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Sample records for achievement study ahaa

  1. Preparing the Next Generation for Electoral Engagement: Social Studies and the School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Rebecca M.; Muller, Chandra; Schiller, Kathryn S.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of accountability focused primarily on academic outcomes, it may be useful to reconsider the other original aim of U.S. schools: citizenship development. Using longitudinal, nationally representative data (Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study [AHAA] and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health [Add Health]), we…

  2. School Context and the Effect ESL Placement on Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Achievement*

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Immigrant adolescents’ academic achievement is crucial to our future economic stability, and Mexican-origin linguistic minority youth in U.S. schools generally demonstrate lower levels of achievement. English as a Second Language (ESL) programs provide an institutional response to these students’ needs, the effect of which may vary by the proportion of immigrant students in the school. Measures Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we estimate the effect of ESL placement on Mexican-origin achievement for first-, second-, and third-generation adolescents separately in schools with many and few immigrant students. Results The estimated effect of ESL placement varies by both immigrant concentration in the school and by students’ generational status. Conclusions We find that ESL enrollment may be protective for second-generation Mexican-origin adolescents in high immigrant concentration schools, and may prove detrimental for first-generation adolescents in contexts with few other immigrant students. PMID:20354570

  3. Relationship of Study Habits with Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odiri, Onoshakpokaiye E.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship of study habits of students and their achievement in mathematics. The method used for the study was correlation design. A sample of 500 students were randomly selected from 25 public secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were drawn to gather data on…

  4. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  5. Teacher perception, lesson study and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Whitney E.

    The purpose of this research was to explore group differences between teachers participating in North Cascades Olympic Science Partnership (NCOSP) activities and a matched group of non-NCOSP teachers. Specifically, the study explored potential differences between groups on: (a) science achievement as measured by the science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), (b) teacher perception of knowledge, experience and confidence with lesson study, a collaborative professional development model, (c) teacher perception of knowledge with curriculum, and (d) teacher perception of knowledge and experience with pedagogy. Further, in order todemonstrate group similarities, demographic data for each group were described and considered in the areas of teacher gender, school grade span, school enrollment, percent of students receiving free and reduced meal benefits, percent of female students, percent of students who are an ethnic minority, and percent of students who are identified as special education. A total of 206 science teachers were randomly selected for this population. The experimental (NCOSP science teachers) and comparison (non-NCOSP science teachers) groups were both initially comprised of 103 participants. Data collected from 55 NCOSP teachers and 32 non-NCOSP teachers were valid and used in the statistical analyses. Descriptive and inferential analyses were completed. To ensure the NCOSP and matched groups were statistically similar, chi-square tests for independence were computed. A one-way Hotelling's T2, the equivalent of a MANOVA for two groups, was computed using the SPSS general linear model. The procedure simultaneously compared the independent variable (Group: NCOSP teachers and non-NCOSP teachers) across the seven dependent variables, student science achievement as measured by science WASL, curriculum knowledge, pedagogy knowledge, pedagogy confidence, lesson study knowledge, lesson study experience, and lesson study confidence. Results for the

  6. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  7. Exploratory Studies of Bias in Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross; Draper, John F.

    This paper considers the question of bias in group administered academic achievement tests, bias which is inherent in the instruments themselves. A body of data on the test of performance of three disadvantaged minority groups--northern, urban black; southern, rural black; and, southwestern, Mexican-Americans--as tryout samples in contrast to…

  8. Teacher Goal Endorsement, Student Achievement Goals and Student Achievement in Mathematics: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deevers, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among teacher practices, student motivation and student achievement on standardized mathematics assessments using an Achievement Goal Theory framework. From 2006 through 2009, 800 public school students participated in mathematics assessments and completed surveys measuring perceptions of teacher practices and…

  9. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  10. Interrelationships of Study Habits and Attitudes, Locus of Control, Motivation Achievement Tendencies and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The study investigated (a) relationships between measures on study habits and attitudes, locus of control, achieving tendency, and semester grade-point averages (SGPA), (b) differences between the sexes on the above mentioned variables, and (c) best predictor of SGPA. The subjects were 39 males and 81 females. There were a number of significant…

  11. A Study of Motivational Influences on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…

  12. Ethiopian New Public Universities: Achievements, Challenges and Illustrative Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deuren, Rita; Kahsu, Tsegazeab; Mohammed, Seid; Woldie, Wondimu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze and illustrate achievements and challenges of Ethiopian higher education, both at the system level and at the level of new public universities. Design/methodology/approach: Achievements and challenges at the system level are based on literature review and secondary data. Illustrative case studies are based on…

  13. An Urban Middle School Case Study of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Cynthia S.; Vaidya, Sheila R.

    2014-01-01

    What does it take to change a school's mathematics achievement profile from low to one that is proficient and advanced? Is this transformed achievement profile sustainable? Such is the story presented here, in this three-phase case study of a K-8 urban charter school's mathematics program. The first phase discusses the school's…

  14. Student Achievement Outcomes Comprehensive School Reform: A Canadian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a third-party study of the student achievement effects of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform (CSR). The design was a quasiexperimental, pre-post matched sample (N = 180) with school as unit of analysis, drawing on 3 years of achievement data from standardized external assessments.…

  15. The "Strategies-for-Achievement" Approach for Teaching Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    An educational psychology-based study skills program called Strategies for Achievement was developed to teach learning and motivation strategies to college students. It involved teaching student four major achievement strategies: take reasonable risk, take responsibility for outcomes, search the environment (for information), and use feedback.…

  16. Alberta Science Achievement Study: A Study Conducted for the Minister's Advisory Committee on Student Achievement. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treasure, Morris

    This report is an executive summary of a study conducted for the Minister's Advisory Committee on Student Achievement (MACOSA) of Alberta, Canada. It was designed to investigate levels of student achievement in science in Alberta at grades three, six, nine and twelve and to provide a data base for future assessment. Between 2,000 and 3,000…

  17. Electronic Play, Study, Communication, and Adolescent Achievement, 2003-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' time spent messaging, exploring websites, and studying on the computer increased between 2003 and 2008. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement, this study examines how such changes have influenced individual achievement and behavior from childhood to adolescence. Greater communications and…

  18. Research Study of the 1998 Civics NAEP Achievement Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Susan Cooper

    In 1999 a validation study of the 1998 Civics Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) was conducted, combining a similarity classification study and a booklet classification study. The rationale was that if the teachers who had participated in the 5-day achievement levels-setting process could not use the descriptions…

  19. Race and Academic Achievement in Racially Diverse High Schools: Opportunity and Stratification

    PubMed Central

    MULLER, CHANDRA; RIEGLE-CRUMB, CATHERINE; SCHILLER, KATHRYN S.; WILKINSON, LINDSEY; FRANK, KENNETH A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context Brown v Board of Education fundamentally changed our nation's schools, yet we know surprisingly little about how and whether they provide equality of educational opportunity. Although substantial evidence suggests that African American and Latino students who attend these schools face fewer learning opportunities than their White counterparts, until now, it has been impossible to examine this using a representative sample because of lack of data. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study This study uses newly available data to investigate whether racially diverse high schools offer equality of educational opportunity to students from different racial and ethnic groups. This is examined by measuring the relative representation of minority students in advanced math classes at the beginning of high school and estimating whether and how this opportunity structure limits the level of achievement attained by African American and Latino students by the end of high school. Setting This study uses data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and its partner study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a stratified, nationally representative study of students in U.S. high schools first surveyed in 1994–1995. Population/Participants/Subjects Two samples of racially diverse high schools were used in the analysis: one with African Americans, Whites, and Asians (26 schools with 3,149 students), and the other with Latinos, Whites, and Asians (22 schools with 2,775 students). Research Design Quantitative analyses first assess how high schools vary in the extent to which minority students are underrepresented in advanced sophomore math classes. Hierarchical multilevel modeling is then used to estimate whether racial-ethnic differences in representation in advanced math have an impact on African American and Latino students’ achievement by the end of high school, relative to the Whites and Asians

  20. Race and Academic Achievement in Racially Diverse High Schools: Opportunity and Stratification.

    PubMed

    Muller, Chandra; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Schiller, Kathryn S; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Frank, Kenneth A

    2010-04-01

    BACKGROUND/CONTEXT: Brown v Board of Education fundamentally changed our nation's schools, yet we know surprisingly little about how and whether they provide equality of educational opportunity. Although substantial evidence suggests that African American and Latino students who attend these schools face fewer learning opportunities than their White counterparts, until now, it has been impossible to examine this using a representative sample because of lack of data. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE/RESEARCH QUESTION/FOCUS OF STUDY: This study uses newly available data to investigate whether racially diverse high schools offer equality of educational opportunity to students from different racial and ethnic groups. This is examined by measuring the relative representation of minority students in advanced math classes at the beginning of high school and estimating whether and how this opportunity structure limits the level of achievement attained by African American and Latino students by the end of high school. SETTING: This study uses data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and its partner study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a stratified, nationally representative study of students in U.S. high schools first surveyed in 1994-1995. POPULATION/PARTICIPANTS/SUBJECTS: Two samples of racially diverse high schools were used in the analysis: one with African Americans, Whites, and Asians (26 schools with 3,149 students), and the other with Latinos, Whites, and Asians (22 schools with 2,775 students). RESEARCH DESIGN: Quantitative analyses first assess how high schools vary in the extent to which minority students are underrepresented in advanced sophomore math classes. Hierarchical multilevel modeling is then used to estimate whether racial-ethnic differences in representation in advanced math have an impact on African American and Latino students' achievement by the end of high school, relative to the Whites and Asians

  1. Achieving the Advanced Oral Proficiency in Arabic: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samimy, Keiko K.

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on a case study of a white American graduate student, Mark, who achieved "Superior" oral proficiency in Arabic according to the ACTFIi Oral Proficiency Scale. Based on multiple data sources (e.g., interviews, observation, document analysis), the study highlights Mark's multiple identities as a language learner, language…

  2. Student Achievement and the Use of the Program "Study Island"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Benjamin Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) has been used for many years in an attempt to increase student achievement. Districts have spent millions of dollars implementing different forms of CAI that may or may not be working. This study was an attempt to describe one such district and its CAI implementation. The study sought to complete three tasks. The…

  3. The Role of Feedback on Studying, Achievement and Calibration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Stephanie T. L.; Jamieson-Noel, Dianne L.; Winne, Philip H.

    One set of hypotheses examined in this study was that various types of feedback (outcome, process, and corrective) supply different information about performance and have different effects on studying processes and on achievement. Another set of hypotheses concerned students' calibration, their accuracy in predicting and postdicting achievement…

  4. Grade 6 Social Studies Achievement Test. Part A: Multiple Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This test booklet contains 50 multiple choice items testing sixth grade social studies achievement. The test was administered by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in June 1985. The items concern early civilizations, Southeast Asia, and regulation by the government. Fifty minutes are allowed to complete this test. (GDC)

  5. An Exploratory Study of Creativity, Personality and Schooling Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Noémi; Tavani, Jean-Louis; Beasançon, Maud

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the link between schooling achievement and creativity scores, controlling for personality traits and other individual characteristics. Our study is based on field data collected in a secondary school situated in a Parisian suburb. Four scores of creativity were measured on 9th graders. Verbal divergent thinking negatively predicts…

  6. Parenting Environment and Scholastic Achievement during Adolescence: A Retrospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, Toon W.; Bok, Inge A.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effects of perceived parenting style (overly protective versus a warm and loving environment) on the scholastic achievement of 986 Dutch adults age 18-30 years. Retrospective and longitudinal data suggested that respondents with overprotective parents drop out more frequently and have a lower level of educational attainment…

  7. The Will to Achieve: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of African American High Achieving Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie Faye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to understand the experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents. The experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents have been missing from literature on the academic achievement of African American students. Much of the literature that has been published…

  8. Comparison of the Level of Using Metacognitive Strategies during Study between High Achieving and Low Achieving Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay, Ahmet; Demir, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high achieving and low achieving prospective classroom teachers. This study was designed as a mixed method study. Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale developed by Namlu (2004) was used to measure the use of metacognitive strategies…

  9. Achieving lipid goals in real life: the Dutch DISCOVERY study.

    PubMed

    Bots, A F E; Kastelein, J J P

    2005-12-01

    DISCOVERY Netherlands was an open-label, randomised, multicentre study (D3560/L00003) designed to compare the effects of rosuvastatin with those of atorvastatin, simvastatin or pravastatin on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievement in a primary care setting. Patients (n = 1,215) with type IIa or type IIb hypercholesterolaemia and cardiovascular risk of >20% or a history of coronary heart or other atherosclerotic vascular disease were randomised to receive treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg (n = 621), atorvastatin 10 mg (n = 189), simvastatin 20 mg (n = 194) or pravastatin 40 mg (n = 211) for 12 weeks. Significantly, more patients achieved 1998 and 2003 European LDL-C goals with rosuvastatin than with other statins after 12 weeks (p < 0.001). Rosuvastatin reduced LDL-C and total cholesterol levels significantly more than other statins, both in patients who were statin-naïve and in patients who had received previous statin treatment (p < 0.05). All treatments were similarly well tolerated. In conclusion, greater reductions in LDL-C were achieved with rosuvastatin compared with atorvastatin, simvastatin and pravastatin, enabling more patients to achieve European LDL-C goals.

  10. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  11. Reasoning Abilities in Primary School: A Pilot Study on Poor Achievers vs. Normal Achievers in Computer Game Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnino, Francesca Maria; Ballauri, Margherita; Benigno, Vincenza; Caponetto, Ilaria; Pesenti, Elia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary research on the assessment of reasoning abilities in primary school poor achievers vs. normal achievers using computer game tasks. Subjects were evaluated by means of cognitive assessment on logical abilities and academic skills. The aim of this study is to better understand the relationship between…

  12. Study of academic achievements using spatial analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, C.; Velilla, C.; Sánchez-Girón, V.

    2012-04-01

    In the 2010/12 academic year the College of Agricultural Engineering of the Technical University of Madrid implemented three new degrees all of them adapted to the European Space for Higher Education. These degrees are namely: Graduate in Agricultural Engineering and Science, Graduate in Food Engineering and Graduate in Agro-Environmental Engineering. A total of 382 new incoming students were finally registered and a survey study was carried out with these students about their academic achievement with the aim of finding the level of dependence among the following variables: the final mark in their secondary studies, the option followed in the secondary studies (Art, Science and Technology, and Humanities and Social Sciences), the mark obtained in the entering examination to the university and in which of the two opportunities per year this examination takes place the latter mark was obtained. Similarly, another group of 77 students were evaluated independently to the former group. These students were those entering the College in the previous academic year (2009/10) and decided to change their curricula to the new ones. Subsequently, using the tools of spatial analysis of geographic information systems, we analyzed the possible relationship between the success or failure at school and the socioeconomic profile of new students in a grade. For this purpose every student was referenced assigning UTM coordinates to their postal addresses. Furthermore, all students' secondary schools were geographically coded considering their typology (public, private, and private subsidized) and fares. Each student was represented by its average geometric point in order to be correlated to their respective record. Following this procedure a map of the performance of each student could be drawn. This map can be used as a reference system, as it includes variables as the distance from the student home to the College, that can be used as a tool to calculate the probability of success or

  13. Longitudinal study of young children's responses to challenging achievement situations.

    PubMed

    Ziegert, D I; Kistner, J A; Castro, R; Robertson, B

    2001-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to replicate and extend Dweck's findings regarding young children's responses to challenging achievement situations. Dweck's dichotomous helplessness classification system (i.e., task choice, task choice reason) was replicated with kindergartners, n = 235 (50% male), and first graders, n = 70 (46% male). To test whether individual differences in young children's responses to challenging situations are stable over time, 1- and 5-year follow-ups of the kindergartners were conducted. On the basis of children's responses on age-appropriate behavioral tasks, a composite of cognitive, behavioral, and affective helplessness indices predicted helplessness at 1 and 5 years later, n = 114 (50% male), above and beyond kindergarten task ability and gender, p<.05. Kindergarten helplessness predicted teacher ratings of children's helplessness 5 years later as well, p<.05. The implications of these findings for early intervention are discussed. PMID:11333088

  14. Washington State Student Achievement Initiative Policy Study: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Wachen, John; Moore, Colleen; Shulock, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges launched a performance funding policy called the Student Achievement Initiative (SAI) both to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in community colleges and to provide incentives to colleges through financial rewards…

  15. The Asia pacific cohort studies collaboration: a decade of achievements.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-12-01

    The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) was established in the late 1990s when there was a distinct shortfall in evidence of the importance of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Asia. With few exceptions, most notably from Japan, most of the published reports on cardiovascular disease in the last century were from Western countries, and there was uncertainty how far etiological associations found in the West could be assumed to prevail in the East. Against this background, APCSC was set up as a pooling project, combining individual participant data (about 600,000 subjects) from all available leading cohort studies (36 from Asia and 8 from Australasia) in the region, to fill the knowledge gaps. In the past 10 years, APCSC has published 50 peer-reviewed publications of original epidemiological research, primarily concerned with coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This work has established that Western risk factors generally act similarly in Asia and in Australasia, just as they do in other parts of the world. Consequently, strategies to reduce the prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, and smoking are at least as important in Asia as elsewhere- and possibly more important when the vast size of Asia is considered. This article reviews the achievements of APCSC in the past decade, with an emphasis on coronary heart disease.

  16. [Achievement motivation in essential hypertension: an empirical study].

    PubMed

    Bühler, K E; Haltenhof, H; Kress, S

    1992-01-01

    The influence of achievement-motivation on hypertonia was investigated by a psychometric questionnaire for achievement-motivation with four scales: achievement-motivation, steadiness and diligence, positive examination-anxiety and negative examination-anxiety. The sample of 53 persons was drawn by chance out of an unbiased set of hypertonic patients. Mean by age: 45 years; part of female: 28 subjects; part of male: 25 subjects; vocational school: 16 subjects; high-school: 20 subjects; academics: 20 subjects. The sample of the hypertonic patients was compared with a matched sample of normotonics, concerning sex, age, and education and also with the sample for the construction of the questionnaire. There were significant differences (p = .05) of the hypertonics in the scales achievement-motivation, steadiness and diligence, and positive examination-anxiety but no difference in negative examination-anxiety. The results were discussed with regard to neurophysiological activation theory.

  17. Educating for Civic Engagement: Public Achievement as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, Bernadette Christine

    Over the last four decades there is evidence that citizens are less civically engaged, have less trust in each other and governmental institutions, and are less prepared to participate in deliberative and civic processes. This research studies the importance of acquiring deliberative and civic skills and behaviors as an integral part of civic engagement and developing educational and learning strategies to impart those skills and behaviors in an educational environment. This research uses a civic action program called Public Achievement (PA) as a case study to investigate if participating in a civic and deliberative focused program enables participants to continue to use the skills and behaviors learned in PA in non-PA activities. The research study was focused by a literature review of philosophical frameworks, educational history in the United States, and educational theory. The literature review and examples of learning civic skills and behaviors in secondary and higher educational institutions are examined to frame the analysis of PA. Based on the literature review and the design of PA, constructs and a survey instrument were developed to test the hypothesis that students who participate in PA will be more likely to exhibit civic skills and behaviors than students who did not participate in PA. The research was conducted with two schools in rural Missouri, two schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and two schools in St. Paul, Minnesota. The study results show that students who participated in PA were not more likely to exhibit civic skills and behaviors, and in many cases, non-PA students exhibited civic skills and behaviors more often. The findings revealed that there are programmatic, organizational, and societal barriers that may impede the effectiveness of PA. The findings suggest that implementation of civic engagement programs may be more effective when the effort is supported and reinforced by and across all parts of the organization, organizational

  18. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self-Reported Study Strategies as Predictors of Online Studying Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Zhou, Mingming; Nesbit, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether achievement motivations influence the adoption of learning strategies and learning strategies influence studying behavior in an online learning environment. The Goal Orientation Questionnaire was used to measure achievement motives, and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was…

  19. Crownhill Elementary Case Study: Closing the Economic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To spotlight effective practices, the Washington State Board of Education (SBE) is highlighting schools that are closing achievement gaps and performing at high levels. In 2009, SBE partnered with the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) to create the Washington Accountability Index. The Index is a new way to measure schools'…

  20. Mercer Middle School Case Study: High Science and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To spotlight effective practices, the Washington State Board of Education (SBE) is highlighting schools that are closing achievement gaps and performing at high levels. In 2009, the SBE partnered with the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) to create the Washington Accountability Index. The Index is a new way to measure schools'…

  1. Academic Achievement Despite Child Maltreatment: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol; Renner, Lynette M.; Hua, Lei; Zhang, Ying J.; Whitney, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Although researchers have concluded that child maltreatment has a negative effect on children's learning and academic achievement, not all children are negatively affected by maltreatment, and some children seem to succeed academically despite being maltreated. Drawing on risk and resilience theory, we examined a broad range of potential…

  2. Chaotic Homes and School Achievement: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Jaffee, Sara R.; Plomin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chaotic homes predict poor school performance. Given that it is known that genes affect both children's experience of household chaos and their school achievement, to what extent is the relationship between high levels of noise and environmental confusion in the home, and children's school performance, mediated by heritable child…

  3. Achievable flatness in a large microwave power antenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Achievable flatness for the microwave power transmission system antenna array was determined. Two configurations were analyzed in detail and evaluated as to their net potential misalignment. Manufacturing, joint slack, assembly, alignment and environmental aspects were considered. Approaches to each aspect were analyzed to minimize their contributions to distortions.

  4. Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Kashmiri & Ladakhi Adolescent Girls: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, N. A.; Puja, Javeed Ahamd; Bhat, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Adolescents girls in Jammu and Kashmir. 400 sample subjects were selected randomly from two ethnic groups' viz. Kashmiri and Ladakhi. The investigators used Palsane & Sharma's study habits inventory (PSSHI) to collect data from the field. Certain…

  5. Arsenic Metabolites, Including N-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic Acid, in Chicken Litter from a Roxarsone-Feeding Study Involving 1600 Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris

    2016-07-01

    The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer.

  6. School Administration Leadership Style and Academic Achievement: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brvenik-Estrella, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to gather current teacher and administrator perceptions on leadership in a school environment. The study sought to identify patterns of leadership style as elements in building a school climate that focused on performance and intrinsic rewards. The study also sought to establish an understanding of how leadership…

  7. Constructivist Approach: Improving Social Studies Skills Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCray, Kimeko

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a program designed to enhance social studies skills and knowledge. The target areas for enhancement are geography, economics, history, and core democratic values. The need for strengthening these skills was documented by literature, and surveys. An analysis of probable cause for lack of social studies skills revealed that…

  8. Predictors for Mathematics Achievement? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasanguie, Delphine; Van den Bussche, Eva; Reynvoet, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Numerical processing has been extensively studied by examining the performance on basic number processing tasks, such as number priming, number comparison, and number line estimation. These tasks assess the innate "number sense," which is assumed to be the breeding ground for later mathematics development. Indeed, several studies have associated…

  9. A trial studying approach to predict college achievement.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Rob R; Niessen, A Susan M

    2015-01-01

    We argue that using trial studying is a reliable and valid way to select students for higher education. This method is based on a work sample approach often used in personnel selection contexts. We discuss that this method has predictive validity for study success, has high acceptance by stakeholders, and measures self-regulation in a high-stakes testing context that cannot be measured through self-report questionnaires. We suggest further research to implement this method to select students. PMID:26175704

  10. Alberta Language Arts (Reading and Writing) Achievement Study. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Research, Calgary (Alberta).

    To determine specific objectives for language arts programs in Alberta schools, a study was conducted in which a comprehensive list of specific objectives was compiled for use in developing tests of reading and writing in grades three, six, nine, and twelve. Measurable objectives were ranked in terms of their importance to the total program, and…

  11. Achievement Data in IEA Studies and Simpson's Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuzovsky, Ruth; Steinberg, David M.; Libman, Zipi

    2011-01-01

    This paper is meant to highlight the occurrence of Simpson's Paradox when using aggregated data obtained from two IEA studies in Israel, while ignoring the effect of a powerful intervening variable in the local context--the ethnicity factor. It will demonstrate faulty conclusions regarding either the absence of relationships between a contextual…

  12. Single-Sex Classrooms and Reading Achievement: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra; Denny, George

    2012-01-01

    Gendered schooling is growing in the United States, but little research exists on single-sex classes in public elementary schools. This study sought to find out if single-sex classes in two elementary schools made a difference in boys' reading gains in 2008-2009, as judged by scores on the state's annual literacy test. In one school, boys in the…

  13. Old Order Amish Pupil Achievement in Work Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Following a brief discussion of some characteristics of the Amish culture, data on work study skills from the Iowa Test of Basic Skills are reported for 23 pupils in grades 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8 in Pleasant Hill School near Bloomfield, Iowa. Percentile ranks ranged from 5 to 83. Eleven pupils scored above the fifteenth percentile on map skills and on…

  14. Learning Achievement Packages. Mexican American Studies, English-Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astacio, Ramon; Iruegas, Efrain

    Developed originally for grades 7-12, the three bilingual Mexican American studies curriculum units on the pre-Hispanic cultures of the Olmecs, Mayas, and Aztecs present information for the teacher and for the student, a glossary, worksheets, an answer key, a test, and a bibliography in Spanish and English. The cross section of materials are…

  15. Studying Abroad in Berlin and Achieving Cultural Competence Using English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Gregory H.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a short-term study abroad program conducted in Berlin in English for college students. Guided by the academic goals of developing cultural competence, demonstrating cultural communication, and attaining a basic level of cultural literacy, this program, with its pre- and post-program academic components, offers an alternative…

  16. Nature Awareness and Science Achievement in Middle School: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freese, Maegan; Fultz, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The researchers wanted to continue in their university's previous study of nature awareness and science achievement, specifically examining the effects of nature in the achievement of seventh-grade students. This further study offered valuable insight to the inconclusive findings of previous researchers of nature awareness and science achievement.…

  17. Achievement Goals and Approaches to Studying: Evidence from Adult Learners in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedios, Richard; Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals predict learning in children and young adults, but it is unclear whether they apply to older adults and how they are related to approaches to studying. An online survey examined achievement goals, approaches to studying and academic attainment in distance learners. The Achievement Goals Questionnaire-Revised and the Approaches to…

  18. A Survey Study of Achievement Motivation, Enrollment Status, and Ethnicity on Traditional and Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Ebony D.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement motivation has played an integral part in the psychology and educational fields. Since achievement motivation made its debut in education and psychology fields, there continues to be some discrepancy in the studies that focused on achievement motivation based on traditional students and adult students. This study investigated the…

  19. Achieving Learning Objectives through E-Voting Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Matt; Frincke, Deb

    2007-01-01

    The recent explosion in the use of electronic voting machines provides a wonderful opportunity to teach students about computer security. Because voting is the cornerstone of any democracy or republic, the need for secure voting systems is obvious. Further, students are familiar with how to vote. But the complexity of mapping a traditional process of voting using secret ballots to an electronic environment shows the difficulties of implementing secure processes and systems. In this article, we show a high level mapping from selected security and privacy education outcomes into a target ‘case study’ of developing electronic voting machines intended for traditional secret ballot elections. Our intent is to motivate both a set of lessons specifically involving e-voting, as well as illustrating the usefulness of having a mapping from outcomes to simplified case studies.

  20. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS UNDERLYING ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEVENTH-GRADE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, WILLIAM W.

    ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION WAS STUDIED BETWEEN OVER- AND UNDER-ACHIEVING STUDENTS IN THE ELEVENTH-GRADE TO DEVELOP AN OBJECTIVE MEASURE OF MOTIVATION FOR USE IN PREDICTING ACADEMIC SUCCESS OR FAILURE. APPROXIMATELY 800 STUDENTS IN PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS WERE SELECTED FOR VALIDATION AND CROSS-VALIDATION SAMPLES. THEY WERE DIVIDED BY SEX AND ACHIEVEMENT.…

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Programs for Reducing Achievement Gaps: A Case Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Lan; Kuo, Nien-Ping; Chang, Tien-Ying; Chiou, Jia-Min

    2014-01-01

    Considering that achievement gaps have become a serious educational problem worldwide, the Ministry of Education in Taiwan has been addressing a series of policies to reduce achievement gaps, but the effect of these policies has not yet been carefully examined. Therefore, the present study investigated current educational policies, achievement gap…

  2. Assessment Results and Student Achievement; a Correlation Study Regarding Ability Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonaker, Richard V.

    2013-01-01

    School leaders face increased pressure to identify instructional and administrative practices that increase student achievement. However, achievement gaps persist between disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged student groups. This study highlighted relationships between ability grouping and academic achievement in a suburban school district.…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Reactive Curiosity, Manifest Anxiety, and Achievement in Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    The study attempted to determine: (1) whether achievement in the early school years is related to anxiety and curiosity in later school years; and (2) whether anxiety and curiosity in early school years are related to achievement in later school years. The Stafford Achievement Test (SAT), the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (CMAS), and the…

  4. Inclusivity in the Classroom and International Achievement in Mathematics and Science: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Wei, Tianlan; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sheffield, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Few studies have examined the role of inclusivity in international assessments of student achievement, such as the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study). The current study examined how the inclusivity of students with disabilities at the classroom level across countries may be associated with achievement scores,…

  5. Amalgamation of Future Time Orientation, Epistemological Beliefs, Achievement Goals and Study Strategies: Empirical Evidence Established

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently research evidence emphasizes two main lines of inquiry, namely the relations between future time perspective (FTP), achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance) and study processing strategies, and the relations between epistemological beliefs, achievement goals and study processing strategies.…

  6. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) over Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…

  7. Within Our Reach: A Study of Professional Community in Schools and Its Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Camille S.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of professional learning community variables on student achievement in three Edison Learning Partnership Schools. The study examined three years of State School Assessment achievement data in reading and math, along with three years of Customer Satisfaction Data as collected by the…

  8. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  9. A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Study of Relations between Academic Achievement and Korean Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown that academic achievement has a significant effect on juvenile delinquency, with the reverse reported as well. This study, therefore, examined the reciprocal causal relationships between academic achievement and juvenile delinquency. Methods: The participants were 3449 Korean adolescents (mean age 13.2 years,…

  10. Length of Study-Time Behaviour and Academic Achievement of Social Studies Education Students in the University of Uyo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpong, D. E.; George, I. N.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the length of study time behaviour and academic achievement of Social Studies Education students in the University of Uyo. The purpose was to determine the difference in the academic achievement of the long study time behaviour students and their short study time behaviour counterparts in Social Studies Education. The study…

  11. A Study of the Effects of Jerome Bruner's Man: A Course of Study on Social Studies Achievement in Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredwell, Lloyd; Zodikoff, David

    The main purpose of this study is to determine achievement changes that occur in fifth grade students using the social studies curriculum program, "Man: A Course of Study (MACOS)". The experimental group consists of 103 students using the MACOS materials, and the control group of 103 students using a traditional social studies course. Controlled…

  12. Research On School Attendance And Student Achievement: A Study Of Ohio Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Douglas E.

