizing) symptomatology. Discussion focuses on the significance of early attachment for the development of peer competence versus externalizing and internalizing psychopathology. PMID:24547936
Johnson, Steven D.
Graduate social work students are mandated to be cultural competent to work with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients. This exploratory study examined how best to teach graduate social work students to be culturally competent in working with LGB clients by assessing their perceived competence of attitudes, knowledge and skills as well as their…
Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L
Skilled social interactions require knowledge about others' intentions and the ability to implement this knowledge in real-time to generate appropriate responses to one's partner. Young infants demonstrate an understanding of other people's intentions (e.g. Woodward, Sommerville, Gerson, Henderson & Buresh, 2009), yet it is not until the second year that infants seem to master the real-time implementation of their knowledge during social interactions (e.g. Warneken & Tomasello, 2007). The current study investigates the possibility that developments in social competence during the second year are related to increases in the speed with which infants can employ their understanding of others' intentions. Twenty- to 22-month-old infants (N = 23) viewed videos of goal-directed actions on a Tobii eye-tracker and then engaged in an interactive perspective-taking task. Infants who quickly and accurately anticipated another person's future behavior in the eye-tracking task were more successful at taking their partner's perspective in the social interaction. Success on the perspective-taking task was specifically related to the ability to correctly predict another person's intentions. These findings highlight the importance of not only being a 'smart' social partner but also a 'fast' social thinker.
This study examines the impact of social capital on mathematics achievement in eight European cities. The study draws on data from the 2008 Youth in Europe survey, carried out by the Icelandic Center for Social Research and Analysis. The sample contains responses from 17,312 students in 9th and 10th grade of local secondary schools in the…
Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio
Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
The contributions of academic achievement motivation and social status to peer-reported academic influence were explored in a sample of 322 children in grades three through five. Latent moderated structural equation modeling indicated that children who value academics are more likely to be rated by peers as academically influential. Social status…
Mattanah, Jonathan F.; Brooks, Leonie J.; Brand, Bethany L.; Quimby, Julie L.; Ayers, Jean F.
The authors examined whether a social support intervention reduced loneliness and increased academic achievement among college freshmen. Eighty-eight 1st-year students randomly assigned to a social support group program reported less loneliness in the spring of their freshman year and obtained higher grade point averages in the fall of their…
Puar, Surjit Singh
The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…
Mayer, Susan Jean
As an educator, Maxine Greene returned repeatedly to the dynamic transaction that John Dewey had theorized between a vital social world and individual creativity. With Dewey, she viewed mutually transformative relations with others as the wellspring of all personal growth and social progress and as key to achieving a form of freedom that both…
Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette
The goal of this study was to examine how different types of social experiences in kindergarten relate to Grade 1 academic achievement, while controlling for possible genetic and shared environmental influences through the use of the monozygotic (MZ) twin difference method. Social experiences in kindergarten included relationship quality with the…
Ali, Jinnat; McInerney, Dennis M.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; King, Ronnel B.
The authors examined the relations between two socially oriented dimensions of student motivation and academic achievement of Native (Navajo) American and Anglo American students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a multidimensional and hierarchical model was found to explain the relations between performance and social goals. Four first-order…
This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri…
Eamon, Mary Keegan
Using data from a national sample of 388 Latino young adolescents, this study identified the social-demographic characteristics, influences in the broader social environment, and parenting practices that predict youth academic achievement. Youths who were Mexican American, older, and had an English language problem had lower levels of reading and…
Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan
This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…
Bernhardt, Jay M; Stellefson, Michael; Weiler, Robert M; Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Miller, M David; MacInnes, Jann