    2004-01-01

    The research and analysis completed for this study focuses on one variable and its relationship to student achievement: school wide student attendance. It is a variable that is often overlooked or taken for granted as an interesting but meaningless statistic, however, the positive impact of good school attendance on academic achievement may be…

  13. Weighing in on Education: A Study of Childhood Obesity and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guindon, John R., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative causal comparative study looked to see if there was a relationship between childhood obesity and student achievement. Because of the many conflicting results in the research available, it was not known if there was a relationship between childhood obesity and student achievement among inner-city middle school students in a school…

  14. Achievement Orientations, School Adjustment, and Well-Being: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maatta, Sami; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Stattin, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    This study set out to identify the kinds of achievement orientations that adolescents show, and to examine the kinds of antecedents and consequences the use of a particular orientation has. The participants were 734 Swedish adolescents (335 boys and 399 girls) who filled in questionnaires measuring their achievement beliefs and behaviors,…

  15. The Effect of Using Concept Maps as Study Tools on Achievement in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Attieh, May

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) examine whether or not the construction of concept maps by students improves their achievement and ability to solve higher order questions in chemistry, (2) investigate the differential effect of the treatment by gender and achievement level, and (3) explore the relationships between performance on concept…

  16. Achievement Motivation among Secondary School Students in Ernakulam District--A Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payyanatt, Prasanth; Manichander, T.

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study is to find out the level of Achievement motivation of rural and urban secondary school students in Ernakulam district in Kerala state. The data was collected by means of Deo-Mohan Achievement Motivation (N-Ach) Scale on 200 samples of students in various schools in Thripunithura Sub-district selected through…

  17. An Empirical Study on the Effect of School Consolidation in Rural Areas on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Dong; Fang, Chang; Yuanyan, Bai

    2013-01-01

    With Shaanxi province as an example, this study presents empirical evidence on the effect of primary school consolidation in rural areas on student achievement, using the difference-in-differences method. The results show no significant differences in student achievement between consolidated schools and nonconsolidated schools. If student…

  18. Incremental Validity of Thinking Styles in Predicting Academic Achievements: An Experimental Study in Hypermedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weiqiao; Zhang, Li-Fang; Watkins, David

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the incremental validity of thinking styles in predicting academic achievement after controlling for personality and achievement motivation in the hypermedia-based learning environment. Seventy-two Chinese college students from Shanghai, the People's Republic of China, took part in this instructional experiment. The…

  19. Language Factors Associated with Achievement Grouping in Math Classrooms: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Filer, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…

  20. The District-Wide Effectiveness of the Achieve3000 Program: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Park, So Jung; Min, Sookweon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of Achieve3000, a differentiated online literacy curriculum, on students' scores on the California State Test (CST). In the 2011-12 school year, 1,957 students in Chula Vista began using Achieve3000's solutions in 3rd through 8th grade. Using a form of propensity score matching called Inverse…

  1. A Cultural Heuristic Approach to the Study of Jamaican Undergraduate Students' Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Karen E.; Zusho, Akane

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually based sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. Aim: This mixed-methods study examined why Jamaican undergraduate students are motivated or unmotivated and how this relates to the extant literature on achievement motivation. Sample(s): This…

  2. White Working Class Achievement: An Ethnographic Study of Barriers to Learning in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa; Lewis, Kirstin

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the key barriers to learning to raise achievement of White British pupils with low-income backgrounds. The main findings suggest that the worryingly low-achievement levels of many White working class pupils have been masked by the middle class success in the English school system and government statistics that fail to…

  3. Banned and Punished: A Study of Disciplinary Consequences and Reading Achievement among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Erica M.

    2014-01-01

    The impact that removal of students from the educational setting has on student reading achievement (and later life outcomes) was the impetus for this study which sought to identify whether a relationship existed between an increasingly greater frequency of out of school suspension (OSS days) and reading achievement for middle school students.…

  4. STAR Follow-Up Studies, 1996-1997: The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate-Bain, Helen; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne; Cain, Van A.; Word, Elizabeth; Binkley, M. Edward

    The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project first investigated the effect of small class size on student achievement with over 6,000 Tennessee primary students in 1985 through 1989. The study found a consistent and significant benefit of small classes for all students, with the greatest advantages for minority, inner-city students from…

  5. School Disorder and Student Achievement: A Study of New York City Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Greg

    2007-01-01

    The study develops a school safety and student achievement model, incorporating the concepts of student background, school structure, school culture, school disorder, and student academic achievement, and fits it to 613 elementary schools in New York City, using Structural Equations Modeling technique. The model fits the data well based on both…

  6. Opportunity to Learn and Student Engagement: A HLM Study on Eighth Grade Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo, Yun; Singh, Kusum; Chang, Mido

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the individual, class, and school level variability of the students' science achievement. It was hypothesized that there are school or teacher effects which contribute toward explaining achievement differences, besides the student level differences. Owing to the nested structure of the data in Trends in International…

  7. Communication Apprehension, Teacher Perception, Intelligence, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Arden K.; Monroe, Eula Ewing

    To determine which variables best predict academic achievement, a study explored relationships among teacher perception of student communication apprehension (CA), intelligence, academic achievement, and self-reported CA in 203 public elementary school students, ages 8 to 12 years in grades 3-6. The Personal Report of Communication Fear (a 14-item…

  8. Performance-Based Music Ensembles' Effects on Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Timothy Francis

    2013-01-01

    As increasing student achievement levels for all learners continues to drive the focus of education, identifying strategies and opportunities to accomplish this goal becomes progressively more important. This study explored the concepts of self-efficacy, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, and self-efficacy for academic achievement in…

  9. On the interplay between academic achievement and educational identity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pop, Eleonora Ioana; Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Opre, Adrian; Meeus, Wim

    2016-02-01

    The present three-wave longitudinal study provides empirical evidence for the mechanisms of the bright and dark sides of identity development in the academic context. First, we investigated the patterns of stability and change in educational identity and academic achievement among adolescents. Second, we examined the reciprocal associations between identity processes (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and academic achievement. The main results of the study highlighted that academic achievement predicts the manner in which adolescents deal with their identity issues in the academic context. Thus, high academic achievement leads to high levels of commitment (identity synthesis), while low academic achievement leads to high levels of reconsideration of commitment (identity confusion). This unidirectional pattern of effects applied equally to adolescent boys and girls, early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescents, and to adolescents attending theoretical and vocational schools. Practical implications are discussed.

  10. The Effect of Secondary School Study Skills Preparation on First-Year University Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Suhre, Cor J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Although many studies have revealed the importance of study skills for students' first-year performance and college retention, the extent of the impact of study skills preparation on students' academic achievement is less clear. This paper explores the impact of pre-university study skills preparation on students' first-year study experiences,…

  11. Reading Achievement Gaps, Correlates, and Moderators of Early Reading Achievement: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) Kindergarten to First Grade Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2006-01-01

    This study estimated reading achievement gaps in different ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic groups of 1st graders in the U.S. compared with specific reference groups and identified statistically significant correlates and moderators of early reading achievement. A subset of 2,296 students nested in 184 schools from the Early Childhood…

  12. Besides Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Study on the Relations between Epistemic Beliefs, Achievement Goals, Self-Beliefs, and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Boscolo, Pietro; Tornatora, Maria; Ronconi, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the contribution of learner cognitive and motivational characteristics to achievement in science at three grade levels. Specifically, the relations between domain-specific epistemic beliefs about the development and justification of scientific knowledge, achievement goals, knowledge, self-concept, self-efficacy, and achievement…

  13. Factors That Influence School Board Actions to Support Student Achievement: A Multi-Case Study of High-Achieving Rural School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence the actions taken by school boards that advance student achievement in high-achieving rural public school districts. Much of what is discussed in the literature on school improvement efforts is centered on the work carried out by school personnel at the school level. What is…

  14. Academic Achievements and Study Habits of College Students of District Pulwama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Younis Illahi; Khandai, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to study the academic achievement and study habits of male and female college students of district Pulwama (J and k). The sample for the study was 410 including 193 male and 217 female college students .which was further divided into different groups of rural-urban dichotomy. For this purpose descriptive survey method was…

  15. Academic Achievements and Study Habits of College Students of District Pulwama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illahi, Bhat Younes; Khandai, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to study the academic achievement and study habits of male and female college students of district Pulwama (J and K). The sample for the study was 410 including 193 male and 217 female college students, which was further divided into different groups of rural-urban dichotomy. For this purpose descriptive survey method was…

  16. Effect of Formal Study Skills Training on Sixth Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udziela, Theresa

    A study examined whether sixth grade students taught formal study skills would obtain significantly higher reading achievement than those not taught these skills. Study skills can be broken down into ten or more skill areas including: study habits, time management, test taking, lecture notetaking, reading comprehension, vocabulary, test anxiety,…

  17. Efficacy of Five Standards in Raising Student Achievement: Findings from Three Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, R. William; Hilberg, R. Soleste

    2008-01-01

    The authors reported findings from 3 studies examining the efficacy of Five Standards pedagogy in raising student achievement. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized designs; Study 3 was a quasi-experimental design. Samples included 53 teachers and 622 predominantly low-income Latino students in Grades 1-4. Studies assessed model fidelity with the…

  18. Does Teacher Quality Affect Student Achievement? An Empirical Study in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirait, Swando

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between teacher qualities in relation to student achievement in Indonesia. Teacher quality in this study defines as teacher evaluation score, in the areas of professional and pedagogic competency. The result of this study consonant to previous study that teacher quality, in term of teacher…

  19. The Impact of ICT on Pupils' Achievement and Attitudes in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cener, Emin; Acun, Ismail; Demirhan, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of teaching social studies with the help of CT on pupils' achievement in social studies. A history, geography and culture oriented theme was selected from the social studies curriculum for the research, Turks on the Silk Road. A multimedia CD, documentaries, PowerPoint and so on were used to teach…

  20. Relationship between Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul

    2014-01-01

    The present study was probed to find the significant relationship between study habits and academic achievement of higher secondary school students with reference to the background variables. Survey method was employed. Data for the study were collected from 300 students in 13 higher secondary schools using Study Habits Inventory by V.G. Anantha…

  1. An international validation study of two achievement goal measures in a pharmacy education context

    PubMed Central

    Alrakaf, Saleh; Abdelmageed, Ahmed; Kiersma, Mary; Coulman, Sion A; John, Dai N; Tordoff, June; Anderson, Claire; Noreddin, Ayman; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Background Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor’s Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) and Elliot and Murayama’s revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R) are widely used to assess students’ achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA. Methods In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit. Results In contrast to the scale developers’ findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study. Conclusion Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the achievement goals of undergraduate pharmacy students from these countries. PMID:25298743

  2. Black adolescents: a descriptive study of their self-concepts and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Mboya, M M

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the relationships among global self-concept, self-concept of academic ability, and academic achievement of black American adolescents. The subjects were 211 tenth-grade students in five public high schools in the Pacific Northwest school district who volunteered to participate in the study. Global self-concept was measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI), self-concept of academic ability by the Brookover Self-Concept of Ability (General) Scale, and academic achievement by the California Achievement Test (CAT). The major statistical tools were the Pearson product-moment correlations and Fisher Z statistic. In all of the tests the decision was made to reject the null hypothesis at the .05 level of significance. No significant relationship was found between global self-concept and academic achievement, although the relationship between self-concept of academic ability and academic achievement reached significance. The relationship between self-concept of academic ability and academic achievement correlated more strongly than the relationship between global self-concept and academic achievement. These results suggest that the enhancement of global self-concept might not be a potent intervention for academic improvement for black adolescents.

  3. What can and should we learn from international studies of mathematics achievement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Frederick K. S.

    2014-09-01

    International studies of mathematics achievement such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study and Programme for International Student Assessment have dominated much discussion within the mathematics education community and beyond, but such discussions often do not do justice to the nature of these international studies. In this paper, the espoused purposes of these international studies are examined, and the limitations of large-scale international studies posed by the nature and the methodology of these studies are discussed. It is argued that because of the limitations, only broad-brush pictures about achievements in different countries can be painted, and one such broad-brush picture is the superior performance of East Asian students. Cultural values in these countries are then discussed as possible explanation of student achievement. What should and should not be learned from these international studies are then discussed. Caution is advised against emphasising fine changes in ranking of countries, asserting causal relations between background variables and achievement, drawing conclusions about teacher attributes, and suggesting changes in education policies without due consideration of the nature and limitations of these studies. Instead one should focus on trends in achievement scores (and not rankings), performance in different strands of mathematics, and the attitudes of our students as shown in the questionnaire results.

  4. Influence of School Certificate English Achievement and Faculty on Course of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguma, Vincent U.; Timothy, Alexander E.

    2015-01-01

    The study was to find out the influence of both students' achievement in the West African Examination Council's Senior School Certificate English Language examination and the faculty of study by the students in the university on their performances in Use of English and in specific courses of study. 964 undergraduate students of Cross River…

  5. Predicting Children's Academic Achievement from Early Assessment Scores: A Validity Generalization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Juhu; Suen, Hoi K.

    2003-01-01

    Although there have been numerous studies investigating the predictive validity of early assessment, observed predictive validity coefficients across studies are not stable. A validity generalization study was conducted in order to answer the question of whether the relationship between early assessment of children and later achievement is…

  6. A SUMMARY OF STUDIES IN ACHIEVEMENT OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE GRADUATES IN COLLEGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCLELLAND, JOHN B.

    TWENTY-SEVEN STUDIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS SYNTHESIS OF RESEARCH ON THE APPROPRIATENESS OF HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS GOING ON TO AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. MOST OF THE STUDIES INVOLVED STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE TREATMENT. THE STUDIES ARE ORGANIZED INTO SECTIONS--(1) COMPREHENSIVE, (2) ACHIEVEMENT IN LEADERSHIP ACTIVITIES, (3)…

  7. Leadership Practices that Enhance Reading Achievement for African American Males: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Dawnay Ardrean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine leadership practices that lead to improving academic achievement for African American males. Specifically, this study examined cultural insensitivity and its impact on educating African American male students in reading. The study utilized several techniques to determine what practices educators used to…

  8. Study-Orientation of High and Low Academic Achievers at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…

  9. Study of the Relationship between Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Students: A Case of Spicer Higher Secondary School, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siahi, Evans Atsiaya; Maiyo, Julius K.

    2015-01-01

    The studies on the correlation of academic achievement have paved way for control and manipulation of related variables for quality results in schools. In spite of the facts that schools impart uniform classroom instructions to all students, wide range of difference is observed in their academic achievement. The study sought to determine the…

  10. A study: Effect of Students Peer Assisted Learning on Magnetic Field Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueanploy, Wannapa

    2016-04-01

    This study is the case study of Physic II Course for students of Pathumwan Institute of Technology. The purpose of this study is: 1) to develop cooperative learning method of peer assisted learning (PAL), 2) to compare the learning achievement before and after studied magnetic field lesson by cooperative learning method of peer assisted learning. The population was engineering students of Pathumwan Institute of Technology (PIT’s students) who registered Physic II Course during year 2014. The sample used in this study was selected from the 72 students who passed in Physic I Course. The control groups learning magnetic fields by Traditional Method (TM) and experimental groups learning magnetic field by method of peers assisted learning. The students do pretest before the lesson and do post-test after the lesson by 20 items achievement tests of magnetic field. The post-test higher than pretest achievement significantly at 0.01 level.

  11. Evaluation Study of the Effects of Promethean ActivClassroom on Student Achievement. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Haystead, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    During the 2009-2010 school year, Marzano Research Laboratory (MRL) was commissioned by Promethean Ltd. to conduct a second year evaluation study of the effects of Promethean ActivClassroom on student academic achievement. This report describes the findings from the second year study along with aggregate findings from the first and second year…

  12. How Students' Achievement Goals Shape Their Beliefs about Effective Teaching: A "Build-a-Professor" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Belmonte, Kimberly; Yakhkind, Anastasyia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Which instructor qualities do students consider most important? The answer likely depends on the student. This study attempted to trace beliefs about the most essential instructor qualities to students' academic achievement goals. Aims: The present study tested the hypothesis that students pursuing mastery goals favour instructors who…

  13. The Federal Transformation Intervention Model in Persistently Lowest Achieving High Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Patner, Michelle B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act federal mandate of the Transformation Intervention Model (TIM) outlined by the School Improvement Grant, which was designed to turn around persistently lowest achieving schools. The study was conducted in four high schools in a large Southern California urban district that selected the…

  14. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  15. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  16. A Study Investigating Relationships between Elementary Principals' and Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domsch, Gayle D.

    2009-01-01

    In order to examine effective behaviors and efficacy, this study examined the relationships between the self-reflection of effective practices by principals and teachers, as assessed by self-efficacy scales, and student achievement, as evaluated by the state assessment program. Other studies determined that effective behaviors preceded and…

  17. A Study on the Relationship between Theater Arts and Student Literacy and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoa, Rafael; Weltsek, Gustave; Tabone, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    Past studies have shown positive correlations between the arts and academic achievement when the arts were integrated into the literature curriculum. Other studies have shown positive associations between the arts and other areas of the curriculum, such as mathematics and science. Considering the Theory of Change, which employs understandings in…

  18. Attitude to the Study of Chemistry and Its Relationship with Achievement in an Introductory Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen J.; White, Sue; Sharma, Bibhya; Wakeling, Lara; Naiker, Mani; Chandra, Shaneel; Gopalan, Romila; Bilimoria, Veena

    2015-01-01

    A positive attitude to a subject may be congruent with higher achievement; however, limited evidence supports this for students in undergraduate chemistry--this may result from difficulties in quantifying attitude. Therefore, in this study, the Attitude to the Study of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI)--a validated instrument to quantify attitude, was…

  19. Lessons in Literacy: Case Studies of Successful Strategies for Raising Achievement in Multilingual Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bernard, Ed.

    The group of case studies details ways in which elementary, middle, and secondary schools in Bradford (England) have responded to recent developments in literacy education and developed whole- school approaches to improving achievement in literacy within multilingual school populations. Case study titles include: "The Literacy Lesson: A Guide"…

  20. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozuyesil, Eda; Dikici, Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    This study's aim is to measure the effect sizes of the quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of brain-based learning on students' academic achievement and to examine with the meta-analytical method if there is a significant difference in effect in terms of the factors of education level, subject matter, sampling size, and…

  1. Soy Mujer!: A Case Study for Understanding Latina Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Latinas are one of fastest growing segments of the population in the United States, which clearly shows a need to better understand and support education for Latinas within higher education. This study sought to understand the process for and experience of Latinas' academic achievement within higher education. The study focused particularly…

  2. A Qualitative Study of High Student Achievement in a Rural Appalachian Region: Perceptions of Selected Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Regina

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was based on grounded theory and used purposive sampling for selecting participants. The sample for this study included 12 of the 16 superintendents in this region. This rural Appalachian region has historically outperformed the remainder of the southeastern state on reading and math achievement tests at the elementary and…

  3. The Effect of Foreign Language Study in Tennessee Middle Schools on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Keith S.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative method, quasi-experimental design study examined the possible effect of foreign language study in Tennessee middle schools on mathematics achievement. The population was 1,708 historical student test scores of a single cohort spanning 6th through 8th Grades from the same schools within a large urban public school district. NCLB…

  4. The Effect of Educational Leadership on Students' Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadag, Engin; Bektas, Fatih; Çogaltay, Nazim; Yalçin, Mikail

    2015-01-01

    In this meta-analysis study, different leadership styles were combined, and the relationship between educational leadership and student achievement was analyzed. In the literature review, 57 research articles/dissertations, independent from one another, were brought together, and 28,964 study subjects were included in the sample group. The results…

  5. Achievement Goals, Motivational Climate and Sportspersonship: A Study of Young Handball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornes, Tor; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and sportspersonship in a sample of young male Norwegian handball players. A cross-sectional study of 440 male handball players aged from 14 to 16 was conducted, in which the players responded to a questionnaire measuring…

  6. Performance Report for Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study) 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xue-mei

    Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), a federally-funded program, introduced the study of Chinese language and culture at Queen Ka'ahumanu Elementary School (Hawaii), forming the foundation of an instructional program to be continued through middle and high school, to meet state foreign language standards. It was…

  7. Numerical Ability, Course of Study and Gender Differences in Students' Achievement in Practical Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falaye, F. V.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, course of study and numerical ability (independent variables) on secondary school students' achievement in Practical Geography (dependent variable). Purposive sampling was used to select four co-educational secondary schools established in the same year. A sample of 367 Geography students (157…

  8. Mathematics Achievement in the Middle School Years. IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E.; And Others

    The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is the largest and most ambitious study undertaken by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. Forty-five countries collected data in more than 30 languages. Five grade levels were tested in the two subject areas, so that more than half a million…

  9. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  10. A Cultural Heuristic Approach to the Study of Jamaican Undergraduate Students' Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Karen Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually-based, sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. With this in mind, this mixed method study examined Jamaican, of the West Indies, undergraduate students' perception of motivation. This study was conducted in two phases. First, a qualitative…

  11. Performance Report for Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xue-mei

    Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), a federally-funded program, introduced the study of Chinese language and culture at Queen Ka'ahumanu Elementary School (Hawaii), forming the foundation of an instructional program to be continued through middle and high school, to meet state foreign language standards. In its…

  12. Achievement Motivation of the High School Students: A Case Study among Different Communities of Goalpara District of Assam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Achievement motivation is a consistent striving force of an individual to achieve success to a certain standard of excellence in competing situation. In this study an attempt was made to study the effect of achievement motivation on the academic achievement of the high school students of tribal and non tribal communities in relation to their sex…

  13. Cognitive predictors of achievement growth in mathematics: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Geary, David C

    2011-11-01

    The study's goal was to identify the beginning of 1st grade quantitative competencies that predict mathematics achievement start point and growth through 5th grade. Measures of number, counting, and arithmetic competencies were administered in early 1st grade and used to predict mathematics achievement through 5th (n = 177), while controlling for intelligence, working memory, and processing speed. Multilevel models revealed intelligence and processing speed, and the central executive component of working memory predicted achievement or achievement growth in mathematics and, as a contrast domain, word reading. The phonological loop was uniquely predictive of word reading and the visuospatial sketch pad of mathematics. Early fluency in processing and manipulating numerical set size and Arabic numerals, accurate use of sophisticated counting procedures for solving addition problems, and accuracy in making placements on a mathematical number line were uniquely predictive of mathematics achievement. Use of memory-based processes to solve addition problems predicted mathematics and reading achievement but in different ways. The results identify the early quantitative competencies that uniquely contribute to mathematics learning.

  14. Teacher Attendance Effects on Student Achievement: Research Study of Ohio Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Accountability for student learning and successful progression through each grade level has been a top priority concern for federal, state, and local educators. Studies have revealed several variables affecting student achievement, with much attentiveness on student attendance. (Barrington & Hendricks, 1989, Borland & Howsen 1998, Coutts,…

  15. Correlation Study of Physics Achievement, Learning Strategy, Attitude and Gender in an Introductory Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezgin Selcuk, Gamze

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between multiple predictors of physics achievement including reported use of four learning strategy clusters (elaboration, organization, comprehension monitoring and rehearsal), attitudes towards physics (sense of care and sense of interest) and a demographic variable (gender) in order to determine the…

  16. An Empirical Study of Gender Difference in the Relationship between Self-Concept and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun

    2005-01-01

    In the western literature, mathematics achievement and its related student self-concept are important education outcomes reciprocally linked and mutually reinforcing. The reciprocal relation model is examined in this study to assess its generalization in a cross-cultural setting. Hong Kong is the site of choice because of its exposure to…

  17. Constructing a Measure for Longitudinal Medical Achievement Studies by the Rasch Model One-Step Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    As part of a longitudinal study of the growth of general medical knowledge among osteopathic medical students, a simple, convenient, and accurate vertical equating method was developed for constructing a scale for medical achievement. It was believed that Parts 1, 2, and 3 of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners' (NBOME) examination…

  18. The Impact of Troops to Teachers Participants on Student Achievement: A Causal-Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuch, Kurt Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study is to examine the impact of Troops to Teachers (TTT) participants on student achievement by comparing the mean scores of Texas students in the eighth grade during the 2011-2012 academic year taught by TTT participants with the mean scores of all other Texas eighth grade students on each of four…

  19. Birth Outcomes and Academic Achievement in Childhood: A Population Record Linkage Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Felicity; Laurens, Kristin R.; Green, Melissa J.; Brinkman, Sally; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Carr, Vaughan J.

    2014-01-01

    Poor academic performance during childhood predicts later adverse outcomes, and could be targeted for improvement if detected early. This study used population-based record linkage to examine the association between early life risk factors and academic achievement at two different stages of development using two different cohorts: a kindergarten…

  20. Examining the Impact of School Climate on Student Achievement: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Kendall H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the changes in principal-teacher relationships and school climate over time as witnessed by staff members in elementary level "Turn Around Schools" in Indiana and how these relationships impacted student achievement. School climate and subsequent principal-teacher relationships…

  1. Preoccupation with Failure Affects Number of Study Hours--Not Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Pallesen, Stale; Diseth, Age; Larsen, Svein

    2010-01-01

    It has been claimed that perceived academic control (AC) in combination with preoccupation with failure (PWF) produces a strong motivation for success, and the interaction (AC x PWF) has been shown to predict academic achievement. In a prospective study, 442 first year psychology students completed a questionnaire about their background, study…

  2. Achievement of Audi-Tutorial and Conventional Biology Students, A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Phillip D.; Unbehaun, Laraine M.

    1971-01-01

    Students studying a biology course by audio-tutorial or conventional lecture-laboratory methods differed in achievement on course examinations, with the A-T group scoring significantly higher on the total test and 3 of the 9 subtests. (AL)

  3. Academic Achievement of Elementary Students: A Comparison Study of Student Athletes versus Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Kimberly Renee

    2013-01-01

    The place of sports in academic institutions has been analyzed at length for several years. However most studies focus on the participation of high school and university students in school sports. Very little research exists to suggest a positive or negative correlation between academic achievement and participation in interscholastic sports at…

  4. A Comparative Study of Student Achievement in Traditional Schools and Schools of Choice in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpala, Comfort O.; Bell, Genniver C.; Tuprah, Kwami

    2007-01-01

    This policy study examined the differences in student achievement scores in reading and mathematics in selected public middle schools of choice and in traditional public middle schools with similar demographics and socioeconomic characteristics in a southeastern school district in North Carolina during the 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000…

  5. An Exploratory Study Contrasting High- and Low-Achieving Students' Percent Word Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether schema-based instruction (SBI), a promising method for teaching students to represent and solve mathematical word problems, impacted the learning of percent word problems. Of particular interest was the extent that SBI improved high- and low-achieving students' learning and to a lesser degree on the indirect effect of…

  6. Classroom Connectivity and Algebra 1 Achievement: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Karen E.; Pape, Stephen J.; Owens, Douglas T.; Abrahamson, Louis; Silver, David; Sanalan, Vehbi A.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U.S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) professional development and classroom intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with…

  7. A Study of the Effect of All Day Kindergarten on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffler, Darwin J.

    2010-01-01

    This causal/comparative study answered: Does the attainment of year-end kindergarten reading benchmark status vary between students enrolled in half-day kindergarten and those enrolled in full-day kindergarten after controlling for differences in initial instructional recommendations? The researcher analyzed the 2005-2006 achievement of 906…

  8. Factors Affecting the Academic Achievement: A Study of Elementary School Students of NCR Delhi, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dev, Meenu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The foremost aim of the study was to investigate and analyze the relationship of General Mental Ability, Interest and home environment with Academic Achievement. Methods: The participants were 110 students drawn from three Kendrya Vidyalayas of Delhi. Their ages ranged between 13 and 14 with a mean age of 13.6 years. Two validated instruments…

  9. A Correlational Study between Teachers' Use of Calculators and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs-Miller, Reba

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of achievement among 7th grade mathematics students in the United States and a lack of technology use in the 7 th grade classroom. The purpose of this correlational study was to determine the relationship between teachers' use of calculators in Grade 7 mathematics instruction, the independent variable, and student achievement…

  10. A Correlational Study of Building Principal Emotional Intelligence and the Connection to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, James

    2012-01-01

    While student achievement is only one indicator of a building principal's effectiveness, it is widely considered to be one of the most important. This is especially true in regard to the current climate of accountability surrounding education. Multiple studies have yielded results concerning the behaviors and characteristics of building…

  11. Academic Achievement, School Quality and Family Background: Study in Seven Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanguinetty, Jorge A.

    Educational production can be studied by correlating levels of academic achievement with three independent variables: student's family background, student's mental ability, and school quality. To examine family background and school quality, information was gathered from schools in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru.…

  12. A Study of Effective Practices in Reading Intervention that Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a reading intervention program designed to narrow the achievement gap between students who are proficient in reading language arts as measured by the California Standards Test in comparison to students who are performing below the targeted proficiency level. State, district, and local school data show that…

  13. A Study of the Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Academic Achievement in Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Mary Kay

    2010-01-01

    The number of public high schools implementing a semester 4 x 4 block scheduling design within the state of South Carolina has tripled since 2005. However, minimal local research has been conducted regarding the impact of block scheduling on student academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist…

  14. Comparing Achievement between K-8 and Middle Schools: A Large-Scale Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Vaughan; Ruby, Allen

    2007-01-01

    This study compares middle schools to K-8 schools, as well as to newly formed K-8 schools that are part of a K-8 conversion policy. The outcome is student achievement, and our sample includes 40,883 eighth-grade students from 95 schools across five cohorts. The analysis uses multilevel modeling to account for student, cohort, and school-level…

  15. Academic Achievement and Transcendental Meditation: A Study with At-Risk Urban Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nidich, Sanford; Mjasiri, Shujaa; Nidich, Randi; Rainforth, Maxwell; Grant, James; Valosek, Laurent; Chang, Walter; Zigler, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    The middle school level is of particular concern to educators because of poor standardized test performance. This study evaluated change in academic achievement in public middle school students practicing the Transcendental Meditation[R] program compared to controls. A total of 189 students who were below proficiency level at baseline in English…

  16. The Relationship between Preschool Experiences and Reading Achievement: A Five Year Followup Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creech, Charles Waddell

    The purposes of this study were (1) to ascertain whether there were significant differences in reading achievement scores within first-grade children who have and who have not had preschool group experiences, and (2) to follow up these first-grade students through the fifth grade to determine if any significant differences were retained, or…

  17. Adding Families to the Homework Equation: A Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Voorhis, Frances L.

    2011-01-01

    Families, whether guided or instructed to, often become involved in their children's homework. This study examined the effects of a weekly interactive mathematics program (Teachers Involve Parents in Schoolwork-TIPS) on family involvement, emotions and attitudes, and student achievement. Students and families (N=153) from four urban elementary…

  18. Examining the Effects of Notetaking Format on Achievement When Students Construct and Study Computerized Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes two experiments conducted to investigate the effects of notetaking format on achievement. Students constructed and studied different types of notes: partial (framework and partial notes), skeletal (framework with no notes), and control (no framework and no notes). Found that, based on an application test, students who completed and…

  19. Student Conscientiousness, Self-Regulated Learning, and Science Achievement: An Explorative Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie; Zeidner, Moshe; Aharon, Irit

    2009-01-01

    This explorative field study examined the mediating role of self-regulated learning (SRL) in the relationship between the personality trait of conscientiousness, SRL, and science achievement in a sample of junior high school students. Over the course of an entire academic year, data on enacted SRL were collected each week for 52 eighth-grade…

  20. Students' Facebook Usage and Academic Achievement: A Case Study of Private University in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the time spent on Facebook and the purpose for which Facebook was used had any impact on the academic achievement of the students. This exploratory research used a questionnaire to collect data from 251 undergraduate students at a private university in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were analyzed using…

  1. The Effects of the Constructivist Learning Approach on Student's Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayaz, Mehmet Fatih; Sekerci, Hanifi

    2015-01-01

    In this research, a meta-analysis study was conducted in order to determine the effects of constructivist learning approach on students' academic achievement. Master's thesis, doctoral dissertation and articles in national and international databases, which are realized between the years of 2003-2014, appropriate to the problem and which can be…

  2. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  3. Predicting Early School Achievement with the EDI: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Seguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    School readiness tests are significant predictors of early school achievement. Measuring school readiness on a large scale would be necessary for the implementation of intervention programs at the community level. However, assessment of school readiness is costly and time consuming. This study assesses the predictive value of a school readiness…

  4. Social Experiences in Kindergarten and Academic Achievement in Grade 1: A Monozygotic Twin Difference Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how different types of social experiences in kindergarten relate to Grade 1 academic achievement, while controlling for possible genetic and shared environmental influences through the use of the monozygotic (MZ) twin difference method. Social experiences in kindergarten included relationship quality with the…

  5. Are Two Better than One? A Comparative Study of Achievement Gaps and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), the size of the literacy achievement gap between 15-year-old students from two-parent and those from single-mother households were compared across 18 industrialized nations. This study found that cross-national differences exist in the association between single motherhood…

  6. Success Despite Socioeconomics: A Case Study of a High-Achieving, High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Thomas Brent; Smith, Samuel J.; Claxton, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of a high-achieving, high-poverty school describes the school's leadership, culture, and programs that contributed to its success. Data were collected from two surveys (the School Culture Survey and the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education), observations at the school site, and interviews with school personnel. The…

  7. Linking Resource Allocation to Student Achievement: A Study of Title 1 and Title 1 Stimulus Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpe, Kati P.

    2012-01-01

    With the emphasis on high standards and fiscal accountability, there is a heightened need to inform the research linking student achievement to the allocation of resources. This mixed methods inquiry sought to study how schools utilized Title 1 and Title 1 stimulus funding from 2009-2011 to determine if correlations existed between areas of…

  8. Social Perspective Taking: A Facilitating Aptitude for Conflict Resolution, Historical Empathy, and Social Studies Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between social perspective taking (SPT) and student achievement in three domains: conflict resolution, historical empathy, and social studies grades. Although many have asserted that SPT relates to important educational outcomes, varying conceptualizations of SPT have impeded researchers' abilities to assess…

  9. A Study of Professional Learning Communities and Science Achievement in Large High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincannon, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the science achievement and high school completion rates of students in a large high school implementing professional learning community concepts and practices with two large high schools not participating in professional learning community concepts and practices. The primary methodology employed was a…

  10. A Study of the Relationship between the ACT College Mathematics Readiness Standard and College Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Post, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the American College Testing (ACT) college mathematics readiness standard and college mathematics achievement using a sample of students who met or exceeded the minimum 3 years high school mathematics coursework recommended by ACT. According to ACT, a student who scores 22 or higher on the ACT…

  11. Aggression, social competence, and academic achievement in Chinese children: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Huang, Xiaorui; Chang, Lei; Wang, Li; Li, Dan

    2010-08-01

    The primary purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age = 8 years, N = 1,140), contributions of aggression to the development of social competence and academic achievement. Five waves of panel data on aggression and social and school performance were collected from peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records in Grades 2 to 5. Structural equation modeling revealed that aggression had unique effects on later social competence and academic achievement after their stabilities were controlled, particularly in the junior grades. Aggression also had significant indirect effects on social and academic outcomes through multiple pathways. Social competence and academic achievement contributed to the development of each other, but not aggression. The results indicate cascade effects of aggression in Chinese children from a developmental perspective.

  12. Motivation and social contexts: a crossnational pilot study of achievement, power, and affiliation motives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yangang; Mellor, David; Duan, Liqiong

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is a relationship between social contexts (e.g., economic growth, engagement in wars) and motives within populations. In particular, high achievement motive is associated with subsequent economic growth, which in turn increases power motive. Increased national achievement and power motives have been argued to precede social changes that lead to decreased affiliation motives, and engagement in wars. The present study aimed to examine differences in achievement, power, and affiliation motives between 266 college students in China (a nation with sustained high economic growth) and 255 college students in the USA (a nation with previously strong but now slowing economic growth, and engaged in war). Analysis of personal strivings suggested that Chinese college students showed significantly higher levels of achievement motive than the American college students, but American college students showed significantly higher levels of affiliation motive than Chinese college students. Overall, males exhibited higher achievement motivation than females. No significant interaction effects were found for gender by location for any of the three motives. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research.

  13. The Effect of Curriculum for Developing Efficient Studying Skills on Academic Achievements and Studying Skills of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Semra; Kilinc, Mehmet; Dogan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to examine the effect of "Development of Efficient Studying Skills Curriculum" on academic achievements and studying skills of 7th grade primary school students. In this study, pre-test post-test from experiment models and semi-experimental model with control group were preferred. The reason for the preference is…

  14. Study on personality dimension negative emotionality affecting academic achievement among Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and overseas.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Vidya; Haque, Mainul; Simbak, Nordin Bin; Jaalam, Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism) on the medical students' academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student's academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas.

  15. Study on personality dimension negative emotionality affecting academic achievement among Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and overseas

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Vidya; Haque, Mainul; Simbak, Nordin Bin; Jaalam, Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism) on the medical students’ academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student’s academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas. PMID:27354836

  16. Probability of Loss of Crew Achievability Studies for NASA's Exploration Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Bigler, Mark A.; Rogers, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, NASA has been evaluating various vehicle designs for multiple proposed design reference missions (DRM) beyond low Earth orbit in support of its Exploration Systems Development (ESD) programs. This paper addresses several of the proposed missions and the analysis techniques used to assess the key risk metric, probability of loss of crew (LOC). Probability of LOC is a metric used to assess the safety risk as well as a design requirement. These assessments or studies were categorized as LOC achievability studies to help inform NASA management as to what "ball park" estimates of probability of LOC could be achieved for each DRM and were eventually used to establish the corresponding LOC requirements. Given that details of the vehicles and mission are not well known at this time, the ground rules, assumptions, and consistency across the programs become the important basis of the assessments as well as for the decision makers to understand.

  17. Achievement, motivation, and educational choices: A longitudinal study of expectancy and value using a multiplicative perspective.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D; Marsh, Herbert W; Morin, Alexandre J S

    2015-08-01

    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes during the transition into early adulthood. Participants were from a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 15-year-old Australian youths (N = 10,370). The results suggest that (a) both math self-concept and intrinsic value interact in predicting advanced math course selection, matriculation results, entrance into university, and STEM fields of study; (b) prior reading achievement has negative effects on advanced math course selection and STEM fields through math motivational beliefs; and (c) gender differences in educational outcomes are mediated by gender differences in motivational beliefs and prior academic achievement, while the processes underlying choice of educational pathway were similar for males and females.

  18. Achievement, motivation, and educational choices: A longitudinal study of expectancy and value using a multiplicative perspective.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D; Marsh, Herbert W; Morin, Alexandre J S

    2015-08-01

    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes during the transition into early adulthood. Participants were from a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 15-year-old Australian youths (N = 10,370). The results suggest that (a) both math self-concept and intrinsic value interact in predicting advanced math course selection, matriculation results, entrance into university, and STEM fields of study; (b) prior reading achievement has negative effects on advanced math course selection and STEM fields through math motivational beliefs; and (c) gender differences in educational outcomes are mediated by gender differences in motivational beliefs and prior academic achievement, while the processes underlying choice of educational pathway were similar for males and females. PMID:26053150

  19. Associations between Reading Achievement and Independent Reading in Early Elementary School: A Genetically Informative Cross-Lagged Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee A.; DeThorne, Laura S.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a cross-lagged twin design to examine reading achievement and independent reading from 10 to 11 years (n = 436 twin pairs). Reading achievement at age 10 significantly predicted independent reading at age 11. The alternative path, from independent reading at age 10 to reading achievement at age 11, was not significant. Individual…

  20. Cognitive Processing and Mathematical Achievement: A Study with Schoolchildren between Fourth and Sixth Grade of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglesias-Sarmiento, Valentin; Deano, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the relation between cognitive functioning and mathematical achievement in 114 students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. Differences in cognitive performance were studied concurrently in three selected achievement groups: mathematical learning disability group (MLD), low achieving group (LA), and typically achieving…

  1. A Study of the Effects of the Accelerated Reader Program on Fifth Grade Students' Reading Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Cindy M.; Smothers, Bobbie C.; Anderson, Eugene; Fulton, Ray; Replogle, William H.; Thomas, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reading achievement growth of fifth grade students following a year of participation in the Accelerated Reader program with the reading achievement growth of fifth grade students who did not participate in the Accelerated Reader program. The Terra Nova standardized achievement test was used as the…

  2. Alberta Grade 12 Examination Study. A study commissioned by the Minister's Advisory Committee on Student Achievement (MACOSA). Condensed Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Fred J.

    In 1973, compulsory province-wide grade 12 examinations, administered in Alberta since 1906, were dropped; teachers were given the responsibility of assigning final grades. Mandated by the Legislative Assembly of Alberta in 1976, this study by the Minister's Advisory Committee on Student Achievement (MACOSA) surveyed education professionals,…

  3. The newest achievements of studies on the reutilization, treatment, and disposal technology of hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Peizhe

    1996-12-31

    From 1991 to 1996, key studies on the reutilization, treatment, and disposal technology of hazardous wastes have been incorporated into the national plan for environmental protection science and technology. At present, the research achievements have been accomplished, have passed national approval, and have been accepted. The author of this paper, as leader of the national group for this research work, expounds the newest achievements of the studies involving four parts: (1) the reutilization technology of electroplating sludge, including the ion-exchange process for recovering the sludge and waste liquor for producing chromium tanning agent and extracting chromium and colloidal protein from tanning waste residue; on the recovery of heavy metals from the electroplating waste liquor with microbic purification; on the demonstration project of producing modified plastics from the sludge and the waste plastics; and on the demonstration of the recovery of heavy metals from waste electroplating sludge by using the ammonia-leaching process; (2) the demonstrative research of reutilization technology of chromium waste residues, including production of self-melting ore and smelting of chromium-containing pig iron, and of pyrolytic detoxification of the residue with cyclone furnace; (3) the incineration technology of hazardous wastes with successful results of the industrial incinerator system for polychlorinated biphenyls; and (4) the safety landfill technology for disposal of hazardous wastes, with a complete set of technology for pretreatment, selection of the site, development of the antipercolating materials, and design and construction of the landfill. Only a part of the achievements is introduced in this paper, most of which has been built and is being operated for demonstration to further spreading application and accumulate experience. 6 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: a longitudinal study and an intervention.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Lisa S; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol Sorich

    2007-01-01

    Two studies explored the role of implicit theories of intelligence in adolescents' mathematics achievement. In Study 1 with 373 7th graders, the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) predicted an upward trajectory in grades over the two years of junior high school, while a belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory) predicted a flat trajectory. A mediational model including learning goals, positive beliefs about effort, and causal attributions and strategies was tested. In Study 2, an intervention teaching an incremental theory to 7th graders (N=48) promoted positive change in classroom motivation, compared with a control group (N=43). Simultaneously, students in the control group displayed a continuing downward trajectory in grades, while this decline was reversed for students in the experimental group. PMID:17328703

  5. The ethnographically contextualized case study method: exploring ambitious achievement in an American Indian community.

    PubMed

    Gone, Joseph P; Alcántara, Carmela

    2010-04-01

    This article demonstrates the empirical viability of the Ethnographically Contextualized Case Study Method (ECCSM) for investigating interrelationships between cultural and psychological processes. By juxtaposing two relevant forms of data--original interview material from a single respondent and existing ethnographic evidence--the inherent idiographic limitations of the case study approach for pursuing the psychological study of culture might be transcended. Adoption of the ECCSM for the exploration of cultural ideals among an elderly Native American respondent revealed both the personal and cultural significance of ambitious achievement within this tribal community, calling into question the conventional wisdom within multicultural psychology that Native Americans are culturally disposed to passive, submissive and noncompetitive psychological orientations. This application of the proposed methodology demonstrates how important empirical insights may be obtained in unusually efficient and nuanced ways at the confluence of culture and psychology.

  6. A Correlational Study of Graphic Organizers and Science Achievement of English Language Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, William Gordon

    English language learners (ELLs) demonstrate lower academic performance and have lower graduation and higher dropout rates than their non-ELL peers. The primary purpose of this correlational quantitative study was to investigate the relationship between the use of graphic organizer-infused science instruction and science learning of high school ELLs. Another objective was to determine if the method of instruction, socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language proficiency (ELP) were predictors of academic achievement of high school ELLs. Data were gathered from a New York City (NYC) high school fall 2012-2013 archival records of 145 ninth-grade ELLs who had received biology instruction in freestanding English as a second language (ESL) classes, followed by a test of their learning of the material. Fifty-four (37.2%) of these records were of students who had learned science by the conventional textbook method, and 91 (62.8%) by using graphic organizers. Data analysis employed the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software for multiple regression analysis, which found graphic organizer use to be a significant predictor of New York State Regents Living Environment (NYSRLE) test scores (p < .01). One significant regression model was returned whereby, when combined, the four predictor variables (method of instruction, SES, gender, and ELP) explained 36% of the variance of the NYSRLE score. Implications of the study findings noted graphic organizer use as advantageous for ELL science achievement. Recommendations made for practice were for (a) the adoption of graphic organizer infused-instruction, (b) establishment of a protocol for the implementation of graphic organizer-infused instruction, and (c) increased length of graphic organizer instructional time. Recommendations made for future research were (a) a replication quantitative correlational study in two or more high schools, (b) a quantitative quasi-experimental quantitative study to

  7. Connecting scales: achieving in-field pest control from areawide and landscape ecology studies.

    PubMed

    Schellhorn, Nancy A; Parry, Hazel R; Macfadyen, Sarina; Wang, Yongmo; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-02-01

    Areawide management has a long history of achieving solutions that target pests, however, there has been little focus on the areawide management of arthropod natural enemies. Landscape ecology studies that show a positive relationship between natural enemy abundance and habitat diversity demonstrate landscape-dependent pest suppression, but have not yet clearly linked their findings to pest management or to the suite of pests associated with crops that require control. Instead the focus has often been on model systems of single pest species and their natural enemies. We suggest that management actions to capture pest control from natural enemies may be forth coming if: (i) the suite of response and predictor variables focus on pest complexes and specific management actions; (ii) the contribution of "the landscape" is identified by assessing the timing and numbers of natural enemies immigrating and emigrating to and from the target crop, as well as pests; and (iii) pest control thresholds aligned with crop development stages are the benchmark to measure impact of natural enemies on pests, in turn allowing for comparison between study regions, and generalizations. To achieve pest control we will need to incorporate what has been learned from an ecological understanding of model pest and natural enemy systems and integrate areawide landscape management with in-field pest management.

  8. Probability of Loss of Crew Achievability Studies for NASA's Exploration Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Bigler, Mark; Rogers, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, NASA has been evaluating various vehicle designs for multiple proposed design reference missions (DRM) beyond low Earth orbit in support of its Exploration Systems Development (ESD) programs. This paper addresses several of the proposed missions and the analysis techniques used to assess the key risk metric, probability of loss of crew (LOC). Probability of LOC is a metric used to assess the safety risk as well as a design requirement. These risk assessments typically cover the concept phase of a DRM, i.e. when little more than a general idea of the mission is known and are used to help establish "best estimates" for proposed program and agency level risk requirements. These assessments or studies were categorized as LOC achievability studies to help inform NASA management as to what "ball park" estimates of probability of LOC could be achieved for each DRM and were eventually used to establish the corresponding LOC requirements. Given that details of the vehicles and mission are not well known at this time, the ground rules, assumptions, and consistency across the programs become the important basis of the assessments as well as for the decision makers to understand.

  9. Probability of Loss of Crew Achievability Studies for NASA's Exploration Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Bigler, Mark; Rogers, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, NASA has been evaluating various vehicle designs for multiple proposed design reference missions (DRM) beyond low Earth orbit in support of its Exploration Systems Development (ESD) programs. This paper addresses several of the proposed missions and the analysis techniques used to assess the key risk metric, probability of loss of crew (LOC). Probability of LOC is a metric used to assess the safety risk as well as a design requirement. These risk assessments typically cover the concept phase of a DRM, i.e. when little more than a general idea of the mission is known and are used to help establish "best estimates" for proposed program and agency level risk requirements. These assessments or studies were categorized as LOC achievability studies to help inform NASA management as to what "ball park" estimates of probability of LOC could be achieved for each DRM and were eventually used to establish the corresponding LOC requirements. Given that details of the vehicles and mission are not well known at this time, the ground rules, assumptions, and consistency across the programs become the important basis of the assessments as well as for the decision makers to understand.

  10. Extrinsic Motivation for Large-Scale Assessments: A Case Study of a Student Achievement Program at One Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmett, Joshua; McGee, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to discover the critical attributes of a student achievement program, known as "Think Gold," implemented at one urban comprehensive high school as part of the improvement process. Student achievement on state assessments improved during the period under study. The study draws upon perspectives on motivation as a…

  11. Thinking Maps: An innovative way to increase sixth-grade student achievement in social studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Tamita

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the effect of Thinking Maps on the achievement of 6th-grade social studies students in order to determine its effectiveness. The population of this study came from a suburban middle school in the state of Georgia. The quantitative data included a pretest and posttest. The study was designed to find (a) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade students who are taught with either Thinking Maps or traditional social studies methods, (b) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade male versus female social studies students, and (c) whether there is a significant interaction between 6th-grade students' type of social studies class and gender as to differentially affect their mean posttest scores on the benchmark test. To answer these questions, students' pretest and posttest were compared to determine if there was a statistically significant difference after Thinking Maps were implemented with the treatment group for 9 weeks. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the test scores between the students who were taught with Thinking Maps and the students who were taught without Thinking Maps. However, the students taught with Thinking Maps had the higher adjusted posttest scores.

  12. Achievements and Peculiarities in Studies of Ancient DNA and DNA from Complicated Forensic Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Grigorenko, A.P.; Borinskaya, S.A.; Yankovsky, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA specimens started 25 years ago. At that time short mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments were the main targets in ancient DNA studies. The last three years were especially productive in the development of new methods of DNA purification and analysis. Complete mtDNA molecules and relatively large fragments of nuclear DNA are the targets of ancient DNA studies today. Ancient DNA studies allowed us to study organisms that went extinct more than ten thousand years ago, to reconstruct their phenotypic traits and evolution. Ancient DNA analyses can help understand the development of ancient human populations and how they migrated. A new evolutionary hypothesis and reconstruction of the biota history have been re-created from recent ancient DNA data. Some peculiarities and problems specific to the study of ancient DNA were revealed, such as very limited amounts of DNA available for study, the short length of the DNA fragments, breaks and chemical modifications in DNA molecules that result in "postmortem" mutations or complete blockage of DNA replication in vitro. The same specific features of DNA analysis were revealed for specimens from complicated forensic cases that result in the lack of experimental data or interpretation problems.. Here, we list the specific features of ancient DNA methodology and describe some achievements in fundamental and applied research of ancient DNA, including our own work in the field. PMID:22649615

  13. Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: a classroom study of values affirmation.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Akira; Kost-Smith, Lauren E; Finkelstein, Noah D; Pollock, Steven J; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Ito, Tiffany A

    2010-11-26

    In many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines, women are outperformed by men in test scores, jeopardizing their success in science-oriented courses and careers. The current study tested the effectiveness of a psychological intervention, called values affirmation, in reducing the gender achievement gap in a college-level introductory physics class. In this randomized double-blind study, 399 students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the 15-week course. Values affirmation reduced the male-female performance and learning difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. A brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance and learning.

  14. A Study of the Relationship of Student-Teacher Compatibility on Student Achievement in Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterday, Kenneth E.; Paul, Oliver Daye

    1980-01-01

    Comparison of seven levels of student-teacher compatibility with student achievement found a positive significant relationship between total compatibility and compatibility in the personal need for inclusion with student achievement. Limited evidence was also found for a relationship between achievement and pupil-teacher compatibility in the…

  15. Teacher Turnover Impact on 1st-8th Grade Student Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Johnnie M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of schools and students not meeting academic achievement standards affects the community and the nation's future workforce. This paper examines many of the factors influencing achievement with special attention given to the facts of teacher turnover in the schools. Teacher turnover and the sad state of the academic achievement of…

  16. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  17. ACHIEVING LIPID TARGETS IN ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES--THE SANDS STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Marie; Silverman, Angela; Fleg, Jerome L.; Lee, Elisa T.; Mete, Mihriye; Weir, Matthew; Wilson, Charlton; Yeh, Fawn; Howard, Barbara V.; Howard, Wm. James

    2010-01-01

    Background Although lipid management in diabetes is standard practice, goals often are neither met nor maintained. Strategies for achieving lower targets have not been explored. The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) randomized patients with diabetes to standard versus aggressive lipid and blood pressure goals for 36 months. Objective To report strategies used to achieve and maintain lipid goals and to report adverse events (AEs). Methods Adults with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease (N=499) were randomized to standard (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]≤100 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C]≤130 mg/dL) or aggressive (LDL-C≤70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C≤100 mg/dL) targets. An algorithm started with statin monotherapy, adding intestinally acting agents as required to reach LDL-C targets. Triglyceride [TG]-lowering agents were next used to reach non-HDL-C goals. Lipid management was performed by mid-level practitioners, with physician consultation, using point-of-care lipid determinations. Results On average, both groups achieved the LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals within 12 months and maintained them throughout the study. At 36 months, mean (SD) LDL-C and non-HDL-C were 72 (24) and 102 (29) mg/dL in the aggressive group (AGG) and 104 (20) and 138 (26) mg/dL, respectively, in the standard group (STD); systolic blood pressure targets were 115 and 130 mmHg, respectively. 68% of participants reached target LDL-C for >50% of the visits and 46% for >75% of visits. At 36 months, the AGG averaged 1.5 lipid lowering medications and the STD 1.2. Statins were used in 91% and 68% of the AGG and STD; ezetimibe by 31% and 10%; fibrates by 8% and 18%. No serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed; AEs occurred in 18% of the AGG and 14% of the STD. Conclusion Standard and aggressive lipid targets can be safely maintained in diabetic patients. Standardized algorithms, point-of-care lipid testing, and non

  18. A Study of the Relationship between Learning Belief and English Achievement of Chinese English Major College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Hulin; Bai, Yulian

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that learning belief has great effect on learning, however, few studies examine the extent to which learning belief affects related achievement. This paper mainly discusses the study of relationship between learning belief and English achievement of Chinese English major students in College. Through the data analysis of…

  19. Cognitive processing and mathematical achievement: a study with schoolchildren between fourth and sixth grade of primary education.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Sarmiento, Valentín; Deaño, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the relation between cognitive functioning and mathematical achievement in 114 students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. Differences in cognitive performance were studied concurrently in three selected achievement groups: mathematical learning disability group (MLD), low achieving group (LA), and typically achieving group (TA). For this purpose, performance in verbal memory and in the PASS cognitive processes of planning, attention, and simultaneous and successive processing was assessed at the end of the academic course. Correlational analyses showed that phonological loop and successive and simultaneous processing were related to mathematical achievement at all three grades. Regression analysis revealed simultaneous processing as a cognitive predictor of mathematical performance, although phonological loop was also associated with higher achievement. Simultaneous and successive processing were the elements that differentiated the MLD group from the LA group. These results show that, of all the variables analyzed in this study, simultaneous processing was the best predictor of mathematical performance. PMID:21444928

  20. A study of the temperatures achievable by expansion of high pressure gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, S. R.; Stollery, J. L.

    1980-08-01

    An experimental investigation of the achievement of cryogenic temperatures by the adiabatic isentropic expansion of a gas is presented. The test apparatus is a light piston tunnel, and the working gas nitrogen. It was determined that cryogenic temperatures were achieved by a polytropic process with an exponent of between 1.3 and 1.4. To achieve a temperature of 120 K from an initial temperature of 300 K, a pressure ratio of 35 will typically be required.

  1. Thermal boundary conductance enhancement using experimentally achievable nanostructured interfaces - analytical study combined with molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eungkyu; Zhang, Teng; Hu, Ming; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-06-22

    Interfacial thermal resistance presents great challenges to the thermal management of modern electronics. In this work, we perform an analytical study to enhance the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) of nanostructured interfaces with square-shape pillar arrays, extendable to the characteristic lengths that can be fabricated in practice. As a representative system, we investigate a SiC substrate with the square-shape pillar array combined with epitaxial GaN as the nanostructured interface. By applying a first-order ray tracing method and molecular dynamics simulations to analyze phonon incidence and transmission at the nanostructured interface, we systematically study the impact of the characteristic dimensions of the pillar array on the TBC. Based on the multi-scale analysis we provide a general guideline to optimize the nanostructured interfaces to achieve higher TBC, demonstrating that the optimized TBC value of the nanostructured SiC/GaN interfaces can be 42% higher than that of the planar SiC/GaN interfaces without nanostructures. The model used and results obtained in this study will guide the further experimental realization of nanostructured interfaces for better thermal management in microelectronics. PMID:27275647

  2. Achieving and sustaining profound institutional change in healthcare: case study using neo-institutional theory.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Cathy; Woodard, Fran; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2013-03-01

    Change efforts in healthcare sometimes have an ambitious, whole-system remit and seek to achieve fundamental changes in norms and organisational culture rather than (or as well as) restructuring the service. Long-term evaluation of such initiatives is rarely undertaken. We report a secondary analysis of data from an evaluation of a profound institutional change effort in London, England, using a mixed-method longitudinal case study design. The service had received £15 million modernisation funding in 2004, covering multiple organisations and sectors and overseen by a bespoke management and governance infrastructure that was dismantled in 2008. In 2010-11, we gathered data (activity statistics, documents, interviews, questionnaires, site visits) and compared these with data from 2003 to 2008. Data analysis was informed by neo-institutional theory, which considers organisational change as resulting from the material-resource environment and three 'institutional pillars' (regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive), enacted and reproduced via the identities, values and activities of human actors. Explaining the long-term fortunes of the different components of the original programme and their continuing adaptation to a changing context required attention to all three of Scott's pillars and to the interplay between macro institutional structures and embedded human agency. The paper illustrates how neo-institutional theory (which is typically used by academics to theorise macro-level changes in institutional structures over time) can also be applied at a more meso level to inform an empirical analysis of how healthcare organisations achieve change and what helps or hinders efforts to sustain those changes. PMID:23415586

  3. Achievement of cardiometabolic goals in aware hypertensive patients in Spain: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Banegas, José R; Graciani, Auxiliadora; de la Cruz-Troca, Juan J; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Coca, Antonio; Ruilope, Luis M; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Despite the importance of achieving cardiometabolic goals beyond blood pressure, in the health of hypertensives, no comprehensive assessment of these characteristics has been performed in whole countries. We studied in 2008-2010 a total of 11 957 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged≥18 years. Information on cardiometabolic characteristics was collected at the participants' homes, through structured questionnaires, physical examination, and fasting blood samples. A total of 3983 individuals (33.3%) had hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg or current antihypertensive drug treatment), 59.4% were aware of their condition, 78.8% treated among those aware, and 48.5% controlled among those aware and treated (22.7% of all hypertensives). Of the aware hypertensives, 13.8% had a body mass index<25 kg/m2, 38.6% consumed <2.4 g/d of sodium, 19.3% were diabetic with 61% attaining goal hemoglobin A1c<6.5%, whereas 42.3% had hypercholesterolemia, with 38.1% reaching goal low-density lipoprotein<115 mg/dL. Only 30.7% of overweight patients received a prescription of specific method for weight loss, 17.4% of daily smokers were offered a smoking cessation strategy, and 15.8% of older patients were given a flu shot. Aware and unaware hypertensives showed a similar frequency of some lifestyle, such as adequate physical activity. In conclusion, in a European country with a well-developed, free-access healthcare system, achievement of many cardiometabolic goals among hypertensives is poor. Moreover, a serious deficiency in hypertension awareness and in the effectiveness of some lifestyle interventions among aware hypertensives is present. Greater effort is needed in the management of coexisting risk factors and on lifestyle medical advice to improve the cardiometabolic health of hypertensives. PMID:22949530

  4. Factors affecting student achievement in science: A study of teacher beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Jonathan

    This study employed a mixed methods and mixed model research design to explore secondary science teachers' beliefs. Specifically, this study focused on factors that secondary science teachers believe affect student achievement in science, and the extent to which teacher beliefs transfer to teacher practice. This study is significant because the outcomes may inform professional development and policy decisions at the school, district, and provincial level. Results from self-reporting data of 82 secondary science teachers indicate that teacher beliefs in each of the fourteen topics surveyed (Classroom Management, Learning Styles, Inclusion, Equity, Science-Technology-Society (STS), Formative Assessment, Summative Assessment, Constructivism, Thematic Approach, Hands-On/Minds-On Activities, The Nature of Science, Science Subject Matter, Electronic Learning and Cooperative Learning) are positive for most Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.) secondary science teachers. Furthermore, secondary science teachers reported having strong beliefs in their ability to affect student learning (self-efficacy beliefs). However, it is apparent from the survey and interview data that teachers believe there are other influential factors that are preventing some students from learning despite the teachers' best efforts and ability. Regarding implementation, this study indicates that beliefs and the enactment of beliefs in classroom practice are positively correlated. The data also shows that at least seventy percent of teachers reported that they implement practices consistent with all but two topics -- The Nature of Science and Electronic Learning -- at least once a week. The findings of this study are discussed in the context of the P.E.I. secondary science setting. Limitations and implications of this study are also addressed.