Background Social media can promote healthy behaviors by facilitating engagement and collaboration among health professionals and the public. Thus, social media is quickly becoming a vital tool for health promotion. While guidelines and trainings exist for public health professionals, there are currently no standardized measures to assess individual social media competency among Certified Health Education Specialists (CHES) and Master Certified Health Education Specialists (MCHES). Objective The aim of this study was to design, develop, and test the Social Media Competency Inventory (SMCI) for CHES and MCHES. Methods The SMCI was designed in three sequential phases: (1) Conceptualization and Domain Specifications, (2) Item Development, and (3) Inventory Testing and Finalization. Phase 1 consisted of a literature review, concept operationalization, and expert reviews. Phase 2 involved an expert panel (n=4) review, think-aloud sessions with a small representative sample of CHES/MCHES (n=10), a pilot test (n=36), and classical test theory analyses to develop the initial version of the SMCI. Phase 3 included a field test of the SMCI with a random sample of CHES and MCHES (n=353), factor and Rasch analyses, and development of SMCI administration and interpretation guidelines. Results Six constructs adapted from the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and the integrated behavioral model were identified for assessing social media competency: (1) Social Media Self-Efficacy, (2) Social Media Experience, (3) Effort Expectancy, (4) Performance Expectancy, (5) Facilitating Conditions, and (6) Social Influence. The initial item pool included 148 items. After the pilot test, 16 items were removed or revised because of low item discrimination (r<.30), high interitem correlations (Ρ>.90), or based on feedback received from pilot participants. During the psychometric analysis of the field test data, 52 items were removed due to low discrimination, evidence of
Hornung, Caroline; Schiltz, Christine; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain
Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities, is theorized to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies have tested a comprehensive model for early math development. Using structural equation modeling and mediation analyses, the present work examined the influence of kindergarteners' nonverbal number sense and domain-general abilities (i.e., working memory, fluid intelligence, and receptive vocabulary) and their early number competence (i.e., symbolic number skills) on first grade math achievement (i.e., arithmetic, shape and space skills, and number line estimation) assessed 1 year later. Latent regression models revealed that nonverbal number sense and working memory are central building blocks for developing early number competence in kindergarten and that early number competence is key for first grade math achievement. After controlling for early number competence, fluid intelligence significantly predicted arithmetic and number line estimation while receptive vocabulary significantly predicted shape and space skills. In sum we suggest that early math achievement draws on different constellations of number-specific and domain-general mechanisms.
Hornung, Caroline; Schiltz, Christine; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain
Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities, is theorized to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies have tested a comprehensive model for early math development. Using structural equation modeling and mediation analyses, the present work examined the influence of kindergarteners' nonverbal number sense and domain-general abilities (i.e., working memory, fluid intelligence, and receptive vocabulary) and their early number competence (i.e., symbolic number skills) on first grade math achievement (i.e., arithmetic, shape and space skills, and number line estimation) assessed 1 year later. Latent regression models revealed that nonverbal number sense and working memory are central building blocks for developing early number competence in kindergarten and that early number competence is key for first grade math achievement. After controlling for early number competence, fluid intelligence significantly predicted arithmetic and number line estimation while receptive vocabulary significantly predicted shape and space skills. In sum we suggest that early math achievement draws on different constellations of number-specific and domain-general mechanisms. PMID:24772098
Clifton, Rodney A.; Roberts, Lance W.
Examines differences between Inuit and non-Inuit students in activism (social attitude), self-concept, and academic achievement. Inuits scored lower in activism and self-concept than non-Inuits. Suggests teachers create personalized classroom environments to positively affect activism and self-concept, and thereby enhancing achievement.…
Anderson, James G.; Evans, Francis B.
This study examines variations in family socialization practices among Anglo American and Mexican Americans and the effect of these practices on achievement values, self concept and educational achievement. Data were collected from 102 junior high school students and their families. (Author/BW)
Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; De Jong, Ton
This study examined how grouping arrangements affect students' achievement, social interaction, and motivation. Students of high, average and low ability were randomly assigned to homogeneous or heterogeneous ability groups. All groups attended the same plant biology course. The main results indicate that low-ability students achieve more and are…
Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Lam, Shui-fong
The motivational effects of mastery goals and performance goals have been widely documented in previous research on achievement motivation. However, recent studies have increasingly indicated a need to include social goals so as to gain a more comprehensive understanding of achievement motivation. The purpose of the present research was to examine…
AlZboon, Saleem Odeh
The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…
O'Malley, Patricia Tenowich; Sonnenschein, Susan
The purpose of this study was to integrate domain-learning theory and goal theory to investigate the learning processes, achievement goals, social goals, and achievement of 141 college students. Cluster-analytic procedures were used to categorize participants at different levels of expertise based on their responses on knowledge, interest, and…
Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail
This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…
Youse, Keith Edward
The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…
Belandria, Liza C.