  5. FIASCO II failure to achieve a satisfactory cardiac outcome study: the elimination of system errors

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Shakil; Page, Aravinda; Jenkins, David; Jones, Mark T.; Freed, Darren; Nashef, Samer A.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Death in low-risk cardiac surgical patients provides a simple and accessible method by which modifiable causes of death can be identified. In the first FIASCO study published in 2009, local potentially modifiable causes of preventable death in low-risk patients with a logistic EuroSCORE of 0–2 undergoing cardiac surgery were inadequate myocardial protection and lack of clarity in the chain of responsibility. As a result, myocardial protection was improved, and a formalized system introduced to ensure clarity of the chain of responsibility in the care of all cardiac surgical patients. The purpose of the current study was to re-audit outcomes in low-risk patients to see if improvements have been achieved. METHODS Patients with a logistic EuroSCORE of 0–2 who had cardiac surgery from January 2006 to August 2012 were included. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analysed. The case notes of patients who died in hospital were subject to internal and external review and classified according to preventability. RESULTS Two thousand five hundred and forty-nine patients with a logistic EuroSCORE of 0–2 underwent cardiac surgery during the study period. Seven deaths occurred in truly low-risk patients, giving a mortality of 0.27%. Of the seven, three were considered preventable and four non-preventable. Mortality was marginally lower than in our previous study (0.37%), and no death occurred as a result of inadequate myocardial protection or communication failures. CONCLUSION We postulate that the regular study of such events in all institutions may unmask systemic errors that can be remedied to prevent or reduce future occurrences. We encourage all units to use this methodology to detect any similarly modifiable factors in their practice. PMID:23592726

  6. A Case Study of the Feedback Design in a Game-Based Learning for Low Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ting-Ling; Lin, Hsiao-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the effects of text-based and non-text-based feedback in a game-based learning system. The pilot study is a case study to find low-achieving math students' comprehension and motivation in using the game-based systems. Four low-achieving students from a suburban middle school participated in the study. Data…

  7. Reliability and Validity of the "Achievement Emotions Questionnaire": A Study of Argentinean University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paoloni, Paola Verónica; Vaja, Arabela Beatriz; Muñoz, Verónica Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims at describing the psychometric features of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ), focusing specifically on the section that measures class emotions. From a theoretical perspective, this instrument was designed based on the control-value theory of achievement emotions. Therefore, a description of the…

  8. Promising Practices in Professional Growth & Support: "Case Study of Achievement First"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…

  9. Achievement, Assessment, and Learning: A Study of Emergent Bilingual Students in Mainstream Content Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan-Terry, Aubrey Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates and problematizes emergent bilingual students' achievement gaps in an existing corpus of middle-school science assessment data. I first characterize achievement gaps across national data, state data, and the corpus of approximately 27,000 students as an analytic backdrop. I then sample a subset of the 6th grade…

  10. Great Expectations: Creative Achievements of the Sociometric Stars in a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The creative achievements and characteristics of a group of ten high school students identified as the most creative by their high school peers were compared to those of ten participants from the same group who had the greatest number of publicly recognized creative achievements approximately 30 years later (Sociometric Stars vs. Beyonders).…

  11. A Study on the Effects of Smaller Class Size on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Rebecca S.; Georgiou, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Since the passage of No Child Left Behind, schools have been looking for resources that are proven, through research, to improve student achievement. The purpose of this article is to determine if there is a relationship between class size and student achievement among 137 school systems in Tennessee. The authors provide a review of the literature…

  12. Nature, Nurture and Academic Achievement: A Twin Study of Teacher Assessments of 7-year-olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sheila O.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Spinath, Frank M.; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background: Twin research has consistently shown substantial genetic influence on individual differences in cognitive ability; however, much less is known about the genetic and environmental aetiologies of school achievement. Aims: Our goal is to test the hypotheses that teacher-assessed achievement in the early school years shows substantial…

  13. An Instructional System for the Low-Achiever in Mathematics: A Formative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donald Thomas

    The purpose was to suggest improvements in the effectiveness of a unit on number theory designed to promote greater achievement and more positive attitudes toward mathematics for low achieving ninth grade students. Six classes were used. Three additive treatments were used with the materials: mastery learning; mastery learning and flow charting;…

  14. Teacher-Pupil Interaction and Teacher Expectations for Pupil Achievement in Secondary Social Studies Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornbleth, Catherine; And Others

    Identification of behavioral correlates of differential teacher expectations for pupil performance is made through a system of dyadic interaction analysis. Observable differences in secondary teachers' behavior with pupils from whom they expect high achievement and pupils from whom they expect low achievement are measured in seven social studies…

  15. Behavior and Achievement Relationships with Emotionally Disturbed Children: An Applied Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughan, Edward; Axelrod, Saul

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between on-task behaviors and standardized achievement among emotionally disturbed or behavior disordered students. Forty emotionally disturbed or behavior disordered elementary school students participated in token economy for one academic year. Noted minimal pre-post achievement gains and high level of on-task behavior; no…

  16. Achieving compliance with the radium standards for drinking water in a midwestern community: a case study.

    PubMed

    Oleckno, W A; Nathan, L M; Anderson, B R

    2001-04-01

    The problem of elevated levels of radium in the drinking-water supply of DeKalb, Illinois, a Midwestern community about 65 miles west of Chicago with approximately 35,000 residents, has been a contentious issue for over a decade. The central players in the controversy include a group of concerned citizens, city officials, the Illinois Pollution Control Board, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Achieving a satisfactory resolution to the problem has been a long, drawn-out process that illustrates how ill-timed proposals, changing risk assessments, different perceptions of risk, and the high costs of compliance can influence the direction of risk management decisions. The purpose of this study is to analyze how these factors sustained the debate and prevented an expeditious solution to the problem. The study uses document analysis as its primary research tool. The questions raised by the controversy, along with their implications for environmental policy, are discussed, as are some of the more important lessons learned from the case. Because of many uncertainties, there were no clear winners in the controversy, although, in the context of the most recent U.S. EPA risk assessments, the community is now poised for better protection from the potential dangers of radium in drinking water than it might have been had citizen action been absent. PMID:11381868

  17. Achieving compliance with the radium standards for drinking water in a midwestern community: a case study.

    PubMed

    Oleckno, W A; Nathan, L M; Anderson, B R

    2001-04-01

    The problem of elevated levels of radium in the drinking-water supply of DeKalb, Illinois, a Midwestern community about 65 miles west of Chicago with approximately 35,000 residents, has been a contentious issue for over a decade. The central players in the controversy include a group of concerned citizens, city officials, the Illinois Pollution Control Board, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Achieving a satisfactory resolution to the problem has been a long, drawn-out process that illustrates how ill-timed proposals, changing risk assessments, different perceptions of risk, and the high costs of compliance can influence the direction of risk management decisions. The purpose of this study is to analyze how these factors sustained the debate and prevented an expeditious solution to the problem. The study uses document analysis as its primary research tool. The questions raised by the controversy, along with their implications for environmental policy, are discussed, as are some of the more important lessons learned from the case. Because of many uncertainties, there were no clear winners in the controversy, although, in the context of the most recent U.S. EPA risk assessments, the community is now poised for better protection from the potential dangers of radium in drinking water than it might have been had citizen action been absent.

  18. An intervention study to enhance girls' interest, self-concept, and achievement in physics classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häussler, Peter; Hoffmann, Lore

    2002-11-01

    Many interest studies have shown the decline of students' interest in physics during secondary education, particularly among girls. Research into physics-related interests of students suggests applying different measures to reduce or reverse that trend such as: (a) suggesting curricular changes that do justice to the specific interests and experiences of girls, (b) improving the ability of teachers to support girls in the development of a positive physics related self-concept, and (c) changing to an organizational setting that gives girls a better chance to improve their self-concept about physics. The purpose of this study was to examine whether these hypothetically effective measures lead to an improvement of the situation for girls when implemented in the physics classroom. The intervention took a whole school year of some 60 one-hour lessons and comprised 12 experimental and 7 control classes of seventh graders (age about 13). Their immediate and long-term achievements, as well as their change of interest in physics, their subjectively experienced competence, and their physics-related self-concept were assessed by written tests at various stages of the intervention. The intervention proved successful and significantly improved most of these indicators for girls (and boys) in the experimental group.

  19. Effects of the peer group on the development of social functioning and academic achievement: a longitudinal study in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; He, Yunfeng

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial mean ages = 9.5 and 12.7 years, N = 505), how the peer group contributed to social functioning and academic achievement and their associations. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and academic achievement were collected from multiple sources. Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that group academic performance made direct contributions to children's social development. Group academic performance also moderated the individual-level relations between academic performance and later social functioning. Whereas high-achieving groups strengthened the positive relations between academic achievement and social competence, low-achieving groups facilitated the negative relations between academic achievement and social problems. The results indicate the significance of the peer group for social functioning from a developmental perspective.

  20. Working memory and individual differences in mathematics achievement: a longitudinal study from first grade to second grade.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Bert; Janssen, Rianne; Bouwens, Kelly; Verschaffel, Lieven; Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol

    2009-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between working memory and individual differences in mathematics. Working memory measures, comprising the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the central executive, were administered at the start of first grade. Mathematics achievement was assessed 4 months later (at the middle of first grade) and 1 year later (at the start of second grade). Working memory was significantly related to mathematics achievement in both grades, showing that working memory clearly predicts later mathematics achievement. The central executive was a unique predictor of both first- and second-grade mathematics achievement. There were age-related differences with regard to the contribution of the slave systems to mathematics performance; the visuospatial sketchpad was a unique predictor of first-grade, but not second-grade, mathematics achievement, whereas the phonological loop emerged as a unique predictor of second-grade, but not first-grade, mathematics achievement.

  1. Violence, Bullying and Academic Achievement: A Study of 15-Year-Old Adolescents and Their School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Ida Frugard; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to…

  2. A Case Study of After-School Activities in One School That Is Making Progress in Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugerman, Susan Robin

    2013-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap has been a national conversation for several decades and a priority for educators and researchers. By looking closely at one school which is showing exceptional success with closing the achievement gap for low income students and English language learners, this study seeks to understand how school personnel and parents…

  3. A Comparative Study of Single-Parent Children and Two-Parent Children in Behavior, Achievement, and Emotional Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Nicki

    A study compared the academic achievement, classroom behavior, and emotional stability of 21 elementary school students from single-parent families to that of 21 students from intact, nuclear families. Behavior checklists were used to ascertain classroom behavior, and academic achievement was assessed through analysis of test scores on the…

  4. A Study of the Effect of Secondary School Leadership Styles on Student Achievement in Selected Secondary School in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Cydnie Ellen Smith

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the leadership style of the secondary school principal on student achievement in select public schools in Louisiana was examined in this study. The null hypothesis was that there was no statistically significant difference between principal leadership style and student academic achievement. The researcher submitted the LEAD-Self…

  5. Acculturation, Social Support and Academic Achievement of Mexican and Mexican American High School Students: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Eric J.; Ehly, Stewart; Garcia-Vasquez, Enedina

    2002-01-01

    Concern about the high dropout rate among Mexican American high school students promoted a study to investigate how acculturation and social support influence academic achievement. Students who were highly integrated and strongly bicultural tended to have higher academic achievement. Females tended to have high GPAs; males were slightly more…

  6. Achievement, Underachievement and Cortical Activation: A Comparative EEG Study of Adolescents of Average and Above-Average Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudt, Beate; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the "neural efficiency" phenomenon (more efficient brain function in brighter as compared to less intelligent individuals) was investigated regarding differences in intelligence (average vs. above-average intelligence) and scholastic achievement (achievers vs. underachievers). The cortical activation (assessed by event-related…

  7. A Study to Assess the Achievement Motivation of Higher Secondary Students in Relation to Their Noise Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latha, Prema

    2014-01-01

    Disturbing sounds are often referred to as noise, and if extreme enough in degree, intensity or frequency, it is referred to as noise pollution. Achievement refers to a change in study behavior in relation to their noise sensitivity and learning in the educational sense by achieving results in changed responses to certain types of stimuli like…

  8. Case Study on the Journey of an Elementary School Labeled as a Persistently Low-Achieving School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Annette

    2012-01-01

    This study examined an elementary school, located in an urban school district, which was labeled as a Persistently Low-Achieving School (PLAS) by the federal government in 2009 in order to determine how the school planned to change leadership and staff; increase student achievement; and implement new approaches for changes in school climate. The…

  9. Evaluation of Science Achievement and Science Test Development in an International Context: The IEA Study in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the development of cognitive tests and their administration to four student populations in a cross-nation study on science achievement by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. Included are illustrative items, a table of behavior-subject area grid, and test scores by countries. (CC)

  10. A Multi-Institutional Study of the Relationship between High School Mathematics Achievement and Performance in Introductory College Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Danielle N.; Medhanie, Amanuel; Harwell, Michael; LeBeau, Brandon; Monson, Debra; Post, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of prior mathematics achievement and completion of a commercially developed, National Science Foundation-funded, or University of Chicago School Mathematics Project high school mathematics curriculum on achievement in students' first college statistics course. Specifically, we examined the relationship between…

  11. Effects of the Peer Group on the Development of Social Functioning and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; He, Yunfeng

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial mean ages = 9.5 and 12.7 years, N = 505), how the peer group contributed to social functioning and academic achievement and their associations. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and academic achievement were collected from multiple sources. Multilevel…

  12. Independence Training and School Achievement: A Study of Parental Attitudes and Expectations as Related to Children's Elementary School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, W. C.; And Others

    In this study of the relationship between factors in the home and school achievement, teachers' ratings and student scores on a standard achievement test were examined in light of parental expectations for the child's independence behavior, the child's personal qualities, and his future work values. Mothers of 441 fifth graders were interviewed…

  13. A Study of African American Male Students' Academic Achievement and School Attitude in an Urban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Roslyn J. F. Billy

    2013-01-01

    With the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, much emphasis has been placed on the accountability of schools and school districts to ensure higher academic achievement of all students. The achievement gap remains among African American male students in urban school districts. This purposed quantitative study explored the relationship…

  14. On achieving the state's household recycling target: a case study of Northern New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Otegbeye, M; Abdel-Malek, L; Hsieh, H N; Meegoda, J N

    2009-02-01

    In recent times, the State of New Jersey (USA) has been making attempts at promoting recycling as an environmentally friendly means of attaining self-sufficiency at waste disposal, and the state has put in place a 50% recycling target for its municipal solid waste stream. While the environmental benefits of recycling are obvious, a recycling program must be cost effective to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this paper, a linear programming model is developed to examine the current state of recycling in selected counties in Northern New Jersey and assess the needs to achieve the state's recycling goal in these areas. The optimum quantities of waste to be sent to the different waste facilities, which include landfills, incinerators, transfer stations, recycling and composting plants, are determined by the model. The study shows that for these counties, the gap between the current waste practices where the recycling rate stands at 32% and the state's goal can be bridged by more efficient utilization of existing facilities and reasonable investment in expanding those for recycling activities. PMID:18835150

  15. Modified toxicity identification evaluation studies for achieving mining sector MISA compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, K.; Sferrazza, J.; Shriner, G.

    1995-12-31

    Results of initial MISA toxicity compliance monitoring for a multiple effluent stream mining operation indicated the presence of sporadic acute toxicity. Traditionally, only small scale acute and sub-lethal species (i.e. D. magna, C. dubia, P. promelas, Microtox) have been utilized during Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) studies. These methods had proven to be very expensive and of limit value in planning the future direction of mining effluent treatment. A more direct and economical approach to toxicity investigations was needed to prepare for the 1997 compliance deadline for non-lethality and water chemistry objectives. A modified EPA-TIE investigation was initiated on the problem effluent streams. Phase 1 modifications were made to include both MISA compliance organisms, D. magna and rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Phases 2 and 3 were replaced with effluent treatability assays derived from toxicity reduction/elimination information obtained during Phase 1 procedures. Information on potential toxicant speciation under the various treatment conditions was also collected. Preliminary results indicate that variations in the applied treatment, as well as the degree of treatment will be required for the different effluent streams to obtain non-acutely toxic effluent. Ongoing laboratory tests are being conducted to achieve consistency and confidence in the results, allowing plant operators to make informed decisions regarding the (expensive) changes to be made in their effluent treatment facilities over the next few years.

  16. Comparisons of numerical magnitudes in children with different levels of mathematical achievement. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola Reveca; Berumen, Gustavo; González-Garrido, Andrés Antonio

    2015-11-19

    The ability to map between non-symbolic and symbolic magnitude representations is crucial in the development of mathematics and this map is disturbed in children with math difficulties. In addition, positive parietal ERPs have been found to be sensitive to the number distance effect and skills solving arithmetic problems. Therefore we aimed to contrast the behavioral and ERP responses in children with different levels of mathematical achievement: low (LA), average (AA) and high (HA), while comparing symbolic and non-symbolic magnitudes. The results showed that LA children repeatedly failed when comparing magnitudes, particularly the symbolic ones. In addition, a positive correlation between correct responses while analyzing symbolic quantities and WRAT-4 scores emerged. The amplitude of N200 was significantly larger during non-symbolic comparisons. In addition, P2P amplitude was consistently smaller in LA children while comparing both symbolic and non-symbolic quantities, and correlated positively with the WRAT-4 scores. The latency of P3 seemed to be sensitive to the type of numerical comparison. The results suggest that math difficulties might be related to a more general magnitude representation problem, and that ERP are useful to study its timecourse in children with different mathematical skills.

  17. Why intra-epidermal electrical stimulation achieves stimulation of small fibres selectively: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motogi, Jun; Sugiyama, Yukiya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Inui, Koji; Tamura, Manabu; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    The in situ electric field in the peripheral nerve of the skin is investigated to discuss the selective stimulation of nerve fibres. Coaxial planar electrodes with and without intra-epidermal needle tip were considered as electrodes of a stimulator. From electromagnetic analysis, the tip depth of the intra-epidermal electrode should be larger than the thickness of the stratum corneum, the electrical conductivity of which is much lower than the remaining tissue. The effect of different radii of the outer ring electrode on the in situ electric field is marginal. The minimum threshold in situ electric field (rheobase) for free nerve endings is estimated to be 6.3 kV m-1. The possible volume for electrostimulation, which can be obtained from the in situ electric field distribution, becomes deeper and narrower with increasing needle depth, suggesting that possible stimulation sites may be controlled by changing the needle depth. The injection current amplitude should be adjusted when changing the needle depth because the peak field strength also changes. This study shows that intra-epidermal electrical stimulation can achieve stimulation of small fibres selectively, because Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-fibre terminals are located at different depths in the skin.

  18. On achieving the state's household recycling target: A case study of Northern New Jersey, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Otegbeye, M.; Abdel-Malek, L.; Hsieh, H.N.; Meegoda, J.N.

    2009-02-15

    In recent times, the State of New Jersey (USA) has been making attempts at promoting recycling as an environmentally friendly means of attaining self-sufficiency at waste disposal, and the state has put in place a 50% recycling target for its municipal solid waste stream. While the environmental benefits of recycling are obvious, a recycling program must be cost effective to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this paper, a linear programming model is developed to examine the current state of recycling in selected counties in Northern New Jersey and assess the needs to achieve the state's recycling goal in these areas. The optimum quantities of waste to be sent to the different waste facilities, which include landfills, incinerators, transfer stations, recycling and composting plants, are determined by the model. The study shows that for these counties, the gap between the current waste practices where the recycling rate stands at 32% and the state's goal can be bridged by more efficient utilization of existing facilities and reasonable investment in expanding those for recycling activities.

  19. On achieving the state's household recycling target: a case study of Northern New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Otegbeye, M; Abdel-Malek, L; Hsieh, H N; Meegoda, J N

    2009-02-01

    In recent times, the State of New Jersey (USA) has been making attempts at promoting recycling as an environmentally friendly means of attaining self-sufficiency at waste disposal, and the state has put in place a 50% recycling target for its municipal solid waste stream. While the environmental benefits of recycling are obvious, a recycling program must be cost effective to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this paper, a linear programming model is developed to examine the current state of recycling in selected counties in Northern New Jersey and assess the needs to achieve the state's recycling goal in these areas. The optimum quantities of waste to be sent to the different waste facilities, which include landfills, incinerators, transfer stations, recycling and composting plants, are determined by the model. The study shows that for these counties, the gap between the current waste practices where the recycling rate stands at 32% and the state's goal can be bridged by more efficient utilization of existing facilities and reasonable investment in expanding those for recycling activities.

  20. Librarians’ Role in Development and Achievement of Central Library Users’ Information Literacy (a Case Study: Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Siamian, Hasan; Shahrabi, Afsaneh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the development of technologies, communications, databases and information resource varieties in today’s information age, our various social, economic, cultural and political needs cannot be fulfilled by relying merely on past knowledge and skills as done previously. Information literacy (IL) as a set of necessary skills for all of us is an effective way of treating new technologies and their effective application in our lives. The study aimed to survey the library users’ views in the Central Library of Babol University of Medical Sciences (The Library), Iran, on the role and influences of librarians on their IL development and improvement. Methods: This analytical survey used a researcher-made questionnaire for data collection. Research population consisted of all users referring Information Unit of The Library during 22 September - 20 December 2010. Of them, 150 users participating in at least 5 workshops held by The Library were selected as the study sample. Results: Based on the findings, 52.7 percent of the subjects rated the influence of the librarians on their IL development much and very much. 44.7 percent claimed that they more acquired IL skills from librarians rather than others. 100 (63.3%) subjects preferred workshops held by the librarian to other workshops. Conclusion: The users of Information Unit of The Library perceived the training IL skills by librarians as a main influencing factor in their IL development and achievement. This emphasized the necessity of teaching IL to users and training the librarians in better teaching IL skills to library user. PMID:24511265

  1. What level of accuracy is achievable for preclinical dose painting studies on a clinical irradiation platform?

    PubMed

    Trani, Daniela; Reniers, Brigitte; Persoon, Lucas; Podesta, Mark; Nalbantov, Georgi; Leijenaar, Ralph T H; Granzier, Marlies; Yaromina, Ala; Dubois, Ludwig; Verhaegen, Frank; Lambin, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Advancements made over the past decades in both molecular imaging and radiotherapy planning and delivery have enabled studies that explore the efficacy of heterogeneous radiation treatment ("dose painting") of solid cancers based on biological information provided by different imaging modalities. In addition to clinical trials, preclinical studies may help contribute to identifying promising dose painting strategies. The goal of this current study was twofold: to develop a reproducible positioning and set-up verification protocol for a rat tumor model to be imaged and treated on a clinical platform, and to assess the dosimetric accuracy of dose planning and delivery for both uniform and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) based heterogeneous dose distributions. We employed a syngeneic rat rhabdomyosarcoma model, which was irradiated by volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with uniform or heterogeneous 6 MV photon dose distributions. Mean dose to the gross tumor volume (GTV) as a whole was kept at 12 Gy for all treatment arms. For the nonuniform plans, the dose was redistributed to treat the 30% of the GTV representing the biological target volume (BTV) with a dose 40% higher than the rest of the GTV (GTV - BTV) (~15 Gy was delivered to the BTV vs. ~10.7 Gy was delivered to the GTV - BTV). Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images acquired for each rat prior to irradiation were used to correctly reposition the tumor and calculate the delivered 3D dose. Film quality assurance was performed using a water-equivalent rat phantom. A comparison between CT or CBCT doses and film measurements resulted in passing rates >98% with a gamma criterion of 3%/2 mm using 2D dose images. Moreover, between the CT and CBCT calculated doses for both uniform and heterogeneous plans, we observed maximum differences of <2% for mean dose to the tumor and mean dose to the biological target volumes. In conclusion, we have developed a robust method for dose painting

  2. Experimental and Theoretical Study on Minimum Achievable Foil Thickness during Asymmetric Rolling

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Delin; Liu, Xianghua; Song, Meng; Yu, Hailiang

    2014-01-01

    Parts produced by microforming are becoming ever smaller. Similarly, the foils required in micro-machines are becoming ever thinner. The asymmetric rolling technique is capable of producing foils that are thinner than those produced by the conventional rolling technique. The difference between asymmetric rolling and conventional rolling is the ‘cross-shear’ zone. However, the influence of the cross-shear zone on the minimum achievable foil thickness during asymmetric rolling is still uncertain. In this paper, we report experiments designed to understand this critical influencing factor on the minimum achievable thickness in asymmetric rolling. Results showed that the minimum achievable thickness of rolled foils produced by asymmetric rolling with a rolling speed ratio of 1.3 can be reduced to about 30% of that possible by conventional rolling technique. Furthermore, the minimum achievable thickness during asymmetric rolling could be correlated to the cross-shear ratio, which, in turn, could be related to the rolling speed ratio. From the experimental results, a formula to calculate the minimum achievable thickness was established, considering the parameters cross-shear ratio, friction coefficient, work roll radius, etc. in asymmetric rolling. PMID:25203265

  3. The Effects of GIS on Students' Academic Achievement and Motivation in Seventh-Grade Social Studies Lessons in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladag, Elif

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on the academic achievement and motivation of seventh-grade students. The study used a quasi-experimental design and a set of social studies lessons. The study was conducted over the 2006-2007 academic year on the students of a primary school at Ankara, Turkey's…

  4. Effects of Problem-Solving Method on Secondary School Students' Achievement and Retention in Social Studies, in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdu-Raheem, B. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of problem-solving method of teaching on secondary school students' achievement and retention in Social Studies. The study adopted the quasi-experimental, pre-test, post-test, control group design. The sample for the study consisted of 240 Junior Secondary School Class II students randomly selected from six…

  5. The Power of Graphic Organizers: Effects on Students' Word-Learning and Achievement Emotions in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilter, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three graphic organizers for teaching vocabulary and the development of the emotions-related to achievement. The study focused on the effects of different types of graphic organizers on word-learning and various emotions in social studies. This study was designed as a…

  6. A trend study of self-concept and mathematics achievement in a cross-cultural context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianjun

    2007-12-01

    The TIMSS 1995, 1999, and 2003 data have been gathered from Hong Kong before and after its sovereignty switch from the United Kingdom to China in 1997. Built on a reciprocal relation theory from the research literature, this investigation is designed to examine models of student self-concept and mathematics achievement during the political transition. Along with a perceived `brain drain' from the population migration, there was a non-monotonic change in the reciprocal relationship between self-concept and mathematics achievement. In addition, indicators of mathematics achievement and self-concept have demonstrated different linkages to the permanent emigration of Hong Kong residents with valued or desirable skills and qualifications. Interpretation of these empirical findings entails a need of enhancing cross-cultural understanding in mathematics education.

  7. A Study of the Relationship between Kindergarten Nonverbal Ability and Third-Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased scrutiny of educational proficiency targets has intensified the urgency for educators to identify measurements that indicate students' likelihood of eventual achievement in reading. This regression analysis explored the relationship between nonverbal ability in kindergarten as measured by the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT)…

  8. Another Objective to Achieve: A Study of Educationally Disadvantaged Veterans Enrolled in a College Preparatory Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Gordon L.; Vivell, Susan

    The Veterans Special Educational Program (VSEP) at the University of California, Los Angeles is a program for recently discharged servicemen and women whose educational achievement would not normally be acceptable for admission into an institution of higher education and economic background has not encouraged them to seek higher education. The…

  9. A Study of School Achievement among the Gujjar and Bakerwal Tribes of Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafaqi, Mohd. Zia-Ul-Haq

    2015-01-01

    In the present scenario academic achievement poses a big challenge to the educationist and psychologists everywhere. It is especially of great concern in India where population explosion, multi-cultural societies and an extraordinary rush for education has led to marvelous quantitative growth of education at all the stages without consistent…

  10. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  11. Follow-Up Study of Reading Achievement in Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Ruth L.

    Forty-three learning disabled children referred initially between ages 7 and 14 years to a medical outpatient clinic for developmentally disabled children were evaluated and followed for a period of 5 to 7 years after which their level of academic achievement was reassessed. Initial evaluation included pediatric, neurological and developmental…

  12. Extended Early Childhood Intervention and School Achievement: Age Thirteen Findings from the Chicago Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated effects of Chicago Child-Parent Center and Expansion Program on 559 low-income, inner-city African American children. Found that program participation for two or three years after preschool and kindergarten was associated with higher reading achievement up to seventh grade and lower cumulative grade retention and special education…

  13. A Qualitative Study of Blue Ribbon Elementary School Principals: Perspectives on Promoting Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslyk, Jacie

    2012-01-01

    In the current age of accountability, there are increasing pressures on building principals to raise standardized test scores. School administrators must identify and implement effective leadership practices that will exert a positive influence on classroom instruction and ultimately enhance student achievement. Research has shown the leadership…

  14. A Case Study of Student Achievement in a Secondary Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Li-Ching; Badejo, Folashade; Bennett, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The quality of student learning and achievement in public schools has become a matter of public discourse and policy, thus led to the establishment of charter school concept. However, there are controversial reports on the academic performances of charter schools, inadequate information on their instructional practices, and the learning…

  15. The Impact of Eliminating Extraneous Sound and Light on Students' Achievement: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangipudy, Rajarajeswari

    2010-01-01

    The impact of eliminating extraneous sound and light on students' achievement was investigated under four conditions: Light and Sound controlled, Sound Only controlled, Light Only controlled and neither Light nor Sound controlled. Group, age and gender were the control variables. Four randomly selected groups of high school freshmen students with…

  16. Science Teacher Self-Efficacy and Student Achievement: A Quantitative Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Benika J.