Results of a study attempting to verify the extent to which social background variables affect science achievement at multiple levels of analysis are reported. Patterns of home- and SES-influenced variables potentially explaining differences in individual achievement were examined in Hungary, New Zealand, and Australia to duplicate a previous…
This article explores the influence of relationships on student achievement by examining empirical evidence and by adopting a social psychological theory. Initially, the issue is addressed from a national, Swedish context. Thereafter, two general questions are raised: (1) What is the influence of relationships on student achievement, according to…
Bennett, T. A.; Szatmari, P.; Georgiades, K.; Hanna, S.; Janus, M.; Georgiades, S.; Duku, E.; Bryson, S.; Fombonne, E.; Smith, I. M.; Mirenda, P.; Volden, J.; Waddell, C.; Roberts, W.; Vaillancourt, T.; Zwaigenbaum, L.; Elsabbagh, M.; Thompson, A.
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and structural language impairment (LI) may be at risk of more adverse social-developmental outcomes. We examined trajectories of early social competence (using the Vineland-II) in 330 children aged 2-4 years recently diagnosed with ASD, and compared 3 subgroups classified by: language impairment…
Brown, William H.; Conroy, Maureen A.
The authors provide a brief historical reflection on social-emotional competence intervention research along with their vision for future directions of intervention investigations for young children with developmental delays and difficulties. Specifically, they summarize "what we 'know'" and "what we "need to know"" in the area of social-emotional…
Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Doyle, Margaret
This study examined the relationship of social influences to use drugs and competence variables with lifetime poly-drug use for adolescents residing in inner-city regions. The same model was tested separately for boys and girls. Sixth- and seventh-graders (N = 2400) in inner-city schools self-reported substance use, social influences to use drugs…
Heo, Kay H.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Noh, Jina
In South Korea, there has been a rapid increase in challenging behaviors and other social-emotional difficulties at the early childhood level. Korean early childhood educators' perspectives and strategies to address young children's social-emotional competencies and challenging behaviors were investigated. Overall, results suggest that many Korean…
Dennis, Lindsay R.; Stockall, Nancy
Social competence and social communication development can be concurrently supported through intentional thought and planning on the part of the early childhood special educator. In this article, we present suggestions for how teachers can effectively plan for and implement interventions to support these two areas, all within the context of play.…
Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Snyder, Patricia A.; Fox, Lise; Algina, James
We conducted a potential efficacy trial examining the effects of classroom-wide implementation of the "Pyramid Model for Promoting Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence" on teachers' implementation of "Pyramid Model" practices and children's social-emotional skills and challenging behavior. Participants were 40 preschool…
Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Rescorla, Leslie
The present study examined the relation between language and social ability in a sample of 268 preschoolers aged 18-35 months. Expressive language was assessed with the Italian adaptation of the Language Development Survey (LDS), and Social Competence was assessed with the Questionnaire on Peer Interactions in the Kindergarten (QPI). Results…
Research Findings: The aim of this study was to explore the relations between children's trust beliefs and social competence as well as social preference. In addition, this study examined how children with different trust belief profiles may differ in their peer interactive behaviors. A total of 47 children ages 5 to 6 participated in this study.…
Pahl, Kristine M.; Barrett, Paula M.
The development of social-emotional competence is of key importance during early childhood, particularly during the preschool years. We too often believe that early childhood education should focus on the promotion of academic skills to increase intelligence and, therefore, neglect the importance of social and emotional learning. Children who are…
von Grunigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.
The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports…
Hallarman, Prudence R.; And Others
The need for a "systems" approach to school-based social competency training has been highlighted by a national commission and the U.S. Department of Education. The Pupil Involvement/Problem-Solving with People (PI/PSP) curriculum has adapted numerous, well-researched social compentency training models targeted for elementary classroom use.…
Zwaans, Annemieke; van der Veen, Ineke; Volman, Monique; ten Dam, Geert
This article concerns the relationship between social-educational goals and the school context. We used a questionnaire to map the educational goals of teachers in pre-vocational education in the field of social competence, and investigated whether these goals were related to the percentage of students from ethnic-minority groups and to the urban…
Bakx, Anouke W. E. A.; Sijtsma, Klaas; van der Sanden, Johan M. M.; Taconis, Ruurd
Describes a study that developed formative, self-regulated multimedia self-assessment via the Internet of social-communicative competencies for social work students. Discusses a pilot study that was used to design guidelines for the development of the assessment instrument to incorporate students' perceptions, instructional preferences, and…