    2015-01-01

    A teacher's sense of self-efficacy may have significant influence on the pedagogical decisions in the classroom. An elementary school teacher's sense of self-efficacy in teaching science may negatively influence student achievement in science. Negative beliefs concerning science or the ability to teach and promote student learning in science may…

  17. A Trend Study of Self-Concept and Mathematics Achievement in a Cross-Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The TIMSS 1995, 1999, and 2003 data have been gathered from Hong Kong before and after its sovereignty switch from the United Kingdom to China in 1997. Built on a reciprocal relation theory from the research literature, this investigation is designed to examine models of student self-concept and mathematics achievement during the political…

  18. Using Student Achievement Data in Teacher and Principal Evaluations: A Policy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piro, Jody; Wiemers, Roger; Shutt, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    Tennessee was one of the first states to win Race to the Top funds in 2010, partly based on new state policy which tied student achievement measures to teacher and principal evaluations. Nearly half of state legislatures in the United States have passed similar legislation in the past two years. This article examines recent state legislative…

  19. Achievement, Agency, Gender, and Socioeconomic Background as Predictors of Postschool Choices: A Multicontext Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Schoon, Ingrid; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Nagy, Gabriel; Trautwein, Ulrich; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop and test a differential effects model of university entry versus major selection using a set of common predictors, including background factors (gender and socioeconomic status), academic achievement, and academic self-concept. The research used data from 2 large longitudinal databases from Germany (N = 5,048)…

  20. An Analysis of Research Studies in Which "Homemade" Achievement Instruments Were Utilized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Jean; Stewart, James

    1983-01-01

    The current status of "homemade" achievement tests reported in "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" and "Science Education" (January 1975 to January 1980) is examined using Anderson's (EJ 062 750) eight categories of information that a high quality research report should include. Findings from 142 references analyzed are reported. (JN)

  1. Sports Involvement and Academic Achievement: A Study of Malaysian University Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuan, Chun Cheng; Yusof, Aminuddin; Shah, Parilah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Factors that influence the academic achievement of Malaysian university athletes were investigated using 156 field hockey players from several universities. The relationship between team subculture, parental influence, the learning environment, support systems, financial aid, training factors, academic assistance, socialization, and stress level…

  2. A Study of Student Engagement Activities, Discipline Referrals, and Student Achievement in Reading First Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransen, Shelly Lynette

    2013-01-01

    High quality student engagement activities are essential if students are to be successful learners. Over the years, many instructional strategies and models have been devised to encourage teachers to develop student engagement activities that result in high achievement. The Reading First Model initiative was introduced as a part of the No Child…

  3. Study Procrastination, Achievement, and Academic Motivation in Web-Based and Blended Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Jeanine; Wallace, Tary L.; Helmick, Ina J.; Carey, Lou M.; Adkins, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Growth in distance education is increasing the need to examine students' learning strategies in distance and blended learning environments. Students' cramming or spaced-review behaviors were measured and compared across delivery formats as well as examined related to course achievement and attitudes across a term. Although theory would predict…

  4. What Happens When Schools Become Magnet Schools? A Longitudinal Study of Diversity and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Julian; Kitmitto, Sami; Levin, Jesse; Bos, Johannes; Eaton, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Magnet schools hold a prominent place in the history of education reforms in the United States. Best known for offering unique programs or curricula to attract students from outside a school's neighborhood, many magnet schools started off as neighborhood public schools but converted with the goals of increasing student diversity and achievement.…

  5. A Look in the Mirror: One School's Study of Race-Based Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Helping all students find academic success is a central tenet of independent schools. But at many independent schools, mounting anecdotal evidence indicates that a persistent achievement gap exists between white and Asian-American students and their Latino and African-American counterparts. In 2007, Rebecca Upham, head of school at Buckingham…

  6. Impact of Environment-Based Teaching on Student Achievement: A Study of Washington State Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartosh, Oksana; Tudor, Margaret; Ferguson, Lynne; Taylor, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a project which investigates the impact of systemic environmental education (EE) programs on student achievement on EE-based integrated tests and standardized tests in math, language arts, and listening. Systemic environmental education programs are defined by curriculum designed to align and integrate subjects around real…

  7. A Study of Perceived Admission and Achievement Barriers of Learning-Disabled Students in Postsecondary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberg, Catherine Denise

    2012-01-01

    Learning-disabled students face ongoing challenges in higher education. Despite efforts to promote recruitment and retention of students with learning disabilities to trade schools, colleges, and universities, barriers to enrollment and academic achievement persist. Barriers for learning-disabled students are not fully understood and might be…

  8. The Relationship between Academic Self-Concept and Achievement: A Multicohort-Multioccasion Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Marsh and Koller (2004) combined the reciprocal-effects model and the internal/external frame-of-reference model into a unified model of relationships between academic self-concept and achievement. However, this model has only been examined with German adolescents. We decided to test this model with two-wave data drawn from a national survey of…

  9. Sustaining Success toward Closing the Achievement Gap: A Case Study of One Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Kimberly Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Coleman Report (1966), the focus on closing the achievement gap has been a critical component of educational policy for political leaders and field research by educators. The economic crisis which California and the nation at large currently face creates a challenging situation in attempting to narrow the gap.…

  10. Performance evaluation of iterative reconstruction algorithms for achieving CT radiation dose reduction - a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Cristina T; Tamm, Eric P; Cody, Dianna D; Liu, Xinming; Jensen, Corey T; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas; Rong, X John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize image quality and dose performance with GE CT iterative reconstruction techniques, adaptive statistical iterative recontruction (ASiR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), over a range of typical to low-dose intervals using the Catphan 600 and the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantoms. The scope of the project was to quantitatively describe the advantages and limitations of these approaches. The Catphan 600 phantom, supplemented with a fat-equivalent oval ring, was scanned using a GE Discovery HD750 scanner at 120 kVp, 0.8 s rotation time, and pitch factors of 0.516, 0.984, and 1.375. The mA was selected for each pitch factor to achieve CTDIvol values of 24, 18, 12, 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm thickness with filtered back-projection (FBP); 20%, 40%, and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. The potential for dose reduction and low-contrast detectability were evaluated from noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements in the CTP 404 module of the Catphan. Hounsfield units (HUs) of several materials were evaluated from the cylinder inserts in the CTP 404 module, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated from the air insert. The results were con-firmed in the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantom at 6, 3, 2, and 1mGy. MBIR reduced noise levels five-fold and increased CNR by a factor of five compared to FBP below 6mGy CTDIvol, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. Compared to ASiR and FBP, HU in images reconstructed with MBIR were consistently lower, and this discrepancy was reversed by higher pitch factors in some materials. MBIR improved the conspicuity of the high-contrast spatial resolution bar pattern, and MTF quantification confirmed the superior spatial resolution performance of MBIR versus FBP and ASiR at higher dose levels. While ASiR and FBP were relatively insensitive to changes in dose and pitch, the spatial resolution for MBIR

  11. Differences between High and Low Academic Achieving University Students in Learning and Study Strategies: A Further Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2009-01-01

    Following up on the general framework of the research study of Yip (2007), this article sets out a similar research question, investigating the differences between high and low academic achieving Hong Kong university students based on their different learning and study strategies. In this study, we recruited 100 university students who pursued…

  12. Physics Learning Achievement Study: Projectile, Using Mathematica Program of Faculty of Science and Technology Phetchabun Rajabhat University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutem, Artit; Kerdmee, Supoj

    2013-01-01

    The propose of this study is to study Physics Learning Achievement, projectile motion, using the Mathematica program of Faculty of Science and Technology Phetchabun Rajabhat University students, comparing with Faculty of Science and Technology Phetchabun Rajabhat University students who study the projectile motion experiment set. The samples are…

  13. Investigating the Relationship among Test Anxiety, Gender, Academic Achievement and Years of Study: A Case of Iranian EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one's life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done…

  14. WWC Quick Review of the Report "San Francisco Bay Area KIPP Schools: A Study of Early Implementation and Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether attending a "Knowledge is Power Program" (KIPP) middle school improved students' academic achievement. KIPP schools in the study included fifth through eighth grades and served primarily low-income, minority students. The study found that fifth-grade students in KIPP middle schools generally performed better on math and…

  15. Applying the CHAID Algorithm to Analyze How Achievement Is Influenced by University Students' Demographics, Study Habits, and Technology Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Bahar; Kiliç, Eylem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze three separate constructs (demographics, study habits, and technology familiarity) that can be used to identify university students' characteristics and the relationship between each of these constructs with student achievement. A survey method was used for the current study, and the participants included…

  16. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  17. The middle schooling process: influences on science and mathematics achievement from the longitudinal study of American youth.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, A J

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to develop and test a model of middle school science and mathematics achievement with a national probability sample of 3,116 seventh-grade public school students. Eighth-grade achievement was viewed as a function of readiness attributes on entry into seventh grade and intervening parent, peer, self, and classroom affective and behavioral measures. Data were collected from students and parents over three time periods in seventh and eighth grade. Results of a revised structural model showed that prior achievement in science and math was a strong mediator of effects in the process of schooling. Grades in sixth grade, parental expectations, parent educational attainment, and motivation had moderately strong indirect effects on eighth-grade achievements. Also notable was the positive direct influence of perceptions of classroom context on science and math achievement growth and the negative direct influence of sex (in favor of girls) on science achievement growth. Cross-validation on a split-half sample did not disconfirm the model. It was concluded that while prior achievement had a dominant influence in the schooling process, other variables including parental expectations, motivation, and classroom context do contribute to the schooling process and can be a focal point for improving school success. These and other factors, though helpful, may be most effective well before the middle school years. PMID:2048469

  18. A Study on Prospective Science Teachers' Knowledge and Achievement Levels in Mathematical Logic in Electricity-Related Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…

  19. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  20. Digital Storytelling for Enhancing Student Academic Achievement, Critical Thinking, and Learning Motivation: A Year-Long Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Wu, Wan-Chi I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of Digital storytelling (DST) on the academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation of senior high school students learning English as a foreign language. The one-year study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design involving 110 10th grade students in two English…

  1. A Study of the Relationships between Distributed Leadership, Teacher Academic Optimism and Student Achievement in Taiwanese Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, I-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between distributed leadership, teachers' academic optimism and student achievement in learning. The study targeted public elementary schools in Taiwan and adopted stratified random sampling to investigate 1500 teachers. Teachers' perceptions were collected by a self-report scale. In…

  2. A Multi-Institutional Study of High School Mathematics Curricula and College Mathematics Achievement and Course Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Medhanie, Amanuel; Dupuis, Danielle N.; LeBeau, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between high school mathematics curricula and student achievement and course-taking patterns over 4 years of college course taking for a sample of over 10,000 students from 32 postsecondary 4-year institutions. Three types of curricula were studied: National Science Foundation (NSF) funded curricula, the…

  3. An Examination of Resource Allocation Strategies That Promote Student Achievement: Case Studies of Rural Elementary Schools in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acopan-Tuasivi, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents case studies of rural elementary schools in Hawaii that examine resource allocation strategies that promote student achievement. The combined frame work of the Evidence Based Model (Odden & Picus, 2008) and the 10 Strategies for Doubling Student Performance (Odden, 2009) were utilized to compare actual school resources and…

  4. Traditional vs. Experiential: A Comparative Study of Instructional Methodologies on Student Achievement in New York City Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the differences in student achievement on state standardized tests between experiential learning and direct learning instructional methodologies. Specifically, the study compares student performances in Expeditionary Learning schools, which is a Comprehensive School Reform model that utilizes experiential learning, to their…

  5. Scientific Reasoning, School Achievement and Gender: A Multilevel Study of between and within School Effects in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuneberg, Helena; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Hotulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between reasoning and school achievement were studied taking into account the multilevel nature (school- and class-levels) of the data. We gathered data from 51 classes at seven schools in metropolitan and Eastern Finland (N = 769, 395 males, 15-year-old students). To study scientific reasoning, we used a modified version of…

  6. A Mixed Methods Study of the Effects of a Modified High School Calendar on Student Achievement and Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watrous, Lorena Harper

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods explanatory case study was to determine the impact of a reduced school calendar on student achievement for students in grades 9 through 12 in two rural school districts in Virginia and to explore meanings associated with this change. The study focused on two research questions: how does student performance during…

  7. Revisiting the Association between Reading Achievement and Antisocial Behavior: New Evidence of an Environmental Explanation from a Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have reported, but not explained, the reason for a robust association between reading achievement and antisocial behavior. This association was investigated using the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort of 5 and 7 year-olds. Results showed that the association…

  8. Study Behaviour and Achievement in Science of Form Five Pupils in Two Secondary Schools in Kuala Lumpur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Siowck Lee

    1984-01-01

    This study sought to obtain insight into the pattern of relationships between students' achievement in science and study behavior variables. Surveyed were 17-year-olds in the science stream of two secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur. Sex differences were found. (MNS)

  9. ADHD and Achievement: Meta-Analysis of the Child, Adolescent, and Adult Literatures and a Concomitant Study with College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results from two interrelated studies. The first study conducted a meta-analysis of the published literature since 1990 to determine the magnitude of achievement problems associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effect sizes were significantly different between participants with and without ADHD…

  10. Mathematics: Self-Efficacy, Identity, and Achievement among African American Males from the High School Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity to mathematics achievement among African American males from High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). Subsequently, the extent to which mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity accounted for low and…

  11. An Evaluative Study of the Academic Achievement of Homeschooled Students versus Traditionally Schooled Students Attending a Catholic University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This research study was designed to provide a formal evaluation of the academic achievement of homeschooled students compared to traditionally schooled students attending a Catholic university located in South Florida. In addition, this study offers empirical data for all those interested in the academic success of homeschooled students in higher…

  12. A Meta-Analytic Review of Studies of the Effectiveness of Small-Group Learning Methods on Statistics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analytic study focused on the quantitative integration and synthesis of the accumulated pedagogical research in undergraduate statistics education literature. These accumulated research studies compared the academic achievement of students who had been instructed using one of the various forms of small-group learning methods to those who…

  13. A Study of Achievement, Understanding of Science, and Teacher Role Perception in Various Groups of the Nebraska Physical Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Douglas J.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various teaching practices and classroom organizational patterns upon achievement and understanding of science of students studying materials of the Nebraska Physical Science Project (NPSP), an integrated chemistry-physics course, and to investigate these practices and patterns and the role…

  14. The Effect of Mastery Learning Model with Reflective Thinking Activities on Medical Students' Academic Achievement: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mastery learning model supported with reflective thinking activities on the fifth grade medical students' academic achievement. Mixed methods approach was applied in two samples (n = 64 and n = 6). Quantitative part of the study was based on a pre-test-post-test control group design with an experiment…

  15. A Causal-Comparative Study of Third Grade Reading Achievement and the Use of Commercial Reading Programs to Promote Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Wendy E.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative, causal-comparative study examined the reading achievement of third grade students to ascertain the reading health of elementary students as measured through South Carolina's standardized assessment, the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS). The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference…

  16. A Study of the Effects of Brain Gym Exercises on the Achievement Scores of Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study explored whether an intervention involving Brain Gym exercises designed to increase academic achievement in the areas of math and reading/language arts would be successful. Three groups were used in the study: an initial treatment group, a delayed treatment group, and a control group. Each of the three groups was comprised of 20…

  17. Teacher-Student Relationship and Academic Achievement: A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Study on Three Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Košir, Katja; Tement, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Although the relation between teacher--student relationship and academic achievement has been addressed in many studies, the reciprocal relations between these two constructs have not been explored sufficiently. The aim of the present study was to test three competing models that hypothesized directionality of influence in relations between…

  18. Gender Context of the School and Study Culture, or How the Presence of Girls Affects the Achievement of Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtte, Mieke Van

    2004-01-01

    This paper builds on my previous research, explaining the differential achievement of boys and girls in secondary education by the fact that boys' culture is less study orientated than girls' culture. The central question of the present paper is whether the presence of girls at school affects the boys' study culture and, by consequence, boys'…

  19. WISC-R incentives and the academic achievement of conduct disordered adolescent females: a validity study.

    PubMed

    Saigh, P A; Antoun, F T

    1983-09-01

    Selected and randomly assigned 51 institutionalized conduct disordered adolescent females to one of three treatment conditions. Ss' responses to a short form of the WISC-R were followed by examiner praise, neutral feedback, or token reinforcement. A series of Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated between the scaled scores of the three treatment groups and their GPAs. The results revealed that the identified subtests, regardless of treatment condition, were poor predictors of achievement. The correlations were discussed in view of the association between the selected subtests and the curricula of the special education classes, observed variations between the WISC-R treatment scores, and the special characteristics of the Ss.

  20. An Analysis of the Academic Achievement of the Students Who Listen to Music While Studying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umzdas, Serpil

    2015-01-01

    This study's aim is to examine the correlation between the study type, the type and quality of the music students listen to while studying as well as their educational level. The participants of the study are 481 students on a scale of different ages listening to music while studying. The data of the study were collected through a survey…

  1. An International Comparison Study of Pharmacy Students’ Achievement Goals and their Relationship to Assessment Type and Scores

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Claire; Coulman, Sion A.; John, Dai N.; Tordoff, June; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify pharmacy students’ preferred achievement goals in a multi-national undergraduate population, to investigate achievement goal preferences across comparable degree programs, and to identify relationships between achievement goals, academic performance, and assessment type. Methods: The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to second year students in 4 universities in Australia, New Zealand, England, and Wales. Academic performance was measured using total scores, multiple-choice questions, and written answers (short essay). Results: Four hundred eighty-six second year students participated. Students showed an overall preference for the mastery-approach goal orientation across all sites. The predicted relationships between goal orientation and multiple-choice questions, and written answers scores, were significant. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind to examine pharmacy students’ achievement goals at a multi-national level and to differentiate between assessment type and measures of achievement motivation. Students adopting a mastery-approach goal are more likely to gain high scores in assessments that measure understanding and depth of knowledge. PMID:25995510

  2. How specific is second language-learning ability? A twin study exploring the contributions of first language achievement and intelligence to second language achievement.

    PubMed

    Rimfeld, K; Dale, P S; Plomin, R

    2015-01-01

    Learning a second language is crucially important in an increasingly global society, yet surprisingly little is known about why individuals differ so substantially in second language (SL) achievement. We used the twin design to assess the nature, nurture and mediators of individual differences in SL achievement. For 6263 twin pairs, we analyzed scores from age 16 UK-wide standardized tests, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). We estimated genetic and environmental influences on the variance of SL for specific languages, the links between SL and English and the extent to which the links between SL and English are explained by intelligence. All SL measures showed substantial heritability, although heritability was nonsignificantly lower for German (36%) than the other languages (53-62%). Multivariate genetic analyses indicated that a third of genetic influence in SL is shared with intelligence, a third with English independent of intelligence and a further third is unique to SL. PMID:26393484

  3. How specific is second language-learning ability? A twin study exploring the contributions of first language achievement and intelligence to second language achievement

    PubMed Central

    Rimfeld, K; Dale, P S; Plomin, R

    2015-01-01

    Learning a second language is crucially important in an increasingly global society, yet surprisingly little is known about why individuals differ so substantially in second language (SL) achievement. We used the twin design to assess the nature, nurture and mediators of individual differences in SL achievement. For 6263 twin pairs, we analyzed scores from age 16 UK-wide standardized tests, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). We estimated genetic and environmental influences on the variance of SL for specific languages, the links between SL and English and the extent to which the links between SL and English are explained by intelligence. All SL measures showed substantial heritability, although heritability was nonsignificantly lower for German (36%) than the other languages (53–62%). Multivariate genetic analyses indicated that a third of genetic influence in SL is shared with intelligence, a third with English independent of intelligence and a further third is unique to SL. PMID:26393484

  4. How specific is second language-learning ability? A twin study exploring the contributions of first language achievement and intelligence to second language achievement.

    PubMed

    Rimfeld, K; Dale, P S; Plomin, R

    2015-09-22

    Learning a second language is crucially important in an increasingly global society, yet surprisingly little is known about why individuals differ so substantially in second language (SL) achievement. We used the twin design to assess the nature, nurture and mediators of individual differences in SL achievement. For 6263 twin pairs, we analyzed scores from age 16 UK-wide standardized tests, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). We estimated genetic and environmental influences on the variance of SL for specific languages, the links between SL and English and the extent to which the links between SL and English are explained by intelligence. All SL measures showed substantial heritability, although heritability was nonsignificantly lower for German (36%) than the other languages (53-62%). Multivariate genetic analyses indicated that a third of genetic influence in SL is shared with intelligence, a third with English independent of intelligence and a further third is unique to SL.

  5. Promoting Academic Achievement in the Middle School Classroom: Integrating Effective Study Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Christin

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to discover what study skills are most useful for middle school students, as well as strategies for integrating study skills instruction into the four main content area classrooms (English, math, science, and social studies) at the middle school level. Twenty-nine in-service middle school teachers participated in the study by…

  6. Achieving Internet-based efficiencies in a rural IDS: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bacus, R; Zunke, R

    2001-09-01

    After suffering payment cuts resulting from the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Colorado-Fayette Medical Center (CFMC), a not-for-profit, rural integrated delivery system in Texas, wanted to reduce costs by gaining systemwide Internet access for its internal information system at a reasonable price. An application service provider affiliated with the Texas Hospital Association, helped CFMC achieve its goals for the project by performing a needs assessment, installing a wide-area network (WAN) with Internet access, and training staff. The new WAN enabled CFMC to improve its Web presence, allow radiologic image viewing at all sites, negotiate more favorable prices from vendors, implement electronic communication for staff members, and take advantage of on-line education opportunities. CFMC has found that the monthly fee paid to THN is offset by savings on long-distance calls, Internet service provider fees, and marketing and advertising costs. PMID:11552587

  7. A Study Comparing the Differences in the Levels of Achievement of Tenth Grade Students in One and Two Parent Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraig, Glen M.

    This study sought to determine if significant differences exist between the degree of academic achievement of 10th grade students who currently reside in one-parent/guardian homes as compared to those who reside in two-parent/guardian homes when students are grouped by sex, total family income, and ethnicity. Academic success was determined by the…

  8. The Direct Effects of Principal-Student Discussions upon Eighth Grade Students' Gains in Reading Achievement: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Jack P.

    2010-01-01

    School effectiveness and instructional leadership research over the past thirty years have largely concluded that principal effects on student achievement are small and indirect; it has been assumed that principal effect is important, but mediated through other school factors. To the contrary, this experimental study found that one-on-one…

  9. College Students with and without ADHD: Comparison of Self-Report of Medication Usage, Study Habits, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advokat, Claire; Lane, Sean M.; Luo, Chunqiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between ADHD medications, study habits, and academic achievement of ADHD-diagnosed undergraduates. Method: A total of 92 students with a self-reported ADHD diagnosis and a current prescription for ADHD medication were compared with 143 control students in a survey of academic performance. Results: Most ADHD…

  10. The Influence of Classroom Disciplinary Climate of Schools on Reading Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Bo; Van Damme, Jan; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Yang, Xiangdong; Gielen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in research and practice in the effect of classroom disciplinary climate of schools on academic achievement, little is known about the generalizability of this effect over countries. Using hierarchical linear analyses, the present study reveals that a better classroom disciplinary climate in a school is significantly…

  11. Student Background, School Climate, School Disorder, and Student Achievement: An Empirical Study of New York City's Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Greg; Weikart, Lynne A.

    2008-01-01

    This study develops and tests a school disorder and student achievement model based upon the school climate framework. The model was fitted to 212 New York City middle schools using the Structural Equations Modeling Analysis method. The analysis shows that the model fits the data well based upon test statistics and goodness of fit indices. The…

  12. Achievement Levels of Middle School Students in the Standardized Science and Technology Exam and Formative Assessment Probes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Bulunuz, Mizrap; Karagoz, Funda; Tavsanli, Omer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The present study has two aims. Firstly, it aims to determine eighth grade students' conceptual understanding of floating and sinking through formative assessment probes. Secondly, it aims to determine whether or not there is a significant difference between students' performance in formative assessment probes and their achievement in the…

  13. Reallocating Human Resources to Maximize Student Achievement: A Critical Case Study of a Southern California School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazener, Adrianna Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study applied the Evidence-Based Model (Odden & Picus, 2008) as a framework for determining how district leadership could potentially reallocate human resources to maximize the opportunity for student achievement, relying heavily on the ten strategies for doubling student performance (Odden, 2009; Odden & Archibald, 2009) and the…

  14. The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Peréz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.…

  15. A Study of the Physical Fitness Test in Relation to Demographics, Academic Achievement, and Students' Physical Fitness Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilia-Jones, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall results of the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and the six fitness areas of the PFT, academic achievement, demographics and self perceptions and the potential impact on students' performance on the PFT. While academic expectations are increasing, the adolescent obesity rate is also increasing, producing a decline in the…

  16. Challenge and Success: A Qualitative Study of the Career Development of Highly Achieving Women With Physical and Sensory Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Brigid M.; Gallor, Susanna M.; Hensler-McGinnis, Nancy F.; Fassinger, Ruth E.; Wang, Shihwe; Goodman, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the career development experiences of 17 highly achieving women with physical and sensory disabilities. Interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using modified grounded theory strategies (A. L. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1998). The emergent theoretical model was conceptualized as a system of influences organized…

  17. Peers and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study on Selection and Socialization Effects of In-Class Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to analyze whether in-class friends influence each other's grades, and whether adolescents tend to select friends that are similar to them in terms of academic achievement. During 1 academic year, 542 eighth-grade students (M age = 13.3 years) reported on 3 different occasions on their in-class friendship networks.…

  18. In Pursuit of Sustained Achievement: A Case Study of One At-Risk School's Efforts to Change Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorvig, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustained achievement remains out of reach for most Title I schools. While there are many programs and examples of schools touting improved performance, there are precious few that are able to maintain that improved performance over time. This case study examined the characteristics of changes made at one Colorado Title I elementary school that…

  19. The Tested Achievement of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 Eighth Grade Class. E.D. Tabs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Donald A.; And Others

    Sixty tables are presented, which examine the test achievement of a national probability sample of eighth graders in public and private schools. Statistics were obtained from the base-year student survey of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). The NELS:88 monitors the transition of a national sample of young adults as they…

  20. Intelligence of Mexican American Children: A Field Study Comparing Neo-Piagetian and Traditional Capacity and Achievement Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Avila, Edward A.; Havassy, Barbara

    Approximately 1,225 Mexican American and Anglo American children in grades 1-6 (ages 6-14) from California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were tested using school achievement and IQ standardized tests and four Piagetian-derived measures (Cartoon Conservation Scales, Water Level Task, Figural Intersection Test, and Serial Task). The field study's…

  1. Exploring Alternative Ways of Assessing Prior Knowledge, Its Components and Their Relation to Student Achievement: A Mathematics Based Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailikari, Telle; Nevgi, Anne; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates how different types of prior knowledge influence student achievement and how different assessment measures influence the observed effect of prior knowledge. We introduce a model of prior knowledge that distinguishes between different types of prior knowledge and uses different assessment measures to assess different types…

  2. Effective Learning: A Case Study of the Learning Strategies Used by a Gifted High Achiever in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Angela; Hobden, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a gifted high achiever in learning science. This learner was selected on the assumption that drawing attention to the characteristics of a successful learner may improve learning effectiveness of less successful learners. The first author taught the gifted learner and collected data through participant…

  3. A Study of Motivation and Other Factors as Relating to Course Achievement in Introductory College Biology, Chemistry, and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, Brooke M.; Halyard, Rebecca A.

    Results of a preliminary study that examined various factors relating to achievement in introductory level biology, chemistry, and physics classes at a public junior college are presented. Background variables, including age, sex, college major, grade point average, SAT-Verbal and SAT-Quantitative, and the sixteen-part scores of Academic…

  4. A Study Comparing the Academic Achievement of African American Male Students Enrolled in Two Types of Nontraditional High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Anthony B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of the achievement of African American male students enrolled in an early college high school to those enrolled in a performing arts high school. The Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) scores of the 11th-grade African American male students from an early college high school were compared to the GHSGT…

  5. Effects of Academic Ability, Time Allowed for Study, and Teacher Directedness on Achievement in a High School Science Course (ISIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkman, Ernest; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The simultaneous effects of two instructional variables of degree of teacher direction (student- versus teacher-directed) and time allowed for study and the student variable of general ability are described for student achievement (N=912) in three life-science instructional modules. (Author)

  6. Pilot Study: EatFit Impacts Sixth Graders' Academic Performance on Achievement of Mathematics and English Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…

  7. A Case Study: Leadership and Its Effect on Achievement of Children from Poverty in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Marilyn Dishman; Martin, Barbara N.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived effectiveness of leadership in a Missouri rural K-8 school with a high incidence of poverty that consistently met federal and state accountability mandates. The concepts of accountability as measured by student achievement, the unique educational needs of children from poverty, and the…

  8. Utilizing Two-Way Bilingual Education for Reducing the Achievement Lag of LEP Students in Primary Grades: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria G.; Tashakkori, Abbas

    This study investigated the effect of a bilingual education program on the achievement gap in language development between at-risk kindergarten students with minimal English proficiency and students who were proficient English speakers. Limited English Proficient (LEP) students were included in an Extended Foreign Language (EFL) program designed…

  9. Relationships between Teachers' Perceived Leadership Style, Students' Learning Style, and Academic Achievement: A Study on High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Osman; Acar, Ahmet Cevat; Bull, Susan; Sevinc, Levent

    2008-01-01

    There is debate about whether the leadership style of the teacher or the learning style of the student affects academic achievement more. A large sample (n = 746) of eighth-grade students in Istanbul, Turkey, participated in a study where the leadership style of the teacher was assessed in terms of people orientation and task orientation. The…

  10. Two-year study relating adolescents' self-concept and gender role perceptions to achievement and attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Herbert M.; Morse, Linda W.

    To assess the developmental relationship of perceptions of self-concept and gender role identification with adolescents' attitudes and achievement in science, a two-year longitudinal study was conducted. A battery of instruments assessing 16 dimensions of self-concept/gender role identifications was employed to predict students' achievement and attitudes toward science. Specific behaviors studied included self-concept in school and science and mathematics, attitudes toward appropriate gender roles in science activities and careers, and self-perceptions of masculine and feminine traits. One hundred and fifty-five adolescents, enrolled, respectively, in the seventh and eighth grades, participated in the study. Through Fisher z transformations of correlation coefficients, differences in relationships between these two sets of variables were studied for males and females during the two years. Results indicated that students' self-concepts/gender role perceptions were related to both achievement and attitudes toward science, but more related to attitudes than achievement. These relationships became more pronounced for students as they matured from seventh to eighth graders.

  11. Home Book Reading and Reading Achievement in EU Countries: The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2011 (PIRLS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araújo, Luisa; Costa, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Home shared book reading during the preschool years is a strong predictor of students' reading achievement in primary school, and, according to Sénéchal (2012), it can benefit more children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. This study examines the association between frequency of book reading before the start of compulsory education…

  12. Daily Practices Elementary Principals Utilize to Increase Student Reading Achievement: A Case Study of Successful Michigan Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined three K-5 schools, one 3-5 school, and two K-2 schools that implemented Michigan's Behavior and Learning Support Initiative (MiBLSi) and showed improvement trends in third grade reading achievement as measured by MEAP results over four years. Each of the six schools completed the three years of MiBLSi training and are…

  13. Social Integration as a Factor in Academic Achievements of Children: A Case Study of African Immigrants in Louisville, Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odetunde, Florence Olayinka

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how social integration of African immigrants in the Louisville metropolitan area of Kentucky could be a factor in the academic achievements of their children. It involved critically investigating how the process of their adjustments as immigrants might have been shaped by various personal and environmental factors such as…

  14. Case Studies of Talented Students Who Achieve and Underachieve in an Urban High School. Research Monograph 95120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; Hebert, Thomas P.; Diaz, Eva I.; Maxfield, Lori R.; Ratley, Michael E.

    This 3-year study compared characteristics of high ability students who were identified as high achievers with students of similar ability who underachieved in school. The 35 students attended a large urban high school comprised of 60 percent Puerto Rican students, 20 percent African American, and the remainder White, Asian, and other. Qualitative…

  15. A Study of Beginning Traditionally Prepared Teachers and Beginning Alternatively Licensed Teachers: Presentation Skills and Students' Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Parmalee P.

    This study investigated whether there was a difference in student achievement in the content areas between students in grades 6-12 who were taught by beginning teachers who were education graduates and students in grades 6-12 taught by beginning teachers who held degrees in areas other than education. It also examined whether there was a…

  16. The Impact of New York's School Libraries on Student Achievement and Motivation: Phase II--In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.; Snyder, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of the second phase of a three-phase study on the impact of the New York State's school libraries' services and resources on student achievement and motivation. A representative sample of more than 1,600 classroom teachers, students, and school library media specialists (SMLSs) from 47 schools throughout New York…

  17. What Counselors Do in High-Achieving Schools: A Study on the Role of the School Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Trey J.; Marshall, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    School counselors are being challenged to redefine their role to better support the overall academic performance of students. In light of this challenge, counselors need to know characteristics of counseling programs in high-achieving schools. The authors of this study collected information from 63 schools in Kentucky regarding the tasks of the…

  18. Case Studies of Factors Affecting the Motivation of Musical High Achievers to Learn Music in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Bo Wah; McPherson, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the…

  19. Motivation, Instructional Design, Flow, and Academic Achievement at a Korean Online University: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Young Ju; Oh, Eunjung; Kim, Su Mi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the structural relationships among self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, instructional design, flow, and achievement among students at a Korean online university. To address research questions, the researchers administered online surveys to 963 college students at an online university in Korea…

  20. Working Memory and Individual Differences in Mathematics Achievement: A Longitudinal Study from First Grade to Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Janssen, Rianne; Bouwens, Kelly; Verschaffel, Lieven; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between working memory and individual differences in mathematics. Working memory measures, comprising the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the central executive, were administered at the start of first grade. Mathematics achievement was assessed 4 months later (at the middle of…

  1. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of…

  2. Metalinguistic Awareness and Academic Achievement in a Linguistically Diverse School Setting: A Study of Lower Secondary Pupils in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Stine Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on metalinguistic awareness (MLA) and its relation to academic achievement for mono-, bi- and multilingual adolescents in Denmark. While MLA is one of several cognitive measures positively related to bilingualism and bilingualism is associated with academic advantages, Danish bi-/multilingual pupils appear not to benefit from…

  3. Missing the (Student Achievement) Forest for All the (Political) Trees: Empiricism and the Mexican American Studies Controversy in Tucson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Jaquette, Ozan; Marx, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The Arizona legislature passed HB 2281, which eliminated Tucson Unified School District's (TUSD's) Mexican American Studies (MAS) program, arguing the curriculum was too political. This program has been at the center of contentious debates, but a central question has not been thoroughly examined: Do the classes raise student achievement?…

  4. AFM Studies on Liquid Superlubricity between Silica Surfaces Achieved with Surfactant Micelles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Cheng, Peng; Chen, Xinchun; Wang, Weiqi; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-06-01

    By using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we showed that the liquid superlubricity with a superlow friction coefficient of 0.0007 can be achieved between two silica surfaces lubricated by hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) solution. There exists a critical load that the lubrication state translates from superlow friction to high friction reversibly. To analyze the superlow friction mechanism and the factors influencing the critical load, we used AFM to measure the structure of adsorbed C16TAB molecules and the normal force between two silica surfaces. Experimental results indicate that the C16TAB molecules are firmly adsorbed on the two silica surfaces by electrostatic interaction, forming cylinder-like micelles. Meanwhile, the positively charged headgroups exposed to solution produce the hydration and double layer repulsion to bear the applied load. By controlling the concentration of C16TAB solution, it is confirmed that the critical load of superlow friction is determined by the maximal normal force produced by the hydration layer. Finally, the superlow friction mechanism was proposed that the adsorbed micellar layer forms the hydration layer, making the two friction surfaces be in the repulsive region and meanwhile providing excellent fluidity without adhesion between micelles. PMID:27192019

  5. Selective Attentional Effects of Adjunct Study Questions on Achievement in Nigerian Secondary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the selective attentional effects of adjunct study questions inserted before or after the presentation of science flow diagrams. The basic design for the study was a post-test only control group design involving a total of 252 students randomly selected from six secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Oshun State Nigeria. These were…

  6. A Case Study to Explore Rigorous Teaching and Testing Practices to Narrow the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isler, Tesha

    2012-01-01

    The problem examined in this study: Does the majority of teachers use rigorous teaching and testing practices? The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore the classroom techniques of six effective teachers who use rigorous teaching and testing practices. The hypothesis for this study is that the examination of the…

  7. Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten through Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Wayne A.; Miller, Merideth

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The major goal of this study was to specify the developmental trajectories for phonics and early text comprehension skills of children from kindergarten through third grade. Method: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N = 12,261) were used in this study. The participants were divided into 3 school readiness groups based on…

  8. The Role of Self-Study Time in Freshmen's Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumen, Sarah; Broeckmans, Jan; Masui, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Although invested study time is expected to relate to exam performance, research findings have been mixed. Therefore, the current study examined (a) the role of self-study time above and beyond relevant student characteristics, affective-motivational processes (i.e. academic self-efficacy, learning goal orientation, and action-state orientation)…

  9. The Study Experiences of the High Achievers in a Competitive Academic Environment: A Cost of Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmo, Ivar; Samara, Akylina

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is a case study that explores the study experiences and possible costs of success for the students accepted into the professional program in psychology at the University of Bergen in Norway. In this highly competitive environment, between 500 and 1000 students compete for 36 places during the introduction year. The study is based…

  10. Studying Costs of Title I Under Achievement and Poverty Allocation Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huseby, Jane R. O.; Hentschke, Guilbert

    The study presented in this paper is part of the National Institute of Education's effort to study federally sponsored compensatory education programs through demonstration projects. One aspect of the study of demonstration projects concerns the cost associated with the changes in allocation procedures and concentration levels which result from…

  11. Instructional Approaches in Social Studies: A Comparison of the Impact on Student Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carolyn Gaye

    2013-01-01

    Many students feel that studying social studies is boring and not relevant to their lives. In social studies, the most common method of instruction is the transmission model in which the textbook becomes the curriculum and the teacher transmits knowledge through lecture. In the participatory model of instruction, the teacher facilitates…

  12. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  13. Course Syllabi: High Expectations...High Achievement. Social Studies (and) History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray State Univ., KY.

    The document describes social studies and history courses offered in the junior high and senior high schools of Henry County, Tennessee. The syllabi were developed as part of a Teacher's Corps Demonstration Project. The overall objectives of the syllabi are to inform students and parents of the minimum competencies expected in social studies and…

  14. Questioning Leadership: A Study of Leadership Style, Teacher Perceptions, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    This research study sought to examine the effects of transformational leadership behaviors and characteristics on institutional variables such as teacher organizational citizenship behaviors, commitment, and job satisfaction, the perceived overall effectiveness of school leaders, and objective measures of student performance. The study used a…

  15. A Pilot Study of Collective Parent Engagement and Children's Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameda-Lawson, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Parent involvement (PI) programs typically represent an important improvement strategy for schools serving low-income children of color. This pilot study offers an alternative to conventional PI approaches, collective parent engagement (CPE). The study relied on a post hoc, quasiexperimental design, and data were collected from 32 low-income,…

  16. Families' Goals, School Involvement, and Children's Academic Achievement: A Follow-Up Study Thirteen Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Diane W.

    2011-01-01

    A study conducted from 1996-2000 focused on the academic development of children within a statewide educational reform effort, including changing the organizational structure of the early years of schooling into nongraded primary programs (formerly age-based classrooms for kindergarteners through third grade). The multisite study involved children…

  17. Living-Learning Communities and Ethnicity: A Study on Closing the Achievement Gap at Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bewley, Jason Loyd

    2010-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the impact of living-learning communities on GPA and fall-to-fall retention rates for college freshmen at Regional University (RU). The specific focus of this study was the effect of these communities on students of different ethnic groups and on the potential of these communities to reduce the academic…

  18. Study Abroad and Global Competence: Exemplary Community College Programs Which Foster Elements of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden-Ogle, Ellen A.

    2009-01-01

    The research's purpose was to examine how exemplary community college study abroad programs assisted student participants in acquiring global competence. Three research questions were explored: (1) What issues need to be anticipated when planning a study abroad program for community college students in order to effectively incorporate…

  19. Leadership's Influence: A Case Study of an Elementary Principal's "Indirect" Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Goldy, III

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated leadership supports provided by an elementary principal of 15 years in a high performing diverse school. Employing document analysis and interviews, the researcher gathered and analyzed data in an effort to identify those leadership strategies that could be replicated at other school sites. The study identified the…

  20. Estimation of Error Components in Cohort Studies: A Cross-Cohort Analysis of Dutch Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keuning, Jos; Hemker, Bas

    2014-01-01

    The data collection of a cohort study requires making many decisions. Each decision may introduce error in the statistical analyses conducted later on. In the present study, a procedure was developed for estimation of the error made due to the composition of the sample, the item selection procedure, and the test equating process. The math results…

  1. Prediction of Readiness in Kindergarten and Achievement in the First Primary Year. Study Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    A 4-year United States Office of Education prekindergarten-kindergarten series of research studies has provided data useful in predicting school success. The present study compares test scores of the Complete Assessment Battery administered before the children entered kindergarten with scores of the same children on the Metropolitan Readiness…

  2. Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practices and Fourth-Graders' Reading Literacy Achievements: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Shiqi; Johnson, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    This study, through multilevel analyses of the data of four English-speaking nations (i.e., Canada, England, New Zealand and the United States) from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001 database, investigated the relationship between teachers' uses of various types of classroom assessments and their fourth-graders'…

  3. A Study of the Relationship between Historical Analysis and Student Achievement in Eighth Grade American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to study the relationship between Historical Analysis and student performance on the California Standards Test (CSTs), both English Language Arts and History, as well as to study the relationship between Historical Analysis and Reading Comprehension. It was believed that Historical Analysis required…

  4. Raising the Achievement of Portuguese Pupils in British Schools: A Case Study of Good Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa; Lewis, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study the experiences of Portuguese heritage pupils in British schools. The main findings from empirical data suggest Portuguese children are underachieving at the end of primary education but the case study confirms that in good schools Portuguese pupils do well and have made huge improvements over the periods. The…

  5. A Critical Study of Effectiveness of Online Learning on Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baig, Muntajeeb Ali

    2011-01-01

    An experimental design was carried out to study the effectiveness in learning of the tenth grade students in Physics, when taught through online and face to face. A mash-up of different online tools and learning environment is used for the study. Website "Wiziq.com" provides these online tools and learning environment hence it is used…

  6. Adult Education: Evolution and Achievements in a Developing Field of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, John M.; And Others

    This volume is a companion to "Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging Field of University Study" (more commonly known as "the black book"), a classic work published in 1964. It explores the developments, accomplishments, and changes in the field since 1964 and charts new directions for research, theory, and practice in the study of adult…

  7. Achieving Science Goals with CubeSats: a Study by the National Academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, T.; Sheffer, A.

    2015-12-01

    We will discuss an ongoing study by the National Academies' Space Studies Board focused on CubeSats, and in particular their scientific potential and technological promise. Through this study, several US agencies seek inputs on the current status of CubeSat programs in government, academic and industrial sectors. The study will also make recommendations about additional investments that are needed to further increase the value of CubeSats to the science community. Furthermore, the committee will provide sample priority science goals that describe near-term opportunities, such as providing continuity of key measurements to mitigate potential gaps in measurements of key parameters- and that can be accomplished given the current state of CubeSat capabilities. We will summarize some data in the public domain about CubeSats our study is based on, and also focus on some selected science opportunities that can be addressed by CubeSats and which are part of Decadal Survey priorities.

  8. An Ecological Study of Food Desert Prevalence and 4th Grade Academic Achievement in New York State School Districts

    PubMed Central

    Frndak, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Core of Data), and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas). Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors. Results The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Conclusions Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level. Significance for public health The prevalence of food deserts in the United States is of national concern. As poor nutrition in United States children continues to spark debate, food deserts are being evaluated as potential sources of low fruit and vegetable intake and high obesity rates. Cognitive development and IQ have been linked to nutrition patterns, suggesting that children in food desert regions may have a disadvantage academically. This research evaluates if an ecological relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level can be demonstrated. Results suggest that food desert prevalence may relate to poor academic performance at

  9. Reading Achievement in the Middle School Years: A Study Investigating Growth Patterns by High Incidence Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakimowski, Mary E.; Faggella-Luby, Michael; Kim, Yujin; Wei, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous research studies (e.g., Anderson, Kutash, & Duchnowski, 2001; Lane, Carter, Pierson, & Glaeser, 2006; Volpe, Dupaul, Jitendra, & Tresco, 2009; Wei, Blackorby, & Schiller, 2011) have shown that students with disabilities generally exhibit lower reading scores than their peers without disabilities. However, questions remain…

  10. The Influence of Instrumentality Beliefs on Intrinsic Motivation: A Study of High-Achieving Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, David J.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    For many students, school is a forward-looking endeavor, with implications for future educational opportunity, job prospects, and financial success. How does believing that school is linked to a desired future outcome--known as an instrumentality belief--influence motivation? A number of studies have indicated that rewards, or other concerns that…

  11. School Climate, Family Structure, and Academic Achievement: A Study of Moderation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Eklund, Katie

    2015-01-01

    School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family…

  12. A Study of the Effects of Shift Operations on Student Achievement in Electronics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank F., Jr.

    This study was designed to determine if the hours during which students participated in electronics training had any influence on their learning efficiency and their ability to function effectively as students, and to identify those factors that contributed to diminished learning efficiency. The three shifts used for the experiment were the night…

  13. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella M.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  14. What Is the Relationship between Teacher Quality and Student Achievement? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Ward, Thomas J.; Tucker, Pamela D.; Hindman, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to examine what constitutes effective teaching as defined by measured increases in student learning with a focus on the instructional behaviors and practices. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) were used to identify teacher effectiveness levels while…

  15. Case Study of How Turkish University Students Improve Their Biochemistry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadi, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry courses have an important place as a common subject in faculties of medicine, food engineering, biology and chemistry. MSLQ, Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and Learning Approach Questionnaire were used. The study also involves repeated observations of the same instructor in a biochemistry class over eight weeks to describe…

  16. A Study of How Certified and Noncertified Automotive Curriculum Impact Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDalsem, B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine whether written curriculum for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) certified and non-certified training programs better prepares students for entry-level positions. The theoretical framework based on research by Frase described methodologies for comparing curricula at the system, school, and classroom…

  17. Influence of Learning Resources on Study Time and Achievement Scores in a Problem-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Te Winkel, Wilco; Rikers, Remy; Loyens, Sofie; Schmidt, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Many aspects of the problem-based learning cycle aim at stimulating students to elaborate on their knowledge. This elaborative process is considered to be one of the most effective study aids for learning and applying information. One of the opportunities to stimulate this elaboration process is by offering students more, and more diverse,…

  18. Executive Functioning Predicts Academic Achievement in Middle School: A Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, William Ellery; Tournaki, Nelly; Blackman, Sheldon; Zilinski, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) is a strong predictor of children's and adolescents' academic performance. Although research indicates that EF can increase during childhood and adolescence, few studies have tracked the effect of EF on academic performance throughout the middle school grades. EF was measured at the end of Grades 6-9 through 21 teachers'…

  19. A Study Comparing Fifth Grade Student Achievement in Mathematics in Departmentalized and Non-Departmentalized Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Karen Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to examine the application of the teaching and learning theory of social constructivism in order to determine if mathematics instruction provided in a departmentalized classroom setting at the fifth grade level resulted in a statistically significant difference in student achievement…

  20. Environmental Factors Associated with Early Reading Achievement in the Developing World: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Educational research from the developed world is often used as the basis for policies and programs in the developing world. However, local contextual factors should be taken into consideration in any transfer of research findings. This study examines associations that socioeconomic status (SES) and the home literacy environment (HLE) have with…

  1. Engaged Partners: The Achieving the Dream Partnership. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case Study Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Tonika Cheek

    2008-01-01

    Confronting two unhealthy approaches that surface frequently in philanthropy--the tendency for grantmakers to think they alone have all the answers and the tensions that arise when national and local funders try to work together--this case study is intended to help grantmakers think more deeply about the concept of "engaged partners," one of…

  2. Effects of Writing Instruction on Kindergarten Students' Writing Achievement: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D'On

    2015-01-01

    This full-year experimental study examined how methods of writing instruction contribute to kindergarten students' acquisition of foundational and compositional early writing skills. Multiple regression with cluster analysis was used to compare 3 writing instructional groups: an interactive writing group, a writing workshop group, and a…

  3. Trend Analysis on Mathematics Achievements: A Comparative Study Using TIMSS Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Research addressed the importance of mathematics education for the students' preparation to enter scientific and technological workforce. This paper utilized Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 data to conduct a global comparative analysis on mathematics performance at varied International Benchmark levels. The…

  4. A Classroom Study on the Relationship between Student Achievement and Retrieval-Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Shana K.; Lund, Terry J. S.; Coffman, Clark R.; Armstrong, Patrick I.; Lamm, Monica H.; Reason, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Retrieval practice has been shown to produce powerful learning gains in laboratory experiments but has seldom been explored in classrooms as a means of enhancing students' learning of their course-relevant material. Furthermore, research is lacking concerning the role of individual differences in learning from retrieval. The current study explored…

  5. Foreign Language Achievement in Relation to Student-Teacher Cognitive Styles: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jacqueline; Stansfield, Charles

    Research has shown student field-independent cognitive style (FI), as opposed to field-dependent cognitive style (FD), to be correlated moderately with success on selected second language tasks. A trait-treatment interaction approach was utilized in this study to examine the role of FD/I among 236 college students enrolled in six sections of an…

  6. A Study of the Association of Autonomy and Achievement on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Maltese, Adam V.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between students' academic background (high school grades, standardized exams, and enrollment in advanced high school courses) and how much autonomy they reported having in high school science through labs and projects. The objective was to see if students who reported experiencing more or less self-directed…

  7. Institutional Deprivation, Specific Cognitive Functions, and Scholastic Achievement: English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) Study Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jennifer; Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas metaanalyses of cross-sectional adoption studies have indicated that there is an impact of early deprivation on adoptee's cognitive ability, these effects generally diminish markedly after upbringing in adoptive homes. Outcomes in terms of scholastic attainment were not quite so positive in a cross-sectional metaanalysis, but the Swedish…

  8. Organizational Learning Goes Virtual?: A Study of Employees' Learning Achievement in Stereoscopic 3D Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kung Wong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to deepen understanding of the use of stereoscopic 3D technology (stereo3D) in facilitating organizational learning. The emergence of advanced virtual technologies, in particular to the stereo3D virtual reality, has fundamentally changed the ways in which organizations train their employees. However, in academic or…

  9. Making Critical Connections between Social Studies Teaching and Student Achievement Using NAEP Data Explorer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.

    2013-01-01

    In this analysis of promising practice, we demonstrate how social studies methods instructors can incorporate data analysis of the 2010 United States History National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP-USH) to facilitate pedagogical aims, engage teacher candidates in critical discourse, and investigate the contexts of teaching and learning.…

  10. Achieving Scale at the District Level: A Longitudinal Multiple Case Study of a Partnership Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mavis G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Coburn's (2003) multidimensional conception of scale includes four interrelated dimensions--depth, sustainability, spread, and ownership--that provide a framework to understand scale at both the school and district levels. This study was conducted to understand how reform leaders in four districts implementing the National Network of…

  11. Parents' Causal Attributions Concerning Their Children's School Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytkonen, Katja; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the causes to which parents attribute their children's academic successes and failures during children's transition from preschool to primary school. It followed 182 mothers and 167 fathers of 207 children. The parents completed a questionnaire concerning their causal attributions, level of education, and parenting…

  12. Enhancing Fourth Grade Students' Writing Achievement through Purposeful Experiential Learning: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Michael S.; Thiamwong, Ladda

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of involving fourth grade students in an experiential learning task that improves the school and requires the students to call on community agency, area business, and high school student support. Data related to students' learning were collected by using evaluative writing surveys, student and parent conferences,…

  13. Are New Technologies Influencing the Academic Results Achieved by Students? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargallo-Castel, Ana; Esteban-Salvador, Luisa; Marzo-Navarro, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the application of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) within tertiary education in a Spanish University. We analyze the results of a new initiative developed by the University of Zaragoza through an innovative project for a virtual campus called "Anillo Digital Docente." Data relating to…

  14. A Quasi-Experimental Study of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Iliadou, Anastasia; Lambe, Mats; Hultman, Christina M.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Langstrom, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The current study, based on all births in Sweden from 1983 to 1991 (N = 654,707), explored the processes underlying the association between smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and offspring school grades and mathematic proficiency at age 15. The analyses compared relatives who varied in their exposure to SDP and who varied in their genetic relatedness.…

  15. The Home Environment and School Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Primary School Children in Swaziland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller

    In rural Swaziland, fathers often migrate for work, leaving wives and children behind. The family is denied the presence of a husband, father, and role model, as well as economic support, which fathers often fail to remit home regularly. A longitudinal study investigated the effects of parent availability and other home characteristics on the…

  16. A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students' Long-Term Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Wayne P.; Collier, Virginia P.

    This longitudinal study examined the education of language minority students in five school districts nationwide. Qualitative data included interviews, school visits, surveys, and source documents. Quantitative data included information from registration centers, language minority student databases, student information systems databases, testing…

  17. Determinants of Educational Achievement in Morocco: A Micro-Econometric Analysis Applied to the TIMSS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibourk, Aomar

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from international surveys measuring learning (TIMSS), this article focuses on the analysis of the academic performance Moroccan students. The results of the econometric model show that the students' characteristics, their family environment and school context are key determinants of these performances. The study also shows that the…

  18. Achieving Globalization of AACSB Accounting Programs with Faculty-Led Study Abroad Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Heidi Hylton; Smith, Deborah Drummond

    2016-01-01

    This paper is motivated by recommendations from the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), the Pathways Commission, and NAFSA: Association of International Educators to increase global exposure in the accounting curriculum. Some schools have responded to these demands by offering short-duration, faculty-led, study abroad…

  19. The Essential Role of Curricular Analyses in Comparative Studies of Mathematics Achievement: Developing "Fair" Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Oscar; Papick, Ira; Ross, Dan J.; Grouws, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the process of development of assessment instruments for the Comparing Options in Secondary Mathematics: Investigating Curriculum (COSMIC) project. The COSMIC project was a three-year longitudinal comparative study focusing on evaluating high school students' mathematics learning from two distinct…

  20. Teacher-Related Factors as Correlates of Pupils' Achievement in Social Studies in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Babatunde

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The teacher plays a significant role in the intellectual development of the pupils, using various assessment and teaching styles to improve pupils' performance in school subjects. The study therefore investigated the effect of some teacher related factors: teacher level of awareness of assessment style, teacher assessment style,…

  1. Achievement, Motivation, and Educational Choices: A Longitudinal Study of Expectancy and Value Using a Multiplicative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes…

  2. A Case-Study in Family French-Immersion and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Caron-Caldas, Suzanne

    A study described, analyzed, and evaluated a project to rear three French-English bilingual children in a predominantly English-speaking environment. Using weekly tape recordings of spontaneous dinnertime conversation, a ratio of French-to-English utterances was calculated, and correlated with linguistically significant events documented in field…

  3. Effects of Annotations and Homework on Learning Achievement: An Empirical Study of Scratch Programming Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Addison Y. S.; Huang, Chester S. J.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Ding, T. J.; Hsieh, Y. Z.

    2015-01-01

    In Taiwan elementary schools, Scratch programming has been taught for more than four years. Previous studies have shown that personal annotations is a useful learning method that improve learning performance. An annotation-based Scratch programming (ASP) system provides for the creation, share, and review of annotations and homework solutions in…

  4. Developing Short-Term Study Abroad Programs: Achieving Successful International Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, James; Luqmani, Mushtaq; Newell, Stephen; Quraeshi, Zahir; Wagner, Bret

    2013-01-01

    Most business schools in the U.S. are employing various initiatives to "internationalize" their curriculum in order to prepare students to participate more effectively in a globally interconnected business world. An integral part of these initiatives is to encourage more students to participate in study abroad programs. Though it maybe…

  5. Self-Perceptions of Gifted Achievers and Underachievers: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrend, Anne Hadley

    2013-01-01

    Although much research exists on the academic benefits of ability grouping for highly gifted students, and considerable numbers of studies are reported in the literature concerning the emotional and social adjustment of these talented students, there is a lack of information on the reasons for the distinct disparity in the levels of achievement…

  6. A Study of Organizational Justice, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Student Achievement in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, W. R. Travis; DiPaola, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that teachers' perceptions of fairness with respect to interactions with school administrators, decision-making processes, and decision outcomes can contribute greatly to understanding effective schools. This study of Virginia public high schools used correlational analysis to measure the strength of the…

  7. The effects of study groups on teachers' transfer of inquiry instruction training to elementary school science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerer, Karen M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the study group model of job-embedded professional development implemented by one district to determine its effectiveness on the degree to which teachers successfully transferred the "best practice" of inquiry into their science classroom as a result of the study group, and the impact of this professional development on students' science achievement in grades 3, 4 and 5. Upon the implementation of a new science curriculum, grade 3, 4 and 5 teachers and students were randomly selected to comprise two treatment groups. One group of teachers participated in two workshops while the other group of teachers participated in the workshops and formed study groups to continue their science professional development training, meeting six times during the course of four months. Students completed a science content assessment as a pre- and post-test measure of their achievement. Teachers and students also completed a pre- and post-test Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) to measure the implementation of constructivist practices in the classroom. An analysis of covariance was conducted to determine if any significant results occurred. Teachers from both treatment groups were also observed using the Science Teacher Inquiry Rubric (STIR), which was designed and validated to measure their transfer of inquiry training into the science classroom. An occurrence analysis was utilized to examine the results. Significant findings occurred in the achievement results of grade 3 and 5 study group students. In addition, it was determined that study groups may have resulted in the implementation of more student-centered inquiry practices than the workshop group in grades 3 and 5. However, in this study, it appeared that the study group teachers may not have used enough student-centered features of inquiry to establish constructivist learning environments as no statistically significant findings occurred. Grade 4 achievement results were

  8. How preschool executive functioning predicts several aspects of math achievement in Grades 1 and 3: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Viterbori, Paola; Usai, M Carmen; Traverso, Laura; De Franchis, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes whether selected components of executive function (EF) measured during the preschool period predict several indices of math achievement in primary school. Six EF measures were assessed in a sample of 5-year-old children (N = 175). The math achievement of the same children was then tested in Grades 1 and 3 using both a composite math score and three single indices of written calculation, arithmetical facts, and problem solving. Using previous results obtained from the same sample of children, a confirmatory factor analysis examining the latent EF structure in kindergarten indicated that a two-factor model provided the best fit for the data. In this model, inhibition and working memory (WM)-flexibility were separate dimensions. A full structural equation model was then used to test the hypothesis that math achievement (the composite math score and single math scores) in Grades 1 and 3 could be explained by the two EF components comprising the kindergarten model. The results indicate that the WM-flexibility component measured during the preschool period substantially predicts mathematical achievement, especially in Grade 3. The math composite scores were predicted by the WM-flexibility factor at both grade levels. In Grade 3, both problem solving and arithmetical facts were predicted by the WM-flexibility component. The results empirically support interventions that target EF as an important component of early childhood mathematics education.

  9. How preschool executive functioning predicts several aspects of math achievement in Grades 1 and 3: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Viterbori, Paola; Usai, M Carmen; Traverso, Laura; De Franchis, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes whether selected components of executive function (EF) measured during the preschool period predict several indices of math achievement in primary school. Six EF measures were assessed in a sample of 5-year-old children (N = 175). The math achievement of the same children was then tested in Grades 1 and 3 using both a composite math score and three single indices of written calculation, arithmetical facts, and problem solving. Using previous results obtained from the same sample of children, a confirmatory factor analysis examining the latent EF structure in kindergarten indicated that a two-factor model provided the best fit for the data. In this model, inhibition and working memory (WM)-flexibility were separate dimensions. A full structural equation model was then used to test the hypothesis that math achievement (the composite math score and single math scores) in Grades 1 and 3 could be explained by the two EF components comprising the kindergarten model. The results indicate that the WM-flexibility component measured during the preschool period substantially predicts mathematical achievement, especially in Grade 3. The math composite scores were predicted by the WM-flexibility factor at both grade levels. In Grade 3, both problem solving and arithmetical facts were predicted by the WM-flexibility component. The results empirically support interventions that target EF as an important component of early childhood mathematics education. PMID:26218333

  10. Factors contributing to academic achievement: a Bayesian structure equation modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir T.; Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Farid-Rohani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-06-01

    In Iran, high school graduates enter university after taking a very difficult entrance exam called the Konkoor. Therefore, only the top-performing students are admitted by universities to continue their bachelor's education in statistics. Surprisingly, statistically, most of such students fall into the following categories: (1) do not succeed in their education despite their excellent performance on the Konkoor and in high school; (2) graduate with a grade point average (GPA) that is considerably lower than their high school GPA; (3) continue their master's education in majors other than statistics and (4) try to find jobs unrelated to statistics. This article employs the well-known and powerful statistical technique, the Bayesian structural equation modelling (SEM), to study the academic success of recent graduates who have studied statistics at Shahid Beheshti University in Iran. This research: (i) considered academic success as a latent variable, which was measured by GPA and other academic success (see below) of students in the target population; (ii) employed the Bayesian SEM, which works properly for small sample sizes and ordinal variables; (iii), which is taken from the literature, developed five main factors that affected academic success and (iv) considered several standard psychological tests and measured characteristics such as 'self-esteem' and 'anxiety'. We then study the impact of such factors on the academic success of the target population. Six factors that positively impact student academic success were identified in the following order of relative impact (from greatest to least): 'Teaching-Evaluation', 'Learner', 'Environment', 'Family', 'Curriculum' and 'Teaching Knowledge'. Particularly, influential variables within each factor have also been noted.

  11. An evaluative study of the impact of the "Curriculum Alignment Toolbox" on middle school science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Carol L.

    The number of computer-assisted education programs on the market is overwhelming science teachers all over the Michigan. Though the need is great, many teachers are reluctant to procure computer-assisted science education programs because they are unsure of the effectiveness of such programs. The Curriculum Alignment Toolbox (CAT) is a computer-based program, aligned to the Michigan Curriculum Framework's Benchmarks for Science Education and designed to supplement science instruction in Michigan middle schools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CAT in raising the standardized test scores of Michigan students. This study involved 419 students from one urban, one suburban and one rural middle school. Data on these students was collected from 4 sources: (1) the 8th grade Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) test, (2) a 9 question, 5-point Likert-type scale student survey, (3) 4 open-response student survey questions and (4) classroom observations. Results of this study showed that the experimental group of 226 students who utilized the CAT program in addition to traditional instruction did significantly better on the Science MEAP test than the control group of 193 students who received only traditional instruction. The study also showed that the urban students from a "high needs" school seemed to benefit most from the program. Additionally, though both genders and all identified ethnic groups benefited from the program, males benefited more than females and whites, blacks and Asian/Pacific Islander students benefited more than Hispanic and multi-racial students. The CAT program's success helping raise the middle school MEAP scores may well be due to some of its components. CAT provided students with game-like experiences all based on the benchmarks required for science education and upon which the MEAP test is based. The program also provided visual and auditory stimulation as well as numerous references which students indicated

  12. Students Achievements in English at Jordanian Private and Public Schools and Parents Attitudes Towards Teaching Their Children at Private Ones: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Natour, Amal; Hijazi, Dima

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing private and public schools in terms of students' achievement in English Language and parents' attitudes towards teaching their children in private schools. To achieve the aim of the study the researchers conducted a test to measure students' achievements in English language and they also distributed a questionnaire…

  13. The Appropriateness of Consolidation in Illinois: A Study of the Impact of Poverty, District Type, and Size on Expenditures and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, James A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether or not enrollment, poverty rate, and district type could be used to predict cost and achievement, as measured on the Illinois Standards Achievement Test and Prairie State Achievement Exam, at the building and district levels within the state of Illinois. This study provides quantitative data that will aid educational…

  14. Electrospinning of ultra-thin nanofibers achieved through comprehensive statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, Ryan; Chen, Xing

    2016-05-01

    Electrospinning is a widely used process to produce nanofibers due to the ability to precisely tune fiber morphology and other nanofiber fabric characteristics. A lot of work in the past few decades to study the various factors affecting electrospun fiber morphologies, however there has been no study to date to look at all contributing factors in a statistically systematical way. In particular, limited work has been conducted demonstrating a method to fabricate high quality, ultrathin nanofibers with mean diameter <50 nm, narrow diameter standard deviation, and low percentage of non-fiber areas (defects). We present a method using a series of statistically designed experiments to create high quality ultrathin polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers containing FeCo salts. Results from a Plackett-Burman screening experiment show solution surface tension and solution viscosity are the most significant variables to describe fiber morphology and show metal salt concentration, applied voltage, polymer molecular weight, and solution volume are moderately significant. The Plackett-Burman design is used to inform variables and variable ranges for a subsequent 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design. The polynomial model determined from Box-Behnken experiment has close agreement to measured point validation of an optimized solution, which is determined to have 34.8 mN m-1, viscosity of 42 cS, and metal salt concentration of 3.0% and yielded mean diameter of around 30 nm, with low beads content and diameter standard deviation. This optimized solution recipe is an excellent formulation to make as-spun fibers as precursors for many materials, such as ultrafine FeCo nanotubes or nanorods with mean diameter of around 15 nm.

  15. Electrospinning of ultra-thin nanofibers achieved through comprehensive statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, Ryan; Chen, Xing

    2016-05-01

    Electrospinning is a widely used process to produce nanofibers due to the ability to precisely tune fiber morphology and other nanofiber fabric characteristics. A lot of work in the past few decades to study the various factors affecting electrospun fiber morphologies, however there has been no study to date to look at all contributing factors in a statistically systematical way. In particular, limited work has been conducted demonstrating a method to fabricate high quality, ultrathin nanofibers with mean diameter <50 nm, narrow diameter standard deviation, and low percentage of non-fiber areas (defects). We present a method using a series of statistically designed experiments to create high quality ultrathin polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers containing FeCo salts. Results from a Plackett–Burman screening experiment show solution surface tension and solution viscosity are the most significant variables to describe fiber morphology and show metal salt concentration, applied voltage, polymer molecular weight, and solution volume are moderately significant. The Plackett–Burman design is used to inform variables and variable ranges for a subsequent 3-factor, 3-level Box–Behnken design. The polynomial model determined from Box–Behnken experiment has close agreement to measured point validation of an optimized solution, which is determined to have 34.8 mN m‑1, viscosity of 42 cS, and metal salt concentration of 3.0% and yielded mean diameter of around 30 nm, with low beads content and diameter standard deviation. This optimized solution recipe is an excellent formulation to make as-spun fibers as precursors for many materials, such as ultrafine FeCo nanotubes or nanorods with mean diameter of around 15 nm.

  16. A case control study of a deprivation triangle: teenage motherhood, poor educational achievement and unemployment.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Terry; Cupples, Margaret E; Irvine, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Teenage motherhood has been linked with poor health, poor educational attainment, poor employment prospects and socio-economic deprivation. Much of the evidence has come from large surveys and the nature of these inter-relationships remains unclear. A case-control study was designed to compare the educational and employment experiences of teenage mothers with those of an age matched sample of peers from a similar social background and to test the feasibility of carrying out this type of research within primary care. Participants were identified from records in 36 GP practices in the Greater Belfast area. First time teenage mothers with one child aged 9-15 months at the time of interview were selected. Teenage mothers were matched with a control group of nulliparous teenagers in respect of age and postcode and registered with the same practice. Questionnaires were administered in their home or at their health centre. Data were analysed using SPSS for Windows Version 6. Teenage mothers were less likely than controls to have gained passes in school leaving examinations. None of the mothers was in full time education compared with 35% of the controls. Excluding those in education or training, more of the control group were employed at the time of study (82% v 11%). It is concluded that teenage mothers with one child report poorer educational attainment and employment status than their nulliparous peers from a similar social background with similar educational opportunities. Attention must be paid to these findings when planning policy to help teenage mothers and avoid perpetuation of a cycle of socio-economic deprivation.

  17. Achieving a physiological cortisol profile with once-daily dual-release hydrocortisone: a pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Lennernäs, Hans; Marelli, Claudio; Rockich, Kevin; Skrtic, Stanko

    2016-01-01

    Objective Oral once-daily dual-release hydrocortisone (DR-HC) replacement therapy was developed to provide a cortisol exposure−time profile that closely resembles the physiological cortisol profile. This study aimed to characterize single-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) of DR-HC 5–20mg and assess intrasubject variability. Methods Thirty-one healthy Japanese or non-Hispanic Caucasian volunteers aged 20−55 years participated in this randomized, open-label, PK study. Single doses of DR-HC 5, 15 (3×5), and 20mg were administered orally after an overnight fast and suppression of endogenous cortisol secretion. After estimating the endogenous cortisol profile, PK of DR-HC over 24h were evaluated to assess dose proportionality and impact of ethnicity. Plasma cortisol concentrations were analyzed using liquid chromatography−tandem mass spectrometry. PK parameters were calculated from individual cortisol concentration−time profiles. Results DR-HC 20mg provided higher than endogenous cortisol plasma concentrations 0−4h post-dose but similar concentrations later in the profile. Cortisol concentrations and PK exposure parameters increased with increasing doses. Mean maximal serum concentration (Cmax) was 82.0 and 178.1ng/mL, while mean area under the concentration−time curve (AUC)0−∞ was 562.8 and 1180.8h×ng/mL with DR-HC 5 and 20mg respectively. Within-subject PK variability was low (<15%) for DR-HC 20mg. All exposure PK parameters were less than dose proportional (slope <1). PK differences between ethnicities were explained by body weight differences. Conclusions DR-HC replacement resembles the daily normal cortisol profile. Within-subject day-to-day PK variability was low, underpinning the safety of DR-HC for replacement therapy. DR-HC PK were less than dose proportional – an important consideration when managing intercurrent illness in patients with adrenal insufficiency. PMID:27129362

  18. Recent Achievements of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, D. D.; Liukis, M.; Werner, M. J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Yu, J.; Maechling, P. J.; Zechar, J. D.; Jordan, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Maria Liukis, SCEC, USC; Maximilian Werner, University of Bristol; Danijel Schorlemmer, GFZ Potsdam; John Yu, SCEC, USC; Philip Maechling, SCEC, USC; Jeremy Zechar, Swiss Seismological Service, ETH; Thomas H. Jordan, SCEC, USC, and the CSEP Working Group The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) supports a global program to conduct prospective earthquake forecasting experiments. CSEP testing centers are now operational in California, New Zealand, Japan, China, and Europe with 435 models under evaluation. The California testing center, operated by SCEC, has been operational since Sept 1, 2007, and currently hosts 30-minute, 1-day, 3-month, 1-year and 5-year forecasts, both alarm-based and probabilistic, for California, the Western Pacific, and worldwide. We have reduced testing latency, implemented prototype evaluation of M8 forecasts, and are currently developing formats and procedures to evaluate externally-hosted forecasts and predictions. These efforts are related to CSEP support of the USGS program in operational earthquake forecasting and a DHS project to register and test external forecast procedures from experts outside seismology. A retrospective experiment for the 2010-2012 Canterbury earthquake sequence has been completed, and the results indicate that some physics-based and hybrid models outperform purely statistical (e.g., ETAS) models. The experiment also demonstrates the power of the CSEP cyberinfrastructure for retrospective testing. Our current development includes evaluation strategies that increase computational efficiency for high-resolution global experiments, such as the evaluation of the Global Earthquake Activity Rate (GEAR) model. We describe the open-source CSEP software that is available to researchers as they develop their forecast models (http://northridge.usc.edu/trac/csep/wiki/MiniCSEP). We also discuss applications of CSEP infrastructure to geodetic transient detection and how CSEP procedures are being

  19. "I Would Study Harder if I Was a Girl": Gendered Narratives of Low-Achieving Male and High-Achieving Female EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hangyan; Luk, Jasmine

    2014-01-01

    Informed by a social and critical turn of reading practices and a poststructuralist paradigm of gender, this study delved into the commonly held belief that reading and language learning is a feminine domain, and examined the connection between the construction of gendered subjectivities and English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) reading practices…

  20. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic composite nacelle. [for achieving reductions in community noise and operating expense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodall, R. G.; Painter, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual nacelle designs for wide-bodied and for advanced-technology transports were studied with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise with minimum penalties in airplane weight, cost, and in operating expense by the application of advanced composite materials to nacelle structure and sound suppression elements. Nacelle concepts using advanced liners, annular splitters, radial splitters, translating centerbody inlets, and mixed-flow nozzles were evaluated and a preferred concept selected. A preliminary design study of the selected concept, a mixed flow nacelle with extended inlet and no splitters, was conducted and the effects on noise, direct operating cost, and return on investment determined.

  1. A Pilot Study on the Congruency of Locus of Control and Field Dependence as Related to Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, C. William; Cole, Ernest G.

    A pilot study was conducted at two middle schools to investigate the relationship among student locus of control, field dependency, self-esteem, and achievement. A relationship between self-esteem and achievement has already been identified by research; another variable considered as a possible effect on a person's predisposition to achieve was…

  2. Leadership and culture of data governance for the achievement of higher education goals (Case study: Indonesia University of Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putro, Budi Laksono; Surendro, Kridanto; Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Data is a vital asset in a business enterprise in achieving organizational goals. Data and information affect the decision-making process on the various activities of an organization. Data problems include validity, quality, duplication, control over data, and the difficulty of data availability. Data Governance is the way the company / institution manages its data assets. Data Governance covers the rules, policies, procedures, roles and responsibilities, and performance indicators that direct the overall management of data assets. Studies on governance data or information aplenty recommend the importance of cultural factors in the governance of research data. Among the organization's leadership culture has a very close relationship, and there are two concepts turn, namely: Culture created by leaders, leaders created by culture. Based on the above, this study exposure to the theme "Leadership and Culture Of Data Governance For The Achievement Of Higher Education Goals (Case Study: Indonesia University Of Education)". Culture and Leadership Model Development of on Higher Education in Indonesia would be made by comparing several models of data governance, organizational culture, and organizational leadership on previous studies based on the advantages and disadvantages of each model to the existing organizational business. Results of data governance model development is shown in the organizational culture FPMIPA Indonesia University Of Education today is the cultural market and desired culture is a culture of clan. Organizational leadership today is Individualism Index (IDV) (83.72%), and situational leadership on selling position.

  3. Achieving Dramatic School Improvement: An Exploratory Study. A Cross-Site Analysis from the Evaluation of Comprehensive School Reform Program Implementation and Outcomes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladjem, Daniel K.; Birman, Beatrice F.; Orland, Martin; Harr-Robins, Jenifer; Heredia, Alberto; Parrish, Thomas B.; Ruffini, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study describes approaches to improving schools through retrospective, in-depth qualitative case studies. To select schools to be examined, the authors sought to identify Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) schools demonstrating two distinctive patterns of improved student achievement between 2000 and 2005, rapid-improvement (i.e.,…

  4. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  5. Accelerators/decelerators of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health services: a case study of Iranian health system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, the global community agreed to the goal of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights by 2015. This research explores the accelerators and decelerators of achieving universal access to the sexual and reproductive health targets and accordingly makes some suggestions. Method We have critically reviewed the latest national reports and extracted the background data on each SRH indicator. The key stakeholders, both national and international, were visited and interviewed at two sites. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with religious leaders, policy-makers, senior managers, senior academics, and health care managers. Six focus-group discussions were also held among health care providers. The study was qualitative in nature. Results Obstacles on the road to achieving universal access to SRH can be viewed from two perspectives. One gap exists between current achievements and the targets. The other gap arises due to age, marital status, and residency status. The most recently observed trends in the indicators of the universal access to SRH shows that the achievements in the “unmet need for family planning” have been poor. Unmet need for family planning could directly be translated to unwanted pregnancies and unwanted childbirths; the former calls for sexual education to underserved people, including adolescents; and the latter calls for access to safe abortion. Local religious leaders have not actively attended international goal-setting programs. Therefore, they usually do not presume a positive attitude towards these goals. Such negative attitudes seem to be the most important factors hindering the progress towards universal access to SRH. Lack of international donors to fund for SRH programs is also another barrier. In national levels both state and the society are interactively playing their roles. We have used a

  6. Association of achieved dialysis dose with mortality in the hemodialysis study: an example of "dose-targeting bias".

    PubMed

    Greene, Tom; Daugirdas, John; Depner, Thomas; Allon, Michael; Beck, Gerald; Chumlea, Cameron; Delmez, James; Gotch, Frank; Kusek, John W; Levin, Nathan; Owen, William; Schulman, Gerald; Star, Robert; Toto, Robert; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2005-11-01

    In the intention-to-treat analysis of the Hemodialysis Study, all-cause mortality did not differ significantly between the high versus standard hemodialysis dose groups. The association of mortality with delivered dose within each of the two randomized treatment groups was examined, and implications for observational studies were considered. Time-dependent Cox regression was used to relate the relative risk (RR) for mortality to the running mean of the achieved equilibrated Kt/V (eKt/V) over the preceding 4 mo. eKt/V was categorized by quintiles within each dose group. Analyses were controlled for case-mix factors and baseline anthropometric volume. Within each randomized dose group, mortality was elevated markedly when achieved eKt/V was in the lowest quintile (RR, 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40 to 2.66; P < 0.0001 in the standard-dose group; RR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.76; P < 0.0001 in the high-dose group; RR relative to the middle quintiles). The mortality rate in the lowest eKt/V quintile of the high-dose group was higher than in the full standard-dose group (RR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.96; P < 0.0001). Each 0.1 eKt/V unit below the group median was associated with a 58% higher mortality in the standard-dose group (P < 0.001) and a 37% higher mortality in the high-dose group (P < 0.001). The magnitude of these dose-mortality effects was seven- to 12-fold higher than the upper limit of the 95% CI from the intention-to-treat analysis. The effects were attenuated in lagged analyses but did not disappear. When dialysis dose is targeted closely, as under the controlled conditions of the Hemodialysis Study, patients with the lowest achieved dose relative to their target dose experience markedly increased mortality, to a degree that is not compatible with a biologic effect of dose. The possibility of similar (albeit smaller) biases should be considered when analyzing observational data sets relating mortality to achieved dose of dialysis. PMID:16192421

  7. Executive functioning and reading achievement in school: a study of Brazilian children assessed by their teachers as "poor readers".

    PubMed

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M J; Abreu, Neander; Nikaedo, Carolina C; Puglisi, Marina L; Tourinho, Carlos J; Miranda, Mônica C; Befi-Lopes, Debora M; Bueno, Orlando F A; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning and reading achievement in 106 6- to 8-year-old Brazilian children from a range of social backgrounds of whom approximately half lived below the poverty line. A particular focus was to explore the executive function profile of children whose classroom reading performance was judged below standard by their teachers and who were matched to controls on chronological age, sex, school type (private or public), domicile (Salvador/BA or São Paulo/SP) and socioeconomic status. Children completed a battery of 12 executive function tasks that were conceptual tapping cognitive flexibility, working memory, inhibition and selective attention. Each executive function domain was assessed by several tasks. Principal component analysis extracted four factors that were labeled "Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility," "Interference Suppression," "Selective Attention," and "Response Inhibition." Individual differences in executive functioning components made differential contributions to early reading achievement. The Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility factor emerged as the best predictor of reading. Group comparisons on computed factor scores showed that struggling readers displayed limitations in Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, but not in other executive function components, compared to more skilled readers. These results validate the account that working memory capacity provides a crucial building block for the development of early literacy skills and extends it to a population of early readers of Portuguese from Brazil. The study suggests that deficits in working memory/cognitive flexibility might represent one contributing factor to reading difficulties in early readers. This might have important implications for how educators might intervene with children at risk of academic under achievement.

  8. Executive functioning and reading achievement in school: a study of Brazilian children assessed by their teachers as "poor readers".

    PubMed

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M J; Abreu, Neander; Nikaedo, Carolina C; Puglisi, Marina L; Tourinho, Carlos J; Miranda, Mônica C; Befi-Lopes, Debora M; Bueno, Orlando F A; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning and reading achievement in 106 6- to 8-year-old Brazilian children from a range of social backgrounds of whom approximately half lived below the poverty line. A particular focus was to explore the executive function profile of children whose classroom reading performance was judged below standard by their teachers and who were matched to controls on chronological age, sex, school type (private or public), domicile (Salvador/BA or São Paulo/SP) and socioeconomic status. Children completed a battery of 12 executive function tasks that were conceptual tapping cognitive flexibility, working memory, inhibition and selective attention. Each executive function domain was assessed by several tasks. Principal component analysis extracted four factors that were labeled "Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility," "Interference Suppression," "Selective Attention," and "Response Inhibition." Individual differences in executive functioning components made differential contributions to early reading achievement. The Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility factor emerged as the best predictor of reading. Group comparisons on computed factor scores showed that struggling readers displayed limitations in Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, but not in other executive function components, compared to more skilled readers. These results validate the account that working memory capacity provides a crucial building block for the development of early literacy skills and extends it to a population of early readers of Portuguese from Brazil. The study suggests that deficits in working memory/cognitive flexibility might represent one contributing factor to reading difficulties in early readers. This might have important implications for how educators might intervene with children at risk of academic under achievement. PMID:24959155

  9. STEAM: A National Study of the Integration of the Arts Into STEM Instruction and its Impact on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, Mark E.

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between exposure to the arts and performance in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) subjects. STEAM, an integration of arts-based instruction into science and math related fields, is viewed as an alternative to traditional STEM academies. The literature briefly examines the current state of STEM programs and the deficiencies in graduate quality and quantity and the call from employers for a more innovative workforce. Advocates for STEAM argue for arts as a means to improve creativity, collaboration, risk-taking and exploration. Arguments against arts in STEM are grounded in political opinions concerning arts funding and logistical complications of implementing STEAM. However, some schools and STEM programs have embraced the STEAM premise and have begun to integrate arts into the traditional curriculum. The 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) dataset was utilized to determine a correlation between the number of arts credits earned and mathematics/science achievement. Results from the NAEP dataset indicated a correlation between the amount of arts credits and increased achievement scores in science and math. The same correlation was found when controlling for demographic factors such as gender, race, and socio-economic status (SES). Overall, the arts' greatest impact was on students identified as "at-risk" or underrepresented in STEM fields. Controlling for these variable groups, one can note the quantifiable differences in scores. Overall, findings of the study provide empirical support for the addition of arts in STEM.

  10. The Achievement Gap in Social Studies and Science Starts Early: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, June R.

    2006-01-01

    Data were extracted from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), a national sample of more than 20,000 kindergartners and first-graders. Fifty-one social studies and science test items were combined into a General Knowledge Test. This test was individually administered to each child with no reading required. General Knowledge Test scores…

  11. Study of the Factors Affecting the Mathematics Achievement of Turkish Students According to Data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güzeller, Cem Oktay; Eser, Mehmet Taha; Aksu, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to determine the factors affecting the mathematics achievement of students in Turkey based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2012 and the correct classification ratio of the established model. The study used mathematics achievement as a dependent variable while sex, having a study room, preparation…

  12. Employee Perceptions of Progress with Implementing a Student-Centered Model of Institutional Improvement: An Achieving the Dream Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Annesa LeShawn

    2011-01-01

    Achieving the Dream is a national initiative focused on helping more community college students succeed, particularly students of color and low-income students. Achieving the Dream's student-centered model of institutional improvement focuses on eliminating gaps and raising student achievement by helping institutions build a culture of evidence…

  13. A Correlational Study of the Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) Program with Middle School Student Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peak, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Improving student achievement in mathematics in secondary schools remains a priority for public education in our country. With continued federal and state mandates to improve overall student achievement in mathematics, as well as to close the achievement gap, many school districts have sought programs, such as Advancement Via Individual…

  14. Predictive Indicators of High Performing Schools: A Study of Evaluative Inquiry and the Effective Use of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing research suggests a link between evaluative inquiry (EI) and student achievement, where EI is defined as the practice of analyzing student achievement data to identify ways to improve instruction. However, researchers lacked empirical evidence regarding the relationship between specific EI indicators and student achievement. The purpose…

  15. Effective and Less Effective Junior Schools in France: A Longitudinal Study on the School Environment Variables Influencing the Student's Academic Achievement, Study Skills, and Socio-Affective Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisay, Aletta

    National assessments of student academic achievement in various subjects and grades are conducted each year in France. However, there is no formal evaluation of student performance in various cross-curriculum domains, such as study skills, self-image, interest in learning, cooperative attitudes, social competence, or civic knowledge and values.…

  16. Achieving cholesterol targets by individualizing starting doses of statin according to baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk category: The CANadians Achieve Cholesterol Targets Fast with Atorvastatin Stratified Titration (CanACTFAST) study

    PubMed Central

    Ur, Ehud; Langer, Anatoly; Rabkin, Simon W; Calciu, Cristina-Dana; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite an increasing body of evidence on the benefit of lowering elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), there is still considerable concern that patients are not achieving target LDL-C levels. OBJECTIVE: The CANadians Achieve Cholesterol Targets Fast with Atorvastatin Stratified Titration (CanACTFAST) trial tested whether an algorithm-based statin dosing approach would enable patients to achieve LDL-C and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio targets quickly. METHODS: Subjects requiring statin therapy, but with an LDL-C level of 5.7 mmol/L or lower, and triglycerides of 6.8 mmol/L or lower at screening participated in the 12-week study, which had two open-label, six-week phases: a treatment period during which patients received 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg or 80 mg of atorvastatin based on an algorithm incorporating baseline LDL-C value and cardiovascular risk; and patients who achieved both LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio targets at six weeks continued on the same atorvastatin dose. Patients who did not achieve both targets received dose uptitration using a single-step titration regimen. The primary efficacy outcome was the proportion of patients achieving target LDL-C levels after 12 weeks. RESULTS: Of 2016 subjects screened at 88 Canadian sites, 1258 were assigned to a study drug (1101 were statin-free and 157 were statin-treated at baseline). The proportion of subjects who achieved LDL-C targets after 12 weeks of treatment was 86% (95% CI 84% to 88%) for statin-free patients and 54% (95% CI 46% to 61%) for statin-treated patients. Overall, 1003 subjects (80%; 95% CI 78% to 82%) achieved both lipid targets. CONCLUSIONS: Algorithm-based statin dosing enables patients to achieve LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio targets quickly, with either no titration or a single titration. PMID:20151053

  17. Which Tibial Tray Design Achieves Maximum Coverage and Ideal Rotation: Anatomic, Symmetric, or Asymmetric? An MRI-based study.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, S David; Goyal, Nitin

    2015-10-01

    Two goals of tibial tray placement in TKA are to maximize coverage and establish proper rotation. Our purpose was to utilize MRI information obtained as part of PSI planning to determine the impact of tibial tray design on the relationship between coverage and rotation. MR images for 100 consecutive knees were uploaded into PSI software. Preoperative planning software was used to evaluate 3 different tray designs: anatomic, symmetric, and asymmetric. Approximately equally good coverage was achieved with all three trays. However, the anatomic compared to symmetric/asymmetric trays required less malrotation (0.3° vs 3.0/2.4°; P < 0.001), with a higher proportion of cases within 5° of neutral (97% vs 73/77%; P < 0.001). In this study, the anatomic tibia optimized the relationship between coverage and rotation.

  18. Examining Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in Rural Africa: Six Case Studies from Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, sd = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes. PMID:22391811

  19. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  20. Effects of Teacher Credentials, Coursework, and Certification on Student Achievement in Math and Reading in Kindergarten: An ECLS-K Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leak, James A.; Farkas, George

    2011-01-01

    In light of the strong correlation between Kindergarten performance and later cognitive and achievement outcomes, this paper investigates the link between student achievement and the educational background characteristics of Kindergarten teachers. This study will utilize the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a…

  1. A Correlation Study of Exemplary Exurban African American Achievement in Standardized Testing and the Relationship of Parental Household Size in a Southeastern Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, David H.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a literature review of juried research studies of student achievement factors that affect African American achievements tracked in the No Child Left Behind Legislative Act. Statistical correlation analyses were performed to determine if the absence or presence of one or two-parents in the household affected student achievement…

  2. Influence of Learning Environment on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics: A Case Study of Some Selected Secondary Schools in Yobe State-Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamaki, Timothy Ado

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of learning environment on students' academic achievement in mathematics at senior secondary school level. Thus the study investigated some components of learning environment and their possible influence on students' academic achievement in mathematics. A sample of 337 randomly selected SS II…

  3. Mobility: A Multivariate Study of Academic Achievement in Reading and Math for Eighth-Grade Students as Measured by the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference between levels of student mobility in reading and mathematics achievement as measured by the 2007-2008 Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) achievement test. The study also sought to determine if there existed a difference in socioeconomic and attendance…

  4. Relation of Neural Structure to Persistently Low Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Children with Differing Birth Weights

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Caron A. C.; Fang, Hua; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Filipek, Pauline A.; Juranek, Jenifer; Bangert, Barbara; Hack, Maureen; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective Children with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500g) are at risk for academic underachievement, although less is known regarding the developmental course of these difficulties or their neural basis. This study examined whether cerebral tissue reductions related to VLBW are associated with poor patterns of growth in core academic skills. Method Children born <750 g, 750–1499 g or >2500 g completed measures of calculation, mathematical problem solving and word decoding at several time points spanning middle childhood and adolescence. Espy, Fang, Charak, Minich and Taylor (2009) used growth mixture modeling to identify two distinct growth trajectories (growth clusters) for each academic domain: an average achievement trajectory and a persistently low achievement trajectory. In this study, 97 of the same participants underwent MRI in late adolescence. MRI measures of cerebral tissue volume were used to predict the probability of low growth cluster membership for each domain. Results After adjusting for whole brain volume, each 1cm3 reduction in caudate volume was associated with a 1.7 – 2.1 fold increase in the odds of low cluster membership for each academic domain. Each 1mm2 decrease in corpus callosum surface area increased these odds approximately 1.02 fold. Reductions in cerebellar white matter volume were associated specifically with low calculation and decoding growth while reduced cerebral white matter volume was associated with low calculation growth. Findings were similar when analyses were confined to the VLBW groups. Conclusions Volumetric reductions in neural regions involved in connectivity, executive attention and motor control may help to explain heterogeneous academic growth trajectories amongst children with VLBW. PMID:23688218

  5. Effectiveness of constructivist approach on students achievement in mathematics: A case study at primary school in Kuantan, Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsudin, Syafiza Saila; Ujang, Suriyati; Sahlan, Nor Fasiha

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted on students in Year 3 at Sekolah Kebangsaan Air Putih, Kuantan. The study used a constructivism approach in simplest fraction topic in Mathematics. Students were divided into 2 groups; the control group and the experimental group. Experimental group was taught using Constructivist Approach whereas the control group student was taught using the Traditional Approach. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of constructivist learning approach the topic of Simplest Fraction. It also aimed to compare the student's achievement between the constructivist approach and traditional approach. This study used the instrument in pre-test, post-test, questionnaires and observation. The data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 for window. The finding shows there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test for experimental group after using constructivism approach in learning process. The mean scores (76.39) of the post-test is higher than the mean scores (60.28) for pre-test. It is proved that constructivist approach is more efficient and suitable for teaching and learning in simplest fraction topic in the classroom compared to traditional approaches. The findings also showed interest and the positive perception of this approach.

  6. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  7. Achieving complete nitrogen removal by coupling nitritation-anammox and methane-dependent denitrification: A model-based study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueming; Guo, Jianhua; Xie, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) processes enables the complete nitrogen removal from wastewater by utilizing the methane produced on site from anaerobic digesters. This model-based study investigated the mechanisms and operational window for efficient nitrogen removal by coupling nitritation-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) and methane-dependent denitrification in membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs). A mathematical model was applied to describe the microbial interactions among Anammox bacteria, DAMO archaea, and DAMO bacteria. The model sufficiently described the batch experimental data from an MBfR containing an Anammox-DAMO biofilm with different feeding nitrogen compositions, which confirmed the validity of the model. The effects of process parameters on the system performance and microbial community structure could therefore be reliably evaluated. The impacts of nitritation produced NO2(-)/NH4(+) ratio, methane supply, biofilm thickness and total nitrogen (TN) surface loading were comprehensively investigated with the model. Results showed that the optimum NO2(-)/NH4(+) ratio produced from nitritation for the Anammox-DAMO biofilm system was around 1.0 in order to achieve the maximum TN removal (over 99.0%), independent on TN surface loading. The corresponding optimal methane supply increased while the associated methane utilization efficiency decreased with the increase of TN surface loading. The cooperation between DAMO organisms and Anammox bacteria played the key role in the TN removal. Based on these results, the proof-of-concept feasibility of a single-stage MBfR coupling nitritation-Anammox-DAMO for complete nitrogen removal was also tested through integrating the model with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) processes whilst controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the simulated system. The maximum TN removal was found to be achieved at the bulk DO concentration of

  8. Identification and Analysis of Labor Productivity Components Based on ACHIEVE Model (Case Study: Staff of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences)

    PubMed Central

    Ziapour, Arash; Khatony, Alireza; Kianipour, Neda; Jafary, Faranak

    2015-01-01

    Identification and analysis of the components of labor productivity based on ACHIEVE model was performed among employees in different parts of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. This was a descriptive correlational study in which the population consisted of 270 working personnel in different administrative groups (contractual, fixed- term and regular) at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (872 people) that were selected among 872 people through stratified random sampling method based on Krejcie and Morgan sampling table. The survey tool included labor productivity questionnaire of ACHIEVE. Questionnaires were confirmed in terms of content and face validity, and their reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean scores for labor productivity dimensions of the employees, including environment (environmental fit), evaluation (training and performance feedback), validity (valid and legal exercise of personnel), incentive (motivation or desire), help (organizational support), clarity (role perception or understanding), ability (knowledge and skills) variables and total labor productivity were 4.10±0.630, 3.99±0.568, 3.97±0.607, 3.76±0.701, 3.63±0.746, 3.59±0.777, 3.49±0.882 and 26.54±4.347, respectively. Also, the results indicated that the seven factors of environment, performance assessment, validity, motivation, organizational support, clarity, and ability were effective in increasing labor productivity. The analysis of the current status of university staff in the employees’ viewpoint suggested that the two factors of environment and evaluation, which had the greatest impact on labor productivity in the viewpoint of the staff, were in a favorable condition and needed to be further taken into consideration by authorities. PMID:25560364

  9. Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in translational research organisations: a rationale and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Laurel D; Pololi, Linda H; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Henderson, Lorna R; Williamson, Catherine; Grant, Jonathan; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Lechler, Robert I; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Translational research organisations (TROs) are a core component of the UK's expanding research base. Equity of career opportunity is key to ensuring a diverse and internationally competitive workforce. The UK now requires TROs to demonstrate how they are supporting gender equity. Yet, the evidence base for documenting such efforts is sparse. This study is designed to inform the acceleration of women's advancement and leadership in two of the UK's leading TROs—the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) in Oxford and London—through the development, application and dissemination of a conceptual framework and measurement tool. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional retrospective evaluation. A conceptual framework with markers of achievement and corresponding candidate metrics has been specifically designed for this study based on an adapted balanced scorecard approach. It will be refined with an online stakeholder consultation and semistructured interviews to test the face validity and explore practices and mechanisms that influence gender equity in the given settings. Data will be collected via the relevant administrative databases. A comparison of two funding periods (2007–2012 and 2012–2017) will be carried out. Ethics and dissemination The University of Oxford Clinical Trials and Research Governance Team and the Research and Development Governance Team of Guy's and St Thomas’ National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust reviewed the study and deemed it exempt from full ethics review. The results of the study will be used to inform prospective planning and monitoring within the participating NIHR BRCs with a view to accelerating women's advancement and leadership. Both the results of the study and its methodology will be further disseminated to academics and practitioners through the networks of collaborating TROs, relevant conferences and articles in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:26743702

  10. A Qualitative Study of Self-Esteem, Peer Affiliation, and Academic Outcome among Low Achieving Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-hung; Choi, Eudora

    2010-01-01

    Background: A limited amount of research has been conducted on children and adolescents who are low achievers. In Hong Kong, educators describe low achieving students in terms of academic performance, they seldom focus on socio-emotional aspects, such as self-esteem, peer affiliation, and inter-personal relationships. However, low achieving…

  11. Domain-Specific and Domain-General Precursors of Mathematical Achievement: A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many contributing factors, both domain specific and domain general, influence children's performance in school achievement. Aims: This research aims to verify the importance of kindergarten measures of cognitive abilities and numerical competence in the role of predicting mathematical school achievement at the end of first grade.…

  12. A Study of the Effect of Socioeconomic Factors on the School Achievement of Spanish-Speaking School Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Robert Wilson

    A model of inquiry was designed to test the correlation between certain socioeconomic variables and school achievement of Spanish-speaking 1st-graders in San Antonio, Texas. For analyses of these variables as predictors of achievement and attendance, 305 Mexican American children were used; 5 Mexican American, 4 Negro, and 3 Anglo schools were…

  13. Parental Characteristics and the Achievement Gap in Mathematics: Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis of Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoraka, Mohammad; Arnold, Robert; Kim, Eun Sook; Salinitri, Geri; Kromrey, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    One of the most salient problems in education is the achievement gap. The researchers investigated the effects of parental education and parental occupations in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, or medical professions (STEMM) on the achievement gap in mathematics. Because students were nested within schools, two-level Hierarchical…

  14. Classroom Management--A Pathway to Student Achievement: A Study of Fourteen Inner-City Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberg, H. Jerome; Huzinec, Chris A.; Templeton, Stacey M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the achievement effects of a prosocial classroom and instructional management program--Consistency Management & Cooperative Discipline (CMCD)--implemented at 14 elementary schools in a single geographic feeder pattern of a large, urban school district. State reading and mathematics achievement data were collected over 2 years…

  15. Rigorously Selected and Well Trained Senior Student Tutors in Problem Based Learning: Student Perceptions and Study Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Rijdt, Catherine; van der Rijt, Janine; Dochy, Filip; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2012-01-01

    We compared effects of tutoring by students and by staff. In four courses in each of two consecutive first years of an undergraduate problem-based law curriculum we examined the achievements and perceptions of tutors of students taught by student and staff tutors. Achievements were measured by the results on the regular end-of-course tests. After…

  16. A Prospective, Longitudinal Study of US Children Unable to Achieve Open-Set Speech Recognition Five Years after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, JM; Fisher, LM; Johnson, KC; Eisenberg, LS; Wang, NY; Quittner, AL; Carson, CM; Niparko, JK

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with inability to progress to open-set speech recognition in children who are 5 years post cochlear implantation. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal and multidimensional assessment of auditory development over 5 years. Setting Six tertiary cochlear implant (CI) referral centers in the US. Patients Children with severe-to-profound hearing loss who underwent implantation before age 5 years enrolled in the Childhood Development after Cochlear Implant (CDaCI) study, categorized by level of speech recognition ability. Intervention(s) Cochlear implantation prior to 5 years of age and annual assessment of emergent speech recognition skills. Main outcome measure(s) Progression to open-set speech recognition by 5 years after implantation. Results Less functional hearing prior to implantation, older age at onset of amplification, lower maternal sensitivity to communication needs, minority status, and complicated perinatal history were associated with inability to obtain open set speech recognition by 5 years. Conclusions Characteristics of a subpopulation of children with CIs that were associated with an inability to achieve open-set speech recognition after 5 years of CI experience were investigated. These data distinguish pediatric CI recipients at risk for poor auditory development and highlight areas for future interventions to enhance support of early implantation. PMID:25700015

  17. A 5-year prospective case-control study of the influence of early otitis media with effusion on reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Lous, J; Fiellau-Nikolajsen, M

    1984-10-01

    In a still ongoing prospective longitudinal study, more than 500 children--a total birth-cohort in a Danish municipality--were followed from their 3rd to their 9th year of life by multiple impedance tests in order to investigate a number of factors concerning epidemiology and long-term impacts of otitis media with effusion. This is a report on the influence of otitis media with effusion early in life on reading achievement. The study revealed no difference in school-class level between the 9% of the children (n = 46) who constantly had abnormal tympanometry during a 6-month period at the age of 3, and the other pupils in the municipality. At the Silent Reading Test (OS-400), done on 40 of the 46 case-pupils the results did not differ from (1) the other pupils in the municipality, (2) from other pupils of the same sex in the same classroom, or (3) from individual control-pupils matched by sex, social group and classroom.

  18. A Comparative Study of the Relative Achievement of a First Grade Group Using Greater Cleveland Mathematics Program Material and a First Grade Using Traditional Mathematics Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budgy, Joseph Vincent

    Reported are the results of a study which compared achievement following use of Greater Cleveland Mathematics Program (GCMP) materials with achievement following traditional materials. Growth in mathematical competency was used to compare treatment groups, groups subdivided by intelligence, and groups determined by sex. Three elementary school…

  19. The Role of Schools in Bridging Within-School Achievement Gaps Based on Socioeconomic Status: A Cross-National Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Haigen; Sebastian, James

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the Coleman report in 1966, research on the role of schools in influencing student achievement relative to the role of family background has generated considerable interest and controversy. A large volume of international and comparative research has also been devoted to studying school effects on student achievement.…

  20. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  1. Talented football players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Philip; Höner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is regarded as a key developmental phase in the course of talented football players' careers. The present study focuses on early adolescent players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions. Based on the multidimensional and dynamic nature of talent, the development of multifaceted personality characteristics is an important issue in the context of sports talent research. According to previous findings in psychology, personality characteristics' development is defined by both stability and change, and the current study analyses four different types: differential stability (I), mean-level change (II), individual-level change (III), and structural stability (IV). The sample consists of 151 male players in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. Psychological diagnostics of the personality characteristics are implemented across longitudinal sections over a time period of three seasons, from the U12 to U14 age classes. The results reveal that the personality characteristics show (I) moderate test-retest correlations over one-year intervals (.43 ≤ rtt ≤ .62), and lower coefficients for a two-year period (.26 ≤ rtt ≤ .53). (II) Most of the personality characteristics' mean values differ significantly across the age classes with small effect sizes (.01 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ .03). (III) Only minor individual-level changes in the football players' development are found. (IV) The personality characteristics' associations within a two-factor structure do not stay invariant over time. From the results of the present study, conclusions are drawn regarding the talent identification and development process.

  2. Talented football players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Philip; Höner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is regarded as a key developmental phase in the course of talented football players' careers. The present study focuses on early adolescent players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions. Based on the multidimensional and dynamic nature of talent, the development of multifaceted personality characteristics is an important issue in the context of sports talent research. According to previous findings in psychology, personality characteristics' development is defined by both stability and change, and the current study analyses four different types: differential stability (I), mean-level change (II), individual-level change (III), and structural stability (IV). The sample consists of 151 male players in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. Psychological diagnostics of the personality characteristics are implemented across longitudinal sections over a time period of three seasons, from the U12 to U14 age classes. The results reveal that the personality characteristics show (I) moderate test-retest correlations over one-year intervals (.43 ≤ rtt ≤ .62), and lower coefficients for a two-year period (.26 ≤ rtt ≤ .53). (II) Most of the personality characteristics' mean values differ significantly across the age classes with small effect sizes (.01 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ .03). (III) Only minor individual-level changes in the football players' development are found. (IV) The personality characteristics' associations within a two-factor structure do not stay invariant over time. From the results of the present study, conclusions are drawn regarding the talent identification and development process. PMID:26313875

  3. The use of Jatropha curcas to achieve a self sufficient water distribution system: A case study in rural Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Alexandra

    The use of Jatropha curcas as a source of oil for fueling water pumps holds promise for rural communities struggling to achieve water security in arid climates. The potential for use in developing communities as an affordable, sustainable fuel source has been highly recommended for many reasons: it is easily propagated, drought resistant, grows rapidly, and has high-oil-content seeds, as well as medicinal and economic potential. This study uses a rural community in Senegal, West Africa, and calculates at what level of Jatropha curcas production the village is able to be self-sufficient in fueling their water system to meet drinking, sanitation and irrigation requirements. The current water distribution system was modelled to represent irrigation requirements for nine different Jatropha curcas cultivation and processing schemes. It was found that a combination of using recycled greywater for irrigation and a mechanical press to maximize oil recovered from the seeds of mature Jatropha curcas trees, would be able to operate the water system with no diesel required.

  4. Examining the relation between ratings of executive functioning and academic achievement: Findings from a cross-cultural study

    PubMed Central

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Veleiro, Alberto; Siu, Angela F. Y.; Mohammadi, Hiwa

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between academic performance and ratings of executive functioning in children aged 6–11 from four countries: Sweden, Spain, Iran, and China. Ratings of executive functioning were made by both parents and teachers using the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI). The results showed that the Chinese sample was generally rated as having more executive deficits compared to the other samples. The finding that executive functioning deficits are exacerbated in China is most likely the result of cultural biases. Boys were generally rated as having poorer executive functioning compared to girls, except in Iran where parents, but not teachers, rated girls as having poorer executive functioning compared to boys. However, this opposite pattern of results found for Iran is not likely to reflect true gender differences in executive functioning. Despite some differences in the levels of executive functioning across countries, both the inhibition and working memory subscales of the CHEXI were related to academic achievement in all four countries, except for CHEXI parent ratings in China. Altogether, the results indicate that the CHEXI may be used as a screening measure for early academic difficulties, although cultural biases clearly have to be taken into consideration. PMID:23075095

  5. Study of a Simulation Tool to Determine Achievable Control Dynamics and Control Power Requirements with Perfect Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a study of two methods for use in a generic nonlinear simulation tool that could be used to determine achievable control dynamics and control power requirements while performing perfect tracking maneuvers over the entire flight envelope. The two methods are NDI (nonlinear dynamic inversion) and the SOFFT(Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology) feedforward control structure. Equivalent discrete and continuous SOFFT feedforward controllers have been developed. These equivalent forms clearly show that the closed-loop plant model loop is a plant inversion and is the same as the NDI formulation. The main difference is that the NDI formulation has a closed-loop controller structure whereas SOFFT uses an open-loop command model. Continuous, discrete, and hybrid controller structures have been developed and integrated into the formulation. Linear simulation results show that seven different configurations all give essentially the same response, with the NDI hybrid being slightly different. The SOFFT controller gave better tracking performance compared to the NDI controller when a nonlinear saturation element was added. Future plans include evaluation using a nonlinear simulation.

  6. Linking Perceptions of School Belonging to Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement amongst Student Athletes: A Comparative Study between High-Revenue Student Athletes and Non-Revenue Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christine Marie

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I examined the relationship that exists among school belonging, achievement motivation, and academic achievement in a sample of student-athletes at UC Berkeley. The goal of the study was to achieve a deeper understanding of how and why achievement motivation and academic achievement is often discrepant between revenue and…

  7. A Review. A Criterion-related Study of Three Sets of Rating Scales Used for Measuring and Evaluating the Instrumental Achievement of First and Second Year Clarinet Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radocy, Rudolf E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a study that examined the validity of different rating scales for measuring instrumental achievement with the clarinet. Rejects the contention that the new rating scales are superior to the Clarinet Performance Rating Scale. (BSR)

  8. [New study on the history of anesthesiology--(5) and (6). Reevaluation of surgical achievements by Tokumei Takamine].

    PubMed

    Matsuki, A

    2000-11-01

    A half century has passed since K. Higaon-na, a historian from Okinawa, first reported that in 1689 Tokumei Takamine (1653-1738) had performed successfully a hare-lip operation under general anesthesia with mafutsu-san for a royal grandchild Sho-eki of the Ryukyu Dynasty in the Ruykuys, now known as Okinawa. As Higaon-na obtruded his opinion above mentioned without any substantial proof on the public, and many medical historians as well as historians have followed him thereafter. No historical documents are available concerning surgical achievements by Tokumei Takamine to clarify them in detail but it clearly says in the genealogy of the Takamines that Kou Kaiyu ([symbol: see text]) taught his ancestral prescription and surgical technique of hare-lip operation to Tokumei Takamine on his repeated solicitation when they stayed in Fu-chou. Takamine made two scrolls describing the secret prescription and surgical method of hare-lip, and presented them to a magistrate Genzaimon Murao and his physician Doh-yo Isashiki in 1690. In 1986, a scroll has been found in Sendai city of Kagoshima prefecture, which was transcribed by two physicians named Antei Kore-eda and Encho Nagai at Kagoshima in 1754. No information is available about biographies of these two physicians. A careful study of this scroll has revealed that it bears the prescription of an ointment including ten remedies to dress the incision and surgical method of hare-lip. Accordingly it is clearly proven by this newly discovered scroll that Tokumei Takamine did not administer any general anesthetics when he performed surgical operations for hare-lip on several occasions.

  9. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment. PMID:24632351

  10. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment.

  11. Pioneers of Study on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions; Achievements by Dr. Yoshioki Ishikawa and Dr. Yoshio Ohta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, Kazuhiko; Nambu, Akira

    Dr. Yoshioki Ishikawa is a pioneer who carried out systematic electron stimulated desorption (ESD) investigations for hydrogen adsorbed on a clean platinum plate (H2/Pt) under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions in 1942. (His name is spelled as Yosioki Isikawa in the original papers.) Although his papers are referred in several papers on desorption induced by electronic transitions (DIET), these seem to be not as well-known as famous ones by Menzel, Gomer, and Redhead in 1964. We describe his pioneering work in this article. He developed an UHV apparatus made of glass with a Pt plate and an oxide cathode pumped by a small mercury pump via a liquid air trap. Clear ESD signals were observed for H2/Pt at excitation energies of 8, 12, 14, 33-46, and 46-51 eV. He assigned the desorbate to atomic hydrogen (H), because it was pumped by a glass wall baked above 350°C. Based on these results and the potential curves of H2 in the gas phase, he proposed a model for the ESD of H from H2/Pt that is, the first step is an electronic transition of adsorbed H2, and the second is the desorption of H along the repulsive potential surface of the excited state. This was the first introduction of the notion of DIET. He also carried out an ESD study of H2O/Pt in 1943. We also introduce achievements by Dr. Yoshio Ohta, who was another pioneer in the field of DIET. He measured electron-stimulated ion desorption from an oxidized Ni plate. He found that the threshold excitation energy for ion desorption is 22 eV, and that the kinetic energy of the desorbed ion is 1˜2 eV. To explain these results, he also proposed the concept of DIET.

  12. Self-esteem and academic achievement: a comparative study of adolescent students in England and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and academic achievement from the beginning to the end of their academic year during their 11th–12th year of age. For both samples, quantitative results demonstrated that fall self-esteem was related to multiple indicators of later year academic achievement. While country differences emerge by the end of the year, math appears to have a consistent relationship with self-esteem in both country contexts. Qualitative analyses found some support for British students’ self-perceptions as more accurately reflecting their academic experience than the students from the United States. PMID:24068853

  13. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  14. Unmotivated or Motivated to Fail? A Cross-Cultural Study of Achievement Motivation, Fear of Failure, and Student Disengagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Castella, Krista; Byrne, Don; Covington, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A classic distinction in the literature on achievement and motivation is between fear of failure and success orientations. From the perspective of self-worth theory, these motives are not bipolar constructs but dimensions that interact in ways that make some students particularly vulnerable to underachievement and disengagement from school. The…

  15. A Mixed-Methods Study: Motivational Aspects of a Summer Reading Program for Young Adolescents with Low Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahler, Brianna R.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the United States, school districts are integrating programs into their reading curricula in response to an increased focus on reading achievement. While many school districts are implementing successful remedial and after-school programs, their approach does not include providing literacy instruction for students during summer…

  16. Gender and Bilingual Education: An Exploratory Study of the Academic Achievement of Latina and Latino English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapayese, Yvette; Huchting, Karen; Grimalt, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Although biliteracy plays a vital role in academic achievement, there has been little research on the unique needs of female and male English language learners. Becoming biliterate is a complex process, compounded by other variables such as 1st-language background, class, culture, and gender. Among these variables, gender has been the least…

  17. Helping Middle School Girls at Risk for School Failure Recover Their Confidence and Achieve School Success: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Middle school girls who are at risk have experienced a disproportionate number of intense and disruptive traumatic life events. Such events can adversely affect healthy development and often contribute to higher levels of school failure and problem behavior. Few programs focus on helping at-risk middle school girls achieve school success through…

  18. A Study of the WISC-III, CELF-R, Achievement, and Aptitude among Public School Students in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Rhonda L.; Evans, Larry D.

    The relationship between the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Revised (CELF-R) was investigated in 53 third graders from students in the 15 educational cooperatives across Arkansas. Additional information regarding race, academic achievement, and aptitude was gathered for…

  19. In Their Own Voices: An Ethnographic Study of Low-Achieving Students within the Context of School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Patrick W.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the causes of school failure from a student perspective through interviews with 40 urban high school students experiencing academic difficulties. Findings magnify issues of power, resistance, and diversity as they are linked to patterns of student achievement urban schools must address before advancing specific restructuring efforts.…

  20. The Stability of Teacher Effects on Student Math and Reading Achievement over Time: A Study of One Midsize District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessolo, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Increased attention on teacher accountability via student achievement gains has brought proposed policy changes which recommend teachers receive performance pay as recognition for effective teaching. In response to growing consensus that teachers' contributions to student learning should be a part of the teacher evaluation process, education…

  1. A Quantitative Study Comparing the Academic Achievement of Seventh Grade Reading Students Exposed to Two Types of Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Joanne A.

    2012-01-01

    Many middle school students are not achieving the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) at individual schools in North Carolina. A consequence of continual failure to reach AYP goals is the withdrawal of Title 1 funding. Since federal funds are an integral part of nearly half of the public schools in North Carolina, it is imperative that students improve…

  2. Effects of Comprehensive School Reform on Student Achievement and School Change: A Longitudinal Multi-Site Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterbinsky, Allan; Ross, Steven M.; Redfield, Doris

    2006-01-01

    The longitudinal impacts on school change and student achievement of implementing varied Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) models was investigated in 12 elementary schools in diverse geographic locations. Each school was individually matched and compared to a demographically similar control school on measures of school climate, teacher…

  3. "Does Charter School Attendance Improve Test Scores?" Comments and Reactions on the Arizona Achievement Study. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Christopher; Hollenbeck, Kevin

    In a recent report, Lewis Solmon, Kern Paark, and David Garcia (2001) seek to identify the impact of attending charter schools on student achievement using data from Arizona. Based on a sophisticated statistical analysis, these authors report that charter school attendance increases test score gains of students. This note raises some questions…

  4. The Effectiveness of Smart Schooling in Terms of Student Achievement in Science: A Study of Malaysian Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Eng-Tek; Ruthven, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the relative effectiveness of Smart and Mainstream schooling in terms of student achievement in science. The participants comprised 770 secondary school Form 3 (15-year-old) students from two Smart Schools and two Mainstream Schools in Malaysia. Using students' Standardised National Examination (SNE) primary-school science…

  5. A Study on the Relationship between College Students' Boredom Tendency and Attribution Style as Well as Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Shunqin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This thesis discusses the relationship between college students' boredom tendency and attribution style as well as achievement motivation. Method: The author uses scale assessment on college students of boredom tendency scale, the inner-control scale, internality-powerful others scale and chance scale draw up by Leveson, as well as…

  6. Broad and Narrow Personality Traits Predicting Academic Achievement over Compulsory Schooling: A Cross-Sectional Study in Two Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina; Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    Incremental predictive value of 5 broad and 13 narrow personality traits for academic achievement over and beyond age, gender, parental education, and country was examined in Russian and Slovene 8- to 15-year-olds. Personality data were collected from mothers (Russia: N = 994, Slovenia: N = 624) and adolescents (Russia: N = 481, Slovenia: N = 310)…

  7. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: A Comparative Study of Adolescent Students in England and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and…

  8. On the Value of Intrinsic Rather than Traditional Achievement Goals for Performing Artists: A Short-Term Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacaille, Natalie; Koestner, Richard; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Educational researchers have examined the effect of achievement goals on student performance, and suggest that both mastery goals and performance-approach goals are beneficial, whereas performance-avoidance goals are harmful. Recent research proposes that these results may not be generalized in the domain of music. The purpose of the present study…

  9. Referential Communication Accuracy of Mother-Child Pairs and Children's Later Scholastic Achievement: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Teresa M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between the referential communication accuracy of mothers and their 4-year-old children and the children's achievement in vocabulary and mathematics at age 12 was examined in 47 American and 44 Japanese mother-child pairs. Positive correlations were found in both cultures. (Author/BN)

  10. Milwaukee Independent Charter Schools Study: Final Report on Four-Year Achievement Gains. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Carlson, Deven; Dean, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The general purpose of this five-year evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of Milwaukee's independent charter schools in promoting student achievement growth. Independent charter schools are authorized by nonschool-district entities and are considered "independent" because they are not a part of the Milwaukee Public School District (MPS).…

  11. Effects of Adaptive Training on Working Memory and Academic Achievement of Children with Learning Disabilities: A School-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Rhonda Phillips

    2013-01-01

    Research has suggested many children with learning disabilities (LD) have deficits in working memory (WM) that hinder their academic achievement. Cogmed RM, a computerized intervention, uses adaptive training over 25 sessions and has shown efficacy in improving WM in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a variety of…

  12. Achieving Business Success by Developing Clients and Community: Lessons from Leading Companies, Emerging Economies and a Nine Year Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardez, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Empirical evidence and recent revisions of conventional business doctrine indicate that companies that actively promote social performance and develop their clients' markets and skills as part of business strategy have a better chance of achieving sustainable profitability and growth than those that do not. This article discusses how landmark…

  13. A Mixed Method Study of the Effectiveness of the Accelerated Reader Program on Middle School Students' Reading Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, SuHua

    2012-01-01

    The mixed-method explanatory research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the Accelerated Reader (AR) program on middle school students' reading achievement and motivation. A total of 211 sixth to eighth-grade students provided quantitative data by completing an AR Survey. Thirty of the 211 students were randomly selected to…

  14. Epidemiological impact of achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for HIV care in India: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Maddali, Manoj V; Gupta, Amita; Shah, Maunank

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent UNAIDS ‘90-90-90’ targets propose that to end the HIV epidemic by 2030, 90% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide should know their diagnosis, 90% of diagnosed PLWH should be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 90% of PLWH on ART should be virally suppressed by 2020. We sought to quantify the epidemiological impact of achieving these targets in India. Methods We constructed a dynamic-transmission model of the Indian HIV epidemic to project HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths that would occur in India over 15 years. We considered several scenarios: continuation of current care engagement (with early ART initiation), achieving 90-90-90 targets on time and delaying achievement by 5 or 10 years. Results In the base case, assuming continuation of current care engagement, we project 794 000 (95% uncertainty range (UR) 571 000–1 104 000) HIV infections and 689 000 (95% UR 468 000–976 000) AIDS-related deaths in India over 15 years. In this scenario, nearly half of PLWH diagnosed would fail to achieve viral suppression by 2030. With achievement of 90-90-90 targets, India could avert 392 000 (95% UR 248 000–559 000) transmissions (48% reduction) and 414 000 (95% UR 260 000–598 000) AIDS-related deaths (59% reduction) compared to the base-case scenario. Furthermore, fewer than 20 000 (95% UR 12 000–30 000) HIV infections would occur in 2030. Delaying achievement of targets resulted in a similar reduction in HIV incidence by 2030 but at the cost of excess overall infections and mortality. Conclusions India can halve the epidemiological burden of HIV over 15 years with achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. Reaching the targets on time will require comprehensive healthcare strengthening, especially in early diagnosis and treatment, expanded access to second-line and third-line ART and long-term retention in care. PMID:27388363

  15. The indispensable intermediaries: a qualitative study of informal caregivers’ struggle to achieve influence at and after hospital discharge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The care policy and organization of the care sector is shifting to accommodate projected demographic changes and to ensure a sustainable model of health care provision in the future. Adult children and spouses are often the first to assume care giving responsibilities for older adults when declining function results in increased care needs. By introducing policies tailored to enabling family members to combine gainful employment with providing care for older relatives, the sustainability of the future care for older individuals in Norway is more explicitly placed on the family and informal caregivers than previously. Care recipients and informal caregivers are expected to take an active consumer role and participate in the care decision-making process. This paper aims to describe the informal caregivers’ experiences of influencing decision-making at and after hospital discharge for home-bound older relatives. Methods This paper reports findings from a follow-up study with an exploratory qualitative design. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 19 informal caregivers of older individuals discharged from hospital in Norway. An inductive thematic content analysis was undertaken. Results Informal caregivers take on comprehensive all-consuming roles as intermediaries between the care recipient and the health care services. In essence, the informal caregivers take the role of the active participant on behalf of their older relative. They describe extensive efforts struggling to establish dialogues with the “gatekeepers” of the health care services. Achieving the goal of the best possible care for the care recipient seem to depend on the informal caregivers having the resources to choose appropriate strategies for gaining influence over decisions. Conclusions The care recipients’ extensive frailty and increasing dependence on their families coupled with the complexity of health care services contribute to the perception of the informal

  16. A Story within a Story: Culturally Responsive Schooling and American Indian and Alaska Native Achievement in the National Indian Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Francesca A.; Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Schram, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    There have been numerous calls to increase quantitative studies examining the role of culturally responsive schooling (CRS) on American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) achievement. The National Indian Education Study (NIES) is the only large-scale study focused on (AIAN) students' cultural experiences within the context of schools. Given…

  17. The Effect of Educational Modules Strategy on the Direct and Postponed Study's Achievement of Seventh Primary Grade Students in Science, in Comparison with the Conventional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alelaimat, Abeer Rashed; Ghoneem, Khowla Abd Al Raheem

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at revealing the effect of educational modules strategy on the direct and postponed study's achievement of seventh primary grade students in science, in comparison with the conventional approach. The sample of the study consists of (174) male and female students randomly chosen from schools in the city of Mafraq, students are…

  18. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  19. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  20. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…